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12— Real History and the Nonexistent Spectator— Brecht, Adorno, and Straub/Huillet

1. Peter Zach, "Vom Unglück in einer Maschine zu sein, die viele Freiheiten beinahe hat, aber in sich das Glück nur ab und zu zeigt" [Interview with Straub/Huillet], Blimp (March 1985):16. [BACK]

2. Andreas Huyssen, After the Great Divide: Modernism, Mass Culture, Postmodernism (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986), 157. [BACK]

3. Miriam B. Hansen, "Introduction to Adorno, 'Transparencies on Film' (1966)," and Theodor W. Adorno, "Transparencies on Film," trans. Thomas Y. Levin, New German Critique 24/25 (Fall/Winter 1981-1982):187-198, 199-205. See also Hansen's essay, "Mass Culture and Hieroglyphic Writing: Adorno, Derrida, Kracauer,'' New German Critique [Adorno issue] 56 (Spring/Summer 1992):43-73. [BACK]

4. Andreas Huyssen, "Adorno in Reverse: From Hollywood to Richard Wagner," in After the Great Divide: Modernism, Mass Culture, Postmodernism (Bloomington: Indiana University Press), 16-43. See Theodor W. Adorno, In Search of Wagner , trans. Rodney Livingstone (London: NLB, 1981). [BACK]

5. Peter U. Hohendahl, "Introduction: Adorno Criticism Today," New German Critique [Adorno issue] 56 (Spring/Summer 1992):6. [BACK]

6. Michael P. Steinberg, "The Musical Absolute," New German Critique [Adorno issue] 56 (Spring/Summer 1992):19. [BACK]

7. Martin Walsh, " Moses and Aaron : Straub and Huillet's Schoenberg," Jump Cut 12/13 (30 December 1976):60. [BACK]

8. Joel Rogers, "Jean-Marie Straub and Danièle Huillet Interviewed: Moses and Aaron as an Object of Marxist Reflection," Jump Cut 12/13 (30 December 1976):63. [BACK]

9. Ibid., 61. [BACK]

10. Bertolt Brecht, Schriften zur Politik und Gesellschaft , Vol. 20, Gesammelte Werke (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 1967), 305. [BACK]

11. Klaus-Detlef Müller, "Der Philosoph auf dem Theater: Ideologie-kritik und 'Linksabweichung' in Bertolt Brechts 'Messinkauf,'" in Bertolt Brecht , ed. Heinz Ludwig Arnold (Sonderband aus der Reihe Text + Kritik; Munich: Boorberg, 1972), 55. [BACK]

12. This similarity between the two theorists' perceptions of the medium was first called to my attention by Marcus Bullock. [BACK]

13. See Ben Brewster, "The Fundamental Reproach (Brecht)," Ciné-Tracts 1 (1977):44-53. The translation of the word Grundeinwand as "fundamental reproach" could be an exaggeration of Brecht's rejection of the medium, since it could be rendered as something much milder, such as "main objection." [BACK]

14. Cited in Burkhardt Lindner, "Brecht/Benjamin/Adorno: Über Veränderungen der Kunstproduktion im wissenschaftlich-technischen Zeitalter," in Bertolt Brecht , ed. Heinz Ludwig Arnold (Sonderband aus der Reihe Text + Kritik; Munich: Boorberg, 1972), 20. [BACK]

15. Ibid. [BACK]

16. Ibid. [BACK]

17. Bertolt Brecht, "Der Dreigroschenprozess," in Versuche 1-12 (Berlin: Suhrkamp, 1959), 298. [BACK]

18. Stephen Heath, Questions of Cinema (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1981), 5. [BACK]

19. Lindner, "Brecht/Benjamin/Adorno," 9. [BACK]

20. Hanns Eisler, Composing for the Films (New York: Oxford University Press, 1947), 54, 59. [BACK]

21. Stephen Heath, "Narrative Space," Screen 17, no. 3 (Autumn 1976):76. [BACK]

22. Heath, Questions of Cinema , 52. [BACK]

23. Ibid., 51. [BACK]

24. Ibid., 124-125. [BACK]

25. See Herbert Marcuse, Eros and Civilization (New York: Vintage, 1962), 213 and passim. [BACK]

26. Hans Meyer, Brecht in der Geschichte: Drei Versuche (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 1971), 236. [BACK]

27. Theodor W. Adorno, Ästhetische Theorie (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 1973), 360. [BACK]

28. Ibid., 250. The same has been said of music, a quality Straub/Huillet exploit even as they deny it in narrative. [BACK]

29. Adorno, Ästhetische Theorie , 358-359. [BACK]

30. Ibid., 353. [BACK]

31. Ibid., 199-200. [BACK]

32. Ibid., 359. [BACK]

33. Ibid., 264. [BACK]

34. Ibid., 356. [BACK]

35. Lindner, "Brecht/Benjamin/Adorno," 25. [BACK]

36. Bertolt Brecht, "Anmerkungen zur Dreigroschenoper," in Versuche 1-12 (Berlin: Suhrkamp, 1959), 226-227. [BACK]

37. Heath, Questions of Cinema , 125. [BACK]

38. Klaus-Detlef Müller, Die Funktion der Geschichte im Werk Bertolt Brechts: Studien zum Verhältnis von Marxismus und Ästhetik (Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag, 1972), 173. [BACK]

39. Adorno, Ästhetische Theorie , 366. [BACK]

40. Ibid., 387. [BACK]

41. Müller, "Philosoph," 60. [BACK]

42. Franco Fortini, "The Writers' Mandate and the End of Anti-Fascism," Screen 15, no. 1 (Spring 1974):60. [BACK]

43. Walter Benjamin, Illuminations , ed. Hannah Arendt, trans. Harry Zohn (New York: Schocken, 1978), 261. [BACK]

44. Colin MacCabe, "Theory and Film: Principles of Realism and Pleasure," Screen 17, no. 3 (Autumn 1976):21. [BACK]

45. Martin Walsh, in discussion following Colin MacCabe's "The Politics of Separation," Screen 16, no. 4 (Winter 1975/1976): 60. [BACK]

46. Peter Gidal, "Straub/Huillet Talking, and Short Notes on Some Contentious Issues," Ark/Journal from the Royal College of Art (January 1976):90. [BACK]

47. Ibid. [BACK]

48. Peter Gidal, "Identifying Non-Narrative," Film Form 1, no. 2 (Autumn 1977):70. [BACK]

49. Julia Kristeva, "Signifying Practice and Mode of Production" ["Hegel, the East and Us"], Edinburgh '76 Magazine 1:74. [BACK]

50. Jacques Henric and Dominique Païni, "Serge Daney: Cinephilia" [Interview], trans. J. O'Toole, art press [Paris] 182:E29-30. [BACK]

51. Brecht, "Dreigroschenprozess," 280-281. [BACK]

52. Eisler, Composing , 132. [BACK]

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