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1. "Erde, Raum und Menschen: Aus einem Gespräch mit Jean-Marie Straub über das Theater- und Filmprojekt der Antigone," Frankfurter Rundschau , 22 April 1991. [BACK]

2. Peter Handke, "Kinonacht, Kinotiernacht," Die Zeit , 20 November 1992. A renowned "post-Brechtian" playwright, Handke is also a screenwriter and filmmaker in his own right. He adapted his novel The Goalie's Fear of the Penalty Kick for the film directed by Wim Wenders (1971) and directed The Left-handed Woman (1978). [BACK]

3. Handke, "Kinonacht." [BACK]

4. Hiroshi Yagi, " Antigone von Brecht und das Theater im Osten," in Brechts Antigone des Sophokles , ed. Werner Hecht (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 1988), 278. See also Jochanaan Christoph Trilse, "Brechts Verständnis der Antike," 238, and, on the Pindar insertions, Rainer Pohl, "Strukturelemente und Pathosformen in der Sprache," 249, in the same volume. [BACK]

5. Handke, "Kinonacht." [BACK]

6. Winfried Günther, "Antigone," epd Film 11 (1992):29. [BACK]

7. Handke, "Kinonacht." [BACK]

8. See "Erde." [BACK]

9. The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians , vol. 16, ed. Stanley Sadie (London: Macmillan, 1980), 687. [BACK]

10. Ibid., 687, 688. [BACK]

11. Rüdiger Schaper, "In Styropor gemeißelt: Straub/Huillet inszenieren Antigone an der Schaubühne," Süddeutsche Zeitung , 7 May 1991. [BACK]

12. Brechts Antigone des Sophokles , ed. Werner Hecht (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 1988), 127. [BACK]

13. Thanks to Jonathan Rosenbaum for calling my attention to this unity. [BACK]

14. John Fuegi, "The Metamorphosis of an Aristotelian Classic: Antigone ," in The Essential Brecht (Los Angeles: Hennessey and Ingalls, 1972), 65. [BACK]

15. Brechts Antigone , 185. [BACK]

16. See also Helen Fehervary, Hölderlin and the Left: The Search for a Dialectic of Art and Life (Heidelberg: Carl Winter Universitätsverlag, 1977), 30, 41-42. [BACK]

17. Brechts Antigone , 49. [BACK]

18. Cited in Ulrich Weisstein, "Imitation, Stylization and Adaptation: The Language of Brecht's Antigone and Its Relation to Hölderlin's Version of Sophocles," German Quarterly 46 (1973):597. [BACK]

19. Ruth Berlau, "Erinnerungen," in Brechts Antigone des Sophokles , ed. Werner Hecht (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 1988), 184. [BACK]

20. "Erde." [BACK]

21. Brechts Antigone , 12-13. [BACK]

22. Hans Curjel, "Die Bühnenbearbeitung Bertolt Brechts," in Brechts Antigone des Sophokles , ed. Werner Hecht (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 1988), 177. [BACK]

23. Brechts Antigone , 13. "And the matter be / Not as for nothing"; "For disloyal will one not catch me "; and "High-citied comes he, uncitied / To nothing, where the beautiful / With him is and with impudence." See Weisstein, ''Imitation," 587. [BACK]

24. Weisstein, "Imitation" [citing Pohl], 588; also Brechts Antigone [Pohl], 248. [BACK]

25. Brechts Antigone , 116.

Elders: Yet it eats much force, to think of cruel punishment.

Creon: To push the plow to earth so it plows takes force.

Elders: Yet mild order, playing, achieves much.

Creon: Orders are manifold. Yet: Who orders?

Haemon: Were I even not your son, I would say, you.

Creon: Yet were it lain to me, I must do it in my way.

Haemon: In your way, yet be it the right way.

Creon: Not knowing what I know, you could not know it. Are you my friend, however I may act?

Haemon: I would that you acted so that I were your friend.

26. See Brechts Antigone , 23: "und Argos wird ein Stalingrad von heute--die Parallele ist deutlich"; "and Argos becomes a Stalingrad of today--the parallel is clear." [BACK]

27. Brechts Antigone , 100. "It's false. Earth is a burden. Home is not only / Earth, not house only. Not where one has poured out sweat / Not the house that helplessly sees the approaching fire / Not where he bowed his neck, not that calls he home." [BACK]

28. See Weisstein, "Imitation," 593. [BACK]

29. Brechts Antigone , 132. "Do not, I bid you, speak of fate. / That I know. Speak of him / Who does me in, guiltless: him / Knots a fate!" [BACK]

30. Bertolt Brecht, "Die Jüdische Frau," in Furcht und Elend des Dritten Reiches , in Die Stücke von Bertolt Brecht in einem Band (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 1978), 452. [BACK]

31. See Brechts Antigone , 23. [BACK]

32. Ibid., 154.

[ Messenger ]
And, Lord, the Argos folk fought with villainous cunning.
The women fought and the children fought.
Kettles, long without edible contents
From burned-out rooftops were they hurled
Upon us with boiling water; even houses left whole
Were set afire in our backs as if no one
Thought of ever more living anywhere. For entrenchments
And weapons were made of household goods and dwelling.

33. George Steiner, Antigones (New York: Oxford University Press, 1984), 247. Steiner translates tödlichfaktisch as "factually-deadly." [BACK]

34. Programmheft, Schaubühne [Berlin], 3 May 1991, n.p. Cited also in Steiner, Antigones , 95. [BACK]

35. See Steiner, Antigones , 93-94; Weisstein, "Imitation," 588-590. [BACK]

36. Günther, " Antigone ," 29. [BACK]

37. Wilhelm Schmid, "Auf der Bühne steht nur der Diskurs," die tageszeitung , 7 May 1991. [BACK]

38. Handke, "Kinonacht," [BACK]

39. Laurence Giavarini, "Antigone, sauvage!" Cahiers du cinéma 459 (1992):41. [BACK]

40. Handke, "Kinonacht." [BACK]

41. "Are you giving me riddles, you transparent one?" Winfried Günther sees this pan as expressing an unspoken threat from Creon. See Günther, " Antigone ," 29. [BACK]

42. "Much is monstrous. But nothing / More monstrous than humanity." Brechts Antigone , 86. [BACK]

43. Handke, "Kinonacht." [BACK]

44. Steiner, Antigones , 304. [BACK]

45. Ibid., 14. [BACK]

46. Ibid., 95. [BACK]

47. Handke, "Kinonacht." [BACK]

48. Schmid, "Auf der Bühne." [BACK]

49. "Erde." [BACK]

50. Ibid. [BACK]

51. Fuegi, "Metamorphosis of an Aristotelian Classic," 65. [BACK]

52. Steiner, Antigones , 93-94. [BACK]

53. Paul de Man, "Conclusions: Walter Benjamin's 'The Task of the Translator,'" in The Resistance to Theory (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1986), 102. [BACK]

54. Giavarini, "Antigone, sauvage!" 41. Giavarini compares this violence to the "almost unbearable" vertical cutting of the frame by the snake in Moses und Aron . [BACK]

55. Handke, "Kinonacht." [BACK]

56. Ibid. [BACK]

57. Steiner, Antigones , 81. [BACK]

58. Laurence Giavarini, "Puissance des fantômes," Cahiers du cinéma 460 (1992):72. [BACK]

59. Ibid., 73. [BACK]

60. "Mismanagement cries for greatness, finds none. / War comes out of war and breaks its leg. / Robbery comes from robbery, and hardness needs hardness / And more needs more and comes in the end to nothing." [BACK]

61. Steiner, Antigones , 132. Steiner presents a number of interpretations of Antigone that point toward a reconciliation or an idealist synthesis; see pp. 5, 14, 31, 74. [BACK]

62. Steiner, Antigones , 303. [BACK]

63. Alain Philippon, "Le secret derrière les arbres: La mort d'Empédocle par J.-M. Straub et D. Hillet," Cahiers du cinéma 400 (October 1987):41. [BACK]

64. Peter Kammerer, "Worte gegen Wind und Steine: Straub/Huillet haben die Antigone Hölderlins und Brechts auf Sizilien gedreht," Frankfurter Rundschau , 20 January 1992. [BACK]

65. Hans Hurch, "Von Steinen und Menschen," Falter 16 (1992):24. [BACK]

66. "Erde." [BACK]

67. Kammerer, "Worte gegen Wind." [BACK]

68. Dietmar Schings, "Eine Frau im Licht," Deutsches Allegemeines Sonntagsblatt , 14 February 1992. [BACK]

69. Günther, " Antigone ," 29. [BACK]

70. Schings, "Eine Frau im Licht." [BACK]

71. Ibid. [BACK]

72. Handke, "Kinonacht." [BACK]

73. "Entretien Dominique Païni-Jean Narboni," in Der Tod des Empedokles/La mort d'Empédocle , ed. Jacques Déniel and Dominique Païni (Dunkerque: Studio 43/Paris: DOPA Films/Ecole regionale des beaux-arts, 1987), 64. [BACK]

74. I have written elsewhere about the "fantasm" represented by Nazism, the Holocaust, and Hiroshima in the context of Divided Heaven and Hiroshima mon amour ; see "Geschichte, Trauer und weibliche Identität im Film," in Zwischen gestern und morgen: Schriftstellerinnen der DDR aus amerikanischer Sicht , ed. Ute Brandes (Berlin: Europäischer Verlag der Wissenschaften/Peter Lang, 1992), 95-112.

On the "common crime" as a founding break of the symbolic order, see Julia Kristeva, "Revolution in Poetic Language," in The Kristeva Reader , ed. Toril Moi (New York: Columbia University Press, 1986), 119. On the "fantasm'' in the context of the atomic bomb and the Nazi Holocaust, see Sharon Willis, Marguerite Duras: Writing on the Body (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1987), 95; and Madeleine Borgomano, L'Ecriture filmique de Marguerite Duras (Paris: Albatros, 1985), 47-48. [BACK]

75. See Franco Fortini, "The Writers' Mandate and the End of Anti-Fascism," Screen 15, no. 1 (Spring 1974):41. [BACK]

76. Steiner, Antigones , 31. [BACK]

77. "Antigone nue," Libération , 1 September 1992. [BACK]

78. Ibid. [BACK]

79. Steiner, Antigones , 281-282. [BACK]

80. Ibid., 3. [BACK]

81. "Antigone nue." [BACK]

82. Brechts Antigone , 126. "Do not / Lay waste the earthly realm with the violence of hands." [BACK]

83. Cited in Holger Teschke, unpublished ms., 1993, 15. [BACK]

84. Brechts Antigone , 144. "And have I thus looked back, and around myself / You look ahead and shudder." [BACK]

85. Hurch, "Steinen." [BACK]

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