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25— The Marriage Ceremony (Book II, Yconomique )

1. For a facsimile of this manuscript, see The Coronation Book of Charles V of France (Cottonian MS Tiberius B. VIII) , ed. E. S. Dewick, Henry Bradshaw Society, 16 (London: Harrison and Sons, 1899). For discussion of these scenes, see Sherman, Portraits , 35-37, and "The Queen," 275. break [BACK]

2. See Ch. 24 above at n. 14. [BACK]

3. Yconomique , 826.

4. Ibid., 812-13. See also Ch. 24 above at nn. 19 and 33. [BACK]

3. Yconomique , 826.

4. Ibid., 812-13. See also Ch. 24 above at nn. 19 and 33. [BACK]

5. See Ch. 12 above at nn. 36-38. [BACK]

6. Yconomique , 830.

7. Ibid.

8. "Et en ceste maniere la nature de l'un et de l'autre, ce est assavoir, du masle et de la femelle fu devant ordenee ou preordenee de chose divine ou de par Dieu a communication" (ibid., 814).

9. Ibid. [BACK]

6. Yconomique , 830.

7. Ibid.

8. "Et en ceste maniere la nature de l'un et de l'autre, ce est assavoir, du masle et de la femelle fu devant ordenee ou preordenee de chose divine ou de par Dieu a communication" (ibid., 814).

9. Ibid. [BACK]

6. Yconomique , 830.

7. Ibid.

8. "Et en ceste maniere la nature de l'un et de l'autre, ce est assavoir, du masle et de la femelle fu devant ordenee ou preordenee de chose divine ou de par Dieu a communication" (ibid., 814).

9. Ibid. [BACK]

6. Yconomique , 830.

7. Ibid.

8. "Et en ceste maniere la nature de l'un et de l'autre, ce est assavoir, du masle et de la femelle fu devant ordenee ou preordenee de chose divine ou de par Dieu a communication" (ibid., 814).

9. Ibid. [BACK]

10. Robert L. Benson, "Ceremonies, Secular and Nonsecular," in The Secular Spirit: Life and Art at the End of the Middle Ages , exh. cat. (New York: Dutton for the Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1975), 244. [BACK]

11. Shulamith Shahar adds that "the bride's dowry as well as that portion of the bridegroom's property pledged to his wife in the event that he died before her were also guaranteed at the church door" ( The Fourth Estate: A History of Women in the Middle Ages , trans. Chaya Galai [London and New York: Methuen, 1983], 81). For a discussion of the church porch as the setting of the ceremony, see Christopher N. L. Brooke, The Medieval Idea of Marriage (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989), 253-57.

12. For the specification of the priest's dress in an ordo of the twelfth century and other details of the ceremony, see Jean-Baptiste Molin and Protais Mutembe, Le rituel du mariage en France du XIIe au XVIe siècle (Paris: Beauchesne, 1974), 284-85. For pontificals and missals dating from the thirteenth century that describe the marriage rite at the church door, see ibid., 34-37, 284-91. [BACK]

11. Shulamith Shahar adds that "the bride's dowry as well as that portion of the bridegroom's property pledged to his wife in the event that he died before her were also guaranteed at the church door" ( The Fourth Estate: A History of Women in the Middle Ages , trans. Chaya Galai [London and New York: Methuen, 1983], 81). For a discussion of the church porch as the setting of the ceremony, see Christopher N. L. Brooke, The Medieval Idea of Marriage (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989), 253-57.

12. For the specification of the priest's dress in an ordo of the twelfth century and other details of the ceremony, see Jean-Baptiste Molin and Protais Mutembe, Le rituel du mariage en France du XIIe au XVIe siècle (Paris: Beauchesne, 1974), 284-85. For pontificals and missals dating from the thirteenth century that describe the marriage rite at the church door, see ibid., 34-37, 284-91. [BACK]

13. Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, Dictionnaire raisonné du mobilier français (Paris: Bance, 1861), vol. 4, 36. For illustrations of the same type of bridal dress with the three jewels, see Melnikas, Corpus of the Miniatures in the Manuscripts of Decretum Gratiani , vol. 3, figs. 28 and 45 (Causa XXXVI). Both examples come from fourteenth-century French manuscripts. The former (Paris, Bibl. Nat., MS lat. 3893, fol. 356) dates from the first decades of the fourteenth century, while the second (Paris, Bibl. Mazarine, MS lat. 1290, fol. 390) is contemporary with B and D . For further discussion of the Mazarine manuscript, see below, n. 16.

14. For a container for thirteen gold coins sometimes specified as the arrhes , see Molin and Mutembe, Le rituel du mariage , 153, n. 70; for a wider discussion, see ibid., 149-55.

15. No liturgical indication of crowns connected with the nuptial blessing occurs in Western sources. See ibid., 237-38. break

16. Melnikas, Corpus of the Miniatures in the Manuscripts of Decretum Gratiani , vol. 3, figs. 43-45 (Causa XXXVI). Crowns are worn by the bridal couple in ibid., figs. 43 and 44 from two Bolognese manuscripts (Rome, Archivio della Basilica di S. Pietro, MS A. 24, fol. 315, and Paris, Bibl. Nat., MS nouv. acq. lat. 2508, fol. 321v). In the Mazarine manuscript mentioned in n. 13 above (fig. 45, Causa XXXVI) the bride and groom wear circlets. (Melnikas incorrectly attributes the illustration to the Master of the Coronation Book of Charles V and dates it to 1365 [ibid., 1144]. I believe it was executed by the workshop of the Master of the Rationale of Divine Offices. See Sherman, Portraits , 19 and pl. 3.) [BACK]

13. Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, Dictionnaire raisonné du mobilier français (Paris: Bance, 1861), vol. 4, 36. For illustrations of the same type of bridal dress with the three jewels, see Melnikas, Corpus of the Miniatures in the Manuscripts of Decretum Gratiani , vol. 3, figs. 28 and 45 (Causa XXXVI). Both examples come from fourteenth-century French manuscripts. The former (Paris, Bibl. Nat., MS lat. 3893, fol. 356) dates from the first decades of the fourteenth century, while the second (Paris, Bibl. Mazarine, MS lat. 1290, fol. 390) is contemporary with B and D . For further discussion of the Mazarine manuscript, see below, n. 16.

14. For a container for thirteen gold coins sometimes specified as the arrhes , see Molin and Mutembe, Le rituel du mariage , 153, n. 70; for a wider discussion, see ibid., 149-55.

15. No liturgical indication of crowns connected with the nuptial blessing occurs in Western sources. See ibid., 237-38. break

16. Melnikas, Corpus of the Miniatures in the Manuscripts of Decretum Gratiani , vol. 3, figs. 43-45 (Causa XXXVI). Crowns are worn by the bridal couple in ibid., figs. 43 and 44 from two Bolognese manuscripts (Rome, Archivio della Basilica di S. Pietro, MS A. 24, fol. 315, and Paris, Bibl. Nat., MS nouv. acq. lat. 2508, fol. 321v). In the Mazarine manuscript mentioned in n. 13 above (fig. 45, Causa XXXVI) the bride and groom wear circlets. (Melnikas incorrectly attributes the illustration to the Master of the Coronation Book of Charles V and dates it to 1365 [ibid., 1144]. I believe it was executed by the workshop of the Master of the Rationale of Divine Offices. See Sherman, Portraits , 19 and pl. 3.) [BACK]

13. Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, Dictionnaire raisonné du mobilier français (Paris: Bance, 1861), vol. 4, 36. For illustrations of the same type of bridal dress with the three jewels, see Melnikas, Corpus of the Miniatures in the Manuscripts of Decretum Gratiani , vol. 3, figs. 28 and 45 (Causa XXXVI). Both examples come from fourteenth-century French manuscripts. The former (Paris, Bibl. Nat., MS lat. 3893, fol. 356) dates from the first decades of the fourteenth century, while the second (Paris, Bibl. Mazarine, MS lat. 1290, fol. 390) is contemporary with B and D . For further discussion of the Mazarine manuscript, see below, n. 16.

14. For a container for thirteen gold coins sometimes specified as the arrhes , see Molin and Mutembe, Le rituel du mariage , 153, n. 70; for a wider discussion, see ibid., 149-55.

15. No liturgical indication of crowns connected with the nuptial blessing occurs in Western sources. See ibid., 237-38. break

16. Melnikas, Corpus of the Miniatures in the Manuscripts of Decretum Gratiani , vol. 3, figs. 43-45 (Causa XXXVI). Crowns are worn by the bridal couple in ibid., figs. 43 and 44 from two Bolognese manuscripts (Rome, Archivio della Basilica di S. Pietro, MS A. 24, fol. 315, and Paris, Bibl. Nat., MS nouv. acq. lat. 2508, fol. 321v). In the Mazarine manuscript mentioned in n. 13 above (fig. 45, Causa XXXVI) the bride and groom wear circlets. (Melnikas incorrectly attributes the illustration to the Master of the Coronation Book of Charles V and dates it to 1365 [ibid., 1144]. I believe it was executed by the workshop of the Master of the Rationale of Divine Offices. See Sherman, Portraits , 19 and pl. 3.) [BACK]

13. Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, Dictionnaire raisonné du mobilier français (Paris: Bance, 1861), vol. 4, 36. For illustrations of the same type of bridal dress with the three jewels, see Melnikas, Corpus of the Miniatures in the Manuscripts of Decretum Gratiani , vol. 3, figs. 28 and 45 (Causa XXXVI). Both examples come from fourteenth-century French manuscripts. The former (Paris, Bibl. Nat., MS lat. 3893, fol. 356) dates from the first decades of the fourteenth century, while the second (Paris, Bibl. Mazarine, MS lat. 1290, fol. 390) is contemporary with B and D . For further discussion of the Mazarine manuscript, see below, n. 16.

14. For a container for thirteen gold coins sometimes specified as the arrhes , see Molin and Mutembe, Le rituel du mariage , 153, n. 70; for a wider discussion, see ibid., 149-55.

15. No liturgical indication of crowns connected with the nuptial blessing occurs in Western sources. See ibid., 237-38. break

16. Melnikas, Corpus of the Miniatures in the Manuscripts of Decretum Gratiani , vol. 3, figs. 43-45 (Causa XXXVI). Crowns are worn by the bridal couple in ibid., figs. 43 and 44 from two Bolognese manuscripts (Rome, Archivio della Basilica di S. Pietro, MS A. 24, fol. 315, and Paris, Bibl. Nat., MS nouv. acq. lat. 2508, fol. 321v). In the Mazarine manuscript mentioned in n. 13 above (fig. 45, Causa XXXVI) the bride and groom wear circlets. (Melnikas incorrectly attributes the illustration to the Master of the Coronation Book of Charles V and dates it to 1365 [ibid., 1144]. I believe it was executed by the workshop of the Master of the Rationale of Divine Offices. See Sherman, Portraits , 19 and pl. 3.) [BACK]

17. Viollet-le-Duc, Dictionnaire raisonné du mobilier français , vol. 3, 320, and vol. 4, 36. [BACK]

18. Yconomique , 826-28 and 836-39. [BACK]

19. See Ch. 24 above at nn. 6-7. [BACK]

20. Yconomique , 835-39. [BACK]


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