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1— Straub/Huillet and the Cinema Tradition and Avant-garde

1. Filmkritik 1 (1977): inside front cover, n.p. [BACK]

2. Walter Benjamin, One-Way Street and Other Writings, trans. Edmund Jephcott and Kingsley Shorter (London: NLB, 1979), 67; excerpted in Film (March 1956):137. Bitomsky, referring here to Othon, is cited by Karsten Witte, " Moses und Aron von Straub/Huillet," in Im Kino. Texte vom Sehen und Hören (Frankfurt am Main: Fischer, 1985), 124. [BACK]

3. Hanns Eisler, Composing for the Films (New York: Oxford University Press, 1947), 120-121. Co-authored by Theodor W. Adorno, who is not cited in this edition. [BACK]

4. Ibid., 36. [BACK]

5. See Bertolt Brecht, "Der Dreigroschenprozeß," in Versuche 1-12 (Berlin: Suhrkamp, 1958), 280-281; and Eisler, Composing, 121. [BACK]

6. Richard Roud, Jean-Marie Straub (London: Secker and Warburg/British Film Institute, 1971; New York: Viking, 1972), 15; Peter W. Jansen and Wolfram Schütte, eds., Herzog/Kluge/Straub (Munich: Carl Hanser Verlag, 1976), 241, cited hereafter as HKS . [BACK]

7. Michael Klier, Porträts der Filmemacher: Jean-Marie Straub, WDR, Cologne, 1970. Film. [BACK]

8. HKS, 241; "Erstes Lexikon des Jungen Deutschen Films," Filmkritik 1 (1966):44-48. [BACK]

9. See Roy Armes, "Jean-Marie Straub: Strict Counterpoint," in The Ambiguous Image (London: Secker and Warburg, 1976), 208-215; and Roud, Jean-Marie Straub , esp. 7-27. [BACK]

10. "Lexikon," 47. [BACK]

11. Ibid. [BACK]

12. "Antigone nue," Libération , 1 September 1992. [BACK]

13. Helge Heberle and Monika Funke Stern, "Das Feuer im Innern des Berges" [Interview with Danièle Huillet], Frauen und Film 32 (June 1982):4-12. [BACK]

14. Ibid., 6. [BACK]

15. Ibid., 5-7. [BACK]

16. Ibid., 5. [BACK]

17. Ibid. [BACK]

18. Ibid., 9. [BACK]

19. Ibid., 10. [BACK]

20. Ibid., 12. [BACK]

21. Ibid., 11, 12. [BACK]

22. Gertrud Koch, "Ex-Changing the Gaze: Re-Visioning Feminist Film Theory," New German Critique 34 (Winter 1985):140-141. [BACK]

23. Elin Diamond, "Brechtian Theory/Feminist Theory: Toward a Gestic Feminist Criticism," TDR/The Drama Review 32 (1988):82-94. [BACK]

24. Koch, "Ex-Changing," 142. [BACK]

25. Teresa de Lauretis, Alice Doesn't: Feminism, Semiotics, Cinema (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1984), 60. [BACK]

26. HKS, 241-242. [BACK]

27. Heberle and Stern, "Feuer im Innern des Berges," 5. [BACK]

28. "Notes on Gregory's Work Journal by Danièle Huillet," Enthusiasm 1 (December 1975):32-54. [BACK]

29. See, e.g., Peter Gidal, "Straub/Huillet Talking and Short Notes on Some Contentious Issues," Ark/Journal from the Royal College of Art (January 1976):90. [BACK]

30. "Enretien avec Jean-Marie Straub et Danièle Huillet," in Der Tod des Empedokles/La mort d'Empédocle, ed. Jacques Déniel and Dominique Païni (Dunkerque: Studio 43/Paris: DOPA Films/Ecole régionale des beaux-arts, 1987), 44. [BACK]

31. See Barbara Bronnen, "Jean-Marie Straub (interview)," in Die Filmemacher. Zur neuen deutschen Produktion nach Oberhausen, eds. Barbara Bronnen and Corinna Brocher (Munich: Bertelsmann, 1973), 25-45; Maureen Turim, " Ecriture Blanche: The Ordering of the Filmic Text in The Chronicle of Anna Magdalena Bach," Purdue Film Studies Annual (1976):177-192; Maureen Turim, "Jean-Marie Straub and Danièle Huillet: Oblique Angles on Film as Ideological Intervention," in New German Filmmakers, ed. Klaus Phillips (New York: Ungar, 1984), 335-358; and Gertrud Koch, " Moses und Aron : Musik, Text, Film und andere Fallen der Rezeption,'' in Die Einstellung ist die Einstellung: Visuelle Konstruktionen des Judentums (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 1992), 30-52. [BACK]

32. See David Caldwell, "Personal and Political Bonding in the Work of Straub/ Huillet," in Sex and Love in Motion Pictures: Proceedings of the Second Annual Film Conference of Kent State University, ed. Douglas Radcliff-Umstead (Kent: Romance Languages Department, 1984), 80-84; and Whitney Chadwick and Isabelle de Courtivron, eds., Significant Others: Creativity and Intimate Partnership (London: Thames and Hudson, 1993). [BACK]

33. Kaja Silverman, The Acoustic Mirror: The Female Voice in Psychoanalysis and Cinema (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1988); Martin Jay, Downcast Eyes: The Denigration of Vision in Twentieth-Century French Thought (Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: University of California Press, 1993); David Michael Levin, ed., Modernity and the Hegemony of Vision (Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: University of California Press, 1993). Even Eisler and Adorno refer to the traditional idea that hearing was passive and feminine and seeing was active and masculine; see Eisler, Composing, 20-21. [BACK]

34. André Bazin, " Le Journal d'un curé de campagne and the Stylistics of Robert Bresson," in What Is Cinema? ed. Hugh Gray (Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: University of California Press, 1967), 133. [BACK]

35. See Andreas Huyssen, "The Vamp and the Machine: Fritz Lang's Metropolis," in After the Great Divide: Modernism, Mass Culture, Postmodernism (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986), 65-81. [BACK]

36. Bazin, " Le Journal and Bresson," 133. [BACK]

37. Siegfried Kracauer, Theory of Film: The Redemption of Physical Reality (New York: Oxford University Press, 1960), e.g., ix. [BACK]

38. See Roland Barthes, The Grain of the Voice: Interviews 1962-1980, trans. Linda Coverdale (New York: Hill and Wang, 1985), esp. "From Speech to Writing," 3-7. [BACK]

39. Mark Nash and Steve Neal, "Film: 'History/Production/Memory,'" Screen 18, no. 4 (Fall/Winter 1977-1978):87-91. [BACK]

40. See Cesare Pavese, Dialogues with Leucò , trans. William Arrowsmith and D. S. Carne-Ross (Boston: Eridanos, 1989). [BACK]

41. See George Steiner, Antigones (New York: Oxford University Press, 1984), 136. [BACK]

42. Marc Chevrie, "Le retour d'Empédocle. J.-M. Straub et D. Huillet: entre deux films," Cahiers du cinéma 418 (April 1989):64. For the conversations quoted in the film, see Joachim Gasquet's Cézanne: A Memoir with Conversations, trans. Christopher Pemberton (London: Thames and Hudson, 1991). [BACK]

43. Hans Hurch, "Von Steinen und Menschen," Falter 16 (1992):24. [BACK]

44. Peter Handke, "Kinonacht, Kinotiernacht," Die Zeit, 20 November 1992. [BACK]

45. Film at the Public program, ed. Jonathan Rosenbaum, November 1982. The program also contains excerpts from interviews with the filmmakers under the heading, "Straub and Huillet on Filmmakers They Like and Related Matters," 5-8. [BACK]

46. "Erde, Raum und Menschen: Aus einem Gespräch mit Jean-Marie Straub über das Theater- und Filmprojekt der Antigone," Frankfurter Rundschau, 22 April 1991. [BACK]

47. Cited in Dietmar Schings, "Eine Frau im Licht," Deutsches Allgemeines Sonntagsblatt, 14 February 1992. [BACK]

48. Handke, "Kinonacht." [BACK]

49. Laurence Giavarini, "Puissance des fantômes," Cahiers du cinéma 460 (1992):74. [BACK]

50. Manfred Blank, L'insistence du regard/Die Beharrlichkeit des Blicks, Hessischer Rundfunk/Arte, 1993. Film. [BACK]

51. Alain Bergala, "Le plus petit planète du monde," Cahiers du cinéma 364 (1984):27-31. Translation by Thom Andersen and Bill Jones. [BACK]

52. Cited in Winfried Günther, " Antigone," epd Film 11 (1992):29. [BACK]

53. Among the first films exhibited to the public were the Lumière brothers' La Sortie des Usines Lumière, L'Arrivée d'un train en gare de la Ciotat, and L'Arroseur arrosé , all made in 1895. Straub/Huillet "quote" Workers Leaving the Lumière Factory with a shot of an Egyptian factory in Too Early, Too Late. [BACK]

54. Kracauer, Theory of Film, ix. [BACK]

55. Sylvia Harvey, May '68 and Film Culture (London: British Film Institute, 1978), 66. [BACK]

56. See "Die Größe des Films, das ist die Bescheidenheit, daß man zur Fotografie verurteilt ist," filmwärts [Straub/Huillet issue] 9 (December 1987):10-11. [BACK]

57. Roswitha Mueller, "Introduction," Discourse [Special issue: German Avant-Garde Cinema: The Seventies] 6 (Fall 1983):8. [BACK]

58. Rosalind E. Krauss, The Originality of the Avant-Garde and Other Modernist Myths (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1984), 14. [BACK]

59. "Andi Engel Talks to Jean-Marie Straub," Cinemantics 1 (1 January 1970):19. [BACK]

60. Blank, L'insistence du regard. [BACK]

61. Robert Bresson, "Zum Selbstverständnis des Films V," Filmkritik 9 (1966): 527-528. [BACK]

62. Ibid., 528. [BACK]

63. See, e.g., David Bordwell's description of the visual "theatricalization" of Moses and Aaron as against Bazin: The Films of Carl-Theodor Dreyer (Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: University of California Press, 1981), 149. [BACK]

64. "The Film as Art," Jean Renoir interview, Pacifica Radio Archive, 1960 [copyright 1983]. [BACK]

65. Ibid. [BACK]

66. Brecht, cited in Wilhelm Große, Bearbeitungen des Johanna-Stoffes (Munich: R. Oldenbourg, 1980), 90. [BACK]

67. See Große, Johanna-Stoff , 64. [BACK]

68. Bertolt Brecht, Die heilige Johanna der Schlachthöfe , in Die Stücke von Bertolt Brecht in einem Band (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 1978), 285. [BACK]

69. David Bordwell, Narration in the Fiction Film (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985), 271-273. [BACK]

70. Thomas Elsaesser, New German Cinema: A History (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1989), 295. [BACK]

71. Ibid., 40-41. [BACK]

72. On Brecht and the cinema, see also Dana Polan, The Political Language of Film and the Avant-Garde (Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1985); Martin Walsh, The Brechtian Aspect of Radical Cinema, ed. Keith M. Griffiths (London: British Film Institute, 1981); Pia Kleber and Colin Visser, eds., Re-interpreting Brecht: His Influence on Contemporary Drama and Film (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990); Sylvia Harvey, "Whose Brecht? Memories for the Eighties," Screen 23, no. 1 (May/June 1982):45-59; and Peter Wollen, "The Two Avant-Gardes," Edinburgh '76 Magazine 1:77-86. [BACK]

73. D. N. Rodowick, The Crisis of Political Modernism: Criticism and Ideology in Contemporary Film Theory (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1988), 5. [BACK]

74. Colin MacCabe, "Class of '68: Elements of an Intellectual Autobiography 1967-81," in Tracking the Signifier: Theoretical Essays, Film, Linguistics, Literature (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1985), 15. [BACK]

75. Rodowick, Crisis of Political Modernism, 158. [BACK]

76. Thomas Elsaesser, "General Introduction: Early Cinema from Linear History to Mass Media Archaeology," in Early Cinema: Space/Frame/Narrative, ed. Thomas Elsaesser and Adam Barker (London: British Film Institute, 1990), 18. [BACK]

77. Rodowick, Crisis of Political Modernism, 272. [BACK]

78. Ibid., 280. [BACK]

79. Cited in ibid., 289-290. [BACK]

80. See Nash and Neal, "Film," 87-88. [BACK]

81. Cited in Rodowick, Crisis of Political Modernism, 296-297. [BACK]

82. See Harvey, May '68 and Film Culture, 47. [BACK]

83. MacCabe, "Class of '68," 31. [BACK]

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