Preferred Citation: Jacobsen, Nils. Mirages of Transition: The Peruvian Altiplano, 1780-1930. Berkeley, CA:  University of California Press,  1993. http://ark.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/ft3v19n95h/


 


461

INDEX

A

Abancay, 176

Abarca Dueñas, Mariano, 221 , 338

Abascal y Sousa, José Fernando, 50 , 122

Achaya, 14 , 81 , 141 , 147 , 271 , 277 , 340

—haciendas: Achoc, 114 ;

Huañingora, 215

Agramonte, Hermenegildo, 68

Aguardiente. See Alcohol, trade with

Aiaviri Calsina, Francisco, 89

Alcalde y recaudador de tributo , 97 , 99 , 103 , 123

Alcohol, trade with, 34 -35, 37 , 56 , 74 , 172 , 176 , 178 -79, 182 , 284 , 338

Alpacas: in haciendas, 297 ;

population, 164 , 173 ;

wool, 36 , 56 , 58 -61, 153 , 161 -67, 179 , 344 , 352 . See also Proto-industrialization; Wool; Woolens

Amanqui (kuraka family), 141

Amat y Junient, Manuel, 96

Amenábar, Antonio, 181

Ampuero, Valentín, 256 , 408 n.190

Ananea, 14 , 32

Añavile (hacienda in Cabana district), 115

Anco Turpo, Pablo, 219

Anticresis , 231 -33. See also Land

Aparicio (prefect of Puno), 52

Aparicio, Lorenzo, 189

Aparicio González, Filiberto, 189

Apolobamba, 24 , 25 , 56 , 64 , 102

Aporoma, 80

Appleby, Gordon, 177

APRA, 352

Apurimac (department), 174

Aragón, Agustín, 65 , 68

Aragón, Juliana, vda. de Riquelme, 109 , 248

Arapa (district), 14 ;

communities, 274 , 284 ;

crops, 19 ;

hacienda expansion, 223 -24, 239 , 277 ;

kurakas, 141 ;

population growth, 270 ;

property tax, 282 ;

revolts, 338 , 340 ;

trade, 72 ;

during Túpac Amaru Rebellion, 46

—haciendas: Cuturi, 337 ;

Luisa, 271 ;

Soñata, 213


462

Arapa (continued )

—parcialidades: Ccacsani, 25 , 213 ;

Curayllo, 215 ;

Ilata, 271 ;

Yanico, 264 , 274

Arapa (lake), 16 , 20 , 81 , 221 , 262

Areche, Antonio de, 21 , 44

Arequipa (city), 13 ;

currencies in, 160 ;

factories and crafts shop, 170 , 174 , 176 ;

hacendados, 80 , 351 ;

merchants and exporters, 38 , 51 -52, 66 -68, 70 -71, 109 , 170 , 178 -80, 182 -83, 187 -92, 334 , 343 -44, 350 -52;

migration from altiplano, 25 , 141 ;

road and railroad links, 38 , 183 -85;

trade, 20 , 44 , 49 , 53 , 69 , 74 , 334 ;

during Túpac Amaru Rebellion, 47

Arequipa (intendency or department), 58 ;

agricultural products, 168 , 176 ;

mines and minerals, 33 ;

muleteers, 182 , 185 , 187 ;

trade, 33 -34, 41 , 51 , 56 -57, 140 ;

wool production, 59

Argentina, 71 , 152 , 157 , 189 , 202 , 315 , 321 , 351

Arguedas, José María, 1 -2

Arias Echenique, Bernardino, 227 , 240 , 339 -41, 343

Arica, 50 , 59 , 184 , 263

Arizales, Mariano, 250

Arpita, Juan, 128

Artisans: during early republic, 139 -40;

effects of imports on, 52 ;

since 1850s, 170 , 176 ;

rural, 35 -37, 49 , 286 -87. See also Proto-industrialization

Asillo, 14 ;

church lands, 253 ;

estates, 80 ;

hacendados, 65 ;

kuraka families, 141 ;

loss of peasant lands, 99 , 224 -25, 229 ;

mines, 32 ;

peasant landholding, 89 ;

population, 24 , 270 ;

property tax, 282 -84;

repartos de bienes , 94 ;

revolt, 340 ; roads, 185 , 223 ;

settlement nucleus 134 ;

traders, 187 , 219

—haciendas: Anccosa, 238 ;

Payamarca, 110 , 253 ;

Posoconi, 253 -54, 256 , 344 ;

Rosaspata, 253 ;

San Francisco de Purina, 80 , 253 , 256 , 344

—parcialidades: Anansaya, 97 ;

Anoravi, 283 ;

Collana, 224 ;

Sillota, 90 , 224 -25, 283

Asociación Pro-Derecho Indígena, 339

Audiencia of Charcas, 40 , 48 , 83 -85, 87 , 89 , 93 -94, 96

Audiencia of Cuzco, 48

Audiencia of Lima, 48 , 91

Australia, 152 -53, 157 , 158 , 189

Avila, José, 236

Avíos , 85 , 298

Ayacucho: battle of, 51 ;

town, 53

Ayamamani, Vicente, 271

Ayaviri, 161 , 186

Ayllu. See Indian communities

Ayuni y Camara (hacienda in Cuzco), 85 -86

Azángaro (corregimiento or province): authorities, 135 , 147 , 198 , 239 -40;

Bustamante Rebellion, 24 ;

church lands, 82 , 98 , 118 -21, 253 -58;

courts, 234 -36;

geography and ecology, 13 -20;

haciendas during early republic, 108 -15;

land tenure and settlement during colony, 79 -83;

land transactions since 1850s, 201 -12, 220 -41;

livestock population, 117 -18, 271 -72;

markets during colony, 32 -40;

population, 20 -28, 290 ;

repartos de bienes , 93 -94;

roads and railroads, 183 , 185 ;

society during early


463

republic, 137 -48;

taxes, 130 -31;

towns, 134 -36;

trade during early republic, 54 -56;

during Túpac Amaru Rebellion, 45 -46, 96 -98

Azángaro (district and town): church, 82 ;

colegio municipal , 147 ;

during early republic, 134 -35, 147 ;

kurakas, 141 ;

landholding during colony, 81 ;

land sales, 220 -22, 227 ;

population, 24 , 98 , 147 , 270 ;

public works, 185 , 275 ;

town council, 187 ;

traders, 68 -69, 186 -88

—haciendas: Caravilque, 26 ;

Catacora, 83 , 249 ;

Cayacayani, 239 ;

Ccalla, 83 , 101 , 249 ;

Chamacca, 189 ; Lacconi, 245 ;

Parpuma, 256 ;

Pumire, 233 ;

Puscallani, 83 , 113 , 228 , 249 ;

Quichusa, 113 ;

Quimsachata, 299 ;

San Juan de Dios, 245 ;

Sollocota, 188 , 227 -28, 239 , 299 , 302 , 306 , 307 ;

Tintire, 239 ;

Upaupani, 233 ;

Vilquecunca, 238

—parcialidades: Anansaya, 83 , 89 , 249 ;

Hilahuata, 230 ;

Jallapise, 276 ;

Moroorcco, 280 ;

Tiramasa, 128 ;

Urinsaya, 83 , 125 , 238

Azángaro (river), 14 , 213 , 238

B

Bajío (Mexico), 111

Baldíos , 99 , 102. See also Land

Balenzuela, Juan, 137

Balero, Pedro, 295

Ballón, César and Victor, 306

Banco de Arequipa, 192

Banco de Perú y Londres, 192

Banco de Puno, 192

Baquijano y Carrillo, José, 91

Barley, 19 , 323

Barreda, Carlos, 314

Barter, 41 , 58 , 188 -89. See also Exchange; Markets; Trade

Basadre, Jorge, 127

Basadre y Chocano, Modesto, 134

Bauer, Arnold, 256

Beals, Carleton, 353

Bedoya and Revie Company, 318

Begg, John, 62

Belón, Carlos, 352

Belzú, Manuel Isidoro, 57

Bertram, Geoffrey, 323 -26

Billinghurst, Guillermo, 338 , 340

Bolívar, Simón, 122 -24

Bolivia: chinchona bark production, 64 ;

currencies, 57 , 160 -61;

Indian peasants, 277 -78;

lake steamers, 183 ;

migration to, 25 ;

mineral exports, 168 ;

political relations with Peru, 24 , 53 , 57 -58, 340 ;

separation from Peru, 48 , 51 ;

trade, 52 -53, 57 -58, 60 , 71 , 176 , 177 -78, 184 , 196 , 334 . See also High Peru

Bonilla, Heraclio, 59

Borax, 168

Borders and border disputes: between landholders, 237 , 335 -36;

between public jurisdictions, 48 , 58 . See also Haciendas; Indian communities; Land; Property rights

Boserup, Esther, 28

Bradford, 158 , 167 , 170

Brading, David, 111 , 202

Braillard y Compañía, 190

Brazil, 321

Bueno, Cosme, 31

Buenos Aires (city), 41 , 44 , 46 , 48 , 50

Buenos Aires (viceroyalty). See Río de la Plata


464

Bulmer-Thomas, Victor, 353

Bureau of Indian Affairs, 345

Burga, Manuel, 172 , 304 , 348

Bustamante, Juan, 146 , 203

Bustamante Otero, Luis, 339

Bustamante Rebellion, 24 -25

Butiler, Petronila, 233

C

Cabanillas, 68

—hacienda: Miraflores, 111

Cabildos de Indios , 100 , 134 -35, 147

Cáceres, Andrés Avelino, 157 , 209 , 277

Cáceres, Mariano, 137

Cádiz, 44 , 58

Cacicazgos , 97 , 108 , 123 , 249

Caciques de sangre , 123 . See also Kurakas

Cailloma, 33 , 168

Caja de Censos de Indios, 110

Caja de Consolidación, 110

Cajamarca, 144

Calapuja, 183

Calisays trees, 64. See also Chinchona bark

Callao, 41 , 44 , 59 , 169

Callohuanca (kuraka family), 141 , 283

Calsina, Juan, 89

Camaná, 176

Cameloids, 167 , 365 n.77;

huanacos, 19 ;

vicuñas, 19.

See also Alpacas; Llamas

Caminaca, 14 , 69 , 81 , 221 , 223 -24, 270 , 338

Campomanes, Count of, 88

Canas, 35

Canchis, 35 , 174

—hacienda: Lauramarca, 346

Candamo, Manuel, 279 , 338

Cangas, Gregorio de, 94

Canihua , 19

Cano Arce, Alejandro, 311

Capachica peninsula, 233

Capellanías , 120 , 258.

See also Censos

Capital: accumulation, 188 ;

for livestock estates, 192 , 315 , 316 -17, 326 -27, 350 ;

for mining, 63 ;

for trade, 180 ;

for tropical agriculture, 65.

See also Credit

Capitalism: and agrarian economy, 7 , 351 -52, 354 ;

definition of, 5 ;

transition to, 3 , 5 , 7 -8, 175 , 315 , 355 ;

and unequal development, 8

Carabaya: administrative boundaries, 48 ;

chinchona bark, 58 , 64 -65;

migration to and colonization of, 24 , 65 , 102 , 188 , 211 ;

mining, 32 , 62 -63, 65 -66, 80 , 168 , 185 , 227 ;

repartos de bienes , 97 ;

roads, 223 ;

rubbe companies, 185 ;

trade, 33 -34, 72 ;

tribute lists, 131 ;

during Túpac Amaru Rebellion and Wars of Independence, 45 , 47 , 49

Carcausto (kuraka family), 141

Carcausto, Carmen, María and Sebastián, 125

Carlosvisa (kuraka family), 141

Carrascón y Sola, Francisco, 48

Cascarilla. See Chinchona bark

Caste society.

See Sociedad de castas

Castilla (province), 267

Castilla, Ramón, 127 , 130 , 132 , 145 , 277

Castresana, José Guillermo de, 190 , 294 , 299 , 301 , 318 -19

Castro, Cayetano, 137

Castro Pozo, Hildebrando, 260

Catari, Nicolás and Sebastian, 89


465

Catholic church: and anticlericalism, 148 ;

baptisms, marriages and funerals, 26 , 172 ;

cofradías , 266 ;

and education, 408 n.190;

and Indian labor, 276 ;

as landholder, 6 , 82 , 98 , 109 , 111 , 118 -21, 233 , 253 -58;

and state, 348.

See also Priests

Cattle, 33 , 176 , 419 n.67.

See also Livestock

Caupolicán, 189

Ccori, Francisca, 265 -66

Ceja de la selva: migration to and colonization of, 24 , 65 -66;

mining, 32 , 62 -63;

roads, 223 ;

trade and exchange with, 33 , 56 , 140 , 179 , 188 -89, 302 .

See also Chinchona bark; Coca leaves; Gold; Rubber

Censos , 110 , 120.

See also Capellanías

Censuses, 22 -27, 36 , 140 , 145 , 147 , 274 .

See also Population

Cerro de Pasco, 42

Cerro Surupana, 14

Céspedes del Castillo, Guillermo, 44

Cevallos, Pedro de, 41

Chaco War, 25

Challuma (river), 63

Chávez Molina, Juan, 203

Chayanov, A. Y., 282 -83, 328

Chayanta, 177 -78

Chile, 50 , 78

Chinchona bark, 58 , 61 , 64 -66, 130 , 168 , 179

Choquehuanca family, 82 -84, 97 , 108 , 248 -49.

See also Chukiwanka Ayulo, Francisco; Chuquiguanca, Manuel

Choquehuanca, Alejandro, 339

Choquehuanca, Diego (the older), 82 -83

Choquehuanca, Diego (the younger), 45 , 83 , 91 , 93 , 96 -97, 101 , 249 , 297

Choquehuanca, Gregorio, 101

Choquehuanca, José Domingo: on church landholding, 118 -20, 254 ;

and Junta Departamental, 129 ;

on population, 26 ;

on society, 107 , 113 , 135 -39, 145 , 148 , 313 ;

on starvation, 101 ;

on textile trades, 51 , 54

Choquehuanca, Joséf, 83 , 96

Choquehuanca, Juana Manuela, 242 , 339

Choquehuanca, María, 84

Choquehuanca, Tiburcio, 276

Chucuito (province), 33 , 194

Chukiwanka Ayulo, Francisco, 339

Chumbivilcas, 35 , 167 , 193

Chuño , 18 , 34

Chupa, 19 , 21 , 239 , 262 , 270 , 282 , 284 , 340

—hacienda: Caminacoya, 347

—parcialidad: Hilahuata, 338

Chuquibambilla, Granja Modelo de, 321 , 351

Chuquiguanca, Manuel, 81

Chuqisaca. See Sucre

Civil code (of 1852), 120 , 127

Civilistas, 209 , 338 , 344

Clientalism, 6 , 69 , 229 -30, 315 , 332

Climate (in the altiplano), 16 -17.

See also Droughts; Microclimates

Coahuila (Mexico), 308

Coca leaves: production, 65 ;

self-provisioning by peasants, 63 , 189 , 195 ;

trade, 34 , 37 , 56 , 57 , 74 , 109 , 168 , 172 , 179 , 284 , 338

Cochabamba, 45 , 57 , 177


466

Coinage.

See Money

Cojata, 196

Colégio Nacional San Carlos, 246 , 322

Collpares , 16

Colonialism: Colonial order, 78 -79, 104 -5;

legacy of, 3 -5, 9 , 328 .

See also Neocolonialism

Colonos , 1 , 6 ;

during early republic, 144 , 382 n.115;

and economic rationality, 323 -25;

families, 295 -306, 350 ;

incorporation into haciendas, 4 , 84 , 238 , 286 , 289 -93, 336 , 349 ;

internal stratification, 297 -98;

punishment, 304 -6;

remuneration, 85 , 297 -301, 318 -21;

resistance and revolt, 305 , 319 -23, 327 , 346 -47, 350 ;

trade, 302 ;

used as mining labor, 62 -63;

wool production, 297 .

See also Haciendas; Huacchos ; Labor; Yanaconas

Comité Pro-Derecho Indígena "Tawantinsuyo," 345 -48

Compadres , 196

Compañía Nacional de Recaudación, 279

Compañía Río Negro, 351

Composiciones de tierras , 79 , 88 , 98 -99

Comunidad. See Indian communities

Condorcanqui, José Gabriel.

See Túpac Amaru, José Gabriel

Conima, 25 , 190

Consolidation law of 1911, 255 -56.

See also Emphyteusis

Constitucionalistas, 338

Copper, 168

Cordillera de Carabaya, 14 , 24 , 53 , 65 , 80 -81, 99 , 130 , 179 , 188 , 196 , 285

Córdoba, 49 , 181

Coret, Juan Bautista, 182

Corn.

See Maize, trade in

Cornejo, Manuela, vda. de Collado, 117

Corregidores , 37 -39, 44 -45, 88 , 93 -94, 97 ;

and provincial elites, 96 -97.

See also Repartos de bienes ; Surplus extraction (from the peasant economy)

Cortes of Cadiz, 122

Cossio, Matheo, 34

Costa, Joaquín, 88

Costas, José María, 180

Costas, Manuel, 63 , 180

Costilla, Geronimo de, 80 -81

Cotera, de la (Spanish merchant in Arequipa), 50 -51

Couturier, Edith, 243

Credit, 180 -82, 189 -92, 229 , 231 -32, 256 -58, 301 , 327 , 334.

See also Capital; Money

Croix, Teodoro de la, 99

Crucero, 66 , 70

Crucero Alto, 183

Cundinamarca (Colombia), 329

Custred, Glynn, 266

Cuzco (city), 13 , 74 , 113 ;

Bourbon reforms, 47 -48;

customs houses, 45 ;

diocese, 82 , 119 , 121 ;

factories and craft shops, 170 , 176 ;

hacendados, 53 , 79 , 80 , 108 ;

merchants, 44 , 53 , 179 ;

mint, 63 ;

Pumacahua Rebellion, 49 ;

roads and railroads to, 38 , 70 , 78 , 81 ;

trade, 20 , 32 -33, 71 , 81 , 109 , 140 , 161 ;

Túpac Amaru rebellion, 45

Cuzco (intendency, valley system or department): encomenderos and hacendados, 79 , 353 ;

Indian communities, 128 , 263 ;

migration to, 24 , 25 ;

politics, 58 ;

revolts, 321 ;

textile pro-


467

duction, 39 , 42 , 47 , 51 -54, 167 , 174 , 331 ;

trade, 16 , 33 -35, 37 , 41 , 44 , 50 -53, 56 -57, 72 , 74 -75;

Túpac Amaru Rebellion, 45 ;

Wars of Independence, 50 -51;

wool production, 59

D

Debt peonage, 301 , 370 n.33.

See also Colonos ; Hacindas

Declerq, A., 308

Delgado, Julio, 254 , 273

Demócratas, 338

Dependency: paradigm, 2 , 5 ;

and regional economic development, 10 , 52

Desaguadero (river), 48 , 58

Desaguadero (town), 176 , 183 , 190

Deustua, José, 62

Deza, Bonifacio, 139

Deza, Gaspar, 117

Dirección de Censos y Obras Pías, 109

Droughts, 17 , 101 , 134 , 358 n.29

Duffield, A. J., 164

Duncan Fox and Company, 174

Dunn, William E., 169 -70

E

Echenique, Carlota, 227

Echenique, José Rufino, 110 , 147 , 227 , 364 n.56

Echenique, Miguel de, 227

Ecology (of the altiplano), 13 -20

Emphyteusis, 109 , 115 , 119 -20.

See also Consolidation law of 1911; Haciendas

Enclosures.

See Fencing

Encomenderos , 79 , 80 , 108

Endara, José S., 250

Enganche , 25

England. See Great Britain

Enríquez, Mariano Wenceslao, 171 , 187

Enríquez, Victoria, 187

Epidemics, 21 , 24 -26, 27 , 37 , 101 , 134 , 287 , 331 .

See also Population

Escobedo, José Mariano, 68 -69, 110 , 113 , 179 -80, 253

Escobedo, Mariano de, 21 , 48 , 103 , 131

Escobedo, Ramón, 110

Essen, 170

Estación de Pucará, 183 , 185 , 187 , 190

Estancias, 81 , 202 -3, 274.

See also Land; Peasants

Estate owners.

See Hacendados

Estates.

See Estancias; Haciendas

Esteves, Carlos, 318 -19

Estévez, Manuel Ruperto, 109

Evia, José Ignacio, 129

Exchange: asymmetrical, 37 ;

reciprocal, 11 , 72 -74, 276 , 331 -32;

vertical, 33 -34.

See also Barter; Markets; Surplus extraction (from the peasant economy); Trade

F

Faenas , 275 , 296

Fallas de ganado , 300 -301.

See also Colonos ; Haciendas

Family descent groups, 267 -68, 273 -74, 277 , 336 .

See also Indian communities

Farr Alpaca Company, 163

Fauna (of the altiplano), 19 -20.

See also Cameloids; Cattle; Sheep

Favre, Henri, 1 -2, 240 -41

Fencing, 315 , 318 , 322 -23, 324 , 328 .

See also Haciendas

Fernández Hidalgo, Polonia, 94

Ferrocarril del Sur, 184 -85

Figueroa Obando, Felipe and Manuel, 205

Fincas.

See Haciendas


468

Fischer, Adrian, 300 -301, 306

Fisher, John, 41

Fitzgerald, E. V. K., 353

Flores Galindo, Alberto, 304 , 348

Forasteros , 21 , 88 -89, 95 , 101 -2, 123 , 130 -31, 141

Fosters (alpaca wool mill), 163

Frisancho, José, 211 , 234

G

Gadea, Alberto, 246 , 322

Gallegos, Adoraida, 217 , 232 , 235 , 243

Gallegos, Geronimo, 235

Gamarra, Agustín, 58 , 132 -33

Gamonales , 1 ;

and agrarian capitalism, 315 , 354 ;

and Indian communities, 293 ;

onset of, 148 ;

and peasant clients, 230 , 325 , 333 ;

and power contests, 276 -77, 336 ;

struggle against, 339 -41, 348 -49;

and violence, 236 -37, 338 , 347

Garmendia family, 174

Garmendia, Juliana, 305

Gender: among colonos , 298 , 302 ;

and land ownership, 242 , 273 ;

legal rights of women, 242 -43;

and occupations, 140

Genovese, Eugene, 305

Gibson, Enrique W., y Compañía, 187 , 190 -91, 228 , 350 , 352

Gildemeister family, 319

Gold: exports, 168 ;

mining after independence, 62 -63, 130 , 185 ;

mining during colony, 32 , 80 .

See also Precious metals

González, Ildefonso, 221

González, Josefa, 189

González Figueroa, Federico, 239 -40, 250

González Terrazas, Leonor, 239

González y Montoya, José, 99 -100

Gosselman, Carl August, 59

Grace, W. R., 174

Grasses, 18 , 310 , 322 -23

Great Britain: exports to Peru, 51 -52;

industrial capitalism in, 7 ;

and informal neocolonialism, 3 ;

textile industry, 60 , 152 , 154 , 158 , 163 ;

wool imports from Peru, 59 -60, 157 -59, 163 -65

Great Depression: of 1873-95, 159 ;

of 1929-32, 3 , 25 , 329 , 337

Griffin, Keith, 323

Guadalajara (Mexico), 28

Guardia Civil, 349

Guirior, Manuel de, 44

Gutiérrez Cuevas, Teodomiro (Rumi Maqui), 340 -41

H

Hacendados, 4 ;

absenteeism, 115 , 294 ;

and coastal oligarchy, 211 -12;

during early republic, 108 -9, 114 -15;

inheritance, 108 , 241 -48, 335 , 351 , 404 nn.138, 145 ;

leading armed bands, 211 ;

political power, 239 -40;

social origins, 68 , 211 -12, 233 ;

and system of domination, 328 ;

and violence, 304 -5.

See also Clientalism; Gamonales ; Paternalism

Haciendas: administration, 293 -95, 319 , 322 ;

buying peasant products, 188 , 301 -2;

capitalization (livestock), 117 , 238 , 254 -55, 311 -12;

caseríos , 136 , 293 ; celebrations, 304 -5;

chapels, 136 ;

compared to communities, 295 ;

confiscations after independence, 110 ;

crop production, 296 ;

definition, 202 -3;

destruction in rebellions and civil wars, 47 , 97 ;

during early republic, 108 -21;

economic model, 323 -25;


469

efficiency, 10 -11, 85 -86, 240 , 311 -12, 322 ;

formation and growth since 1850s, 205 -12, 220 -23, 226 -41, 240 -41, 334 , 349 ;

formation during colony, 79 -80, 331 ;

frequency of sales, 251 -52, 335 ;

incorporating peasants, 4 , 238 , 286 , 289 -93, 325 , 349 ;

infrastructure, 296 , 322 ;

labor regime, 295 -306;

leases, 109 , 113 -14, 115 , 118 -19, 213 -14, 233 -34, 254 -55;

measuring their size, 214 ;

modernization, 316 -23;

productivity, 306 , 308 , 311 , 324 ;

profit optimizing, 11 , 312 -14;

revenues, 111 -13, 115 , 117 , 313 ;

size distribution, 8 , 111 -13, 203 ;

splintering, 241 , 250 -51, 335 , 351 ;

stock operations, 296 , 306 -11, 319 -20;

value, 113 , 214 -20;

wool production, 167 ;

wool sales, 190.

See also Capital; Colonos ; Fencing; Land; Livestock; Sheep; Wool

Haigh, Samuel, 51 , 59

Hanco, Andrés, 83

Harmsen, Guillermo, 179

Haya de la Torre, Victor Raúl, 352

High Peru: epidemics, 21 ;

mining, 42 -44, 331 -32;

roads, 38 ;

trade, 11 , 35 , 39 -41, 44 , 47 , 49 -51, 56 , 74 , 81 , 93 , 105 , 177 .

See also Bolivia

Hilacatas , 275 -76, 279 , 341 .

See also Indian communities

Hispanocca Vilca, Damaso, 219

Hobsbawm, Eric, 206

Huacchos , 297 , 309 , 318 -21, 327 .

See also Colonos ; Haciendas

Hualgayoc, 42

Huancané (province), 14 ;

Indian peasants, 276 ;

labor for mining, 62 ;

land tenure, 262 ;

livestock population, 117 -18;

revolts, 24 , 343 , 347 -48;

trade, 180 ;

tribute lists, 131

—parcialidad: Huancho-Lima, 347

Huancané (town), 14 , 176 , 183 , 185 , 347

Huancavelica, 2 , 240 , 252

Huarcaya, Marta, 215

Huaricacha family, 283

Huayna Capac, 83

Hunt, Shane, 59 , 323 -25

I

Iglesias, Mariano, 157

Ilave, 183

Inambari (river), 32 , 63 , 185

Incas, 11 , 87 , 276 , 340 , 342 , 347 , 348 , 355

Inca Mining Company, 185

Inclán y Valdéz, Fernando, 94

Indian communities, 4 , 9 , 10 ;

authorities of, 135 , 141 , 274 -79, 336 , 341 , 348 -49;

cajas de comunidad , 105 ;

and colonial state, 87 -88, 121 , 331 ;

crafts production in, 36 ;

crop rotation, 262 ;

developing out of finca, 250 ;

and economic cycles, 9 ;

within estates, 326 ;

internal stratification, 1 , 88 -89, 123 , 127 , 131 , 141 , 262 , 280 -88, 382 n.115;

and land during colony, 86 -90, 91 , 99 -100, 331 ;

and land during republic, 122 -24, 128 , 223 -26, 268 ;

litigation, 83 , 93 , 264 ;

and local authorities, 262 -63, 274 -77;

"messengers," 338 ;

moiety structure, 260 ;

population, 269 -71;

and property, 6 , 81 , 109 , 128 -29, 260 -68, 336 ;

and republican state, 127 -28, 260 -61, 275 , 277 -78, 349 ;

resis-


470

Indian communities (continued )

tance and revolt, 337 -43;

subdivisions and splintering, 274 , 342 ;

terminology, 259 -61.

See also Forasteros; Kurakas; Mita; Originarios ; Peasants; Tribute

Indians: changing definition of, 4 , 146 -47;

elite stereotype, 304 -5, 333 , 354 ;

"Indian problem," 338 -39;

and Peru's national identity, 2 , 345 ;

and social change, 1 -2.

See also Indian communities; Sociedad de castas ; Society

Indigenismo , 1 -2, 226 , 260 -61, 276 , 317 , 329 , 339 , 342 , 345 , 355

Indigenous Community Statute, 261

Inheritance.

See Hacendados; Peasants

Iruri, Juan Antonio, 265

Islay, 24 , 59 , 64 , 74 , 161 , 179 , 183 .

See also Mollendo

Italy, 175

J

Jauja, 24

Jauregui, Agustín de, 47

Jesuits, 81 , 85 -86, 113

Jesus María (mine in Tiquillaca district), 115

Jimenez, Michael, 329

Juan y Santacilia, Jorge, 88

Judicial system, 211 , 230 , 234 -36, 238 , 249 .

See also Indian communities

Juli, 183

Juliaca, 47 ;

as commercial center, 186 -87, 284 ;

haciendas, 308 ;

merchants, 192 , 344 , 347 ;

middle class, 351 ;

money exchange, 161 ;

as railroad hub, 183 , roads, 185

Junin (department), 59 , 66

Junta Superior de Real Hacienda, 99

K

Kacharparis , 92 , 379 n.86

Kaerger, Karl, 308

Knight, Alan, 11

Kollas, 11 , 33

Kubler, George, 92

Kurakas , 54 ;

and communities, 83 , 92 -93, 103 ;

during early republic, 123 , 141 , 280 ;

functions for the colonial state, 91 ;

as landholders during colony, 81 -83, 90 , 93 , 331 ;

and provincial elite, 100 , 105 ;

trade, 37 , 38 -39;

during Túpac Amaru Rebellion, 45 -46, 96 -97.

See also Cacicazgos ; Indian communities; Peasants

L

La Palata, Duke of, 85 , 298

La Paz (city), 12 , 38 , 45 , 46 , 49 , 57 , 182 , 184

La Plata (city).

See Sucre

La Serna, José de, 50 -51

Labor: forced, 129 -30, 275 -76;

for livestock operations, 84 -86, 290 -93, 318 -21;

for mining, 7 , 62 -63;

unions, 321 ;

wage, 5 , 62 , 285 , 314 -15, 320 -21, 324 , 337 , 350 , 421 n.115.

See also Colonos; Mita; Yanaconas

Laikakota mines, 32

Lampa (corregimiento or province), 14 , 146 ;

haciendas, 111 , 115 , 352 ;

industrial census, 36 ;

livestock population, 117 -18;

mining, 33 , 62 , 168 ;

shifting jurisdictional borders, 48 ;

textile trades, 56 ;

trade and transport, 32 , 35 , 39 , 237 ;

tribute


471

lists, 131 ;

during Túpac Amaru Rebellion, 45

Lampa (town), 38 , 133

Land: agrarian reforms of 1820s, 122 -27, 260 , 332 ;

corporate, 4 , 6 , 266 ;

court and notarial proceedings, 231 ;

distribution and redistribution of, 10 , 88 , 95 ;

held in mortmain, 110 , 120 ;

in the Indian communities, 86 -90, 99 -100, 260 -68, 271 , 311 ;

invasions and land grabbing, 79 , 110 , 236 -37, 315 , 335 , 346 ;

litigation, 249 ;

methodology for measuring transfers, 198 -201;

monopolization by estates, 323 -25;

precarious tenure (squatting), 102 ;

sales since 1850s, 201 -12, 251 -52, 334 -35, 343 ;

and Túpac Amaru Rebellion, 97 ;

value of, 86 , 113 -14, 212 -20, 331 .

See also Haciendas; Indian communities

Landaeta, Elena, vda. de Quiñones, 256

Langer, Erick, 58

Larecaja, 33 , 34 , 64 , 195 , 284

Large landholders. See Hacendados

Laro, 183

Larrea y Loredo, José de, 123

Latifundism, 10 , 211 , 234 , 315 , 323

Lavrín, Asunción, 243

Leguía, Augusto, 226 , 240 , 344 -46, 348 , 349 , 351

Lehman, David, 328

Lenin, V. I., 328

León Cabrera, Pio, 256 , 304 , 320

León Huarcaya, Carlos, 228

Levas.

See Mandas

Liberals: and agrarian reform, 121 -23, 126 -27;

and church, 119 -20, 254 ;

and local authorities, 129 ;

and political participation, 9 ;

property notions, 124 , 328 ;

vision of society, 106 , 107 -8, 137 , 145 -46, 147 -48

Lima: as center of colony, 11 ;

colonial authorities, 47 -48;

Consulado, 49 ;

factories, 170 , 174 ;

import capacity, 169 ;

and loss of High Peru, 40 -41;

merchants, 67 , 178 ;

mule trade, 182 ;

Puñenos in Lima, 351 ;

ruling elites and politics, 211 , 277 ;

Supreme Court, 211 , 249 ;

trade during colony, 37 -39;

urban primacy, 8

Limoges (France), 170

Linares, José María, 57

Lipa, Pablo and Tomás, 189

Liverpool, 157 , 159 , 189 , 343

Livestock: animal/land ratio, 268 , 271 -72;

as base of altiplano economy, 31 -32, 51 ;

capital of estates, 109 , 111 , 113 , 117 , 311 ;

chaqueo , 133 ;

and conflicts with agriculturalists in pre-hispanic America, 369 n.10;

disposition on estates, 307 -11;

effect on land distribution, 81 -82;

effects of rebellions and civil wars on, 46 -47;

populations, 86 , 95 , 117 -18, 164 , 271 -72, 311 , 377 n.44;

rustling or theft, 96 , 236 , 300 ;

trade in products, 167 , 178 , 284 .

See also Cameloids; Cattle; Haciendas; Indian communities; Peasants; Sheep; Wool

Livestock estates.

See Haciendas

Lizares, Francisco (the elder), 108 -9, 120 , 127 , 239

Lizares Montesinos, María Dolores, Augustina and Antonia, 109


472

Lizares Quiñones family, 233 , 240 , 347

Lizares Quiñones, Francisco, 239

Lizares Quiñones, José Angelino, 239 -40, 244 , 254 , 304 , 338 , 340

Lizares Quiñones, José María, 109 , 222 , 239 , 244 , 265

Llamas, 67 , 182 , 185 .

See also Livestock; Transportation

London, 157 , 189 , 191

López, Felipe R., 233

López de Romaña, Eduardo, 279 , 319

Lora Cam, Jorge, 226

Lowell, 171

Lucre (obraje and wool mill in Cuzco department), 174

Luna, Luis Felipe, 271 , 337 -38

Lupakas, 11 , 33

M

Maccagno, L., 317

Macedo family, 181

Macedo, Rufino, 58 , 120 , 253

Macedo, Simeón Rufino, 65

Macedo Ruiz, Martín Humfredo, 248

Macusani, 223

Maize, trade in, 19 , 34 , 37 , 56 , 57 , 72 , 74 , 176 , 177 , 195

Mamani, Casimira, 287

Mancha India , 11 , 356

Mandas , 128 , 261

Mango, Isabel, 237

Mango, Tomás, 97

Mango Turpo family, 83 , 97 , 108

Manrique, Nelson, 178 , 275

Manto mine, 62

Maranganí, 174

Marcoy, Paul, 56 , 64

Mariátegui, José Carlos, 133

Markets, 10 ;

during colonial period, 32 ;

competitive, self-regulating, 5 , 71 -72, 78 , 194 ;

and currency fluctuations, 161 ;

internal or national, 175 , 177 , 178 ;

international or world, 11 , 31 , 333 ;

local or regional, 36 -37, 39 -40, 56 -58, 172 -79, 334 ;

monopolies in, 71 , 194 ;

oligopsonistic, 163 ;

regarding land, 6 , 10 , 123 -24;

weekly and annual fairs, 70 -72, 188 , 196 , 349 .

See also Barter; Exchange; Trade

Markham, Clements, 64 , 70 , 171 , 172 , 182

Martinet, J. B., 254 , 258

Martínez Alier, Juan, 273 , 297 , 323 -26

Mayordomos (of haciendas), 96 , 293 -95, 304

Meiggs, Henry, 183

Melgar province, 14 , 318

—hacienda: Huacahuta, 318 .

See also Chuquibambilla, Granja Modelo de

Melgarejo, Mariano, 160

Mercantilism, 8

Mercedes , 79

Merchants: foreign or of foreign origin, 50 -51, 52 , 66 -67, 178 , 179 , 334 ;

Spanish and Peruvian, 52 -53, 56 , 67 -69, 179 , 334 ;

wool, 180 , 344 .

See also Traders

Mestas, Manuel, 69

Mestizos: during early republic, 140 , 145 -46;

and Peru's national culture, 2

Mexico, 11 , 21 , 78 , 202 , 243 , 301 , 308 , 329

Microclimates, 17

Military and police: during colonial era, 50 ;

provincial militias, 96 , 108 , 137 ;

recruitment, 24 , 25 , 101 , 132 -33;

repress-


473

ing revolts, 338 , 343;

during republic, 157

Millenarianism, 340 , 342 , 346 , 348

Miller, Simon, 329

Mina, Francisco de, 90

Mining.

See Borax; Copper; Gold; Silver. See also Capital; Labor

Miranda, Pascual, 306

Mishkin, Bernard, 273

Mita , 91 -92;

abolition, 122 , 129 ;

for livestock estates, 84 , 86 ;

for mining, 21 , 87 , 374 n.117;

for transport, 39 ;

and tribute categories, 89 ;

during Túpac Amaru Rebellion, 46 .

See also Labor; Potosí

Mitanis , 275 -76, 296

Mohens and Company, 60

Moho, 183 , 196

Molina family, 294

Molina, Wenceslao, 192

Mollendo, 59 , 157 -58, 160 -61, 167 -68, 171 , 177 , 183 -84, 333 .

See also Islay

Möller y Compañía, 171 , 187

Mollinedo (Bishop of Cuzco), 81

Money: bills of exchange, 192 ;

currency exports, 61 ;

debased and other Bolivian coins, 57 , 160 -61;

exchange rates, 159 -60, 168 , 179 , 333 ;

introduction in the Andes, 7 ;

scarcity of cash, 68 , 72 , 181 , 232 .

See also Barter; Credit; Exchange

Montaña. See Ceja de la selva

Montesinos, Agapito, 307

Montesinos, Juliana, 109

Montesinos, Nicolás, 99 , 137

Moquegua, 47 , 176 , 182

Mostajo, Francisco, 276

Mostajo Yañez, Manuel Sixto, 187 -88

Moyas , 272 , 308

Mules.

See Transportation

Muleteers, 4 , 38 , 68 , 182

Mullisaca family, 295 , 327

Mullisaca, Aniceto and Guillermo, 297

Mullisaca, Benito, 302

Muñani: church lands, 254 ;

colonos , 297 , 320 ;

community peasants, 91 , 265 ;

enganche labor, 25 ;

estates, 80 , 109 , 113 , 239 -41;

hacendados and traders, 64 , 72 , 127 ;

kuraka family lands, 249 ;

obraje , 35 ;

peasant land sales, 221 -24;

population, 271 ;

roads, 185

—haciendas: Arcopunco, 239 ;

Calla-tomasa, 239 ;

Carasupo Chico, 250 ;

Checayani, 26 , 64 , 83 , 113 , 224 , 240 , 248 ;

Huasacona, 80 , 109 , 113 , 121 , 211 , 320 , 344 ;

Muñani Chico, 109 , 113 , 239 , 240 , 244 , 265 ;

Nequeneque, 83 , 84 , 113 , 244 , 249 ;

Ocra, 254 ;

Ticani, 239 ;

Toma, 295 .

See also Picotani

—parcialidades: Carasupo Chico, 250 ;

Caroneque, 265 ;

Choquechambi, 265

N

Nation-state (in Peru), 11 -12

Nazarenes (convent in Cuzco), 119

Neocolonialism, 176 , 205 , 326 , 328 , 330 , 333 , 354 .

See also Colonialism

New Spain.

See Mexico

New Zealand, 152 , 189

Nuñez family, 181

O

Obrajes , 35 , 39 , 47 , 49 -53, 60 .

See also Woolens


474

O'Brien, General, 62

Oca , 18

Olluco , 18

O'Phelan, Teresa, 253

Orbegoso, Luis José de, 110 , 132

Ordenanza de Intendentes, 98

Ordinance of Free Trade, 41 -42, 44 , 50

Originarios , 83 -84, 88 -89, 95 , 101 -2, 123 , 130 -31, 141 , 280 .

See also Tribute

Orlove, Benjamin, 189 , 266

Ortíz, Juan, 250

Oruro, 32 , 35 , 41 , 44 , 45 , 98 , 184

Oteira, Simón de, 182

P

Padilla, Telésforo, 182

Palazuelos, Pedro, 181

Pantigoso Chávez, José, 171

Parcialidades.

See Indian communities

Pardo, José, 279

Paredes family, 233 , 240

Paredes, Juan: and inheritance, 242 , 245 , 247 ;

and land, 113 , 125 , 222 , 230 ;

and paternalism, 295 ;

and trade, 68 -69, 140

Paredes, Luis, 254

Paredes, Manuel E. (senior), 171

Paredes, Mariano, 242

Paredes, Sabina, 247

Paredes Urviola, Manuel E., 25 , 219

Paternalism: 211 , 230 -31, 354 ;

in haciendas, 10 , 303 -5, 315 , 321 , 330 , 336

Paucarcolla (province), 32 , 33 , 35 , 39 , 91

Payta, 50

Peasants: assessment for taxes, 279 -80;

autonomy, 64 , 75 , 78 , 105 , 133 -34, 194 , 332 , 342 , 354 ;

community vs. colonos , 273 , 326 ;

consumption patterns, 170 -71;

control over cameloids, 163 , 167 ;

debt and dependency, 229 -31, 285 -86, 292 -93, 325 , 333 , 354 ;

and economic rationality, 323 -25;

festivities and ceremonies, 172 , 195 ;

household economy and production, 36 -38, 53 , 56 , 167 , 175 , 195 -96, 284 -85;

inheritance, 266 -67, 273 , 276 ;

kulak, 283 -84;

landholding during colony, 81 , 89 -90, 98 -99, 101 , 102 , 382 n.115;

landholding during republic, 127 , 205 -6, 271 , 281 -82, 286 , 342 , 349 ;

litigation, 235 , 267 -68;

payments and services to authorities, 95 -96, 129 , 274 -75;

prices of land, 215 -19;

resistance and revolt, 97 , 209 , 221 , 279 , 320 , 324 , 337 -48;

trading, 56 -58, 71 -72, 101 , 140 , 177 -78, 188 -89, 195 -96, 283 -85, 334 ;

and wool traders, 193 -94;

work outside of communities, 39 , 63 , 285 .

See also Colonos ; Indian communities; Indians; Labor

Pelechuco, 24 , 25

Peña, José María, 179 -80

Pentland, John Barclay, 57

Peritos agrimensores , 114

Peruvian Corporation, 184 , 351 .

See also Transportation

Peruvian-Bolivian Confederation, 53 , 58

Pezuela, Joaquín de, 50

Picotani (ayllu and hacienda in Muñani district): administrators, 294 -95;

capellanía , 121 ;

colonos , 195 , 291 , 297 -302, 327 ;

during colony, 83 ;

during early republic, 113 ;

formation of estate out of ayllu, 84 ;

liti-


475

gation, 249 ;

modernization, 318 -20;

productivity, 307 ;

rate of return, 313 ;

woman owner, 242 ;

wool sales, 190

Piedmont (of Andes).

See Ceja de la selva

Piel, Jean, 74 -75

Piérola, Carmen, 242

Piérola, Nicolás de, 160 , 209 , 211 -12, 246 , 263 , 279 , 337

Pinedo, Andrea, 304

Pino family, 181

Platt, Tristan, 177 -78

Poblete brothers, 63

Ponce, Manuel Eleuterio, 277

Ponce de León, Francisco, 304

Pongo , 129 , 275 -76, 296 , 318 .

See also Colonos ; Indian communities

Population: birth and death rates, 26 ;

density, 24 , 95 , 270 -71;

ethnic composition, 145 ;

family size among hacendados, 245 ;

of Indian communities, 269 -70;

long-term development in Azángaro, 20 -28, 86 , 349 ;

Malthusian model, 28 ;

migration, 25 , 87 .

See also Censuses; Epidemics

Porco, 32

Portobelo, 41

Potatoes, 18 .

See also Chuño

Poto, 32 , 61 , 62 , 130

Potoni, 14 ;

alpaca wool production, 188 ;

during colony, 81 ;

hacendados, 65 ;

hacienda formation, 221 , 223 , 235 ;

population, 271 ;

roads, 185 , 223

—haciendas: Caiconi, 99 ;

Lourdes, 217 , 232 ;

Potoni, 120 , 188

—parcialidad: Hila, 99 , 283

Potosí: epidemic, 24 ;

as market, 32 , 35 , 37 , 44 , 50 -51, 71 ;

mita , 21 , 87 , 89 , 92 ;

production and export of silver, 40 -42;

Protector de Indios, 90 ;

rebellions and Wars of Independence, 48 ;

road to, 38 ;

and transport business, 39

Precious metals, 61 -64.

See also Gold; Silver

Prenda pretorial.

See Anticresis

Prices: conventional, 219 , 335 ;

of land, 202 , 214 -20, 335 ;

of livestock, 215 ;

of staple foods, 101 ;

of textiles, 134 ;

theory, 420 n.90;

of wool, 60 -61, 69 , 152 , 154 , 157 -60, 163 -64, 189 -91, 196 , 343 -44.

See also Credit; Trade

Priests: economic situation after independence, 138 -39;

and peasants, 82 , 92 ;

and provincial elite, 96 , 100 -101, 187 , 255 .

See also Catholic church

Principales (in the Indian communities), 90 , 141 , 341 -43

Property rights: during Bourbon era, 121 , 330 ;

in capitalist economy, 5 -6;

disputed borders, 6 , 128 , 237 , 335 -36;

and gamonales , 354 ;

and land-use rights, 100 , 260 -68, 276 , 278 .

See also Land

Protector de Indios, 37 , 87 -88, 90 , 91

Proto-industrialization, 36 -37.

See also Artisans; Obrajes

Prudencio, Eusebio, 179

Pucará, 70 , 176 , 188 , 211

Pucará (river), 14 , 238

Puerto Acosta, 196

Pumacahua Rebellion, 49 -50

Puno (intendency and department): administration, 98 -99, 109 , 132 ;

consumption, 170 -72;

currencies circulating, 160 -61;


476

Puno (continued )

Junta Departamental, 129 -30;

mining after independence, 62 -64;

peasant land tenure, 263 ;

prefects, 52 , 132 ;

Reglamento de Minería, 129 -30;

roads and railroads, 183 -86;

shifting borders, 48 ;

textiles, 52 -53, 174 ;

during Wars of Independence, 49 -50;

wool traders, 180 , 186 -97

Puno (town): charity, 115 ;

diocese, 121 , 246 , 256 ;

hacendado families, 245 -46, 351 ;

merchants, 179 , 181 , 186 ;

schools, 246 ;

stores, 171 ;

Superior Court, 211 , 236 ;

during Túpac Amaru rebellion, 45 , 62 , 161 , 284

Puraca family, 280

Putina (district): during colony, 80 ;

enganche labor, 25 ;

estates, 113 ;

hacendados, 211 , 219 , 221 -24, 241 , 245 , 270 , 281 , 284 , 294 , 297 ;

roads, 185 ;

settlement nucleus, 134 ;

trade, 186 , 187 , 247

—haciendas: Antacollo y Antaña, 205 ;

Churura, 192 , 203 , 294 ;

Collpani, 245 , 247 ;

Loquicolla Chico, 215 , 245 -47;

Loquicolla Grande, 121 , 246 ;

Nuestra Señora de las Nieves de Chocallaca, 250 ;

Pachaje, 113 ;

Pampa Grande, 246 -47;

Quisuni, 117 ;

Tarucani/Sirasirani, 113 , 306

—parcialidades: Huayllapata, 283 ;

Jayuraya, 224

Putina (province), 12

Putina (river), 14

Q

Quebrada de Ayapata, 65

Quenallata family, 219 , 283

Quijano, Anibal, 2

Quillabamba, 176

Quinine.

See Chinchonna bark

Quiñones, José Luis, 256 , 265

Quiñones, Josefa, 109 , 239

Quinua , 18 -19

Quiroz, Alfonso, 192

Quispe, Melchor, 264

Quispe, Pedro, 265 -66

Quispe Amanqui, Gertrudis, 25

Quispe Huarcaya, Teresa, 215

Quispicanchis, 35 , 174 , 305

—hacienda: Ccapana, 306

R

Racism, 2 , 304 , 317 , 333 , 342

Raimondi, Antonio, 188

Ramírez, Juan, 49

Ramis (river), 14

Ramos, Juliana, 229

Ramos Zambrano, Augusto, 339

Reátegui, Wilson, 172

Recharte, Andrés, 198

Reducciones , 87

Repartos de bienes , 46 , 54 , 84 , 93 -97, 102 -3, 193 -94.

See also Corregidores

Ricketts y Compañía, 170 , 188 , 190 -91, 195 -96, 247

Ridged fields, 20

Rio, Manuel del, 127

Río de la Plata (viceroyalty), 33 -35, 40 , 44 , 48 , 97

Riquelme family, 120

Riquelme, José Guillermo, 227

Riquelme, Mariano, 64 , 68 , 248

Riquelme, Natalia, 248

Rivero, Francisco de, 65

Rivero, María, vda. de Velasco, 114 -15, 130

Roads.

See Transportation

Rodríguez, Francisco, 195

Rodríguez, Mariano C., 188

Romero, Emilio, 241 , 295


477

Rosaspata, 25 , 66 , 70 , 188

—hacienda: Huaranca Chico, 188

Rossel y Salas, Daniel, 211

Rossello family, 240

Rossello, Victor Gregorio, 230

Rubber, 168 , 187

Ruiz, José Albino, 215 , 228 , 244 , 248

Rumi Maqui.

See Gutiérrez Cuevas, Teodomiro

Rumi Maqui Rebellion, 209 , 223 , 339 -43

S

Sacaca family, 219 , 283

Salas, Nicomedes, 239

Salas Flores, César, 237 -39

Salinas (Lake), 16 , 263

Salt, Titus, 60 , 163

Salt, production and trade, 16 , 263 , 302

Salta, 38 , 63 , 182

Saman, 14 ;

agriculture, 19 ;

during colony, 81 ;

communities, 223 , 262 ;

land tenure after 1900, 221 , 349 ;

municipal council, 147 ;

population, 25 , 269 -70;

property tax assessment, 277 ;

revolts, 338 , 340 ;

women as land owners, 243

—haciendas: San Juan, 221 , 349 ;

Santa Clara, 221

—parcialidad: Chejachi, 223 -24

San Antón: during colony, 81 ;

communities, 224 , 270 , 281 ;

hacendados and traders, 65 , 68 ;

hacienda expansion, 221 , 223 -24, 228 , 239 ;

land prices, 219 ;

population, 270 ;

revolts, 339 -41;

roads, 185 , 223

—haciendas: Atarani, 339 ;

Esmeralda, 239

—parcialidades: Hila, 219 , 224 ;

Sillota, 224 ;

Sullca, 224 ;

Supira, 219

San Antonio de Esquilache, 32

San José (district), 14 ;

during colony, 81 ;

communities, 262 , 270 ;

hacienda expansion, 221 , 223 -24, 227 -28;

population, 270 ;

property taxes, 282 ;

revolts, 223 , 339 -41

—haciendas: Parcani, 227 -28;

Quimsacalco, 227 -28;

San José, 227 -28, 239 , 339 , 343 , 344 ;

Unión, 227

—parcialidades: Llaulli, 262 ;

San José, 262

San José (river), 228

San Marcos University, 192

San Martín (notary in Puno), 246

San Martín, José de, 109 , 122 , 129

San Román family, 181

San Román, Miguel, 133

Sánchez, Hipólito, 196

Sánchez Albornóz, Nicolás, 92 , 130

Sánchez Navarro family, 308

Sandia (province): migration to, 24 , 25 ;

mining, 168 , 185 , 211 ;

peasant self-provisioning, 195 , 302 ;

revolts, 320 , 340 , 343 ;

rubber collection, 185 , 211 ;

trade, 188

—hacienda: Hanccoyo, 304 , 320

Sandia (town), 187

Santa, Alfonso, 94

Santa Cruz, Andrés, 53 , 58 , 110 , 160

Santa Lucía, 190

Santa Rosa, 183 , 190 , 193 , 195

Santiago de Pupuja: during colony, 80 ;

communities, 36 , 270 , 286 ;

hacienda expansion, 223 , 230 ;

land tenure, 239 ;

population, 270 ;

revolts, 340 ;

rural crafts, 36 , 176


478

Santiago de Pupuja (continued )

—haciendas: Achosita, 119 ;

Cancata, 256 ;

Checca, 352 ;

Huito, 311 ;

Llallahua and Titiri, 113 -14;

Quera, 119

—parcialidad: Mataro, 230

Santo Domingo (convent in Cuzco), 119

Santo Domingo (gold mine), 185

Sarmiento, Carlos A., 247

Sarmiento, Juan Manuel, 229

Sartiges, Etienne, comte de, 132 -33

Sata y Zubiría, Lorenzo, 47 , 96

Saul, Berrick, 159

Scott, Robert, 305

Segundas , 275 -76, 341.

See also Indian communities

Sereni, Emilio, 175

Serna, Felipe, 250

Sheep: breeds, 306 -7, 321 -22, 351 ;

disposition on estates, 85 -86, 307 ;

population, 164 , 173 , 365 n.77, 388 n.71;

reproduction, 308 -10;

trade in, 33 -34, 176 ;

trade in products, 33 -34, 81 ;

wool, 35 -36, 56 , 58 -60, 81 , 153 , 154 -60, 344 .

See also Livestock; Wool; Woolens

Sicuani, 161 , 176 , 190 , 195

Silver: depreciation, 159 -61;

economy based on, 11 , 32 -33, 39 -40, 42 -44, 353 ;

mining, 60 -62, 80 , 130 ;

plata piña (unminted), 41 ;

production or export of, 41 , 42 , 57 , 168 , 331 -32.

See also Money; Precious metals

Smith, Gavin, 10 , 293 , 326

Sociedad de Beneficencia Pública, 110 , 253

Sociedad de castas , 2 , 134 , 136 , 145

Sociedad Ganadera del Departamento de Puno, 191 , 254 , 346

Sociedad Ganadera del Sur, 228 , 350 , 352

Sociedad Nacional de Agricultura, 308

Society: during early republic, 134 -48; polarized vision of, 4 , 8 , 146 , 203 , 330 , 333 , 354

Socorros , 103.

See also Repartos de bienes

Soils, 16 , 91 , 95 -96

Solorzano, Mariano, 245 , 247

Solorzano Terroba, Adrián, 246

Solorzano Terroba, Julio, 246 -47

Solorzano Terroba, Maria Manuela, 246

Solorzano Terroba, Mariano Casto, 245 -46

Solorzano Terroba, Natalia, 246 -47

Solorzano Toro, Natividad, 246

Soraicho, 179

South Africa, 152 -53

Spalding, Karen, 84 , 209 , 211

Stafford, 190 -91, 247

State and state policies: during colony, 44 -45, 79 , 85 , 87 -88, 91 -92, 97 , 101 -6, 121 -22, 331 -32;

currency reform, 160 ;

during early republic, 109 -10, 120 , 121 -27;

after 1850, 194 -95, 211 -12, 260 -61, 277 , 349 , 356 ;

investigative commissions sent to Puno, 338 , 345 , 424 n.5

Stordy, Robert, 316 -17, 351

Subdelegados , 97 , 100 , 103 , 110

Sucari family, 283

Sucre, 37 , 38 , 49 , 101

Surplus extraction (from the peasant economy), 37 , 40 , 90


479

-96, 103 , 134 , 331 -33. See also Corregidores ; Indian communities; Mita ; Tribute

T

Tacna, 66 , 181 , 263

Tahuantinsuyo. See Incas

Tambopata (river), 25 , 32 , 63 , 64

Tapia, José Joaquín de, 120

Taraco, 14 , 340

Tarapacá, 176

Tarucani (river), 224

Taxes: alcabala , 44 , 103 ;

assessment and lists, 111 , 115 , 131 , 139 -40, 279 -80, 376 n.25;

during colony, 4 , 32 , 37 , 44 -45, 97 , 102 , 105 , 331 ;

contribución de indígenas , 123 , 127 , 130 -32, 145 ;

contribución de predios rústicos , 195 , 277 -80;

contribución general de industrias,139 ;

contribución personal , 194 -95, 277 -78;

import and export tariffs, 169 , 179 ;

during republic, 130 -32, 279 , 337 ;

tithe collectors, 140.

See also Tribute

Taylor, Lewis, 144

Terroba, Augustina, 245 , 247

Tierras de oficio , 123 , 126

Tierras realengas , 125.

See also Baldíos ; Land

Tinta (corregimiento), 45

Tirapata, 14 , 183 , 185 -87, 223

Titicaca (Lake), 9 , 13 -14, 20 , 24 , 38 , 45 , 48 , 58 , 81 , 183 -84, 221 , 262

Tiwanaku, 11

Todas las Sangres (novel by J. M. Arguedas), 1 -2

Toledo, Francisco de, 87

Toro, Emilia, 246

Toro Nafria, Francisco Adrián, 219

Torres, José Manuel, 64

Tovar family, 181

Trade: balance of, 169 ; circuits, 176 -77, 211 ;

colonial, 11 , 33 -39, 41 -44, 47 -49, 52 -53;

cycles, 151 ;

dendritic, 177 -78, 194 , 333 ;

exports, 58 -61, 151 -69, 333 , 337 , 343 -44;

free trade, 51 , 178 , 179 ;

imports, 42 -44, 47 , 51 -52, 169 -72;

after independence, 70 -77;

protectionism, 57 , 60 , 65 , 167 , 177 , 179 ;

triangular, 72 .

See also Barter; Exchange; Markets; Repartos de bienes

Traders, 4 ; in the early republic, 139 -41; since 1850s, 186 -97, 302 , 334 , 344

Transportation: cost of, 44 , 62 , 75 , 115 , 184 , 333 , 390 n.119;

lake steamers, 181 , 183 ;

maritime, 159 ;

mule paths, 62 , 182 ;

mule trade, 38 , 63 , 70 , 94 , 182 ;

pack trains, 38 -39, 63 , 67 , 157 , 182 , 185 , 346 ;

railroads, 168 , 176 , 183 -85;

roads, 38 , 66 , 80 -81, 185 -86, 348 -49;

trucks, 349 .

See also Llamas

Tribute: abolition, 122 , 277 ;

abuses in collection, 91 ;

and colonial compact, 87 , 278 ;

differential rates, 89 , 91 ;

percapita rates, 380 n.90;

recounts and lists, 21 , 27 , 83 ;

resistance against, 84 ;

rising collection in Bourbon era, 95 , 103 ;

during Túpac Amaru rebellion, 46 ;

and yanaconas , 85 .

See also Forasteros; Originarios ; Taxes

Trujillo, 122

Tschudi, Johann Jakob von, 24


480

Tucuman, 38 , 70

Tumbes, 187

Tungasuca, 45

Túpac Amaru, Diego Cristóbal, 46 , 101

Túpac Amaru, José Gabriel, 45 -46

Túpac Amaru Rebellion, 21 , 45 -47, 83 , 89 , 96 -98, 249 , 332

Turner, I. (alpaca wool mill), 163

Turpo, Gabino and Mateo, 89 -90

Turpo, José María, 339 , 341

Turpo Ccallasaca, Victoriana, 219

U

Ulloa, Antonio de, 88

Umachiri, Battle of, 50

Unanue, Hipólito, 123

United Kingdom.

See Great Britain

United States of America: and informal neocolonialism, 3 ;

sheep breeding, 308 ;

textile industries, 152 , 163

Upper Peru.

See Bolivia; High Peru

Urcos, 157 , 174

Urquiaga Echenique, José Sebastian, 188 , 207 , 227 , 244 , 273 , 299 , 302 , 314 , 343

Urubamba (town), 108

Urubamba (valley), 33

Uruguay, 152

Urviola, Andrés, 72

Urviola, Miguel de, 47

V

Valdéz de la Torre, Carlos, 263

Valle, Fernando del, 182

Valle, Marshal del, 101

Valparaiso, 53 , 67

Van Young, Eric, 28

Vargas, Diego, 250 -51

Vásquez, Norberto, 238

Vegetation (of the altiplano), 17 -19, 359 nn.33-35.

See also Canihua ; Grasses; Oca; Olluco ; Potatoes; Quinua

Velando, Manuel, 253

Velarde, Carlos, 137

Vilcanota (valley), 33 , 45 , 46

Villa Rica, Marqués de, 62

Villarán, Manuel Vicente, 339

Vilque, 70 -71, 114 , 170

—hacienda: Yanarico, 70

Visitas de tierras , 79

W

Walle, Paul, 313

War of the Pacific, 25 , 151 , 157 , 178 , 186 , 190 , 205 , 211 -12, 263 , 277

Wars of Independence, 49 -51, 101 , 108

Weddell, Hugues Algernon, 64

West Riding, 163

Wheat, 19 , 177 -78

Wilthew (British Consul at Islay), 70

Wittmann, Tibor, 57

Wool: colonial trade, 34 , 35 , 81 ;

exports, 51 , 54 , 58 -61, 130 , 152 -67, 173 , 333 , 337 , 343 ;

production, 173 , 185 , 317 , 344 , 365 n.77, 386 n.40;

trade after independence, 67 -75, 186 , 189 -92, 302 , 353.

See also Alpacas; Sheep

Woolens: in Europe, 59 , 60 ;

Peruvian imports, 52 , 54 -56, 332 ;

Peruvian production, 35 , 47 , 54 , 157 , 167 , 174 -75, 331 ;

trade, 34 , 35 , 49 , 50 -51, 195.

See also Great Britain; United States of America


481

World capitalist systems approach, 5

World War I , 159 , 174 , 179 , 195 , 254 , 314 , 341 , 343

Y

Yanaconas , 39 , 84 -85, 96 , 100 , 101 , 292.

See also Colonos

Yorkshire, 17

Yungas, 57 , 65

Yunguyo, 183

Z

Zaa, Arturo, 246

Zea, Casimira, vda. de Hidalgo, 114

Zea, Juan Bautista, 72

Zea, Oswaldo, 203

Zecenarro Mamani (kuraka family), 141 , 280


 

Preferred Citation: Jacobsen, Nils. Mirages of Transition: The Peruvian Altiplano, 1780-1930. Berkeley, CA:  University of California Press,  1993. http://ark.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/ft3v19n95h/