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INDEX

A

Absolutism:

checks on, 63 -65, 78 ;

Du Vair on, 344 , 345 ;

of French monarchy, 59 , 60 , 418 ;

L'Hôpital's view of, 312 ;

parlementaire views on, 327 , 469 ;

public opinion on, 472

Acarie, Jean, 279

Acharnés , 183 ;

division with moderates, 208 ;

hard-core, 218 ;

Lizet's leadership of, 194 , 476

Act of Supremacy (England, 1534), 204

Adultery, punishment for, 145 , 236

Aerssen, François d', 443 -44, 445 , 449

L'affaire Brisson (1591), 389 -93, 407 ;

Du Vair on, 408 ;

punishment for, 439

L'affaire de la rue St-Jacques (1557), 184 , 232 ;

arrests in, 254

L'affaire des placards (1534), 16 , 173 , 181 , 191 ;

effect on parlementaires, 475 ;

François I in, 204

Aides (tax), exemption from, 52

Aix, Parlement of, 211 , 213

Alava, Don Francis, 302 , 303

Alberti, Leon-Battista, 134

Albigensians, 237 , 253 ;

crusade, 162

Alciato, Andrea, 27 , 99

Alençon, duc d'. See Franéois, duc d'Alençon

Almanacs, 102 , 142

Alter, J. V., 155 , 158

Amboise, cardinal d', 9 , 15

Amboise, François d', poetry of, 107

Amiens:

elite of, 130 ;

parlementaires from, 43

Andelot, François d', 232

Anglicanism, 173

Anjorrant, Claude, 48 , 218 ;

in negotiations with Condé, 280

Anjou, Henri d'. See Henri III (king of France)

Anjou, heresy in, 211

Annates, restoration of, 178

Anne de Beaujeu:

entry into Paris, 76 ;

regency of, 43 , 76

Anne de Bretagne, 9 , 45

Antiquity, parlementaire interest in, 105 , 106

Antoine de Bourbon (king of Navarre):

affiliation with ultras, 264 ;

command of royal armies, 279 ;

and Conspiracy of Amboise, 243 ;

death of, 275 ;

expulsion of Protestants, 281 ;

expulsion of Triumvirs, 277 ;

as lieutenant général of France, 250 , 278 ;

protection of Protestants, 232 , 239 ;

religious views of, 249 , 264 , 275 ;

role in Edict of July, 292

L'appel comme d'abus , 90 , 199 , 346 ;

in Berquin case, 202 ;

use against papacy, 459

Arande, Michel d', 190

Arbalaste family, 43

Archives Nationales, inventories of private libraries, 98

Ariès, Philippe, 122 , 150

Aristotle, 340 , 437

Armada, defeat of, 366 -67

Armitage, Isabella, 484

Arnauld, Antoine, 470 ;

career of, 35 -36;

La Justice aux pieds du Roy , 36

Arrêt des luthériens , 211


510

Arrêts , 3 ;

collections of, 99 , 153 ;

of Parlement of Paris, 65 , 211 , 213 , 215

Assassination, Pasquier on, 373

Asses, Claude de, 211

Athanasian Creed, 245

Aubigné, Agrippa d', 118 -19

Aubray, Claude d', 420 -21, 422 ;

in Satyre Ménippée , 427 , 428 -29

Aubry (curé of St-André), 396 , 399 , 404 ;

assassination plots by, 414 ;

attack on wives of présidents, 424 ;

on Spanish troops, 405 ;

on succession of Henri IV, 410

Auger, Edmond, 347

Augustine, Saint, 171

Augustus (emperor of Rome), 66 , 448

Auneau, victory of, 351 , 352 , 354

Aurelius, Marcus, 114

Autos-da-fé: of 1546, 212 ;

of 1549, 215

Autun, merchants of, 130

Auvergnat faction, 43 , 45

Ayrault, Pierre, 33 , 372 ;

De la puissance paternelle , 122

B

Baïf, Jean-Antoine de, 107

Baillages , jurisdiction of, 224

Baillet, René, 13 , 284 ;

career of, 16 -17;

and Edict of January, 267 ;

embassy to Condé, 276 ;

at mercuriale of June (1559), 237 ;

in negotiations with Condé, 279 ;

and profession of faith, 291 ;

religious views of, 238 n;

on royal commissions, 48

Baillet, Thibault: death of, 177 , 178 , 181 ;

defense of constitutionalism, 406 ;

defense of Gallicanism, 164 ;

defense of tradition, 13 ;

diplomatic missions of, 49 ;

leadership of mainstream, 195 ;

opposition to Concordat of Bologna, 77 , 178 ;

on parlementaire ideals, 134 ;

as président, 12 ;

work on customary law, 48

Baillet family, 17

Baillon, Anne de, 39

Bailly, 402

Banishment: billets of, 421 n, 432 n;

by Henri IV, 438 -39;

of heretics, 216 , 217

Barbançon family, 258

Barbaro, Marc'Antonio, 284 , 294 n;

on Pacification of Amboise, 286 ;

on ultra party, 293

Barberini, Maffeo, 455 , 456

Barbiche, Bernard, 3

Barjot, Jean, 218

Barnavi, Élie, 341 , 464 ;

on l'affaire Brisson, 391 , 392 ;

on bourgeoisie, 339 , 461 ;

on Bussy-Leclerc, 340 ;

on Estates of the League, 403 ;

on Henri IV's banishments, 438 ;

on Henri IV's succession, 382 ;

on jusqu'au-boutistes , 419 ;

on ligueurs , 340 , 462 ;

on Sixteen, 386 , 389

Barrière, Pierre, 414

Basoche , marriage among, 54

Bastille:

parlementaires in, 376 ;

surrender to Henri IV, 433 ;

takeover by League, 363

Baston, 438

Baude, Henri, "Testament de la Merle Barbeau, ", 156

Baudouin, François, 27 ;

students of, 96

Baumgartner, Frederic, 419

Beame, Edmond, 327 -28

Béarnais, Jeanne. See Jeanne d'Albret (consort of Antoine de Bourbon)

Beaune, Jacques de (sieur de Samblançay), 45 ;

trial of, 10

Beaune, merchants of, 130

Beaune, Renaud de (archbishop of Bourges):

patronage of Le Caron, 32 ;

support of Henri IV, 353 n

Beaune, René (archbishop of Sens), 152

Beaune family:

humanist education of, 96 ;

immigration to Paris, 44

Béda, Noël: opposition to heresy, 193 , 216

Begat, Jean, 287

Beggars:

increase in, 342 ;

punishment of, 133

Belin, François Faudoas (comte de), 399 , 420 , 421 ;

banishment of, 422 , 423

Bellanger, Jacques de, 447

Belleforest, François de, 107

Bellièvre, Pomponne de, 34 n;

career of, 33 -34, 36 ;

dismissal by Henri III, 367 ;

and Trent decrees, 451 , 452 , 453

Belon, Françoise de, 27 , 124

Benefices:

access of robins to, 52 ;

of Antoine Duprat, 178 , 180 , 195 , 200 ;

under Concordat of Bologna, 178 ;

Council of Trent on, 298 ;

Diefendorf on, 47 ;

of Guise faction, 280 ;

Henri II's sale of, 224 ;

of laymen, 47 ;

plurality of, 346 ;

possession by magistrates, 47 -48;

under Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges, 178 , 179 ;

reform of, 200

Beneficio Christi , 152

Benson, Edward, 120 n, 125


511

Bergeron, Nicolas, 29

Bernard, Auguste, 402

Béroald, Matthieu, 171

Béroald family, 38

Berquin, Louis de, 14 , 244 ;

arrest of, 194 , 199 ;

execution of, 203 , 208 , 475 ;

François's protection of, 281 , 191 , 194 , 199 -200;

heresy trial of, 180 -81, 193 ;

possession of banned books, 194 ;

release of, 202

Berquin case (1522-23), 176 , 177 , 280 -81, 199 -200;

effect on Parlement, 461 , 475 ;

Lizet in, 193 , 194 , 215 ;

papal commission on, 202 -3

Berruyer (lawyer), book collection of, 99

Bertrand, Jean, 28 ;

as garde des sceaux , 221 ;

as président, 46 , 183 , 184 , 221 , 222 ;

venality of, 215

Bérulle, Cardinal, 480

Béthune, Maximillien de (duc de Sully), 451

Béthune, Philippe de, 454

Bettinson, Christopher:

on Massacre of St. Bartholomew, 327 ;

on politiques , 326 , 403

Bèze, Théodore de, 234 ;

performance of Protestant services, 258 ;

on Trent decrees, 302 .

Works: Droit des magistrats , 62 , 63 ;

Vindiciae contra tyrannos , 111

Bibliothèque de la société de l'histoire du protestantisme français, 3 , 201 n

Billets of banishment: of duc de Mayenne, 421 n;

of Henri IV, 432 n

Birague family, 44

Biron, Charles de Gontaut (sieur de), 141 -42, 359

Bishops, French:

on Bull of Gregory XIV, 397 ;

defense of Gallicanism, 460 ;

at Fontainebleau council, 242 ;

loss of sees, 301 ;

royal nomination of, 178

Bitton, Davis, 50

Blanchard, François, 13 , 468 ;

on Charles Guillart, 14 ;

on Christophe de Harlay, 22 ;

on Christophe de Thou, 23 ;

on François Olivier, 18 ;

on Pierre (I) Séguier, 21 ;

on René Baillet, 16 -17

Blasphemy, 172 , 217 ;

edicts against, 213 ;

parlementaire commission on, 196 -99;

punishment for, 236 . See also Heresy

Bloch, Marc, 163

Blois, heresy in, 213

Bodin, Jean:

on absolutism, 312 ;

on crime, 144 ;

on indivisibility of sovereignty, 121 ;

political theory of, 60 , 78 , 93 , 464 .

Works: Methodus , 313 ;

Republic , 78 , 148

Bohier, Nicholas, 45

Bohier family, 45

Bologna, law school of, 98

Bon catholique françois , ideal of, 411 n, 421 -22, 466

Bonete, Robert, 214 ;

in negotiations with Condé, 280 ;

in trial of parlementaires, 237

Boniface VIII (pope), 91 , 161

Bonvalet family, 43

Books, banned, 180 , 204 ;

Berquin's possession of, 194 ;

burning of, 194 , 211 , 282 , 287 ;

by Henri IV, 433 ;

parlementaire ruling on, 200 ;

by Sorbonne, 182 , 189 , 194 , 209

Books, collection by robins , 99 , 103 n

Bordeaux: Parlement of, 8 , 30 ;

Protestants in, 219

Bordier, Henri, 201 n, 202 n

Bouchard, Jean, 137 ;

anti-royalism of, 193

Boucher, Jacqueline, 313 , 314

Boucher (preacher), 388 -89, 396 ;

on Semmoneux , 400

Boucherat, Edmond, 303

Boulard, Pierre, 267 n

Bourbon, Antoine de. See Antoine de Bourbon (king of Navarre)

Bourbon, cardinal de. See Charles, cardinal de Bourbon

Bourbon, house of, 428

Bourdeille, Pierre de (sieur de Brantôme), 18 , 127 , 467

Bourdin, Gilles, 107 , 235 , 250 , 282 -83;

affiliation with ultras, 277 ;

and Edict of January, 269 ;

at Fontainebleau consultations, 303 , 305 ;

in negotiations with Condé, 280 ;

protest of religious unrest, 250

Bourgeois, Guillaume, 203

Bourgeoisie:

hierarchy within, 339 , 461 -62;

parlementaire origins in, 461

Bourgeoisie, Parisian:

aid to crown, 9 ;

aid to League, 341 ;

in Mayenniste faction, 340

Bourgeon, Jean-Louis, 318 -19, 321 ;

on L'Estoile, 484

Bourgoing, Guillaume, 99 , 211 ;

in Chambre Ardente, 218


512

Boutin, Déode, 268 n

Bouwsma, William J., 167 , 456 ;

on role of lawyers, 474 -75

Brachet, Marie, 126

Brachet, Nicolas, 198

Brachet family, 44

Brantôme, Pierre de Bourdeille (sieur de), 18 , 127 , 467

Bribart, François, 212

Briçonnet, Guillaume, 44 ;

correspondence with Marguerite d'Angoulême, 192 ;

François's protection of, 44 , 191 ;

humanism of, 95 ;

reforms of, 172 , 189 , 193

Briçonnet, Jean, 44

Briçonnet, Pierre, 44 , 96

Briçonnet family:

humanist education of, 96 ;

immigration to Paris, 44 ;

marriage connections of, 17 ;

royal patronage of, 8

Brigandage, 145

Brigard, Jean, 389

Brissac (governor of Paris), 422 , 429 ;

in Day of Barricades, 358 , 359 ;

Sixteen's appeal to, 430

Brissard, Jacques (II), 446 -47

Brisson, Barnabé:

arrest of, 389 ;

assassination of, 137 , 188 , 320 , 332 , 390 -91, 438 , 481 ;

avoidance of arrest, 375 ;

in Day of the Barricades, 361 ;

and Pasquier, 365 ;

as président of Parlement of the League, 376 , 388 ;

relations with Sixteen, 391 ;

in Trent decree debate, 346

Brittany, Parlement of, 16

Broadsides, printed, 101 ;

pornographic, 104

Brulart, Canon, 259 , 269

Brulart, Noël, 137 ;

anti-heresy activities of, 210 -11;

in Chambre Ardente, 218 ;

on commission to Catherine de Médicis, 269 ;

dismissal by Henri III, 367 ;

as procureur général , 230

Brulart, Pierre, 203

Brulart family, 45

Bryant, Lawrence, 75 -76

Budé, Guillaume, 56 , 195 ;

in Berquin case, 203 ;

Christian humanism of, 191 ;

diplomatic missions of, 49 ;

Institution du Prince , 110 ;

on Parlement, 87 ;

representation in book collections, 99 , 100 ;

studies of antiquity, 106 ;

Valois sponsorship of, 190

Burdelot, Jean, 255

Burdelot family, 44

Bureau de Ville:

age of marriage in, 54 ;

André Guillart in, 17 ;

careers within, 57 ;

de Thou on, 24 -25;

Du Drac family in, 21 ;

family alliances in, 55 ;

in First Civil War, 283 ;

merchants in, 46 ;

militia of, 278 , 313 , 420 -21;

moderates in, 391 ;

overlap with Parlement, 8 n;

parlementaires among, 42 ;

takeover by ligueurs , 363 , 389 ;

in Tumult of St-Médard, 259 ;

work with poor, 132 -33

Bureau Général des Pauvres, 132

Burguière, André, 121 n

Burgundians, 136 ;

in Parlement of Paris, 42

Burgundy:

heresy cases in, 217 ;

House of, 7 ;

under Pacification of Amboise, 286 -87;

robins of, 461 ;

surrender to Charles V, 199

Bussy-le-Clerc (Jean Leclerc), 40 , 340 ;

arrest of Brisson, 389 ;

arrest of parlementaires, 375 -76, 462 ;

banishment of, 392 ;

in Day of the Barricades, 359 -60;

recruitment of Nicolas Poulain, 356 ;

takeover of Bastille, 363

C

Cajetan, Cardinal, 387

Calvin, John, 182 ;

and Antoine de Bourbon, 249 ;

burning of works, 211 ;

and conversion of nobility, 239 ;

at Geneva, 204 ;

and Guillaume Farel, 173 , 193 ;

Institutes of the Christian Religion , 172 , 210 ;

legal education of, 473 ;

on Nicodemites, 166 -67;

on reformed churches, 214

Calvinism, 25 , 108 , 109 ;

effect of Edict of July on, 256 ;

growth in France, 228 ;

under Henri II, 214 ;

regional, 261 ;

in Scotland, 227

Capet, Hugh, 406 n

Cappel, Jacques, 72 , 480 ;

defense of Parlement, 74 -75

Carolingian family, 162

Castelli, Giambattista (bishop of Rimini), 346 , 347 , 349

Castres, Protestant assemblies in, 262

Catherine de Médicis:

advisers of, 242 , 243 , 250 ;

aid to André Guillart, 313 ;

aid to duc de Nevers, 341 ;

ban on preaching, 308 ;

convocation of assembly at St-Germain, 262 -63;

convocation of pourparler de Paris , 255 -56;

court of, 126 -27;

in Day of the Barricades, 359 , 362 n;

death of, 278 ;

and Diane de Poitiers, 238 ;

and


513

duc de Guise, 363 ;

ecclesiastical reform proposals of, 299 -30;

edict of April 19 (1561), 251 -54;

factions in court of, 84 , 186 , 250 , 275 ;

and Fontainebleau council, 242 , 307 ;

marriage to Henri II, 205 ;

negotiations with Condè, 271 , 277 -78, 283 ;

opposition to Guise faction, 242 ;

and Pacification of Amboise, 286 ;

parlementaire commission to, 267 -68, 269 ;

patronage of André Guillart, 18 ;

patronage of Du Vair family, 37 ;

patronage of L'Hôpital, 240 ;

patronage of Louis Le Caron, 32 ;

patronage of Paul de Foix, 245 ;

patronage of René Baillet, 16 ;

on Protestant right of assembly, 258 -59;

Protestants serving, 232 ;

and publication of Edict of January, 267 ;

regency of, 176 , 223 , 243 -44;

relations with Parlement, 176 , 223 , 244 , 277 , 289 ;

relations with Philip II, 302 -3;

religious toleration policy of, 23 , 175 , 240 , 249 -58, 275 -76, 287 , 300 , 309 , 326 ;

service of Italians to, 43 -44, 322 ;

tour de France , 307 -8

Catholic Church:

challenges to tradition of, 172 -75;

influence on French culture, 162 -64;

primitive, 165 , 170 , 230 , 247 ;

role in French nationalism, 162 ;

role of lawyers in, 474

Catholic Church, Gallican:

administrative autonomy of, 67 , 88 ;

challenges to tradition of, 172 -75;

effect of Council of Trent on, 183 , 184 , 222 , 228 , 299 , 300 -301, 304 , 369 ;

response to Counter-Reformation, 346 -52;

threat of League to, 175 . See also Gallicanism

Catholicity, law of, 62

Celibacy, 124 ;

Lutheran attacks on, 189 ;

royal dispensation from, 81

Ceremonies, of ancien regime, 52 ;

paraphernalia of, 72 ;

processions, 75 -76

Châlons: merchants of, 130 .

See also Parlement of Châlons

Chambon, Eustache, 252 , 265 , 267 n;

in negotiations with Condé, 280

Chambon, Jacquelot, 265

Chambre Ardente, 214 -19;

constitutionality of, 183 , 211 ;

establishment of, 19 , 49 , 182 , 214 -15;

Lizet's role in, 194 , 479 ;

members of, 211 , 218 ;

parlementaire opposition to, 221 -22;

reaction to, 219 -22;

termination of, 177 , 222 , 225 ;

torture in, 216 , 217

Chambre de Justice (Guyenne), 30

Chambre des Comptes, 241 , 345 ;

marriage ties in, 120 ;

Pasquier in, 27 ;

reinstatement by Henri IV, 435 ;

support of Henri IV, 400

Chambre des Luthériens, 221

Chambre des Monnaies, 28

Chambre des Requêtes, François I's additions to, 41

Chambres des Enquêtes:

clerics in, 81 ;

creation of, 10 ;

François I's additions to, 41 ;

protest to Henri III, 209 ;

in succession debates, 407 -9

Chambres mi-parties , 118 , 260 n, 324 ;

Jacques II Cappel in, 480

Champagne, parlementaires from, 42

Chantonnay, Perrenot de, 254 , 255 n;

on Jeanne d'Albret, 256 ;

recall to Spain, 302 -3;

on religious unrest, 270

Charity, prohibitions against, 133

Charlemagne, 162 , 306

Charles, cardinal de Bourbon, 231 -32, 270 ;

in assembly of St-Germain, 263 ;

declaration as king, 386 ;

and Henri IV, 395 -96;

and Pacification of Amboise, 285 ;

support of Henri III's edicts, 345

Charles, cardinal de Lorraine, 227 ;

at Council of Trent, 299 ;

and Diane de Poitiers, 220 ;

on heresy, 213 ;

leadership of Guise faction, 231 ;

patronage of Christophe de Thou, 23 ;

patronage of L'Hôpital, 301 ;

pressure on Parlement, 230 ;

role in Edict of July, 292 , 293 ;

in Satyre Ménippée , 428 ;

on Trent decrees, 301

Charles V (Holy Roman emperor):

abdication of, 226 ;

capture of Burgundy, 199 ;

capture of Pope Clement, 201 ;

and François I, 10 , 17 , 92 , 182 , 205 ;

war with Henri II, 223

Charles VI (king of France), 75

Charles VII (king of France), expansion of royal domain, 43

Charles VIII (king of France):

entry into Paris, 76 ;

Parlement under, 8

Charles IX (king of France):

conflict with Henri III, 321 ;

conflict with Parlement, 318 -20;

coronation of, 255 ;

and Council of Trent, 301 ;

and Edict of January, 266 ;

edicts of pacification, 32 ;

entry into Paris, 76 ;

fiscal edicts of, 342 n;

majority struggle of, 23 n, 87 , 243 n, 294 n, 295 -98, 300 , 311 ;

and Massacre of St. Bartrolo-


514

Charles IX (continued )

mew, 317 , 320 ;

minority of, 84 -85, 243 , 249 ;

tutors of, 251 , 259 ;

visit to Parlement, 294 -95

Charles de Bourbon (constable of France):

in Sack of Rome, 201 ;

Thibault Baillet's opposition to, 77

Charlet, Étienne, 255 , 290

Charron, Pierre, 111

Chartier, Matthieu, 38 , 137 , 392 ;

as "unreliable," 290

Chartres, Henri IV's siege of, 389

Chasseneuz, Barthélemy, 64 , 99

Châtelet, procureurs of, 342 -43

Châtillon, Odet Coligny (cardinal de). See Coligny, Odet (cardinal de Châtillon)

Châtillon faction, 18 , 231 , 274

Chevalier, Nicolas, 218

Cheverny, Philippe Hurault de, 56 , 344 ;

dismissal of, 367 ;

on Henri III, 372

Children, parlementaire attitudes toward, 122

Choppin, René, 33

Chrétien, Florent, 428 n

Church, French. See Catholic Church, Gallican

Church, William F., 60 , 61 , 64 ;

on monarchy, 66 ;

on role of law, 94

Cicero, Marcus Tullius:

admiration for, 110 , 111 , 471

Civil War, First, 184 , 314 ;

Bureau de Ville in, 283 ;

division of parlementaires during, 288 ;

in Midi, 283 ;

military events of, 282 ;

outbreak of, 226 ;

peace negotiations for, 284 .

See also Pacification of Amboise

———, Second: Condé in, 313

———, Third: Huguenot strength in, 315 , 320 ;

leadership of, 315 ;

Odet de Coligny in, 231 n, 315

———, Fourth, 321

———, Fifth, 323 ;

capture of towns in, 324

Civil Wars, politiques during, 328 .

See also Wars of Religion

Clark, Henry, 472

Class: effect on political alignment, 419 ;

importance in robin society, 129 ;

in Paris League, 340 ;

role in religious differences, 228 , 262

Classical literature:

book collections of, 99 -100;

in history of Gaillard, 113 ;

in L'Estoile's library, 103 n;

revival of, 95 , 473

Clemency, of parlementaires, 147 -48, 217

Clément, Jacques, 380

Clement VII (pope):

capture by Charles V, 200 ;

and marriage of Catherine de Médicis, 205

Clement VIII (pope):

and absolution of Henri IV, 414 -15, 441 -43, 451 ;

promulgation of Trent decrees, 451 , 454

Clerics: humanism of, 95 ;

lay jurisdiction over, 460 ;

libraries of, 99 ;

marriage of, 299 ;

in Mémoires-Journaux , 350 , 351 ;

in Parlement, 15 , 35 , 41 , 47 -48, 57 , 80 -81.

See also Curés, Parisian; Preachers

Clientage:

modification of, 274 ;

of parlementaires, 121 , 229 , 462 ;

stereotypes of, 23 n

Clutin, Henri de (sieur d'Oysel), 301

Clutin, Pierre, 197

Cocquelay, Lazare, 446 , 448 , 449 n

Coeur, Jacques, 44

Cognac, heresy in, 217 , 219

Coin collections, 102

Coligny, Gaspard de (Admiral), 232 ;

assassination of, 317 ;

conversion of, 250 ;

at Fontainebleau council, 242 ;

at pourparler de Paris , 256 ;

in Third Civil War, 315

Coligny, Odet (cardinal de Châtillon), 231 , 255 , 292 ;

conversion of, 250 -51;

death of, 316 ;

at Fontainebleau council, 242 ;

mission to England, 316 n;

in Third Civil War, 231 n, 315

College of Cardinals, liberal faction of, 182 , 183 , 205 , 210

Collèges , 96 , 97

Colloquy of Marburg (1529), 204

Colloquy of Poissy (1561), 257 , 276 , 293

Commolet, 404

Commynes, Philippe de, 43 , 113

Conciergerie (Paris):

detainment in, 148 ;

heretics in, 217 , 364 ;

registers of prisoners, 313

Concordat of Bologna (1516), 10 ;

benefices under, 178 ;

copies of, 99 ;

ecclesiastical office under, 47 ;

effect on Gallicanism, 89 ;

Guillart's role in, 14 ;

Louise de Savoie's opposition to, 72 ;

parlementaire opposition to, 12 , 20 n, 67 , 90 , 137 , 164 , 176 , 177 -80, 195 , 319 , 476 -77;

and Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges, 178 ;

registration of, 177 , 178 , 179 , 477 ;

Seyssel's role in, 15

Condé, Éléonore Roye (princess de), 284

Condé, Henri de. See Henri de Condé


515

Condé, Louis (prince de), 255 ;

in Conseil Privé, 250 ;

and Conspiracy of Amboise, 275 , 476 ;

and conversion of nobility, 239 ;

followers m Picardy, 274 ;

leadership of Protestants, 249 , 250 ;

negotiations with Triumvirate, 279 -80;

negotiations with Catherine de Médicis, 271 , 277 -78, 283 ;

Parisian supporters of, 270 ;

relations with Parlement, 276 , 278 -82, 284 ;

release of, 276 ;

in Second Civil War, 313 ;

seizure of Orleans, 271 ;

sentence of, 249 ;

trial of, 16 , 21 , 243 , 275 -76

Confession of Augsburg (1530), 204 , 371

Conseil du Roi:

on Council of Trent, 301 ;

and majority of Charles IX, 297 ;

in negotiations with Condé, 278 ;

Parlement's opposition to, 221 ;

role in Edict of July, 278

Conseillers:

backgrounds of, 42 ;

clerical duties of, 81 ;

in Edict of Nantes debate, 448 n;

Harlay on, 143 ;

increase in numbers, 155 ;

salaries of, 50

Conseillers de ville, clerics among, 57

Conseil Privé André Guillart on, 17 ;

in assembly of St-Germain, 263 ;

of Henri IV, 451 , 452 -53

Conspiracy of Amboise, 18 , 239 , 240 , 242 , 326 ;

Bourbon complicity in, 243 , 275 , 476

Constitutionalism, French, 59 -60;

components of, 61 , 67 ;

Diefendorf on, 321 ;

L'Hôpital's stance on, 311 -12;

Parlement's championship of, 60 -61, 74 , 79 , 257 , 275 , 296 , 298 , 318 -19, 406 ;

Pasquier on, 65 ;

pragmatic views on, 472 ;

praticien-parlementaire views on, 469 ;

resurgence under François I, 64 ;

threat of religious toleration to, 477 , 481

Contarini, Gasparo (cardinal), 206 , 210

Controversial literature, religious, 103 -4

Cop, Nicolas, 204

Coquille, Guy, 31 ;

L'Institution du droit français , 154

Coras, Jean de, 286

Corporatism, French, 67 , 77 -80;

in customary law, 79 ;

Parlement's role in, 80 ;

Pasquier's interest in, 79

Corruption:

in history of Gaillard, 114 ;

Loisel on, 136 -37;

in Mémoires-Journaux , 145 ;

in Parlement, 143 ;

and venality, 114

Cotton, Père, 102 n, 455

Council of Trent, 90 ;

on ecclesiastical jurisdiction, 298 -99, 305 ;

effect on Gallican liberties, 183 , 184 , 222 , 228 , 299 -301, 304 , 369 ;

final sessions (1562-63), 184 , 298 , 326 ;

Fontainebleau consultations on, 303 -7;

French delegation to, 291 , 299 -301;

national rivalries in, 222 ;

on reformation of princes, 298 , 300 ;

second session of, 183 ;

third session of, 299 .

See also Trent decrees

Counter-Reformation, 1 ;

challenge to parlementaire values, 174 -75;

condemnation of French bishops, 90 ;

effect on law and order, 145 ;

in France, 174 , 273 ;

Gallican response to, 346 -52, 478 ;

Guise-Lorraine support of, 352 ;

liberal phase of, 205 ;

Pasquier on, 115 .

See also Council of Trent; Trent decrees

Country life, 150 ;

L'Estoile on, 152 ;

romanticization of, 151

Couperie, Pierre, 149

Cour des Aides, Pierre (I) Séguier in, 20

Cour des Monnaies, 466 , 467 , 468

Cousinet (lawyer), book collection of, 99

Coutras, battle of, 351 , 352

La coutume. See Customary law

Crespin, Jean, 234 n

Crime:

parlementaire attitude toward, 144 -49;

remission by monarchy, 148

Crisis generation (of Parlement), 12 ;

Christophe de Thou's leadership of, 19 , 22 -23, 25 , 104 , 183 , 224 , 320 ;

divisions in, 226 -19;

leadership of, 19 ;

Loisel's role in, 30 ;

religious opinion in, 244 -48, 479 ;

struggle over jurisdictions, 84 -87

Croesus (Athenian), 354

Crouzet, Denis, 341 , 411

Crusades, 116 ;

French leadership of, 163

Cujas, Jacques, 27 , 30 , 31 , 96

Culture, French:

effect of Roman Catholicism on, 162 -64

Cummings, Mark, 34 -35, 36 , 82 n, 109 n;

on career patterns in Parlement, 81 , 439 , 462 , 469 , 472 ;

on parlementaire status, 155 n

Curés, Parisian, 422 ;

attacks on Brisson, 390 ;

attacks on Henri IV, 399 , 410 ;

attacks on Parlement, 349 -50, 409 ;

on Estates of the League, 404 ;

exaltation of papacy, 394 ;

J.-A. de Thou on, 354 -55;

Mayenne's leniency toward, 390 .

See also Clerics; Preachers

Customary law:

codification of, 48 ;

contrast


516

Customary law (continued )

with Roman law, 65 ;

de Thou's work on, 24 ;

importance to constitutionalism, 79 ;

Le Caron's work on, 32 ;

parlementaire interest in, 105 ;

property in, 52 -53;

redaction of, 24 , 48 , 66 , 80 ;

respect of monarchy for, 66 ;

special commissions on, 48 ;

synthesis with fundamental law, 481 .

See also Fundamental law

Customary law, Parisian:

corporatist principles of, 79 ;

preeminence of, 65 -66

D

Damours, Conseiller, 421 ;

and Henri IV's entry into Paris, 430 ;

and Henri IV's rehabilitation of Parlement, 436

Dandino (papal nuncio), 346

Davis, Natalie Zemon, 148

Day of the Barricades (1588), 25 , 187 , 341 ;

Guise preparations for, 356 -57;

Henri III in, 358 -59, 360 ;

L'Estoile on, 358 -60;

in Mémoires-Journaux , 187 n, 358 -60;

Parlement during, 361 -62;

Pasquier during, 28

De Caprariis, Vittorio, 93 , 287 ;

on Council of Trent, 302 , 304

De Crue de Stoutz, F., 325

De ecclesia emendanda (1538), 210

Denault, Gerald, 85

Descimon, Robert, 340 -41, 461 , 462 , 464 , 465

Des corps politiques (de Lavie), 80

Desjardins, Lieutenant Criminel, 259 , 260

Desportes, Philippe, 107

Dewald, Jonathan, 457 ;

on crime, 120 n, 144 , 145

Le Dialogue d'entre le Maheustre et le Manant , 390 n, 393 , 415 -16

"Dialogue des avocats du Parlement du Paris" (Loisel), 30 , 82 n, 93 , 116 , 119 , 135 -36, 463 ;

model parlementaires in, 137 -40

Diane de Poitiers, 220 , 280 ;

and François Olivier, 18 ;

loss of influence, 238 ;

protégés of, 21

Didier, Noël, 246

Diefendorf, Barbara, 46 ;

on autonomy of children, 56 ;

on benefices, 47 ;

on Catherine de Médicis, 319 ;

on conseillers, 42 ;

on constitutional process, 321 ;

on family, 120 n;

on Huguenots, 320 , 421 ;

on inheritance, 128 ;

on life-style, 150 ;

on marriage, 54 , 55 , 125 ;

on religious hatred, 289 n;

on widows, 120 n, 127

Dijon: elite of, 130 , 131 ;

liguers in, 393 .

See also Parlement of Dijon

Diplomatic missions, of parlementaires, 3 , 48 , 49

Discourse on Life and Death (Du Plessis-Mornay), 152

Disques, François, 200

Dissenters, religious. See Calvinism; Huguenots; Protestants; Religious dissenters

Dolet, Étienne, 155 ;

banning of works, 209 , 211 ;

execution of, 182 , 212

Dongois, Nicolas, 3

Dorigny, Nicolas, 48 , 198

Dorigny family, 43

Dormy, François, 267 n, 280

Doucet, Roger, 98 , 100

Dreux, battle of, 283 , 284 , 288 , 299

Droit de Gaillard, Pierre, La Vraye Methode qu'on doit tenir en la lecture de l'histoire , 112 -15

Drouot, Henri, 393 , 420 , 461 , 464 ;

on Parlement of Dijon, 481 n

Du Bellay, Eustache (bishop of Paris), 108

Du Bellay, Joachim, 108 ;

Deffense et Illustration de la langue françoise , 24 , 94

Du Bellay, Louis, 47

Du Bellay, René, 200

Du Belloy (Huguenot), 364

Dubois, Pierre, 161 , 476

Du Bourg, Anne:

arrest of, 237 ;

execution of, 237 , 238 , 239 , 258 , 479 ;

at mercuriale of June (1559), 236 ;

religious views of, 244 , 245 ;

trial of, 16 , 237

Du Chesne, Guillaume, 196

Du Drac, Adrien, 21 , 229 , 447 ;

book collection of, 99 ;

and profession of faith, 291 ;

remonstrance against Edict of Romorantin, 241

Du Drac family:

marriage alliances of, 13 , 17 ;

rise of, 21

Du Faur, Louis:

absenteeism of, 292 n;

arrest of, 237 ;

at mercuriale of June (1559), 236 ;

trial of, 246 , 247

Du Faur family, 29

Du Ferrier, Arnauld, 33 , 48 , 235 , 292 ;

attempted arrest of, 237 ;

at Council of Trent, 299 ;

diplomatic missions of, 49 , 250 , 291 ;

religious views of, 312

Du Four, Hiérosme, 448


517

Du Haillan, Bernard, 29 ;

on ethnic rivalry, 129 ;

Histoire de France , 93 ;

on royal domain, 68

Du Mesnil, Baptiste, 29 ;

Advertissement sur le faict du Concile de Trente , 304 -5;

and Edict of January, 269 ;

at Fontainebleau consultations, 303 ;

as model parlementaire, 138 ;

in negotiations with Condé, 280 ;

on royal commissions, 48 ;

in tumult of St-Médard, 260

Du Monceau, Guillaume de, 217

Du Monceau, Lancelot, 217

Du Moulin, Charles:

career of, 306 ;

legal scholarship of, 105 , 464 ;

on nationalism, 93 .

Works: Les Commentaires analytiques , 306 ;

Conseil sur le faict du Concile de Trente , 89 , 305 , 306 -7

Du Moulin, François, 190 -92

Du Perron, Jacques Davy, 442

Duprat, Antoine:

as abbot of St-Benoît, 90 , 92 ;

and Auvergnat faction, 43 , 45 ;

benefices of, 178 , 180 , 195 , 200 ;

and Concordat of Bologna, 178 ;

death of, 205 ;

enmity of parlementaires to, 164 , 178 , 180 , 195 -96;

paraphernalia of, 71 -72;

in Parisian diocesan council, 201 ;

parlementaire candidates of, 9

Dupuy brothers, scholarship of, 104 -5

Du Tiller, Jean, 73 , 93 ;

archival work of, 88 ;

and lit de justice (1563), 296 ;

in negotiations with Condé, 278 -79, 280 ;

Recueils des Roys de France , 88 ;

and registration of Pacification of Amboise, 285

Du Vair, Guillaume, 29 , 421 ;

on l'affaire Brisson , 408 ;

bourgeois values of, 426 ;

career of, 37 -38;

compromises with constitutionalism, 470 ;

defense of Salic law, 92 , 332 , 391 , 406 , 407 , 408 -9, 418 ;

on Estates General, 86 -87;

in Estates of the League, 402 ;

on fundamental law, 63 ;

and Henri IV's entry into Paris, 430 -31;

in Henri IV's rehabilitation of Parlement, 435 ;

influence on French rhetoric, 470 n;

interest in Stoicism, 108 , 109 , 110 , 111 ;

legal scholarship of, 105 ;

as liguisant , 345 , 353 -54, 362 ;

neo-Stoicism of, 470 , 471 ;

oration on Mary Stuart, 353 -54;

during Paris League rebellion, 332 , 333 ;

on parlementaire ideals, 134 ;

political philosophy of, 61 , 383 ;

as politique , 109 , 354 , 362 , 470 , 471 ;

proscription of, 38 ;

record of Harlay's discours , 344 -45;

refusal to leave Paris, 383 ;

on release of parlementaires from prison, 376 -77;

religious views of, 312 , 471 ;

support of Henri IV, 425 -26, 471 ;

withdrawal from public life, 345 , 383 .

Works: Anecdotes , 383 ;

La Constance , 383 ;

Discours du 5 août , 382 ;

Discours sur les barricades , 344 , 362 ;

L'Exhortation la Paix , 406 -7, 470 ;

Lettre d'un bourgeois de Paris , 470 ;

La Philosophie morale de Stoïques , 37 ;

Response d'un bourgeois de Paris , 425 -26;

La Sainte Philosophie , 37 ;

Suasion de l'arrêt pour la manutention de la loi salique , 391 , 408 ;

Supplication au roi , 376 -77, 382 -83

Du Val, Nicole, 218 ;

attempted arrest of, 237

Dwellings, Parisian, 149 -50;

inviolability of, 54 , 253

E

Early generation (of Parlement), 12 ;

reaction to heresy, 475 , 478

Edict of Amboise (1560), 240

Edict of April 19 (1561), 251 -54

Edict of Beaulieu. See Peace of Monsieur

Edict of Chateaubriand (1551), 222

Edict of Compiègne (1557), 231

Edict of Coucy (1535), 205

Edict of Fontainebleau (1540), 182 ;

heresy in, 207 , 208

Edict of January (1562), 109 , 276 , 450 ;

failure of, 270 ;

implementation of, 272 ;

L'Hôpital on, 310 ;

Paris's exemption from, 271 , 277 ;

parlementaire opposition to, 188 , 257 , 264 -69, 319 ;

provisions of, 263 -64;

publication of, 265 ;

registration of, 269 , 294 , 298 , 477 ;

terms of, 290

Edict of July (1561), 263 ;

effect on Calvinism, 256 ;

registration of, 257 ;

Suriano on, 291 -92

Edict of La Rochelle (1573), 314 ;

registration of, 321

Edict of Nantes (1598-99), 4 , 118 n, 261 n, 326 ;

de Thou on, 446 , 448 ;

fragility of, 450 , 478 ;

implementation of, 4 , 449 -50;

L'Estoile on, 446 , 447 -48, 449 n;

parlementaire opposition to, 382 n, 445 ;

Parlement's deliberation on, 444 -49;

Pasquier on, 449 ;

registration of, 91 , 188 , 445 , 451 , 477

Edict of Paris (1543), 182


518

Edict of St-Germain (1570), 314 , 315 ;

failure of, 317 ;

rights of Huguenots in, 316

Edict of Union (1588), 315 n;

registration of, 365

Edicts:

against Protestant assemblies, 258 ;

registration of, 68 , 69 , 71 , 224 , 231 , 252 , 298 , 435 , 477 -78

Edicts, fiscal: of Charles IX, 342 n;

of Henri II, 224 , 342 -45

Edicts of Longjumeau (1568), 314 , 315

Edicts of Pacification, 309 ;

in chambres mipartie, 261 n, 324 ;

disputes under, 118 ;

Du Mesnil on, 304 -5;

formulation of, 21 , 49 ;

Harlay on, 457 ;

registration of, 297 ;

terms of, 314 .

See also Peace of Monsieur (1576)

Edicts of Romorantin, 241 , 310 ;

modification of, 250

Edicts of Toleration, 326 , 478 ;

of 1577, 30 ;

and formation of Paris League, 334 ;

liguer preachers on, 443 ;

parlementaire opposition to, 260 , 347 -

See also Edict of Nantes (1598-99)

Education:

humanistic, 96 -97;

legal, 98 , 473

Elisabeth de Hauteville, 255

Élisabeth de Valois (consort of Philip II), 308 , 405 ;

marriage of, 238 n, 303 , 307

Elites:

in conversion crisis, 410 -11;

mobility of, 130 -31

Elites, robin , 52 , 56 , 480 ;

attitude toward religious dissent, 381 ;

de Thou's leadership of, 22 ;

gap between robins and, 82 ;

libraries of, 176 ;

life-style of, 152 -53;

marriage strategies of, 55 , 57 -58;

mobility of, 130 ;

in Parlement, 10 -11, 41 ;

patronage of, 58 ;

urban character of, 150 .

See also Parlementaires

Elizabeth I (queen of England), 102 ;

conflict with Mary Stuart, 352 ;

religious policy of, 228 , 250 , 395

Emilio, Paulo, 96

England:

Reformation in, 204 ;

religious dissent in, 175 ;

sorcery cases in, 147

Épernon, Nogarette de la Valette (duc d'), 354 -55, 361

Ephemera, printed, 101 , 102 , 141 , 142

Épices (fees), abolition of, 224

Épinac, Pierre (cardinal-archbishop of Lyon), 369 -70;

in Satyre Ménippée , 427

Equality, and class, 129

Erasmus, Desiderius:

in Berquin case, 202 ;

in book collections, 100 ;

parlementaire opinion on, 195 ;

"philosophy of Christ," 312 ;

Valois sponsorship of, 190 ;

on war, 157

Espagnolisés , 402

Espiner-Scott, Janet, 29

Essai sur l'idée du parfait magistrat , 134 -35

Estates General, 130 , 242 , 345 ;

of 1560, 257 ;

of 1577, 324 ;

of Blois (1588-89), 353 n, 366 , 368 -69, 373 , 374 ;

control of royal finances, 362 ;

in crisis of 1588, 86 ;

decline of, 87 ;

failure of 1614, 87 n;

L'Hôpital in, 84 -85, 311 ;

on minority of Charles IX, 249 ;

origins of, 86 ;

during Paris League, 340 ;

purpose of, 85 ;

relationship with Parlement, 85 -87;

resistance to religious toleration, 325 n;

in Satyre Ménippée , 429 ;

and Trent decrees, 369

Estates General of the League (1593), 392 , 398 , 400 , 477 ;

dissolution of, 413 ;

Henri IV's conference with, 403 -5;

L'Estoile on, 401 , 404 ;

Mayenne's convocation of, 402 ;

and Parlement, 402 -14;

succession debate in, 407

Este, Hippolyte d' (cardinal of Ferrara), 265

Estienne, Henri d', 144

Estrées, Gabrielle d', 412

Ethnic rivalry, French, 115 , 130

Étienne, Charles, Maison rustique , 152

Eucharist: Council of Trent on, 299 ;

Du Bourg on, 245 ;

L'Estoile on, 168 ;

Lutheran doctrine of, 204 , 246 ;

parlementaire ruling on, 200 ;

sacramentarian doctrine of, 193 , 201 ;

Sorbonne doctrines on, 209 , 247

Europe:

religious factions in, 227 -28;

role of lawyers in, 473 -75;

support for Huguenot party in, 185

Évangélisme , :192

Evocations, royal. of Grand Conseil, 72 , 84 , 180 , 194 ;

Lizet's denunciation of, 180 ;

parlementaire protest of, 77 , 84 , 197 , 198

Exceptionalism, French, 61 n

Exile:

of Clement Marot, 193 ;

of Guillaume Farel, 193 ;

of heretics, 251 ;

of Michel Gailliard, 255 ;

of parlementaires, 37 , 421 , 438 , 481 ;

of politiques , 421 ;

of Protestant ministers, 266 , 268 ,

of reformers, 193 , 205 ;

return from, 200 , 203 , 253 -54

Expilly, Claude, 129 ;

on clemency, 148


519

Exsurge domine (Bull, 1520), 192

"Extraits des Registres Criminels du Parlement of Paris" (manuscript), 3

F

Fabius Maximus, 437

Factions:

dependence among, 23 n;

in court of Catherine de Médicis, 84 , 186 , 250 , 275 . See also Guise-Lorraine faction

Families, robin , 82 ;

alliances among, 26 , 54 -55, 120 ;

autonomy within, 56 -57, 121 ;

and ideal magistrate, 465 -66;

importance of, 121 ;

inheritance of office, 224 ;

organization of, 121 -22;

parent-child relations in, 122 ;

stabilizing influence of, 58

Farel, Guillaume:

exile of, 193 ;

at Geneva, 204 ;

leadership of reformers, 173 , 201 ;

return to France, 200 , 203

Farge, James, 191 , 192

Fauchet, Claude:

career of, 28 ;

estate of, 153 ;

on Gallicanism, 456 n;

literary works of, 28 -29;

as parlementaire spokesman, 466

Fauchet, Nicole, 28

Faudoas, François (comte de Belin), 399 , 420 , 421

Faye, Bartholomé, 234 , 268 n;

career of, 25 -26;

and profession of faith, 291 ;

remonstrance to edict of April 19 (1561), 252 ;

in trial of Condé, 234 n, 275

Faye, Jacques, 26 ;

in Day of the Barricades, 359 ;

defense of Gallicanism, 348 -49, 458 , 460 ;

as model parlementaire, 138 ;

in Parlement of Tours, 31 ;

support of Henri III, 31 , 344 ;

on threat of Inquisition, 348 ;

in Trent decrees debate, 102 , 369 -70, 371

Félibien, Michel, 203

Ferrara, Hippolyte d'Este (cardinal of), 265

Fichart (procureur), 464

Field of Cloth of Gold, 49

Flanders, heresy in, 426

Fleurs des examples (devotional book), 119

Fleury, Étienne (II), 446

Florette, Jean, 218

Foix, Paul de, 22 , 33 ;

arrest of, 237 ;

in Cordelier dispute, 347 n;

diplomatic missions of, 49 ;

readmission to Parlement, 250 ;

religious beliefs of, 246 -48, 292 , 294 , 312 ;

suspicion of heresy, 25 ;

trial of, 244 -45

Fonsomme, Christophe de, 33 , 258

Fontainebleau council (1560), 242

Fontainebleau council (1564), 303 -7

Ford, Franklin, 128 ;

on ennobled robins , 50

Foundation-edifice metaphors, 62

France:

alliance with Scotland, 227 ;

autonomy of, 460 , 477 ;

as centralized state, 464 ;

corporatist character of, 67 , 77 -80;

cultural nationalism of, 67 , 115 -16, 117 -18;

divisions under First Civil War, 287 ;

ethnic rivalry in, 115 , 130 ;

Gaillard's history of, 114 -15;

importance of family in, 121 ;

influence of antiquity on, 106 ;

litigation in, 145 ;

as most Christian kingdom, 161 , 411 -12;

national consciousness of, 24 ;

nationalism in, 91 -94;

power structure of, 274 ;

precedence over Spain, 305 ;

religious nationalism of, 162 ;

role of law in, 59 ;

social institutions of, 53 .

See also Constitutionalism, French; Nationalism, French

François, cardinal de Guise. See Guise, François de (cardinal)

François, duc d'Alençon, 12 , 78 , 102 ;

death of, 31 , 186 , 187 , 325 , 333 , 477 ;

as heir apparent, 323 ;

patronage of parlementaires, 29 , 37 ;

support of Huguenots, 323 -24

François, duc de Guise, 377

François I (king of France):

additions to Parlement, 41 ;

and affaire des placards , 181 ;

avenues of advancement under, 46 -47;

in Berquin case, 181 , 191 , 194 , 199 -200, 202 ;

capture at Pavia, 92 , 179 , 196 ;

and Charles V, 10 , 17 , 92 , 182 , 205 ;

and Concordat of Bologna, 177 -80;

constitutionalism under, 64 ;

creation of Chambre des Enquêtes, 10 ;

creation of judicial offices, 10 ;

creation of Rouen Chambre, 211 ;

death of, 212 ;

election as Holy Roman Emperor, 14 ;

foreign policy of, 205 ;

imprisonment of, 72 , 157 , 174 ;

Parlement under, 9 -10, 41 , 80 -82, 89 , 176 , 196 , 200 -201, 205 ;

patronage of parlementaires, 13 , 17 ;

public welfare policies of, 132 ;

release from imprisonment, 200 ;

religious policy of, 16 , 191 -92, 196 , 204 -5, 212 , 290 ;

suppression of dissent, 181 , 182 ;

suspension of parlementaires, 200 ;

use of Grand Conseil, 84 , 194 ;

use of lit de justice , 69 , 70 -71, 72 ;

use of venality, 9 , 47 , 82

François II (king of France): and Conspir-


520

François II (continued )

acy of Amboise, 243 ;

death of, 243 ;

marriage to Mary Stuart, 238

François, sieur de Fresnes (siegneur d'O), 359 , 434 , 436

François de Sales (Saint), 480

Franco-Spanish war (1557-59), 223 , 226 ;

end of, 273 ;

French defeats in, 232

Frankfurt book fair, 101 , 102 , 104

Franklin, Benjamin, 134

Franks:

conquest of Gaul, 162 ;

rivalry with Gauls, 115 , 130

Fraud, punishment for, 145

Frederick "the Wise," Elector of Saxony, 189

French language:

glorification of, 24 , 94 , 470 ;

parlementaire commitment to, 481 ;

teaching of, 97

French literature:

book collections of, 100 ;

classical, 472

French Reformed Church, 172 -75;

changes within, 228 ;

deputation to Catherine de Médicis, 255 ;

nationalism of, 174 ;

robins in, 219 ;

role in society, 173 ;

stages of development, 214

French Revolution, 473

Fronde, 77

La Fronde de la justice, 341 -46

Fumaroli, Marc, 469 , 470

Fumée, Adam (I), 48 ;

remonstrance to Louise de Savoie, 197

Fumée, Antoine, 234 ;

arrest of, 237 ;

on punishment of heresy, 235 ;

trial of, 246 ;

and tumult of St-Médard, 260

Fumée family, 44

Fundamental law, 61 ;

formulation of, 62 , 63 ;

under Henri IV, 477 ;

importance of, 65 n;

importance to parlementaires, 79 ;

of inalienability, 61 , 63 , 79 ;

Parlement's defense of, 68 -69, 403 ;

and succession of Infanta Isabella, 405 ;

synthesis with customary law, 481 ;

threat of League to, 175 .

See also Salic law

Funeral ceremonies, 75

Funeral orations, 102

G

Gabaston, Jean de, 260 , 282

Gabelle : administration of, 132 ;

exemption from, 52

Gaillard, Michel (seigneur de Longjumeau), 254 , 255

Gallican Church. See Catholic Church, Gallican

Gallicanism:

alliance with Huguenots, 185 ;

beliefs on absolution, 412 ;

and control of Church, 88 -91;

controversy of 1591, 393 -98;

Du Moulin's defense of, 306 -7;

effect of Concordat of Bologna on, 178 ;

as expression of nationalism, 91 ;

institutional, 457 ;

internationalism of, 457 -58, 459 ;

Jacques Faye's defense of, 348 -49, 458 , 460 ;

of Lizet, 16 ;

nationalistic elements of, 458 ;

and neo-Stoicism, 109 ;

parlementaire defense of, 1 , 20 , 60 , 67 , 80 , 88 , 174 , 195 , 302 , 459 -61;

Pasquier's defense of, 29 ;

of Pierre Pithou, 31 ;

pluralism of, 459 ;

of politiques , 471 ;

scholarship on, 456 -60;

Victor Martin on, 456 .

See also Catholic Church, Gallican

Gallicanism, episcopal, 88 ;

definition of, 20 n;

of parlementaires, 89 -91

Gallicanism, royal, 20 n, 88 , 89 ;

Jacques Faye and, 26

Gallican liberties, 88 -91, 164 , 300 -301, 305 ;

effect of Trent decrees on, 183 , 184 , 222 , 228 -301, 304 , 450 ;

under Henri IV, 477 ;

Powis on, 457

Ganay, Jeanne de, 13

Ganay family:

humanist education of, 96 ;

immigration to Paris, 43

Garrison-Estèbe, Janine, 261

Gastine brothers, 313

Gauls: monasteries of, 162 ;

rivalry with Franks, 115 , 130

Gayant, Louis:

in Chambre Ardente, 218 ;

and Edict of January, 266 , 267 n;

in negotiations with Condé, 279 , 280 ;

in trial of parlementaires, 237 ;

and tumult of St-Médard, 260

Geisendorf, Paul, 118 , 119 , 483

Gelosi (troupe of comedians), 322

Genealogy, French, 139

General Council of the Union, 377

Geneva, Reformed Church in, 204 , 227

Gens de robe :

access to high office, 461 ;

family alliances among, 26 ;

mentalité of, 4 ;

profession of faith for, 268 ;

prominent families of, 14 , 43 -45;

rapprochement with old nobility, 36 ;

supporters of Catherine de Médicis among, 278 ;

sympathy for reform, 262 . See also Robins

Gens du roi :

in Chambre Ardente, 218 ;

on Concordat of Bologna, 179 ;

on divisions


521

within Parlement, 234 ;

dwellings of, 149 n;

and Edict of January, 269 ;

and Edict of Nantes, 444 , 445 ;

at Fontainebleau consultations, 303 ;

of Henri II, 230 -31;

Loisel on, 137 ;

at Protestant services, 266 ;

and qualification for Parlement, 83 ;

in Tumult of St-Médard, 259

Gentil, René, 203

Gentillet, Innocent: Anti-Machiavel , 62 n

Georges, cardinal d'Amboise, 9 , 15

German states:

François's alliance with, 182 ;

Lutheranism of, 189 , 227 ;

religious dissent in, 175 ;

wars of religion in, 226

Gerson, Jean, 476

Gié, maréchal de, 46

Giesey, Ralph, 51 ;

on family, 121 ;

on funeral ceremonies, 75 ;

on propres , 53 ;

on Salic law, 63 n;

on venality, 82

Gillot, Jean, 428 n

Gondi, Pierre de (bishop of Paris), 244 , 342 ;

on Trent decrees, 442

Gondi family, 44

Gontaut, Charles de (sieur de Biron), 141 -42, 359

Gonzaga family, 44

Gonzague, Louis de (duc de Nevers). See Nevers, Louis de Gonzague (duc de)

Goubert, 130 -31

Gouberville, Gilles de, 128 , 155 ;

seigneurial life of, 150 -51

Goulas, Marie, 29

Grand' Chambre, 19 , 20 ;

under Henri II, 209 ;

life members of, 35 ;

lits de justice in, 19 , 20 ;

renovation of, 70 ;

royal attendance at, 71 ;

treatment of heresy in, 211 , 294 ;

ultra-Catholics in, 234

Grand Conseil, 70 ;

execution of Pacification of Amboise, 285 ;

Lizet's speech at, 180 ;

Louise de Savoie's evocation of, 72 , 84 , 198 ;

origin of, 86

Le Grand Moisonneur (almanac), 142

Les grands. See Nobility

Grands jours (circuit courts): Antoine Loisel on, 29 -30;

parlementaires on, 48 ;

Pasquier on, 27 ;

at Poitiers, 16 , 127

Grassaille, 64 , 312

Grassin, Pierre, 218

Le gratin. See Elites, robin

Greed, L'Estoile on, 131 , 132 , 143

Greek language, teaching of, 97

Greffiers , 151 ;

under Henri IV, 438

Gregory XIII (pope), and enforcement of Trent decrees, 346

Gregory XIV (pope), excommunication of supporters of Henri IV, 394 -97, 414 , 426

Gregory, Saint, 171

Grieu, Gaston de, 267 n

Groslot, Jean, 230

Grotius, Hugo, 111

Group de Meaux :

execution of members, 182 , 212 ;

interrogation by Parlement, 198

Guarinus (preacher), 427

Guérin, lawyer, 213

Guillart, André (sieur du Mortier), 14 , 284 ;

arrest of, 313 -14;

career of, 17 -18;

dispatches of, 136 ;

on nobility, 130 , 467 ;

as spokesman of Parlement, 16 ;

on use of force, 156 , 431

Guillart, Charles, 12 , 177 , 292 ;

in Berquin case, 199 , 200 -201, 202 ;

on constitutional process, 180 , 406 ;

at lit de justice (1527), 70 -71, 84 ;

as mainstream spokesman, 14 , 74 , 195 ;

opposition to venality, 77 ;

remonstrance to Louise de Savoie, 197

Guillart, Louis, 292

Guillart family, 14 ;

immigration to Paris, 44

Guise, François de (cardinal):

assassination of, 79 , 174 , 187 , 300 , 371 , 372 -74, 377 ;

L'Hôpital's eulogy of, 240

Guise, Henri (duc de):

and Achille de Hat-lay, 363 ;

assassination of, 79 , 174 , 187 , 283 , 284 , 371 , 372 -74, 377 ;

in battle of Auneau, 351 , 354 ;

in Day of the Barricades, 358 -59, 361 ;

funeral services for, 283 n;

leadership of Paris League, 338 ;

massacre of Huguenots, 270 ;

Parisian supporters of, 270 , 276 ;

Pasquier on, 372 -73;

at pourparler de Paris , 256 ;

preparation for Day of Barricades, 356 , 357 ;

replacement of royal officers, 363 , 364 ;

seizure of Châlons, 336 ;

on Trent decrees, 369 -70;

in Triumvirate, 251 , 277 ;

visit to Paris (1585), 342

Guise, princesses of, 432

Guise-Lorraine faction, 12 , 469 ;

alliance with Diane de Poitiers, 220 ;

alliance with papacy, 227 ;

alliance with Spain, 185 , 227 , 367 ;

benefices of, 280 ;

cardinal de Lorraine's leadership of, 231 , 334 ;


522

Guise-Lorraine faction (continued )

Catherine de Médicis's opposition to, 242 ;

and Conspiracy of Amboise, 239 ;

control of government, 274 ;

control over Parlement, 221 ;

and duc d'Alençon, 324 ;

and Estates General, 85 ;

fall of, 276 ;

under François II, 238 ;

and François Olivier, 18 ;

goals of, 331 ;

grievances against Henri III, 336 ;

Huguenot opposition to, 239 -40;

independence of Sixteen from, 387 ;

leadership of Holy League, 174 , 187 , 334 ;

Lizet and, 220 ;

at mercuriale of June (1559), 236 ;

Parisian support of, 277 ;

during Paris League rebellion, 332 ;

parlementaire view of, 274 ;

patronage of Pasquier, 27 ;

policy of inquisition, 241 ;

propaganda of, 22 ;

protégés of, 17 , 18 ;

and recall of Henri IV, 335

H

Hacqueville, André de, 392

Hacqueville family, 17

Hale, J. R., 157

Han, Jean de, 250 n, 259

Hanley, Sarah, 69 , 70 , 71 , 72 -73, 484 ;

on parlementaire unity, 298 ;

on seance of Charles IX, 295

Harding, Robert R., 274

Harlay, Achille de, 22 , 26 ;

arrest by League, 375 ;

compromises with constitutionalism, 470 ;

on corruption, 143 ;

defense of Gallicanism, 459 ;

discours to Henri III, 343 -44;

and duc de Guise, 363 , 364 ;

in Edict of Nantes debate, 447 ;

and edicts of pacification, 456 , 457 ;

in First Civil War, 284 ;

on fundamental law, 63 ;

and Guise assassinations, 374 ;

on Henri IV's coronation, 427 ;

in Henri IV's rehabilitation of Parlement, 436 , 437 ;

imprisonment of, 40 , 371 ;

leadership of later generations of Parlement, 332 ;

liberalism of, 248 ,

on nobility, 130 ;

on parlementaire ideals, 134 , 468 ;

and registration of Trent decrees, 452 ;

release from prison, 376 ;

on role of monarch, 343 -44;

as spokesman of mainstream, 39 -40, 188 , 234 , 343 ;

support of Henri IV, 77 , 362 -63, 381

Harlay, Christophe de, 16 , 188 ,

accusations of heresy against, 272 , 281 ;

career of, 21 -22;

and Edict of January., 265 , 267 ;

at Fontainebleau consultations, 303 , 305 ;

at mercuriale of June (1559), 237 ;

in negotiations with Condé, 280 ;

and profession of faith, 291

Harlay, Louis de, 202

Harlay family, 22 , 42 ;

inheritance of office, 224

Haton, Claude, 118

Hayden, Michael, 419

Hennequin, Nicolas, 200

Hennequin, Pierre, 268 n, 338

Hennequin dynasty, 9 , 43

Henri II (king of France):

additions to Parlement, 41 ;

advisers of, 213 ;

alliance with Paul IV, 227 ;

arrest of parlementaires, 237 -38;

attendance at Parlement, 74 ;

character of, 213 ;

and Council of Trent, 90 ;

court factions of, 231 -32;

death of, 226 , 238 , 274 ;

entry into Paris, 215 ;

fiscal edicts of, 224 , 342 -45;

handling of heresy cases, 19 , 225 , 230 -31;

Inquisition plans of, 19 , 20 , 184 , 229 -32;

on lits de justice , 73 ;

marriage to Catherine de Médicls, 205 ;

at mercuriale of June (1559), 235 -37;

opposition to Council of Trent, 222 ;

patronage of François Olivier, 18 ;

quarrel with pope Julius, 183 , 222 ;

relations with Parlement, 176 , 182 , 209 , 223 -25, 229 -34

Henri III (king of France):

acceptance of Trent decrees, 346 ,

advice of Catherine de Médicis to, 362 n;

advisers of, 367 , 368 ;

assassination of, 332 , 372 , 380 -81, 413 , 458 , 477 ;

in battle of Auneau, 351 ;

challenge of League to, 185 ;

character of, 322 , 372 ;

and Christophe de Thou, 25 , 337 ;

concessions to Holy League, 78 ;

concessions to Huguenots, 341 ;

condemnation of magistrates, 438 ;

Confession of, 367 n;

confessor of, 347 ;

conflict with Charles IX, 321 ;

in Day of the Barricades, 358 -59, 360 ;

and duc d'Épernon, 354 ;

edicts of, 315 n, 342 ;

edicts of pacification, 32 , 456 ;

at Estates of Blois, 368 -69;

exile of, 332 , 363 ;

financial policy of, 131 -32;

fiscal excesses of, 334 , 336 ;

as head of Paris League, 337 ;

Jacques Faye's support of, 31 ;

League attacks on, 354 ;

L'Estoile on, 322 -23, 342 , 371 ;

marriage edict of, 54 ;

mignons of, 322 , 323 , 334 , 351 , 434 ;

and Paris League rebellion, 332 , 367 -69;

Parlement under, 320 , 342 ;

patronage of Pasquier, 27 , 28 ;

religious dissent under, 174 , 213 -14;

religious os-


523

tentation of, 244 , 323 n, 331 n, 334 , 348 , 354 ;

replacement of royal officers, 364 ;

sale of benefices, 224 ;

satires on, 323 ;

special commissions of, 48 ;

and succession of Henri IV, 378 -79;

support of ultra-Catholics, 19 , 347 ;

threat of ultra-Catholics to, 324 ;

unpopularity of, 342 -44;

venality of, 223 , 224 , 343 ;

war with Charles V, 223 , 225

Henri IV (king of France):

accommodation with duc de Mayenne, 393 , 407 ;

accommodation with papacy, 441 -43, 450 , 477 ;

advisers of, 442 , 451 ;

alliance with Parlement, 188 ;

ambassadors of, 49 ;

amnesty of, 148 , 432 n, 433 , 434 ;

appeal to Parisians, 416 ;

ascension to throne, 12 , 29 , 90 -91;

assassination of, 147 , 456 ;

banishments by, 438 -39;

in battle of Coutras, 351 , 352 ;

Bill of Excommunication against, 349 ,

Calvinism of, 187 ;

and cardinal de Bourbon, 395 -96;

character of, 416 -17;

conference with Estates of the League, 403 -5;

confessors of, 455 ;

Conseil Privé of, 451 , 452 -53;

conversion ceremony of, 353 n, 412 -13;

conversion of, 63 , 88 , 109 , 164 , 188 , 332 , 370 , 382 , 398 , 409 -10, 458 , 477 ;

coronation of, 427 ;

custody of, 264 ;

declaration of faith, 394 -95;

Du Vair's support of, 425 -26;

under Edict of Union, 365 ;

embassy to Clement VIII, 414 -15;

embassy to Venice, 444 ;

excommunication of followers, 394 -97, 414 , 426 ;

as heir apparent, 176 , 325 , 333 -34, 349 ;

and implementation of Trent decrees, 442 , 444 , 451 -56;

instruction in Catholicism, 353 n, 400 -401, 412 ;

marriage of, 185 , 320 , 450 -41;

military victories of, 385 , 416 -17, 424 ;

myth of, 417 -18;

negotiations with Spain, 443 ;

neo-Stoicism of, 112 ;

oath of abjuration, 412 ;

oath of obedience to, 419 ;

papal absolution for, 407 , 410 , 414 -15, 441 -43, 451 , 458 , 469 ;

Pasquier on, 379 , 381 , 382 ;

patronage of parlementaires, 31 , 32 ;

policy toward Protestants, 395 ;

recall to court, 335 ;

reduction of Paris, 398 , 430 -33, 436 ;

rehabilitation of Parlement of Paris, 434 -40;

relations with Gregory XIV, 394 ;

and Semonneux , 399 ;

siege of Chartres, 389 ,

siege of Paris, 386 -87, 398 -99;

succession debate over, 370 -71, 406 -10;

succession of, 378 -81, 458 -59;

support of Henri III, 378 -79;

support of politique-parlementaires for, 381 -82, 482 ;

treatment of ligueurs , 432 n, 438 , 443 ;

treaty with Pontoise, 380 ;

triumph over League, 4 , 188 ;

on value of nobility, 129 -30.

See also Mémoires-Journaux (L'Estoile), Henri IV in

Henry VI (king of England), 75 -76

Henri de Bourbon (king of Navarre), 325

Henri de Condé, 349 , 447 ;

conversion of, 442 ;

succession of, 446

Henri de Navarre. See Henri IV (king of France)

Heredity: effect on corruption, 53 ;

in parlementaire offices, 82 , 156

Heresy, 1 ;

arrêts against, 213 ;

attitude of parlementaires toward, 2 , 184 , 185 , 195 -200, 394 , 464 ;

banishment for, 216 , 217 ;

in Cognac, 217 ;

ecclesiastical definition of, 246 ;

edicts against, 207 , 208 , 211 , 219 ;

equation with sedition, 201 -5, 207 , 208 ;

Eucharist controversy in, 193 ;

in Flanders, 426 ,

Henri II's handling of, 19 , 225 , 230 -31;

in Languedoc, 162 , 204 , 206 ,

as lèse-majesté, 208 ;

"Lutheran," 172 , 173 ;

in Parlement, 287 -88;

parlementaire commissions on, 182 , 196 -98, 201 , 211 , 214 ;

parlementaire specialists in, 48 -49, 194 ;

Parlement's jurisdiction over, 207 -8, 225 , 235 , 241 , 248 , 252 -54;

Parlement's treatment of, 19 -20, 194 -96, 210 -11, 230 , 233 -34, 477 , 478 ;

persecution of, 211 -12, 238 -39, 241 ;

punishment for, 216 -17, 219 , 235 -36, 253 -54;

recantation of, 216 ;

as reflection of social change, 475 ;

in Rouen, 208 , 211 ;

social controls on, 466 ;

and sorcery, 146 ;

trials of parlementaires for, 245 -46;

Valois policy toward, 19 , 181 , 182 , 196 , 205 , 207 -13;

Vaudois, 211 -12, 212 , 214 .

See also Blasphemy

Heretics:

among nobility, 217 ;

association with, 411 ;

banishment of, 216 , 217 ;

under Catherine de Médicis, 250 ;

exile of, 251

Les Hermaphrodites (Thomas), 141

Herodotus, 354

Histoire ecclésiastique , 234

History, parlementaire study of, 112 -19, 473

Holt, Mack, 481 n

Holy League. See League, Holy


524

Homicide, punishment of, 144

Hôpfl, Harro, 62

Hôtel de Ville:

city council of, 8 ;

in Day of the Barricades, 359 ;

divisions within, 320 ;

families in, 121 n;

rentes of, 10 , 189 ;

struggle for municipal government at, 386 ;

widows in, 127

Hotman, Antoine, 392

Hotman, Charles (sieur de Rocheblond), 338

Hotman, François:

on political theory, 60 .

Works. Anti-Tribonian , 106 -7;

Franco-Gallia , 110 , 187

Hotman, Pierre, 218

Hualt, Louis, 55

Huguenot (epithet), 252 , 253

Huguenot party:

association of Bourbons with, 274 ;

emergence of, 239 ;

noble families in, 217 , 218 ;

parlementaire view of, 274 ;

support in Europe, 185

Huguenots:

admiration of Cicero, 110 ;

associational rights of, 208 , 232 -33, 258 -59;

Catherine de Médicis' policy toward, 23 , 175 ;

Christophe de Harlay's defense of, 22 ;

concessions of Henri III to, 341 ;

constitutional views of, 61 ;

dress of, 232 n;

duc d'Alençon's support of, 323 -24;

on Edict of January, 263 ;

edicts of toleration for, 443 -44;

in Fifth Civil War, 323 ;

friendship with parlementaires, 2 ;

and fundamental law, 62 ;

legal discrimination against, 185 ;

in Mémoires-Journaux , 142 -43;

militancy of, 228 ;

military debts of, 342 n;

"monomachs," 187 n;

nationalism of, 287 ;

in the Netherlands, 317 ;

pacification of, 469 ;

under Pacification of Amboise, 285 ;

pamphleteers among, 59 , 186 -87, 238 ;

in Parlement, 243 , 445 ;

in Peace of Monsieur, 324 ;

and Pierre Lizet, 215 n;

places de sûreté for, 324 ;

prison sentences of, 313 -14;

punishment of, 216 -17, 313 -14;

resistance theory of, 65 n;

rights under Edict of Amboise, 287 ;

rights under Edict of St-Germain, 316 ;

in Third Civil War, 315 , 320 ;

triomphalisme of, 228 , 232 , 234 ;

violence against, 271 , 421 , 464 .

See also Heretics; Protestants; Religious dissenters

Humanism:

changes in, 97 n;

"Christian," 91 -92, 201 ;

influence of Tacitus on, 469 ;

of parlementaires, 95 -96;

"political," 111 ;

schools of, 96

Hundred Years War, 157 ;

monarchy following, 7 ;

parlementaires during, 136 ;

Pasquier on, 117 , 118

Huppert, George:

on class status, 112 ;

on L'Hôpital, 131 ;

on life-style, 120 n;

on parlementaire-historians, 116 , 473 ;

on Pasquier, 26 , 112 , 117 ;

on robins , 50 , 97 ;

on seigneurial life, 128 , 151

Hurault, Nicolas, 83

Hurault de L'Hôpital, Michel, 30

Hurault family, 9 , 45 ;

humanist education of, 96

I

Icons, vandalism of, 181 , 202 , 475

Immigrants to Paris, 43 ;

career patterns of, 42

Inalienability. See Royal domain, inalienability of

Index librorum prohibitorum:

of Rome, 183 , 210 ;

of Sorbonne, 182 , 189 , 194

Indulgences, sale of, 172

Infanticide, 144 -45

Inheritance:

in customary law, 52 -53;

importance to parlementaires, 128

Inquisition:

Henri II's proposal for, 19 , 20 , 184 , 229 -32;

Jacques Faye on, 348 ;

parlementaire opposition to, 231 -32;

Roman, 184 , 210

Intellectual history, role of lawyers in, 473

Isabella (Infanta of Spain), 405 -6, 407

Italians, in service of Catherine de Médicis, 43 -44, 322

Ivry, Battle of, 385

J

Jacquelot, Jean, 241

Jansenism, 35 , 470 ;

robin followers of, 480

Jeanne d'Albret (consort of Antoine de Bourbon), 90 , 249 , 258 , 264 ;

death of, 316 ;

Pius IV's summons to, 301 ;

royal progress of, 256 -57;

in Third Civil War, 315

Jesuits. See Society of Jesus

Jodelle, Étienne, 107

Jolippon, Louis, 217

Jouanna, Arlette:

on André Guillart, 17 , 18 , 156 ;

on class, 129 ;

on ethnic rivalry, 130

Journal de 1562 , 268 , 270 , 282 ;

on investigation of heresy, 288

Journal d'un bourgeois , 202 , 203 ;

on treatment of Protestants, 205


525

"La Journée de St-Séverin," 350 , 357

Joyeuse (mignon ), 351 , 354

Judges, caricature of, 155

Julius III (pope), 90 ;

quarrel with Henri II, 183 , 222

Jurgens, Madeleine, 149

Jusqu'au-boutistes , 424 , 431 , 434 ;

on absolution of Henri IV, 415 ;

under Henri IV, 439 ;

reabsorption into establishment, 41 ;

robins among, 340

Justice:

as check on monarchy, 64 ;

haute and basse , 154 -55, 156 ;

in history of Gaillard, 115 ;

sixteenth-century concept of, 129

K

Kaiser, Colin:

on Cour des Monnaies, 464 ;

on parlementaire ideals, 464 , 467 -68;

on qualification of parlementaires, 466 -67

Kelley, Donald R., 112 ;

on Budé, 106 ;

on Du Moulin, 306 , 307 ;

on Gaillard, 113 ;

on Gallicanism, 456 ;

on juridical nationalism, 93 ;

on Pierre Pithou, 31 ;

on "scholarly Pléiade," 26 , 29 , 79

Keohane, Nannerl, 471

Kerquefinen, Claude de, 33

Knecht, R. J., 72

Knox, John, 227

L

La Barde, Jacques de:

on blasphemy commission, 198 ;

remonstrance to Louise de Savoie, 197

La Barde, Jean de, 48

Labitte, Charles, 326

La Brosse family, 218

La Bruyère (Lieutenant Civil), 407

La Chapelle-Marteau (prévôt des marchands), 371

Lâcheté , 156

La Croix du Maine, François Grudé, 24 , 473

La Guesle, Jacques de, 346 ;

in Edict of Nantes debate, 446 , 447 ;

Gallicanism of, 458 ;

in Henri IV's rehabilitation of Parlement, 437 , 438 ;

as praticien , 469 ;

and registration of Trent decrees, 452 ;

Remonstrances , 129 ;

support of Henri III, 378 ;

support of Henri IV, 381 ;

in Trent decrees debate, 369

Land, acquisition by robins , 50

Landes, Georges des, 447 , 448 n

Landriano (papal nuncio), 396 -97

Langlois, Martin, 415 , 433 ;

in Henri IV's rehabilitation of Parlement, 435

Languedoc, heresy in, 162 , 204 , 206

La Plance, Regnier de, 221

La Popelinière, 117

La Porte, Eustache de:

arrest of, 237 ;

trial of, 246 , 294

Larcher, Claude, 390 n

La Rivière (Protestant minister), 270

La Roche-Flavin, Bernard de: apology for Parlement, 61 ;

on discipline of magistrates, 465 -66, 467 ;

on legal education, 98 ;

on Pax Roman,, 107 ;

popularity of writings, 153 ;

on religious attitudes, 165 , 167 ;

Treize Livres des Parlements de France , 40 , 134 -35, 464

La Roche-sur-Yon, prince of, 258 , 259 , 268

La Rue (member of Sixteen), 361

Later generations (of Parlement), 12 ;

career patters of, 439 ;

and defeat of League, 332 ;

defense of Gallicanism, 415 , 481 -82;

ideal magistrate of, 469 ;

leadership of, 331 -32;

pragmatism of, 472 , 481

Latin church fathers, book collections of, 100

Latin language:

parlementaire knowledge of, 96 ;

teaching of, 97 , 98

La Vacquerie, Perre de, 136

La Vallée, Jacques de, 468

Lavie, 80

Law:

relationship of Parlement to, 67 ;

role in French society, 59 .

See also Customary law; Fundamental law; Roman law

Law and order:

parlementaire attitude toward, 144 -49;

robin attitude toward, 134

Lawyers:

avarice of, 156 ;

medieval view of, 154 ;

numerical increase of, 155 ;

religious beliefs of, 474 n;

role in European culture, 473 -75.

See also Gens de robe; Robins

Lay jurisdiction:

over clergy, 460 ;

violation of, 20

Laymen: in Parlement, 41 , 80 -81, 466 ;

possession of benefices, 47

League, Holy:

Arnaud on, 36 ;

Christophe de Thou and, 23 ;

compromise with parlementaires, 37 ;

formation of, 324 , 334 ;

goals of, 174 ;

Henri III's concessions to, 78 ;

leadership of, 174 ;

legality of, 176 ;

L'Estoile on, 38 , 39 , 171 ;

pamphlets of, 100 , 326 ;

support of parlementaires for, 52 n;

ultramontanism of, 174


526

League, Paris, 63 , 187 , 188 ;

attack on Parlement, 374 -76, 388 ;

class struggle in, 340 ;

control of city, 380 ;

during Day of the Barricades, 362 ;

defeat of, 332 , 392 , 403 , 410 , 414 , 418 ;

divisions within, 339 , 402 ;

domination of Estates of Blois, 369 ;

founders of, 338 -39;

goals of, 402 , 462 ;

Henri III and, 337 , 367 -69;

membership of, 338 -39, 393 ;

murder of parlementaires, 340 , 390 -91, 408 , 439 ;

negotiations with papacy, 366 ;

oath of Parlement to, 419 ;

origin of, 331 , 333 -41;

parlementaire opposition to, 388 ;

Parlement under, 340 , 364 ;

phases of rebellion, 332 ;

politique opposition to, 352 , 386 ;

public opinion on, 421 ;

renunciation of membership in, 436 ;

robins in, 461 , 480 ;

royalist counteroffensive against, 378 -84;

as social threat, 419 -20;

Spanish aid to, 336 , 339 , 367 , 382 n;

on succession of Henri IV, 379 ;

support in provinces, 403 ;

truce with royalists, 413 , 417 , 423 .

See also Ligueurs

Lebrun, François, 121 n

Le Camus, Martin, 218

Le Caron, Louis (Charondas):

career of, 32 -33;

early life of, 32 ;

legal scholarship of, 105 ;

as mainstream spokesman, 86 , 464 ;

on Pax Romana, 107 ;

in "scholarly Pléiade," 28 .

Works: Commentaire de la Coutume de Paris ,

32, Pandectes , 129

Leclerc, Jean. See Bussy-Leclerc (Jean Leclerc)

Leclerc, Nicolas, 196

Le Coq, Antoine, 213 ;

in Chambre Ardente, 218

Le Coq, Nicolas, 200

Le Coq dynasty, 9

Lecteurs royaux , 191 , 192

Lefebvre, René, 48

Le Feron, Jean, 99 , 100

Lefèvre d'Étaples, Jacques, 15 , 96 ;

evangelical reforms of, 172 ;

return of, 203 ;

translation of Bible, 177 , 189 ;

Valois protection of, 181 , 190 , 191 , 203

Leger, Étienne, 203

Légistes , 33 ;

constitutional views of, 61 ;

on customary law, 79 ;

ideals of, 154 , 463 , 464 ;

Loisel on, 139 ;

nationalism of, 93 ;

offices held by, 153 ;

on reform of Parlement, 463 -64;

self-image of, 153 ;

support of monarchy, 482

Le Jau, Jean, 447

Le Lièvre, Jean, 179

Le Maistre, Gilles, 218 ;

on commission to Catherine de Médicis, 269 ;

and Edict of January, 265 , 266 , 267 ;

on expulsion of Protestants, 281 ;

leadership of ultras, 234 , 237 , 277 ;

on loyalty to crown, 243 ;

in negotiations with Condé, 280 ;

patronage by Guise family, 221 ;

as président, 183 , 184 , 222 ;

on punishment of heresy, 235 , 236 ;

venality of, 215

Le Maistre, Jean, 376 , 392 ;

as bon catholique françois , 421 -22;

defense of Salic law, 406 , 434 ;

and duc de Mayenne, 423 ,

in Estates of the League, 402 ;

in Henri IV's rehabilitation of Parlement, 435 ;

in reduction of Paris, 430 ;

in succession debate, 409 , 410

Le Maistre, Pierre, 438

Le Maître family, 45

Le Maréschal, Claude, 448 n

Le Picart, Germain, 124

Le Roux, Jacques, 208 , 211 , 218

Le Roy, Louis, 129

Le Roy, Pierre, 428 n

Lescot, Léon, 438

Lèse-majesté, heresy as, 208

L'Estoile, Louis de, 39

L'Estoile, Pierre de, 38 -39;

admiration of Montaigne, 169 n;

on l'affaire Brisson , 390 -91;

on anti-Spanish sentiment, 388 ;

apology for Parlement, 61 ;

bias of, 484 ;

book collection of, 100 -104, 119 , 152 , 483 ;

character of, 140 ;

on coronation of Henri IV, 427 ;

on country life, 152 ;

on Day of the Barricades, 187 n, 358 -60;

on duc de Mayenne, 378 , 420 ;

on duc d'Épernon, 354 ;

early life of, 38 -39;

on Edict of Nantes, 446 , 447 -48, 449 n;

on Estates of the League, 404 ;

on family relationships, 122 -23;

on François de Monthelon, 368 ;

on Guise assassinations, 373 -74;

on Henri III's assassination, 381 ;

on Henri IV, 142 , 379 -80, 401 , 409 -10, 417 ;

on Henri IV's character, 417 ;

on Henri IV's entry into Paris, 430 , 431 -32;

on Henri IV's military victories, 385 ;

on Henri IV's observance of Holy Week, 436 ;

on Henri IV's succession, 382 ;

interrogation of Pierre Barrière, 414 ;

knowledge of theology, 171 -72;

on ligueur preachers, 388 -89, 396 ;

on Mary


527

Stuart, 352 ;

objectivity of, 119 ;

on Paris League, 38 , 39 n, 332 , 334 -35;

during Paris League rebellion, 333 , 364 ;

on Parlement of Châlons, 396 ;

on Parlement of Tours, 436 -37;

on political satires, 415 -16;

as politique , 322 n, 327 , 362 , 381 , 484 ;

on politiques , 399 ,

on publication of Trent decrees, 444 n;

on qualification for Parlement, 83 ;

reliability of writings, 483 -85;

on religion, 158 , 167 -68;

religious beliefs of, 168 -70;

on religious reformation, 170 -71;

on role of Parlement, 463 ;

on siege of Paris, 386 ;

on Sixteen, 375 , 380 , 391 -92, 462 ;

on sorcery, 146 ;

as spokesman of Parlement, 184 ;

on superstition, 141 -42, 171 , 350 ;

support of monarchy, 319 , 322 n;

on table of Madame de Montpensier, 350 ;

on usefulness of journals, 484 -85;

view of history, 118 ;

on wealth, 131 -32.

Works: Dévotions du Roi , 322 -23;

"Drolleries de la Ligue ," 152 ,

Journal d'Henri III , 39 , 322 -23.

See also Mémoires-Jour-naux (L'Estoile)

Letters of remission, 148

Lettres de jussion , 69

Le Verrier, Jean, 194

Le Viste, Antoine, 48 ;

diplomatic missions of, 49 ;

and Louise de Savoie, 92 , 197

Le Viste, Jeanne, 13

Le Viste family, 9 ;

immigration to Paris, 43 ;

marriage alliances of, 13 , 17

Le Voix, Jean, 447 , 448 n

L'Hermite de Souliers, Jean-Baptiste, 13 n

L'Hôpital, Louis de, 416

L'Hôpital, Michel de, 136 ;

on absolutism, 312 ;

acceptance of change, 312 n;

in assembly of St-Germain, 263 ;

career of, 240 -41;

Catherine de Médicis's patronage of, 240 ;

circle of, 327 ;

Claude Fauchet and, 28 ;

conflict with Parlement, 23 n, 241 , 243 , 309 -10, 476 ;

convocation of Estates General, 84 -85, 87 ;

disputes with de Thou, 23 ;

and Edict of Amboise, 289 ;

on Edict of January, 266 ;

and Fran-çois Hotman, 106 ;

interest in Stoicism, 108 ;

on jurisdiction of Parlement, 297 -98;

in literary circles, 312 -13;

loss of influence, 76 ;

and majority of Charles IX, 296 ;

and Montmorency family, 326 ;

opposition to venality, 309 ;

Pasquier and, 33 ;

political theory of, 464 ;

on pourparler de Paris , 255 ;

poverty of, 131 ;

on religious unrest, 251 -52;

religious views of, 310 , 312 -13;

on role of Parlement, 257 , 311 ;

on role on Estates General, 311 ;

stance on constitutionalism, 311 -12;

on study of Greek, 97 ;

toleration policy of, 254 , 276 , 326 ;

on Trent decrees, 301 -2;

in trial of Condé, 275

Libraries:

of parlementaires, 95 , 98 -104;

scope of, 99 -100

Ligueurs :

alliance with politiques , 340 , 418 -19;

constitutional views of, 61 ;

in Dijon, 393 ;

and Gallicans, 175 ;

hard-line, 378 ;

under Henri IV, 439 , 443 ;

influence of Jesuits on, 36 ;

oath to Henri IV, 419 ;

in Parlement, 338 , 392 , 397 , 403 , 434 , 438 , 461 ;

religiosity of, 165 ;

takeover of Bureau de Ville, 363

Lincestre (preacher), 374 , 409

Lipsius, Justus, 110 ;

neo-Stoicism of, 111

Lit de justice , 484 ;

of July (1527), 70 -71, 72 -73;

as metaphor for Parlement, 74 ;

origin of, 70 ;

purpose of, 71 , 73 ;

in Rouen (1563), 87 , 295 , 296 n, 297 ;

symbolic value of, 69

Lizet, Pierre:

as abbot of St-Victor, 221 ;

as avocat du roi, 194 , 218 ;

in Berquin case, 193 , 194 , 215 ;

book collection of, 99 ;

in Chambre Ardente, 215 -16;

and Christophe de Thou, 22 , 23 ;

defense of Parlement, 74 , 84 ;

denunciation of evocations, 180 ;

denunciation of heresy, 210 , 211 , 476 ;

entry into Parlement, 10 ;

and Fran-çois Olivier, 19 ;

on iconoclasm, 202 ;

integrity of, 216 n;

leadership of ultra faction, 23 , 479 ;

on lit de justice , 74 ;

poverty of, 215 ;

as président, 16 , 182 , 183 , 194 -95;

removal from office, 183 , 184 n, 220 -21;

on Roman law, 24 ;

work on customary law, 48

Loire valley.

heresy in, 213 , 217 ;

itinerant courts in, 44

Loisel, Antoine:

on avenues of advancement, 45 ;

career of, 29 -30;

in Chambre de Justice, 30 ;

in chambre mi-partie, 261 n;

depiction of Pasquier, 135 -36, 137 , 139 , 463 ;

during domination of League, 31 , 135 ;

early life of, 29 ;

friendship with Pasquier, 27 , 135 ;

in Henri IV's rehabilitation of Parlement, 435 ;

on Jean Jouvenal des Ursins, 467 ;

on Jean Le Maistre, 409 ;

on legal education, 98 ;

le-


528

Loisel, Antoine (continued )

gal scholarship of, 105 ;

on loyalty to monarch, 421 ;

on nobility, 130 ;

on Pax Romana, 107 ;

purge of Parlement registers, 434 ;

in "scholarly Pléiade," 28,135 ;

as spokesman of Parlement, 184 , 463 , 464 ;

work on customary law, 66 .

Works: "Dialogue des avocats du Parlement du Paris," 30 , 82 n, 93 , 116 , 119 , 135 -40, 463 ;

Guyenne , 118 , 119 ;

Homonoee ou l'Accord et union des subjets du Roy , 419 ;

Institutes coutumières , 30 -31;

La Puce , 30

Lollardy, 175

Longueville, duc de, 254

Lorraine, cardinal of. See Charles, cardinal de Lorraine

Lorraine, house of. See Guise-Lorraine faction

Lothair (king of France), 334

Louis, prince de Condé. See Condé, Louis (prince de)

Louis IX (king of France):

Gallican church under, 88 ;

in history of Gaillard, 113

Louis XI (king of France):

appointments to Parlement, 42 -43, 44 ;

expansion of royal domain, 43 ;

Parlement under, 7 -8, 70 -71

Louis XII (king of France):

accession to throne, 43 ;

on composition of Parlement, 8 -9;

creation of judicial offices, 9 ;

Parlement during, 71 ;

patronage of Seyssel, 15 ;

renovation of Grand' Chambre, 70

Louis XIII (king of France), 76

Louis XIV (king of France), absolutism of, 59

Louis d'Orléans, assassination of, 373

Louise de Savoie:

and Chambre des En-quêes, 10 ;

conflict with Parlement, 72 , 177 , 195 -201, 208 ;

death of, 204 ;

defense of Paris, 179 ;

evocation of Grand Conseil, 198 ;

Journal of, 190 ;

negotiations with Charles V, 199 ;

Parlement's support of, 157 ;

regency of, 14 , 77 , 84 , 92 ;

religious beliefs of, 190 -91;

Robertet's aid to, 9

Loyseau, Charles, 34 , 128 ;

antiquarianism of, 36 ;

on nobility, 50 ;

on royal domain, 68

Luillier, Guillaume, 218

Luillier, Jean, 430 ;

and duc de Mayenne, 423 -24;

in Estates of the League, 402

Luillier, Madeleine, 18

Luillier, Nicolas, 271 , 282

Luillier family, 14

Luther, Martin, 164 ;

banning of works, 194 ;

L'Estoile on, 171 ;

pamphlets of, 189

Lutheranism, 25 ;

doctrines of, 204

Luxembourg, duc de, 444

Lyons:

civil war in, 271 ;

immigrants from, 43 ;

surrender to Henri IV, 424

M

Machault, Jean-Baptiste, 375 , 438

Machiavélisme , 116 n, 472

Machiavelli, Niccolò, 465 ;

in history of Gaillard, 113 ;

influence on parlementaires, 17 ;

Pasquier on, 116

Mâcon, merchants of, 130

Magistrates. See Parlementaires

Maillard, André, 417 , 418 ;

Advertissement au Roy , 460

Mainstream. See Parlementaires, mainstream

Maître des requêtes (office), 35 ;

increase in numbers of, 155

Major, J. Russell, 59 , 274

Marburg, Colloquy of, 204

Mardi Gras, 141

Marguerite d'Angoulême, 205 ;

in Berquin case, 202 ;

correspondence with Briçonnet, 192 ;

embassy to Madrid, 200 ;

embassy to Spain, 199 ;

Heptaméron , 191 ;

patronage of Lefèvre, 203 ;

patronage of Marot, 233 n;

regency of, 10 ;

Robertet's aid to, 9 ;

sponsorship of religious dissent, 172 , 181 , 189 , 190

Marguerite de Navarre. See Marguerite d'Angoulême

Marguerite de Valois, 316 , 450 -51

Marie de Guise, 352

Marillac, Charles de (archbishop of Vienne), 242

Marillac, Gabriel, 218

Marillac family, 33 ;

immigration to Paris, 44

Marion, Simon, 29 , 33

Marie, Claude de, 22

Marot, Clément:

banning of works, 209 ;

Blason du bonnet carré , 155 ;

exile of, 193 ;

François's protection of, 191 ;

translation of Psalms, 233 n

Marriage:

advancement by, 54 -55, 144 ;

clandestine, 54 ;

of clergy, 299 ;

importance to society, 125 -26;

inheritance of


529

property in, 53 -54;

Protestant, 258 ;

tenderness in, 124

Martel, Charles, 406 n

Martin, Victor, 308 , 309 , 455 n;

on Christophe de Thou, 347 , 348 , 349 ;

on Gallicanism, 456 , 461 ;

on Trent decrees, 346 , 442 , 453 , 454 , 456

Martineau, Nicolas, 218

Mary Stuart (queen of Scots):

depiction as martyr, 352 ;

Du Vair's funeral oration for, 345 ;

marriage to François II, 238

Masparault, Pierre, 402

Massacre of St. Bartholomew, 185 , 307 , 327 ;

causes of, 317 , 320 ;

Parlement's role in, 317 -18, 484 ;

Protestant accounts of, 317

Maugis, Édouard, 81 , 82 , 403 , 439 ;

on abuse of rules, 83 n;

on Bull of Gregory XIV, 398 ;

on duc of Mayenne, 405 ;

on edicts of pacification, 314 ;

on François Olivier, 19 ;

on Henri II, 223 -24;

on L'Estoile, 483 -84;

on Lizet's disgrace, 220 n;

on succession of Henri IV, 406

Mayenne, duc de:

accommodation with Henri IV, 393 , 407 ;

advisers of, 385 ;

in l'affaire Brisson, 392 -93;

appointments to Parlement, 392 ;

arrest of printers, 416 ;

arrival in Paris, 376 , 377 ;

billets of exile, 421 n;

departure from Paris, 429 ;

in Estates of the League, 402 , 404 ;

and Jean Le Maistre, 423 ;

L'Estoile on, 378 , 420 ;

as lieutenant général, 377 -78, 383 , 386 ;

loss of authority, 400 , 406 , 423 ;

and papal legate, 420 -21, 422 , 424 ;

relations with politiques , 423 -24;

revocation of commands, 435 ;

satires on, 415 -16;

in Satyre Ménippée , 427 , 429 ;

and Spanish Ambassador, 405 , 422 , 423 , 424 -25, 484 ;

in succession debate, 409 ;

and Third Party, 393 , 398

Mayenniste faction:

Parisian bourgeoisie in, 340 ;

parlementaires in, 387 ;

struggle with Sixteen, 378 , 386 , 390 , 392 , 402

Mayer, C. A., 192 -93

Meaux: group of, 182 , 198 , 212 ;

surrender to Henri IV, 416 -17

Medici, Alexander de' (cardinal of Florence), 443

Meditations (Savonarola), 152

Melanchthon, Philip, 194

Mémoires-Journaux (L'Estoile), 37 , 38 , 119 , 140 -43;

l'affaire Brisson in, 390 -91;

anti-Spanish sentiment in, 388 ;

Armada in, 366 -67;

Christophe de Thou in, 139 ;

clergy in, 350 , 351 ;

comparison with Registers, 483 ;

contents of, 100 -104;

country life in, 152 ;

crime in, 145 -46;

Day of the Barricades in, 187 n, 358 -60;

Edict of Nantes in, 446 , 447 -48, 449 n;

ephemera in, 103 , 141 , 142 ;

Estates of the League in, 404 ;

executions in, 141 ;

greed in, 131 , 132 , 143 ;

Guise assassinations in, 372 -74;

Henri III in, 322 -23, 342 , 371 ;

Henri IV in, 142 , 379 -80, 409 -10, 436 ;

Henri IV's coronation in, 427 ;

Henri IV's military victories in, 385 ;

ligueur preachers in, 388 -89;

literary quality of, 484 ;

manuscripts of, 39 ;

Mary Stuart in, 352 ;

miracles in, 142 ;

money in, 131 -32;

Montaigne in, 485 ;

Paris League in, 38 , 39 n, 332 , 334 -35;

parlementaire ideals in, 140 -41;

Parlement of Châlons in, 396 ;

Parlement of Tours in, 436 -37;

Pierre (I) Séguier in, 138 -39;

pourparler de Paris in, 255 -56;

proverbs in, 143 ;

reliability of, 483 -85;

religious belief in, 168 -70;

siege of Paris in, 386 ;

Sixteen in, 375 , 380 , 391 -92, 462 ;

sorcery in, 146 ;

superstition in, 141 -42, 171 , 350 ;

on table of Madame de Montpensier, 350 ;

Trent decrees in, 444 n.

See also L'Estoile, Pierre de

Mendoza, Diego de, Duke of Feria (Spanish ambassador), 382 n, 387 , 408 , 409 ;

departure from Paris, 432 ;

and duc de Mayenne, 405 , 422 , 423 , 424 -25, 484 ;

and Jean Le Maistre, 423 ;

truce with politiques , 405

Merchants:

banishment by Henri IV, 439 ;

in Bureau de Ville, 46 ;

libraries of, 99 ;

mobility of, 130 -31;

in Paris League, 393 ;

place in bourgeoisie, 461

Mercuriales : of 1557, 465 ;

of April (1559), 234 , 235 ;

of June 10 (1559), 20 , 22 , 235 -37, 476

Mésalllance , 54 , 128

Mesmes, Henri de, 28 ;

intellectual leadership of, 104

Mesmes, Jean de, 237

Mesnager, Jean, 198

Mesnard, Paul, 108

Mesnard, Pierre, 470 -71

Metz, siege of, 223 , 227

Michelet, 325


530

Midi:

First Civil War in, 283 ;

Protestant robins in, 261 -62

Mignons (royal favorites), 322 , 323 , 334 , 351

Minard, Antoine:

assassination of, 239 , 258 ;

as président, 235 , 237

Miracles, false, 142

Miron, François de, 369

Mobility, sixteenth century, 54 -55, 130 -31, 469

Molé, Édouard, 376 , 407 ;

and Henri IV's entry into Paris, 430 ;

reinstatement in Parlement, 438 ;

on succession of Infanta Isabella, 405 -6

La Monarchie de France (Seyssel), 12 , 63 -64;

influence of, 61 ;

nationalism in, 93

Monarchy, Aristotelian concept of, 340

Monarchy, French:

Achille de Harlay on, 343 -44;

after Hundred Years War, 7 ;

centralization of, 274 ;

Christian ideal of, 161 , 411 -12;

creditors of, 156 ;

defense of Gallicanism, 460 ;

encroachment on constitution, 66 ;

in history of Gaillard, 114 -15;

importance of religion to, 63 -64, 417 -18;

indivisibility of, 60 , 121 ;

juridical basis of authority, 76 ;

limitations on, 62 , 63 -65, 78 , 80 ;

Loisel on, 139 ;

obligations of, 67 , 68 , 411 , 471 ;

papal authority over, 415 ;

parlementaire loyalty to, 243 , 319 , 322 n, 421 , 460 , 469 ;

power to establish courts, 86 n;

relationship with papacy, 175 ;

remission of crimes, 148 ;

respect for customary law, 66

Monarchy, French Bourbon:

absolutism of, 59 , 419 ;

rise to power, 39

Monarchy, French Capetian, 163 , 385

Monarchy, French Valois:

additions to Parlement, 41 ;

attendance at Parlement, 73 , 294 -95;

collaboration with parlementaire religious policy, 207 -14;

conflicts with Parlement, 67 -77, 195 -201;

feuds within, 186 ;

innovations of, 73 ;

itinerant court of, 44 ;

limitations on, 59 ;

overthrow of, 331 ;

policy toward heresy, 19 , 181 , 182 , 196 , 205 , 207 -13;

religious beliefs of, 190 , 191 -92;

religious policy of, 191 , 205 , 207 , 231 , 290 ;

special commissions of, 48 ;

value of service to, 49 -50;

venality of, 9 , 47 , 71

Monluc, Blaise de, 262

Monluc, Jean de (bishop of Valence), 251 ;

at Fontainebleau council, 242 ;

religious views of, 294 ;

service to Catherine de Médicis, 278

Montaigne, Michel de, 18 ;

L'Estoile on, 485 ;

and Pasquier, 33 ;

on religious belief, 166 ;

on religious dissent, 169 -70;

on succession of Henri IV, 370 -71

Montcontour, victory of, 321

Montesquieu, Charles Louis de Secondat, 473

Monthelon, François de, 137 , 368

Montmirail, Étienne, 218

Montmorency, Anne de (constable), 213 ;

capture in First Civil War, 283 ;

imprisonment by Spanish, 232 ;

influence of, 220 , 238 ;

at mercuriale of June (1559), 235 -36;

in siege of Metz, 223 , 227 ;

sons of, 259 , 260 n;

in Triumvirate, 251 , 277 ;

violence against Protestants, 270

Montmorency, François de. and publication of Edict of January, 265 ;

religious beliefs of, 284 ;

and religious unrest in Paris, 268 -69, 313

Montmorency, house of, 21 ;

and L'Hôpital, 326 ;

patronage of Pasquier, 27 ;

protégés of, 22 ;

religion of, 260 ;

rivalry with Bourbons, 428

Montmorency-Damville, Henry of, 260 n

Montpensier, duc de, 285 ;

in Day of the Barricades, 359

Montpensier, Madame, 360 ,

preachers of, 379 ;

tableau of, 350 , 352 , 353 , 432

Moral values, of parlementaires, 120 n, 134 -35

More, Thomas, 109 ;

on war, 157

Morin de Cromé, Louis, 390 , 416 n

Morosini, Francesco, 365 -66

Morvilliers, Jean de (bishop of Orléans), 242

Mos gallicus , 93

Motherhood, as career, 54

Mouchy, Antoine de, 237

Muret, Marc-Antoine, 110

N

Naples, Kingdom of, 227

Nationalism, French: cultural, 67 , 115 -116, 117 -18;

and Gallicanism, 458 ;

"juridical," 91 -94, 107 ;

of Reformed Church, 174 ;

religious, 162 ;

threat of ultramontanism to, 115

Naudé, Gabriel, 165

Neapolitans, in Paris, 431

Neo-Stoicism, 109 -12;

of Du Vair, 470


531

Netherlands:

Huguenots in, 317 ;

struggle against Spain, 111

Neuilly, Étienne, 338 , 392 ;

in Estates of the League, 402

Neuschel, Kristen, 23 n

Nevers, Louis de Gonzague (duc de):

debts of, 341 ;

embassy to Clement VIII, 414 -15, 423 ;

support of Henri IV, 411 , 458 -59

Nevers, Madame de, 414

Nez d'Argent, Sergeant, 260 , 281

Nicodemites, 166 -67, 294 , 481 ;

parlementaires among, 167 , 248 , 294 , 327

Nîmes, Protestant assemblies in, 262

Nobility:

clientage relationships with parlementaires, 121 , 229 , 462 ;

competition among, 274 ;

m conversion crisis, 411 -12;

and ennobled robins , 50 ;

heretics among, 217 ;

humanism of, 95 ;

importance to robins , 50 , 128 -29, 144 ;

inbreeding among, 55 ;

libraries of, 99 ;

power over robins , 46 ;

Protestants among, 258 , 285 ;

rapprochement with gens de robe , 36 , 50 ;

religious polarization of, 251 ;

rural, 50 -51;

support of League truce, 407 ;

theories of superiority of, 129

Nogaret, Guillaume, 161

Norris, Sir Henry, 315

O

O, seigneur d', 359 , 434 , 436

Oestreich, Gerhard, 111 , 112

Olivier, François, 73 ;

career of, 18 -19;

fall from presidency, 45 , 221 ;

on Parlement, 74 , 84 ;

as spokesman of Parlement, 16

Olivier, Jacques, 18

Olivier family, 45

Olivier-Martin, François:

on corporatist France, 80 ;

on customary law, 24 , 66 n

Oppède (président of Parlement of Aix), 213

Order of St. Michael, 263

Ordinance of Blois (1579), 86 n, 148 ;

registration of, 346 -47

Ordinances of Moulins, 309

Ordonnances , 7 ;

addition to customary law, 66

Orgeuil , 155 -56

Orléans:

fall to Henri IV, 424 ;

heresy cases in, 217 ;

immigrants from, 44 ;

struggle with Burgundy, 7 , 40

Orléans, Louis d', 392 n;

as avocat du roi, 376 ;

Banquete du Conte d'Arete , 415 n;

in Estates of the League, 402 ;

as ligueur , 389 , 391

Orth, Myra, 190

Ory, Matthieu, 208

Ossat, Arnauld d' (bishop of Bayeux), 442 , 454 ;

on Edict of Nantes, 451

Oysel, Henri de Clutin (sieur d'), 301

P

Pacification of Amboise (1563), 184 , 186 , 283 , 299 ;

effect on Parlement, 289 -98, 476 ;

modifications to, 315 ;

Parlement's attitude toward, 286 , 314 -16;

terms of, 285 , 287 ;

ultra-Catholic attack on, 289 .

See also Civil War, First

Padua, law school of, 98

Palais de Justice, ceremonies at, 75

Pamphleteers: Huguenot, 59 , 186 -87, 238 ;

of League, 326 ;

on succession of Henri IV, 379 , 410 , 415

Pamphlets, collections of, 101 -2

Papacy:

alliance with Guise faction, 227 ;

Avignon, 116 , 136 ;

Bull of 1585, 115 ;

controversy with Parlement, 393 -98;

Gallican view of, 88 ;

Henri IV's accommodation with, 441 -43, 450 ;

in Henri IV's conversion crisis, 412 ;

imperial power of, 88 , 89 ;

during Paris League rebellion, 332 , 365 ;

relations with Sixteen, 387 , 388 ;

struggle with Venice, 104 , 118 , 152

Papal legates:

instructions to ligueur preachers, 414 -15;

opposition of Sixteen to, 366 ;

reception in France, 90 ;

registration of, 90 , 443 .

See also Sega, Filippo, cardinal de Plaisance (papal legate)

Pape, Guy, 99

Papiste (epithet), 252 , 253

Paris:

autos-da-fé, 212 , 215 ;

bourgeoisie of, 339 , 341 ;

Christophe de Thou's service to, 24 -25;

Conciergerie, 148 , 217 , 313 , 364 ;

crime in, 141 ;

diocesan council of, 201 ;

exemption from Edict of January, 271 , 277 ;

expulsion of Protestants from, 281 ;

Henri IV's appeal to, 416 ;

Henri IV's reduction of, 398 , 430 -33, 436 ;

Henri IV's siege of, 386 -87, 398 -99;

municipal militia of, 278 , 313 , 420 -21;

persecution in, 238 -39, 241 , 271 -72;

plague (1562), 282 ;

pourparler de , 255 -56;

Protestant assemblies in, 232 -33, 251 , 254 , 255 , 261 ;

public welfare in, 132 ;

Reformed Church in, 184 , 227 ;

reli-


532

Paris (continued )

gious unrest in, 251 -52, 268 -73, 276 , 431 ;

residences of parlementaires in, 149 ;

royal entries into, 76 , 215 , 430 -32;

separation from French society, 462 ;

Spanish troops in, 382 n, 387 , 405 , 424 n, 431 ;

struggle for municipal government of, 386 , 391 ;

support of Guise faction, 277 ;

toleration of dissent in, 228 ;

vandalism in, 181 , 202 .

See also Bureau de Ville; Hôtel de Ville; Parlement of Paris

Paris Cordeliers, 346 -37

Paris League. See League, Paris

Parlementaires:

accusations of heresy against, 272 , 281 ;

arrest by Henri II, 237 -38;

arrest by League, 375 -76;

attitude toward crime, 144 -49;

attitude toward heresy, 2 , 184 , 185 , 195 -200, 394 , 464 ;

attitude toward money, 45 , 131 -33;

attitude toward wives, 126 , 127 ;

avenues of advancement for, 44 -48;

as bon catholique françois , 466 ;

bourgeois origins of, 461 , 465 ;

on cause of civil wars, 78 -79;

clemency toward criminals, 147 -48, 217 ;

commissions on heresy, 182 , 196 -98, 201 , 211 , 214 ;

compromise with League, 37 ;

constitutionalism of, 61 , 64 , 65 n, 79 , 257 , 275 , 296 , 318 -19;

costume of, 75 , 76 , 137 , 463 ;

country houses of, 150 , 155 ;

decline in standards of, 136 -37;

defense of Gallicanism, 1 , 20 , 52 , 60 , 67 , 80 , 88 , 89 , 174 , 195 , 302 , 415 , 456 n, 459 -61;

diplomatic activity of, 48 , 49 ;

disdain of violence, 156 -57, 431 ;

distinction between nobility and, 467 ;

education of, 95 -98;

effect of Wars of Religion on, 175 ;

enmity with Duprat, 164 , 178 , 180 , 195 -96;

ethical codes of, 134 -35;

exile of, 37 , 421 , 438 , 481 ;

family alliances of, 55 , 120 , 134 , 468 ;

at Fontainebleau consultations, 303 -7;

on Guise assassinations, 372 ;

hanging in effigy, 283 , 284 n;

Henri II's trial of, 237 -38;

heresy trials of, 245 -46;

in history of Gaillard, 115 ;

humanism of, 95 -96, 105 ;

ideals of, 134 -41, 144 , 463 -68;

image of, 153 -59;

image under Henri IV, 464 -65;

importance of family to, 120 , 465 -66;

intellectual interests of, 105 -19;

intermarriage among, 55 , 120 ;

libraries of, 95 , 98 -104;

life-style of, 149 -53;

ligueurs among, 338 , 392 , 397 , 402 , 434 , 438 , 461 ;

moral values of, 120 n, 134 -35;

model, 137 -40, 184 , 467 ;

murders by Paris League, 340 , 390 -91, 408 , 439 ;

networks of, 128 ;

Nicodemites among, 167 , 248 , 294 , 327 ;

opposition to Concordat of Bologna, 12 , 20 n, 67 , 90 , 137 , 164 , 176 , 177 -80, 195 , 319 , 477 ;

opposition to League, 388 ;

orgeuilleux , 156 ;

patronage of, 4 , 13 , 17 , 29 , 31 , 32 , 37 , 121 , 229 , 462 ;

in peace negotiations of First Civil War, 284 ;

police report of 1562 on, 218 , 288 -89;

poverty of, 131 ;

pragmatism of, 469 ;

privileges for, 52 n;

in procession of St-Medard, 272 , 285 -82;

profession of faith, 272 , 281 , 289 -90, 291 , 293 ;

religious orthodoxy of, 196 -99, 209 , 244 , 272 , 479 ;

religious traditions of, 1 -2, 11 , 161 -72, 478 -82;

residences of, 149 -50;

response to religious dissent, 175 -77, 187 ;

role in social system, 475 , 482 ;

on royal commissions, 48 -49;

on rural nobles, 50 -51;

in Satyre Ménippée , 428 ;

scholarship of, 104 -5;

security in office for, 81 ;

seigneurial life of, 150 , 156 ;

socioeconomic differences among, 34 -35;

status of, 155 n;

support for Paris League, 52 n;

support of Henri IV, 58 , 482 ;

suspension by François I, 200 ;

trials of (1559), 245 -46;

ultra-Catholics among, 11 , 12 , 209 ;

"unreliables" among, 290 -91;

view of antiquity, 107 ;

view of history, 112 -19;

view of Parlement, 80 -87;

view of society, 120 ;

wealth of, 50 , 131 -32, 153 ;

wives of, 124 -27;

work ethic of, 134 , 144 , 156 .

See also Elites, robin;Praticiens ; Présidents, of Parlement

Parlementaires, mainstream, 2 , 11 ;

attitude toward heresy, 478 -79;

attitude toward ultramontanism, 479 ;

Baillet's leadership of, 195 ;

compromises with constitutionalism, 469 ;

constitutionalism of, 94 ;

on fall of the Paris League, 392 ;

following First Civil War, 290 ;

religious differences among, 177 , 229 , 238 ;

on religious persecution, 230 ;

repression of heresy, 221 ;

resistance to League, 481 ;

spokesmen for, 11 -40, 74 , 86 , 164 , 195 , 464 , 469 ;

support of monarchy, 319 ;

and ultras, 291

Parlementaires, politiques : of 1577, 446 ;

attack of League on, 374 -76;

definition of, 325 -28;

divisions among, 36 ;

Du Vair as,


533

38 , 109 ;

following defeat of League, 403 ;

Henri IV's support of, 409 ;

historians among, 115 , 116 ;

murder of, 390 -91, 408 , 439 ;

during Paris League rebellion, 333 ;

royalist, 62 ;

support of Henri IV, 381 -82, 482 ;

violence against, 413 -14

Parlement of Aix, 211 , 213

Parlement of Bordeaux, 8 , 30 ;

anti-Huguenot sentiments of, 286 ;

"private" justice in, 298 ;

Protestants in, 261

Parlement of Brittany, 16

Parlement of Châlons, 388 ;

arrêt of June 28,1593, 392 , 394 -96;

return to Paris, 434 , 437 n;

status of, 430

Parlement of Dijon, 130 , 287 , 481 n;

and Edict of Nantes, 449

Parlement of Paris:

on arrêt of Parlement of Châlons, 396 ;

arrêts of, 65 , 211 , 213 , 215 ;

in assembly of St-Germain, 264 ;

attack of Parisian curés on, 349 -50, 409 ;

attitude toward crime, 144 -49;

autonomy of, 8 ;

during Avignon papacy, 136 ;

on banishment of governor Belin, 422 -23;

banning of books, 189 , 194 ;

cardinal de Lorraine's pressure on, 230 ;

career patterns in, 55 , 439 , 462 -63, 469 , 472 ;

in ceremonial processions, 75 -76;

as check on monarchy, 65 , 68 -69, 77 , 80 ;

chronological list of, 9 n;

clerics in, 15 , 35 , 41 , 47 -48, 57 , 80 -81, 466 ;

as coguardian of constitution, 72 ;

collaboration with royal religious policy, 207 -14;

commission on blasphemy, 196 -99;

commission to Catherine de Médicis, 267 -68, 269 ;

comparison with Roman senate, 66 , 105 , 157 ;

composition of, 7 -9, 35 , 462 ;

condemnation of arrêt of Châlons, 392 n;

under Charles IX, 295 -98, 318 -20;

Condé's récusations against, 280 -81, 282 ;

conflicts with L'Hôpital, 23 n, 241 , 243 , 309 -10, 476 ;

conflicts with Louise de Savoie, 72 , 177 , 195 -201, 208 ;

conflicts with papacy, 393 -98;

conflicts with Valois monarchy, 67 -77, 195 -201, 318 -20;

confrontation with papal legate, 420 , 422 ;

conservatism of, 54 ;

constitutionalism of, 60 -61, 74 , 79 , 257 , 275 , 296 , 298 , 318 -19, 406 ;

control of rural areas, 145 ;

corruption in, 143 ;

cost of office in, 143 ;

in Day of the Barricades, 361 -62;

defense of fundamental law, 68 -69, 403 ;

defense of jurisdictions, 83 -84, 198 , 221 ;

defense of orthodoxy, 196 -99, 209 ;

dissidents m, 290 -91, 292 ;

divisions within, 11 , 91 , 137 , 184 , 229 ;

domination by elites, 10 -11, 41 ;

on edict of April 19 (1561), 252 -54;

and Edict of Nantes, 4 , 91 , 188 , 382 n, 444 -49;

effect of international crises on, 229 ;

effect on social cohesion, 463 ;

election to, 7 -8;

entry to bishopric from, 81 ;

entry to royal service from, 35 ,

exile of Michel Gaillard, 255 ;

family alliances in, 55 , 120 , 134 , 468 ;

in First Civil War, 283 ;

fragmentation after Edict of Amboise, 289 -98;

under Fran-çois I, 9 -10, 41 , 80 -82, 89 , 176 , 200 -201, 205 ;

generations within, 11 -12;

under Henri I, 176 ;

under Henri II, 176 , 182 , 223 -25, 229 -34;

under Henri III, 321 , 342 ;

Henri IV's alliance with, 188 ;

Henri IV's return and, 433 -36;

Henri IV's rehabilitation of, 403 , 434 -40, 464 ;

heresy in, 287 -88;

Huguenots in, 243 , 445 ;

on iconoclasm, 202 ;

ideological factions within, 208 -9, 222 , 234 , 277 ;

immigrants in, 41 -45;

independence of, 68 ;

institutional history of, 7 , 41 n;

intellectual leadership of, 104 -5;

internal discipline of, 20 , 465 -66;

investigation of tumult of St-Medard, 272 ;

judicial independence of, 460 ;

jurisdiction over heresy, 207 -8, 219 , 225 , 235 , 241 , 248 , 252 -54;

League attacks on, 374 -76, 388 ;

length of service in, 81 , 439 , 462 -63;

life members of, 35 , 36 , 469 ;

ligueur , 376 , 388 , 397 , 403 , 434 ;

and lit de justice of 1563, 295 -96;

under Louis XI, 7 -8, 42 -43;

under Louis XII, 8 -9;

loyalty to monarchy, 243 , 421 , 460 ;

and majority of Charles IX, 295 -98;

and Massacre of St. Bartholomew, 186 n, 317 -18, 484 ;

Mayennistes in, 387 , 392 ;

members of Paris League in, 338 ;

nationalism of, 91 -94;

oath to League (1589), 419 ;

opposition to Chambre Ardente, 221 -22;

opposition to Edict of January, 188 , 257 , 264 -69, 319 ;

opposition to Inquisition, 231 -32;

opposition to Ordinances of Moulins, 309 ;

opposition to Reformation, 229 n;

opposition to Trent decrees, 4 , 31 n, 441 , 443 , 452 -55;

Parisians in, 8 , 40 -42;

under Paris League, 340 , 363 ;

parlementaire view of, 80 -87;

partage votes in, 297 ;

place in royal bureaucracy, 461 ;

ple-


534

Parlement of Paris (continued )

nary sessions of, 209 , 222 , 247 ;

police investigation of, 218 , 288 -89;

praticiens in, 139 , 153 , 154 , 439 , 464 , 469 ;

on presidial courts, 86 n;

procedural manuals of, 3 ;

procureurs' strike, 342 -43;

proliferation of offices in, 12 , 34 , 41 n, 83 , 224 ;

prosecution of religious dissent, 89 , 173 ;

prosopography of, 3 ;

Protestants in, 480 ;

protest of evocations, 77 , 84 , 197 , 198 ;

protest of religious unrest, 251 ;

public confidence in, 60 ;

qualifications for, 83 , 466 -67;

and regency of Catherine de Médicis, 176 , 223 , 244 , 277 , 289 ;

registers, 2 -3, 180 , 218 , 220 , 288 ;

registers, secret, 269 , 311 ;

registration of Concordat of Bologna, 177 ;

registration of Edict of 1539, 207 ;

registration of Edict of Amboise, 240 , 285 , 287 , 294 , 298 ;

registration of Edict of January (1562), 294 ;

registration of Edict of July (1561), 257 ;

registration of Edict of La Rochelle, 321 ;

registration of Edict of Nantes, 91 , 188 , 445 , 449 ;

registration of Edict of Union, 365 ;

registration of edicts, 68 , 69 , 71 , 224 , 231 , 252 , 298 , 435 , 477 -78;

registration of edicts of pacification, 297 ;

registration of Ordinances of Blois, 346 -47;

registration of papal legates, 90 , 443 ;

registration of Trent decrees, 77 ;

relationship with Estates General, 85 -87;

relations with Condé, 276 , 278 -81, 284 ;