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5— Time and Memory in Postwar Germany:Not Reconciled

1. James E. Young, "The Counter-Monument: Memory Against Itself in Germany Today," Critical Inquiry 18 (Winter 1992):267-296. [BACK]

2. Ibid., 273. [BACK]

3. Thomas Elsaesser, New German Cinema: A History (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1989), 258. Elsaesser writes that this film shares this quality in German cinema only with the films of a few Jewish exiles and feminist filmmakers. [BACK]

4. Peter Handke, "Kinonacht, Kinotiernacht," Die Zeit , 20 November 1992. [BACK]

5. See Heinrich Böll, Querschnitte aus Interviews, Aufsätzen und Reden von Heinrich Böll , ed. Viktor Böll and Renate Matthaei (Cologne: Kiepenheuer and Witsch, 1977). [BACK]

6. As Klaus Jeziorkowski has noted, the longest sequences dedicated to the past are given to the three characters, Robert, Heinrich, and Johanna, filling most of chapters 3, 4, and 5, respectively. All three characters recount the past as their own way of avoiding the present. To this extent, these accounts are more than exposition. See Klaus Jeziorkowski, Rhythmus und Figur: Zur Technik der epischen Konstruktion in Heinrich Bölls "Der Wegwerfer" und "Billard um halbzehn" (Bad Homburg: Gehlen, 1968), 110. [BACK]

7. Heinrich Böll, Billiards at Half Past Nine (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1962), 9; Billard um halbzehn (Cologne: Kiepenheuer and Witsch, 1959), 5. Cited hereafter with the page numbers from the English edition first, followed by those of the German. [BACK]

8. Ibid., 157/173. [BACK]

9. Ibid., 32/41. [BACK]

10. Ibid., 41/50. [BACK]

11. Ibid., 63/73. [BACK]

12. Ibid., 35/44. [BACK]

13. Ibid., 50/60. [BACK]

14. Manfred Durzak assumes that the characters have been reconciled by the narrative and considers this a flaw in the novel's execution. For my interpretation, especially in regard to the film, this apparent reconciliation becomes less significant than the breaking open of temporal structures, which Durzak also stresses. See Manfred Durzak, Der deutsche Roman der Gegenwart (Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1971), 69. [BACK]

15. Böll, Billiards , 149/164. [BACK]

16. Ibid., 151/166. [BACK]

17. Ibid., 239/260. [BACK]

18. Ibid., 241/262. [BACK]

19. Ibid., 245/266. [BACK]

20. Ibid., 275/299. [BACK]

21. Ibid., 251/273. [BACK]

22. Cited in Marcel Reich-Ranicki, ed., In Sachen Böll: Ansichten und Aussichten (Cologne: Kiepenheuer and Witsch, 1968), 331. [BACK]

23. Straub/Huillet were here contrasting the attitude toward violence in Nicholas Ray with that of Buñuel and Hawks. See "Straub and Huillet on Filmmakers They Like and Related Matters," Film at the Public program, ed. Jonathan Rosenbaum, November 1982, 7. [BACK]

24. Richard Roud, Jean-Marie Straub (London: Secker and Warburg/British Film Institute, 1971; New York: Viking, 1972). All screenplay notes given by shot number in the text refer to the translation published on pp. 124-170 of the London edition. [BACK]

25. On the Holocaust Memorial Museum, see, e.g., Phillip Lopate, "Resistance to the Holocaust," Yehuda Bauer, "Don't Resist," and Deborah E. Lipstadt, "What Is the Meaning of This to You ?" [Critiques of Phillip Lopate], Tikkun 4, no. 3 (1990): 55-69. On the use of an enlarged casting of a Käthe Kollwitz pietà for the Central Memorial in Berlin, see "Mutter im Regen," Der Spiegel 46 (15 November 1993): 268-270. [BACK]

26. Peter W. Jansen and Wolfram Schütte, eds., Herzog/Kluge/Straub (Munich: Carl Hanser Verlag, 1976), 212. [BACK]

27. Böll, Billiards , 44/53. [BACK]

28. Ibid., 241/262. [BACK]

29. See Stephen Heath, "Narrative Space," Screen 17, no. 3 (Autumn 1976):68-112. [BACK]

30. "Er blickte auf . . ."--in the billiard room; "Er sah sich auf den Uferwiesen stehen . . ."--in habitual action in the unspecified past; and finally, "Sie zappelten vorn an der Linie herum . . ."--past action on the specific day, 14 July 1935. Böll, Billiards , 32-34/41-43. [BACK]

31. Böll, Billiards , 228-229/248-249. [BACK]

32. Ibid., 279/303. [BACK]

33. Michel Delahaye, "Pornographie et cinéma a l'état nu" [Interview with Jean-Marie Straub], Cahiers du cinéma 180 (July 1966):56. [BACK]

34. Ibid. [BACK]

35. Ibid., 55. [BACK]

36. Ibid., 57. [BACK]

37. Suite no. 2 in B Minor (BWV 1067). [BACK]

38. Roud, Jean-Marie Straub , 62. [BACK]

39. Roud, in Jean-Marie Straub , speaks of "Baroque" diagonals. [BACK]

40. Roud, Jean-Marie Straub , 11. [BACK]

41. Delahaye, "Pornographie et cinéma," 55. [BACK]

42. Ibid., 56. [BACK]

43. Ibid., 54. [BACK]

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