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Subject and Name Index

A

Abadie, Alfred C., 176 , 179 , 249 , 251 , 252 , 275 -76, 286 , 291 , 370 , 516 n.53;

in Europe and Middle East, 197 -98, 209 , 234 , 240

Acting and Actors. See also Reenactments

—development of professional film actors and stock companies by film manufacturers, 253 -54, 260 , 391 -92, 417 , 455 , 461 , 466 -67, 540 n.80

—dubbing dialogue behind screen, 138 , 396 -402

—female impersonators, 55 , 169 , 171

—methods and styles of: presentational approach, 8 , 189 -90, 200 , 242 , 451 , 457 -58, 464 -65;

verisimilar approach, 189 -90, 463

—nonprofessional, in films, 146 -48;

laboratory staff as, 31 -33, 254 ;

production personnel as, 148 , 187 , 212 -14, 516 n.53

—quality of film performances judged, 415 , 422 , 424 , 427 , 447 , 451

—theatrical personnel: and filmmaking, 50 , 51 , 51 , 52 , 64 , 65 , 138 , 253 -54, 267 , 268 -72, 364 -65, 391 -92, 464 -68;

as represented in film, 391 -92

—vaudeville performers, 39 -41, 41, 42 , 43 , 50 , 55 , 64 , 65 , 69 , 169 , 173 , 179 , 321 -22, 397

—wild west show and rodeo performers, 50 , 51 , 174 , 275 -76, 323 , 360 -63

Actograph Company, 375 , 377

Actologue Company, 399 -400

Actophone Company, 459

Actualities. See also Film subjects; Reenactments

—versus acted/fiction film, 63 , 67 , 160 , 276 , 282 -84, 292 , 370 , 378 -79, 528 nn.139, 140

—declining appeal of, 195

—inexpensive nature of, 95 -96, 108 , 109 , 284 , 368 , 528 n.139, 531 n.55

—relabeling of films, 126 , 193

—repertoire of techniques used for, 105 , 107 , 211 ;

applied to fiction films, 211 , 225 , 249 -50, 259

—subgenres: industrial films, 322 , 370 , 378 , 457 , 531 n.55;

local views, 65 -66, 96 -98, 251 , 284 , 378 -79, 537 n.30;

news films, 67 , 68 -69, 98 , 101 , 104 -5, 112 , 117 , 119 -20, 126 -33, 135 -36, 138 , 140 -41, 142 , 143 , 154 , 161 , 175 , 176 , 184 -86, 187 , 190 , 208 -9, 251 , 252 , 253 , 275 , 276 , 284 , 286 , 289 , 291 , 322 -23, 367 -68;

quotidian views, 63 , 65 -69, 79 , 84 , 86 , 93 -96, 101 , 102 , 105 , 106 -7, 148 -49, 151 -52, 161 , 208 , 251 ,267, 276 , 291 , 323 , 324 ;

travel films, 84 , 95 -96, 97 -98, 108 -12, 122 , 144 , 152 -53, 209 , 240 , 249 , 264 , 274 , 285 , 368 -71, 457 , 506 -7n.5

Admission fees (ticket prices): at Eden Musee, 120 ;

at nickelodeons, 325 , 372 , 378 ;

at storefronts, 86

Advertisements: for films, 133, 256 , 316 ,


554

Advertisements (continued )

330 , 428 -29;

for projectors, 158 , 255 , 442 , 545 n.33

Advertising films, 119 ;

self-promotion in films, 69 , 101 , 102 , 129 -31

African Americans: representations of, 50 -51, 69 , 84 , 101 -2, 303 , 312 -14, 422 , 530 -31n.29

Aladdin and His Magic Lamp (musical), 383

Albany Evening Journal , 195

Albee, Edward Franklin, 23 , 88

Alexandrov, Grigori, 476

Alice in Wonderland (book), 350

Allen, Robert C., 10 , 162 , 283 -84, 502 n.48, 532 n.5

American Cinematograph, 118 , 508 nn.30, 36 . See also American Cinematograph Company; Cmématographe projector (Joly); Schneider, Eberhard

American Cinematograph Company, 119 , 131 , 133 -34, 140 , 510 nn.91, 92

American Indians: representations of, 50 , 55 , 108 , 109 , 276 , 425 -26

American Mutoscope & Biograph Company, 13

—and Armat patents, 379

—and attempt to buy Edison's motion picture interests, 156

—and biograph camera, 91

—copyright practices, 281 -82

—court cases: Edison patent litigation against, 115 , 143 , 154 , 155 , 176 -79, 195 , 196 , 289 -90, 333 -34, 375 , 379 -80;

sues Edison Co. for copyright violation, 281 -82

—as Edison rival, 91 -92, 95 , 114 , 127 , 143 , 144 , 154 -55, 158 , 161 -62, 276 -77, 280 -82, 291 -92, 333 , 339 , 391 , 397 , 432 , 433 -48, 449 , 451 , 454

—exhibition service, 91 -92, 141 , 142 , 143 , 162 -63, 178 , 182 , 196 , 239 , 253 , 280 -81, 509 n.72;

and Spanish-American War, 126 -27

—film gauge, 178 ;

and shift to 35mm, 196 -97, 239

—film production (1895-1900), 70 , 99 , 127

—film production (1901-1908), 163 , 220 , 226 , 241 -42, 273 , 276 , 314 -15, 339 , 355 ;

chase films, 260 ;

new emphasis on multi-shot fiction films, 253 , 256 , 276

—film production under Griffith (1908-1909), 425 -26, 437 , 450

—film sales, 196 -97, 280 , 381 , 437

—films as source for Edison productions, 95 -96, 99 , 102 , 170 -71, 208 , 245 , 273 -74, 276 , 280 -82, 312 -13, 340 , 422

—in financial crisis, 176 -78, 239

—and Motion Picture Patents Co., 434 -42

—patents: and Biograph Association of Licensees, 379 -82, 434 ;

litigation involving, 380 ;

owned, 178 , 379 ;

and rivalry with Edison, 333 -34, 377 -79

—personnel changes, 291 -92, 384

—remakes Edison films, 163

—studios, 253 , 339 , 524 n.54

American Mutoscope Company. See American Mutoscope & Biograph Company

American Sportagraph Company, 139 -40

American Vitagraph Company:

—develops reframing device for projector, 134 , 158 , 442

—as Edison licensee, 134 , 143 , 154 -55, 376 -77, 445 ;

agreement terminated, 161

—exhibition service, 134 , 141 , 142 , 144 , 178 , 197 , 218 , 239 , 280 ;

acquisition of foreign films for, 144 , 239

—film production (1898-1905), 134 , 141 , 143 , 144 , 172 ;

curtailed (1901), 161 , 178 ;

resumed (1902), 197

—film production (1905-1911), 12 , 329 , 331 , 334 , 355 , 375 , 378 , 404 , 406 , 417 , 422 , 423 , 437 ;

shift to a director system, 449

—old subjects sold to Edison Co., 192

—sued by Edison, 134 , 333 , 375 -76;

and Motion Picture Patents Co., 437 -38, 442 , 445 , 449 -50

America's Cup races, 141 , 190 , 251

Amet, Edward H., 92 , 114

Amusement parks, 320 -21. See also Coney Island

Amusement Supply Company, 522 n.33

Anderson, Gilbert (George) Maxwell (Max Aronson), 253 -54, 263 , 267 -68, 271 , 329 , 339 , 377 , 525 n.59

Animation, 317 -20, 323 , 331 , 350 , 409 , 410 , 531 n.29

Animatographe projector, 107

Annabelle. See Whitford, Annabelle

Anti-Semitism, 237 , 351 -53, 352 , 382 , 428 , 539 n.58

Antonio, Emil de, 476

Arbuckle, Roscoe "Fatty," 476

Arden, Edwin, 316

Armat, Thomas, 439

—and introduction of vitascope, 57 -60, 501 n.7, 503 n.62


555

—as projectionist, 60

—and projection patents, 71 , 92 , 178 , 522 n.8;

infringement suits, 236 -37;

Motion Picture Patents Co., 438 , 441

—proposes patent combination, 178 -79, 237

—relationship with Raft & Gammon, 57 -60, 70 -72

—sells films to Edison Co., 274 , 326 -27n.103

Armat Moving-Picture Company, 178 , 236 -37, 379 -80, 436 , 438 , 442 . See also Armat, Thomas

Armitage, Frederick S., 417 -18, 421 -22, 426 , 446 -47, 449 , 455 -57

Aronson, Max. See Anderson, Gilbert (George) Maxwell

Artistic Glimpses of the World (illustrated lectures), 145

Asbury Park Amusement Company, 53

Asians: representations of, 50 , 52 , 69 , 84

Association of Edison Licensees, 13 , 376 -79, 382 , 433 , 440 . See also Edison, Thomas Alva; Edison licensees; Film Service Association; Motion Picture Patents Company

Audiences. See also Reception of films, factors in; Voyeurism

—children, 117 , 200 , 205 , 343 -44, 349 -51, 427 -28, 430 -31, 432

—and class differences, 366 ;

elites, 31 , 327 ;

middle class, 116 -17, 292 -304, 305 -17, 327 , 328 ;

working class, 326 -27, 355 , 428

—as depicted in films, 104 , 105 , 107 , 179 -80, 246 , 251 , 252

—and gender: men as spectators, 40 , 47 , 107 , 179 -80, 246 -47, 346 -47;

women as spectators, 31 , 42 -44, 179 -80, 306 , 346 -47, 394 , 428

Auerbach, Erich, 227

Au Téléphone (play), 424

Authorship, 157 ;

exhibitors as authors, 136 , 176

Automobiles, 143 , 192 , 256 , 296 , 390 , 412

Avant-garde cinema, 550 nn.75-76

B

Bachman, Robert, 328 , 444

Bacigalupi, Peter, 45 , 78 , 156

Bad-boy films, 143 , 267 -72, 312 , 342 -47, 363 , 415 , 422

Baker, D. B., 433

Balsley, Charles H., 18

—collaborates with Porter on invention, 25 , 26 , 160

—as stringer for Pathé News, 91

—and vitascope, 74 -86;

in Indiana, 88 -91;

in Los Angeles, 81 -86;

picks up vitascope in New York, 75 ;

in San Francisco, 77 -81

Balsley, James Robinson, 18 , 21 , 25

—and vitascope, 74 ;

anxiety about rival machines, 76 ;

buys rights to California, 75 ;

buys rights to Indiana, 74 -75

Barnes, John, 3

Barnes, Justus D., 253 , 417 , 525 n.59

Barnum, P. T., 102

Barnum and Bailey's Circus, 52 , 100 -101

Barnum's Circus, 23

Baucus, Joseph D., 46

Bauman, Charles, 445

Bazin, André, 211

Beadnell, William, 119 , 121 , 133 , 508 n.36, 510 n.92

Beck, George, 77

Belasco, David, 363 , 466 -67

Benson, Erastus, 45

Bergson, Henri, 311

Bernhardt, Sarah, 464 -65

Berst, Jacques A., 278 , 439

Bertoldi, Ena, 40

Bial, Albert, 67

Bianchi, Joseph, 444

Biddie brothers, 167 -68, 193 -94

Bijou Theater (Harrisburg, Pa.), 92 -93, 96 -98

Billboard , 395

Bingham, Police Commissioner Theodore Alfred, 428

Biograph. See American Mutoscope & Biograph Company

Biographical legend, 58 , 60 , 382 , 445

Black, Alexander, 78 -79, 396

Black Diamond Express, 95 -96, 98 , 99 , 241

Black Maria studio, 32 -34, 36 , 64 -65, 66 , 112 , 113 , 158 , 159

Black Patti, 80

Blacks. See African Americans

Blackton, J. Stuart, 439. See also American Vitagraph Company

—and Albert E. Smith: film production, 134 , 160 , 310 , 320 , 449 ;

purchase projecting kinetoscope, 93 ;

sued for copyright and patent infringement, 134

—performs lightning sketches for Edison camera, 69

—on reasons for becoming Edison licensee, 377

Blair Camera Company, 47 , 87

Blaisdell, George, 340

Blaney, Charles E., 399

Blechynden, Frederick W., 105 -12, 160


556

Board of Education, New York City, 151 -52, 431

Bob the Fireman (lantern show), 218 -20, 219

Boer War, 146

Bonine, Robert Kates, 144 , 234 , 291 , 316 , 322 , 325 , 333 , 367 -71, 379

Bostwick, Herbert E., 455

Boulden, Edward, 391 -92, 455

Bowser, Eileen, 403

Boxing. See Fight Films

Boyton, Paul, 67

Boyts, Porter & Company, 17 , 24

Bradenbergh's Ninth and Arch Street Museum, 163

Bradlet, Jonathan M., 451

Brady, William A., 22 , 48 , 374

Brakhage, Stan, 476

Braverman, Harry, 5 -6, 11

British Film Institute, 233

British Gaumont, 253 , 256

Bronx studio, 329 , 340 , 383 , 384 , 384 -91, 449 , 453 -55, 471

Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences, 35 -38, 39

Brown, Charles A., 29 , 30

Bruce, Kate, 392

Bryan, William Jennings, 69

Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show, 50 , 174 , 256 , 336 , 338

Buffington, Judge Joseph, 238 , 240

Buñuel, Luis, 476

Burch, Nöel, 6 , 10 , 226 , 254 , 433 , 494 n.27

Burlesque, 163 -64, 165

Bush, W. Stephen, 395 -96, 401 , 415 , 427

Buster Brown (cartoon strip), 267 -72

C

Caine, Hall, 470

Cameramen: associated with Edison, 176 , 197 , 251 -52, 449 , 454 -55, 511 n.126;

availability of, 447 ;

cameraman system of production, 161 , 325 ;

multi-unit coverage of single event, 140 -41, 187 . See also Collaborative system of film production

Camera movement. See Panoramas

Camera technology. See also Cinematography; Patents

—Biograph's friction-feed, 70mm camera, 91

—Demeny beater (Gaumont) camera, 375 , 438 -39

—double camera (exposes two negatives), 240

—Edison's large-format camera, 144

—invention of kinetograph, 29 -32, 506 n.3

—portable camera, 5 , 65 , 100 -101

—stereoscopic (3-D), 474 -75

—time-lapse photography, 186

—tripod: panning capabilities, 107 , 108 , 109 -10, 153 -54;

panning with time-lapse photography, 186 ;

tilting capabilities, 153 , 154 , 175 -76

—Warwick camera, 333 , 375

Cameron, Walter, 253

Canadian Pacific Railroad, 192

Cannock, Francis B., 118 -19, 474 , 510 n.92

Carmencita, 40 , 42

Carroll, Lewis, 350

Casino Company, 395

Censorship, 10 , 43 , 427 -32, 450 . See also National Board of Censorship

Centaur Film Company, 434 , 465

Centograph projector, 91

Chanan, Michael, 3

Chang, Li Hung, 69 , 117

Chanson d'Alexis , 227

Chanson de geste , 227 -29

Chanson de Roland , 227 -29

Chaplin, Charles, 7

Charles Urban Trading Company, 238 , 273 , 355

Charley's Aunt (play), 409

Charmion (vaudeville performer), 179

Chase films, 259 -60, 280 -82, 286 -87, 354 -55, 391 , 415

Chasers (in vaudeville), 195

Chautauquas, 208

Chicago Film Exchange, 328 , 440 , 443 -44. See also Lewis, Max

Chicago Marine Band, 64

Chicago Novelty Company, 218

Chicago Tribune , 427

Choreutoscope, 35

Church, Melville, 281

Church-based institutions. See Religious institutions

Cinderella (pantomime), 200

Cinema: as art, 427 , 462 ;

effect, versus lantern slides, 122 -24;

as mass communication, 372 , 406 -7;

as novelty, 64 , 72 , 73 , 74 , 78 , 80 -81, 100 , 119 ;

a special kind of theater, 401 -2;

as a visual newspaper, 10 , 142 , 162 -67, 192 , 193 , 195 , 252 -53

Cinématographe projector (Joly), 118

Cinématographe projector (Lumière), 58 , 59 , 60 , 68 -69, 87 -88, 91 , 98 , 117 -18,


557

507 n.25. See also Lumière, Auguste and Louis

Cinematographers. See Cameramen

Cinematograph projector (Eden Musee), 118 -19, 121 , 442 . See also Eden Musee

Cinematography. See also Camera technology; Editing; Special effects

—dream balloons and visions, 174 , 200 -201, 203 , 205 , 223 -24, 412 , 412

—frames per second, 45 -46, 143

—framing, 105 , 107 ;

close views, 169 , 173 , 245 -50, 264 -65, 304 , 318 -19, 341 , 513 n.165, 524 n.48;

and double exposures, 341 , 342 ;

establishing/far shots, 297 , 362 , 363 , 407 , 408 , 425 , 447 , 462 , 465 -66, 469 , 513 n.165;

point-of-view shots, 345 -46;

two-shots, 250 , 304

—isolating performers and objects against plain background, 31 , 31 , 32 , 33 , 114 , 246 -47, 250 , 524 n.48

—lighting, 392 ;

arc lights, 191 , 388 , 475 ;

complaints about, 422 , 426 , 451 ;

Cooper-Hewitt lights, 388 ;

sunlight, 32 , 152

—reverse motion, 176

—silhouettes, 419 -20, 461

—split-screen exposures, 192 -93

—time-lapse photography, 186

—use of depth, 79 , 94 , 95 , 95 -96, 97 , 105

Circuses, 22 , 23 , 51 , 100 -101

City versus country, 274 -75, 302 -3, 305 -11, 390 -91, 421 -22

Clair, René, 476

The Clansman (play), 303

Clark, Alfred, 56

Clark, Harry, 88 , 89

Clark, Marguerite, 470

Class:

—class conflict, 18 -21, 280 -82, 296 , 301 -2, 305 , 307 , 317 , 327 -28, 355

—differences effaced or transcended, 200 , 221 -23, 311 -17, 345 -46

—elites: as audiences, 31 , 327 ;

as represented in films, 280 -82, 296 -302

—middle class, 10 -11, 23 , 24 , 292 -304, 305 -11, 312 -17, 327 -28, 473 ;

as audiences, 116 -17, 327 ;

old versus new, 11 , 309 -10, 406 ;

as represented in films, 223

—working class: as audiences, 326 -27, 355 (see also Nickelodeons);

as represented in films, 222 -23, 280 -82, 295 -96, 473

Cleveland, Grover, 69

Cline, Eugene, 328 , 444

Close-ups, 318 -19

Cloward, N. Dushane, 244 , 251 , 524 n.53

Cock fight films, 41 , 44

Cody, William ("Buffalo Bill"), 50 , 338

Cogan, James, 417 , 466

Coke industry, 15 , 18 -20;

strikes, 19 -20

Collaborative system of film production, 25 , 105 , 160 -61, 268 , 271 -72, 449 -50, 461 -63, 465 , 475 , 546 n.67. See also Film production; Working methods

—characteristic of old middle-class ideology, 340

—compared to later studio system, 336 -37

—and nonspecialization, 393 -94, 463

—specific examples of: Dickson and Heise, 32 -34, 105 ;

Porter and Anderson, 253 , 525 n.59;

Porter and Dawley, 383 -85, 390 -93, 402 , 417 , 450 , 461 , 466 -69;

Porter and Fleming, 160 -62, 192 ;

Porter and McCutcheon, 291 , 302 , 325 , 336 -40, 349 , 360 , 364 -65, 390 ;

Porter and Smith, 240 -41;

Porter's later career, 461 -63, 465 ;

White and Blechynden, 105 -12;

White and Heise, 95 -101, 105

Colonial Virginia Company, 333

Color images: hand tinted, 41 , 62 , 254 , 397 , 401 ;

Kinemacolor, 401 ;

tinted and toned, 331 , 397 , 401

Columbia Phonograph Company, 45 , 71 , 89 , 444

Comedies, 113 -14, 138 , 143 , 148 , 163 -74, 179 , 189 -90, 198 -99, 208 , 209 -11, 245 -50, 256 , 259 , 262 -64, 267 -72, 274 -75, 280 -82, 284 -86, 287 , 303 -4, 307 , 310 , 311 -14, 317 -22, 332 , 342 -53, 409 -10, 412 -13, 415 , 423 . See also Bad-boy films; Tramp comedies

Comic strips, 167 ;

as conventions in films, 162 ;

provide characters for films, 165 , 167 , 245 , 267 -72, 311 , 353 -54, 354 ;

as subjects for films, 267 -72, 270 , 281 . See also Political cartoons

Commercial methods: relationship to production and representation, 11 -12

Commissioned films, 190 -92, 333, 368 , 378

Comstock, Laura, 173

Coney Island: as exhibition venue, 67 ;

as film subject, 67 -68, 93 , 94 , 148 -49, 192 , 220 , 245 , 249 -51, 275 , 276 , 321 ,


558

Coney Island (continued )

323 , 324 , 391 , 419 . See also Amusement parks

Connellsville, Pennsylvania, 15 -28, 311

—coke industry in, 15 , 18 -20, 496 n.23

—cultural activities in, 15 , 21 -24

—as influence on Porter's films, 11 , 15 , 17 -18, 19 , 21 , 22 , 27 , 320

—local merchants exhibit vitascope, 73 -86

—small business versus large scale capital, 18 -21, 292 , 307

—and technological innovation, 24 -26

—vitascope rights owners, 73 -86, 503 n.54;

in Indiana, 88 -91;

in Los Angeles, 81 -86;

in San Francisco, 77 -81

Connellsville Courier , 25 , 27 , 74 -75. See also Keystone Courier

Conot, Robert, 71

Continental Commerce Company, 46 -47;

involvement in film production, 49 , 52 . See also Maguire & Baucus

Continuity, 171 -72

—nonlinear continuity between shots, 99 -100, 209 -11, 225 , 515 n.23;

versus discontinuity of Eisenstein, 227

—seamless linear continuity, 227 , 403 -7;

incorrectly attributed to Porter, 189 , 205 -7, 230 -33

—within shots (between subshots), 69 , 173

Cook, David, 491 -92n.4

Copyright. See also Court cases

—legislation, 542 n.170

—litigation against Edison, 268 , 281 -82, 420 -21

—litigation by and against others, 465

—litigation by Edison, 134 , 197 , 207 -8, 213 , 237 -39, 240 , 281 , 528 n.136

—methods and submissions: Biograph, 281 -82;

Edison, 39 , 93 -94, 103 -4, 114 , 131 , 156 , 207 , 237 , 254 , 528 n.136;

Lubin, 244 -55

—and restrictions on borrowings, 421

Corbett, James, 48 -49, 79 -80, 139 , 500 n.44

Cotton States' Exposition, 56 , 57

Count of Monte Cristo (play), 22 , 465

Court cases: anti-trust, 471 ;

breach of contract, 322 -33;

copyright violations, 134 , 197 , 207 -8, 213 , 237 -39, 240 , 268 , 281 -82, 420 -21, 465 , 528 n.136;

patent infringement cases, 12 , 114 , 115 -16, 125 , 134 , 143 , 144 , 154 -56, 176 -79, 195 , 196 , 236 -37, 241 , 278 , 289 -90, 333 -34, 335 , 375 -76, 379 -80, 442 , 459 , 471 ;

replevin suits, 441 ;

warrants, 53 . See also Copyright; Patents

Courtney, Peter, 48 -49

Couvares, Francis G., 24 , 221 -22

Coxe, Judge Alfred C., 333

Crahan, Thomas, 144 -45

Craver, William, 338

Crawford, Oliver T., 375 , 377 , 399

Crime films, 253 -59, 286 -87, 292 -303, 310 , 311 -17, 428 , 430 -31

Crocker, Mayor Richard, 143 , 191

Cronjager, Henry, 391 , 417 , 449 , 455

Cross cutting. See Editing; Parallel editing

Cultural antecedents, 10

Cultural elites, 66

Culver, E. C., 370

Currier and Ives, 220

Cushing, Jack, 47

Customs and Times of Washington (illustrated lecture), 23

Czologz, Leon, 184 , 187 -90, 517 n.78, 518 n.85

D

Dali, Salvador, 476

Dallas, Judge George Mifflin, 237 -38

Dana, Viola, 473

Daniel, T. Cushing, 70 , 178

Daniel Boone: On the Trail (play), 22 , 340 , 366

Daniels, Harry J., 102 , 119 -20

D'Arcy, H. Anthony, 421

Davis, Harry, 75 , 326 -27, 378 , 396

Davis, Owen, 303

Dawley, Bert, 455

Dawley, James Searle, 161

—at Edison: as director with own unit, 390 , 417 -18, 421 -22, 426 , 446 -47, 449 -51, 455 , 455 -56, 463 -64, 471 ;

as Porter's collaborator, 383 -85, 390 -93, 402 , 417 , 450 , 461

—at Famous Players: as director with own unit, 468 ;

as Porter's collaborator, 466 -69

—and Spooner Stock Company, 383 -84

—at Sunlight Arc Company, 475

Decker, Karl C., 127 -28, 133

Dede, Pauline, 213

Defender Film Company, 459 -60, 548 nn.8, 13

Defleur, Melvin, 406 , 494 n.36, 541 -42n.141

de Lorde, André, 424

DeMilie, Cecil B., 294

DeMilie, Henry Churchill, 90

De Mille, William, 425


559

Dennis, Everette, 406 , 494 n.36, 541 -42n.141

Dennis, Ruth (Ruth St. Denis), 41

Depew, Chauncey, 143

Deslandes, Jacques, 3 , 233

Detroit Film Exchange, 375

DeVarney, Miss, 407

Dewey, Admiral George, 132 -33, 140 -41, 143

Dibble, John P., 185

Dickens, Charles, 229 , 310

Dickson, William Kennedy Laurie:

—and Biograph Co., 58 , 70

—and Edison: and film production, 32 -35, 39 -44, 47 -51, 160 ;

and invention of kinetograph and kinetoscope, 29 -32, 33 , 473 ;

leaves Edison's employ, 51 ;

suffers nervous breakdown, 38

—photographs by, 30 , 39

—royalties received from Edison, 47

Dissolves: before cinema, 172 , 186 ;

by exhibitor, 64 , 172 ;

by producer, 172 -73, 181 , 186 -89, 198 , 201 , 202

Dixon, Thomas, Jr., 303

Dockstader, Lew, 275 , 319 , 321 -22, 378

Documentary, 234 . See also Actualities; Illustrated lectures

Dream balloons and visions, 174 , 200 -201, 203 , 205 , 223 -24, 412 , 412

Du Maurier, George, 52

Dumont's Minstrels, 164

Duping (duplication of films), 279 , 495 n.44. See also Remakes

—by Biograph, 253

—by Edison Co., 190 , 192 , 194 , 198 , 235 , 238 , 239 -40, 253 , 256 , 274 , 277 -78, 279 , 516 n.45

—Edison films duped: by Columbia Phonograph Company, 92 ;

by International Film Co., 92 ;

by Lubin, 197 , 207 -8, 244 ;

by 20th Century Optiscope, 275 ;

by Vitagraph, 134

—by Lubin, 197 , 207 -8, 239 , 244 , 253

Dyer, Frank, 2 , 10 , 13 , 435 ;

becomes Edison employee, 238 ;

as legal adviser on motion pictures (1904-1908), 277 , 278 , 289 , 379 , 380 , 382 ;

as vice-president of Edison Co., 416 , 434 , 437 -38, 439 , 445 , 447 -49, 451 , 453 -54, 457

E

E. & H. T. Anthony Company, 379

Early cinema: defined, 2

Eastman, George, 47 , 377 . See also George Eastman House

Eastman Kodak Company, 47 , 87 -88, 266 ;

and film supply agreements, 377 , 436 , 439 -41;

and nonflammable stock, 457

Eaves, Albert G., 121

Echard, Cyrus, 18 , 74

Edengraph projector, 442

Eden Musee, 1 , 6 , 116

—builds own cinematograph, 118 -19, 121 , 157 , 442

—as Edison licensee, 103 , 125

—and film exhibition: cinématographe Joly, and film fire, 118 ;

Dewey celebration films (1899), 140 -41;

Lumière cinématographe, 98 , 117 -18;

passion play programs, 122 -25;

as permanent venue for film, 118 ;

post-Spanish-American war programs, 138 -39, 172 , 396 ;

Spanish-American war programs, 132 -37, 509 n.72, 510 nn.91, 92

—film production, 120 -22, 127 , 133 , 135 , 138 , 142

—founding of, 116 -17

—loses role as key film center, 142

—waxworks at, 56 , 116 -17, 132 -33, 410 -11, 517 n.78

Edison, Thomas Alva, 1 , 10 , 30 , 373

—and copyright: litigation over, 208 , 134 , 197 , 207 -8, 213 , 237 -39, 240 , 281 ;

methods and submissions, 39 , 93 -94, 103 -4, 114 , 131 , 156 , 207 , 237 , 254

—early efforts to develop motion picture projector, 53 , 58

—as film subject, 69 , 101 , 102

—in historiography, 2

—invention of kinetograph and kinetoscope, 29 -32

—involvement in film production, 47 -48

—legal action against competitors, 12

—as legend and popular hero, 24 , 40 , 60 -61, 62 , 75 , 102 , 117 , 428 -29, 445

—and Motion Picture Patents Co., 439 , 442 , 445

—name exploited by others, 58 -59, 133

—patents: applications, 31 ;

granted, rejected, and reissued, 115 , 196 , 333 ;

infringement litigation, 12 , 114 , 115 -16, 125 , 134 , 144 , 154 , 156 , 178 , 278 , 289 , 333 -34, 335 , 375 -76, 379 -80;

infringement litigation versus Biograph, 115 , 143 , 154 , 155 , 176 -79, 195 , 196 , 289 -90, 333 -34, 375 , 379 -80;

licensees under, 116 , 125 -26, 134 , 154

—purchases film negatives produced by others, 138

—royalties received, 144 -45, 161 , 382 , 442


560

Edison, Thomas Alva (continued )

—statements on film industry and morality, 428 -29, 430 , 431

—and vitascope: agrees to work with Raft & Gammon, 57 -58;

arranges private screening of vitascope, 59 ;

breaks with Raft &: Gammon, 92 ;

film sales replace equipment as key source of profit, 93 ;

seen as inventor of vita-scope, 59 -60, 62 , 75

Edison licensees, 12 -13, 116 , 142 -45, 156 , 445 ;

arrangements with Paley, 125 -26, 143 ;

arrangements with Vitagraph, 134 , 143 , 154 -55, 161 , 376 -77, 445 ;

coordinated for purposes of film production, 140 -41;

as suppliers of films for Edison Co., 143 -44. See also American Vitagraph Company; Association of Edison Licensees; Eden Musee; Motion Picture Patents Company; Paley, William C.; Patents

Edison Manufacturing Company, 1 , 4 , 13 . See also Edison, Thomas Alva; Edison licensees; Porter, Edwin Stanton; Raft &; Gammon; Vitascope

—assumes control of Edison's motion picture business, 44

—versus Biograph, 91 -92, 95 , 114 , 127 , 143 , 144 , 154 -55, 158 , 161 -62, 276 -77, 280 -82, 291 -92, 333 , 339 , 391 , 397 , 432 , 433 -48, 449 , 451 , 454

—business policies of, 44 -47, 53 -55, 57 -59, 92 , 115 -16, 125 , 156 , 157 -58, 190 , 197 , 198 , 207 -8, 235 , 239 , 241 , 278 -79, 289 -90, 291 -92, 322 -24, 330 -36, 367 , 370 , 375 -77, 384 -86, 391 , 416 -18, 428 -30, 433 -42, 446 , 448 -50, 453 -57, 458 , 463 -64, 471 -75

—Chicago office opened, 279

—commissions films made for others, 190 -92, 333 , 368 , 378

—court cases: sued by Keyes, 323 ;

sued by Outcault, 268 ;

sued for patent interference, 236 -37, 241

—duping of competitors' films, 190 , 192 , 194 , 198 , 235 , 238 , 239 -40, 253 , 256 , 274 , 277 -78, 279 , 516 n.45

—film production (1894-1895), 39 -44, 47 -53, 54 , 56

—film production (1896-1897), 64 -70, 93 -102;

portable camera introduced, 65

—film production (1897-1900), 104 -14, 146 -54;

Crahan's Alaska expedition (1899), 144 -45;

and Dewey celebrations, 140 -41, 143 ;

and Spanish-American War, 125 -28, 131 -32, 146 ;

two production units formed, 105 ;

White's California-Mexico-Far East trip, 105 -12, 114 , 125

—film production (1901-1902), 161 -218;

California-Mexico filming trip, 191 -92;

Pan-American/McKinley films, 184 -90;

story films, 198 -218;

two units active on same day, 176

—film production (1903-1905), 240 -77, 280 -90, 291 -324;

animation, 317 -20;

and The Great Train Robbery , 253 -64;

level reduced drastically by copyright problems, 238 ;

remake of Biograph's Personal , 280 -81;

shift to original features, 282 , 291 ;

subjects raising social issues, 292 -311

—film production (1905-1907), 331 -70;

Bonine's actualities, 367 -69

—film production (1907-1909), 383 -95, 402 -32, 446 -58;

expands to two units, 416 -18;

expands to three units, 448 -49;

expands to four units, 453 , 454 -55;

increasingly criticized, 425 -27, 446 -47, 450 -55;

shift to director-unit system, 450

—film production (1910-1918), 463 -64, 471 -75;

rate of production increases, 463

—films duped by rivals, 92 , 134 , 197 , 207 -8, 244 , 275

—incorporation, 156

—versus International Film Co., 92 , 114

—kinetophone introduced (1895), 53 -54

—kinetophone introduced (1913), 474

—versus Lubin, 143 , 197 , 207 , 244 -45

—versus Lumière, 92

—near-monopoly in film production and sales (1901-1902), 176 -95

—nonfilm activities, 12 , 428

—versus Pathé, 277 -78, 282 , 335 -36

—personnel: changes of, 44 , 93 , 105 , 156 , 157 , 160 , 178 , 235 -36, 240 , 265 , 291 -92, 383 , 391 -92, 416 -17, 447 -49, 453 -55;

employees reviewed, 176 , 197 , 291 ;

salaries of, 161 , 178 , 192 , 236 , 240 , 265 , 291 -92, 383 -84, 391 , 417 , 449 , 453 -55

—and Porter: dismissed, 458 ;

hired as cameraman, 160 -61;

hired as equipment builder, 157 -58 (see also Porter, Edwin Stanton)

—projector development and manufacture: Home P. K., 473 -74;

kineto-phone (1913), 474 ;

projectoscopes and projecting kinetoscopes, 92 -93, 151 , 158 , 159 , 237 , 255 , 327 , 329 , 457 ,


561

505 n.147, 506 n.174;

vitascopes, 58 , 71 , 74 , 77 , 92

—remakes, imitations, or reworkings by Edison of films originally made by: Biograph, 95 -96, 99 , 102 , 170 , 208 , 245 , 273 , 274 , 276 , 280 -82, 312 -13, 340 , 422 ;

Edison, 101 , 198 -99, 421 -22;

Lubin, 174 , 180 , 286 , 515 n.35;

Lumière, 65 , 67 , 68 -69, 101 ;

Pathé, 193 , 341 -42, 424 ;

Paul, 67 -68, 192 -93;

Smith, 245 -46;

Williamson, 219 -20

—remakes of Edison films by others, 198 -200, 244 -45

—royalty fees paid to Dickson and Heise, 47

—sales, expenses, and profits, 44 , 47 , 93 , 114 , 142 -43, 145 , 146 , 156 , 159 , 186 , 195 , 240 , 288 -89, 317 -18, 322 -24, 329 -30, 332 , 383 -85, 417 , 448 , 456 , 457 , 464 , 472 , 474 , 475 , 480 -81

—and selling agents, 155 , 278 -79, 482 -85

—studios: Black Maria (1893), 32 , 34 , 36 , 38 , 39 -40, 47 -48, 50 , 64 -65, 101 -2, 113 -14, 115, 158 , 159 ;

Bronx studio (1907), 329 , 340 , 383 , 384 , 384 -90, 391 , 449 , 453 -55, 471 ;

makeshift 28th Street roof-top studio (1896), 69 ;

21st Street studio (1901), 158 -60, 194 , 197 , 253 , 449

—versus Vitagraph, 134 , 158 , 161 , 178 , 197 , 239 , 333 , 375 -76

Edison's Vitascope. See Raft &: Gammon; Vitascope

Editha's Burglar (play), 293

Editing: exhibitor's role in, 5 , 6

—absence of interest in, 64

—choice over length of shot, 175

—dissolves, 64 , 172

—interweaving slides and film, 122 -24, 136 , 145 , 173 , 234 , 288 , 369 -70, 523 n.25, 524 n.51

—organization of shots suggested by producers, 98 -99, 167 -69, 208 , 249 , 262

—sequencing of shots and scenes into narratives, 95 , 103 , 105 , 110 , 112 , 119 , 186 , 208 , 284 , 309

—temporal and spatial continuities suggested between shots, 99 -100, 194 , 261 , 513 n.166

Editing: producer's role in, 316 , 455 , 493 n.18

—alternate arrangements of scenes, 271 , 309

—assumes increasing control over, 5 , 157 , 169 , 172 -73, 182 -84, 201 -2, 268 -70, 332

—contested or shared with distributor, 182 -84, 309

—contested or shared with exhibitor, 109 -10, 167 -68, 184 -85, 188 -89, 190 , 261 -65, 284 -85, 309

—early instances of multi-shot films: actualities, 68 , 104 -5, 107 -8, 109 -10, 148 -49, 151 -53, 184 , 194 ;

fiction, 149 -51, 169 -72, 180 -84, 198 -200, 201 -7, 209 ;

reenactments, 188 -90

—legacy of exhibitor's role in, 226 , 261 -65, 271 , 284 -87, 309

—reworking of older materials, 267 , 285 , 286 -87, 419

—techniques: associational relations between shots, 250 ;

constructing spatial and temporal relationships, 174 , 181 -83, 188 -90, 198 -200, 201 -7, 209 -11, 224 -30, 246 -49, 254 -56, 300 -301, 313 , 313 , 342 , 350 , 351 , 357 , 358 , 359 , 404 , 412 ;

contrast, 148 , 182 -84, 300 , 406 ;

cut-ins to closer view, 152 -53, 245 -49, 304 , 342 , 524 n.48;

cut-outs to establishing shots, 152 , 342 , 513 n.165;

dissolves, 64 , 172 -73, 181 , 182 , 186 -89, 198 , 201 , 202 ;

dream construction, 174 ;

invisible cuts, 105 , 107 -8, 173 , 409 ;

jump cuts, 108 , 184 , 477 ;

match cuts, 205 -7, 225 -26, 227 , 405 , 416 ;

overlapping action, 209 -11, 224 -30, 309 , 311 , 359 , 404 , 410 , 461 , 477 , 515 n.23;

parallel editing, 225 -26, 227 , 303 , 404 -5, 416 , 424 , 450 , 462 ;

point-of-view structures, 174 , 246 , 261 , 273 , 345 -46, 419 , 524 n.48;

providing multiple perspectives, 148 -49, 194 , 221 , 223 -26;

reverse angles, 99 , 153 ;

stop-motion substitutions, 55 , 167 , 171 , 245 , 288 ;

tag or tableau endings (apotheoses), 169 -72, 204 -5, 250 , 264 -65, 271 (see also Dissolves; Representational practices; Temporality)

Editorial cartoons. See Political cartoons

Edward VII, 197 -98

Eidoloscope projector, 53 , 57 , 77 , 90

Eisenstein, Sergei, 227 , 406 , 476

Electricity, 25 , 28 , 75 , 83 , 84 -85, 274

Elmendorf, Dwight, 234 , 536 n.94

Elmore, Eugene, 133 -36

Emblematic shots, 173 , 250 , 264 -65, 318 , 344 , 358

Emerson, Mary, 253

Empire Film Exchange, 440 , 444 -45

Empire Trust Company, 438


562

Engel, Joseph, 459 -60, 548 n.8

Englehardt Sisters, 50

Esquirel, Pedro, 50

Essanay Film Manufacturing Company, 329 , 375 , 377 , 382 , 417 , 473 , 535 n.74

Ethnic stereotypes. See African Americans; American Indians; Asians; Jews; Racial prejudice; Stereotypes

Evans, Charles E., 113

Everson, William, 233 , 254 , 297

Exhibition services: fees for, 60 ;

replaced by film exchanges, 280 . See also individual companies

Exhibition venues:

—as places to express jingoistic emotions, 127

—types: arcades, 326 ;

burlesque houses, 91 , 180 ;

carnivals, 142 ;

churches, 251 ;

circuses, 137 ;

Coney Island, 67 ;

Eden Musee, 116 -19, 120 -25, 132 -37, 138 -39, 140 -42;

expositions and fairs, 55 , 142 ;

kinetoscope parlors, 42 , 44 -47, 48 , 49 , 75 ;

lecture halls, 369 ;

nickelodeons, 320 -21, 325 -29, 330 , 336 , 372 -73, 374 , 378 , 380 -81, 392 -93, 395 -402, 407 , 427 -32, 443 , 445 , 532 nn.5-6;

playhouses, 22 -23, 78 -79, 89 -91, 119 -20, 327 ;

small-town opera houses, 326 , 474 ;

storefront theaters, 326 ;

streets, 119 , 191 ;

summer parks, 91 , 251 , 326 ;

vaudeville, 60 -64, 77 -78, 79 -84, 88 , 91 , 92 , 126 -27, 129 -31, 133 -34, 138 , 141 -42, 151 , 264 , 273 , 308 , 325 -26, 327 , 374 , 396 -97, 399 , 409 , 443 -44, 474

Exhibitors. See also Exhibition services; Exhibition venues; Traveling exhibition

—creative role of, 5 , 103 , 117 , 137 ;

in developing variety programs, 137 ;

in grouping films by subject matter, 93 -94, 99 , 129 -31, 132 -33, 138 , 175 -76, 186 , 208 ;

residual influence on later cinema, 226 , 284 -90;

in reworking programs over time, 124 -25, 134 -36, 142 ;

in selection and arrangement of images and scenes to construct multi-shot narratives, 94 -95, 99 -100, 103 , 112 , 119 -20, 122 -25, 135 -37, 148 , 201 -2, 284 , 287 , 509 n.68;

shared with or contested by the distributor, 523 n.32;

shared with or contested by the producer, 99 , 124 -25, 186 , 262 -64, 284 , 287 , 509 n.68, 524 n.51, 541 n.135

—methods employed, before cinema, 9 , 100

—and responsibility for shift from distributor to theater, 284 , 332

—and use of film loops, 63 -64, 78 , 84

—and use of sound accompaniment, 103 , 226 , 394 , 402 ;

lectures, 124 , 176 , 202 -5, 226 , 244 , 255 , 296 -97, 301 , 357 , 366 -67, 369 -70, 395 -96, 401 , 403 , 450 ;

music and song, 53 -55, 124 , 130 , 134 , 136 , 149 -52;

sound effects, 136 , 359 , 365 , 401 -2;

voices behind the screen, 138 , 359 , 396 -402

F

Facial expression films, 169 , 173 , 194 , 250 . See also Emblematic shots

Fads, 349

Fairy tale films, 139 , 200 -208, 340 , 349 -51

Famous Players Film Company, 230 , 275 , 464 -75

Fédération Internationale des Archives du Film (FIAF): 1978 conference, 3 , 492 n.8

Fenin, George, 254

Festival of Mountain and Plain (Denver, Col.), 108 -9, 209

Fight Films, 10 , 32 , 43 , 45 -46, 47 -50, 53 , 79 -80, 139 -40, 191 -92, 310 ;

burlesques of, 43 , 67

Film audiences. See Audiences

Film continuity. See Continuity

Film copyright. See Copyright

Film developing and printing, 144 -45, 154 , 179 , 251 , 316 , 330 , 336 , 387 -88, 389 -90, 417 ;

double printing, 223 -24, 425 ;

increased efficiency of, 332 , 333 ;

masks, 273 , 345 , 346 , 414 , 419 ;

mattes, 193 , 263 -64, 412 , 414 ;

optical reduction printing, 192 -93. See also Special effects

Film editing. See Editing

Filmed theater, 22 , 50 -52, 65 , 101 , 121 -23, 138 , 242 -45, 287 -89, 393 -94, 395 , 396 -97, 400 , 464 -69. See also Plays; Popular culture

Film exchanges: and Edison-Biograph licensed associations, 376 -82, 434 -36, 437 -38;

formal release day for films introduced, 378 ;

and Motion Picture Patents Co., 440 -45, 471 ;

origins of, 280 -81, 328 -29, 332 , 374 -75. See also individual exchanges

Film exhibition. See Exhibition venues; Exhibitors; Traveling exhibition

Film Index . See Views and Film Index

Film prices. See Prices

Film production:

—actualities versus acted/fiction films, 63 ,


563

67 , 160 , 276 , 282 -84, 292 , 370 , 378 -79, 528 nn.139-40

—centralization of creative responsibility, 151 , 152 -53, 157 , 198 -200, 201 -2, 229 -30, 233 -34, 449 , 461 -63

—continuities with process of invention, 32 -35

—described by period documents, 125 -26, 147 -48, 213 -14, 271 -72, 337 -39, 386 -90

—homosocial nature of, 106 -7

—miniatures used in, 331 , 331 , 342

—move toward specialization and hierarchy, 390 -93, 449 , 454 -57, 471 -73

—multi-unit filming of single events, 140 -41, 187 , 194

—nonspecialization, 336 -37, 390 , 393 -94, 463

—production units: multiple studio production units, 416 -18, 448 -49, 453 , 454 -55, 468 , 546 n.67;

multiple units within one company, 105 ;

single units, 105

—subsidized by transportation companies, 95 -96, 98 -100, 108 , 109 -12

—synchronous sound films, 151 -52

—time needed for making films, 200 , 336 -37, 391 , 451

Film Service Association (FSA), 377 -81, 434 , 437 -38, 440 -41, 443 -44. See also United Film Service Protective Association

Film stock, 47 , 495 n.44;

clear versus semi-opaque stock, 76 , 87 , 503 n.62;

cost of, 440 ;

defective, 87 , 266 ;

gauges of, 91 , 144 , 239 ;

Lumière versus Edison perforations, 98 ;

move toward technological standardization, 197 , 239 ;

nitrate deterioration, 95, 460 ;

non flammable film stock tested, 457 ;

perforations, 179 . See also Blair Camera Company; Eastman Kodak Company

Film subjects: animation, 317 -20, 323 , 331 , 350 , 409 , 410 , 531 n.29;

bad-boy comedies, 143 , 267 -72, 312 , 342 -47, 363 , 415 , 422 ;

chase films, 259 -60, 280 -82, 286 -87, 354 -55, 391 , 415 ;

comedies, 113 -14, 138 , 143 , 148 , 163 -74, 179 , 189 -90, 198 -99, 208 , 209 -11, 245 -50, 256 , 259 , 262 -64, 267 -72, 274 -75, 280 -82, 284 -86, 287 , 303 -4, 307 , 310 , 311 -14, 317 -22, 332 , 342 -53, 409 -10, 412 -13, 415 , 423 ;

commissioned films, 190 -91;

crime films, 253 -59, 286 -87, 292 -303, 310 , 311 -17, 428 , 430 -31;

facial expression films, 169 , 173 , 194 , 250 ;

fairy tale films, 139 , 200 -208, 340 , 349 -51;

family-centered dramas, 223 -24, 292 -304, 305 -7, 308 , 314 -16, 332 , 356 -59, 410 -12, 422 , 423 ;

fight films, 10 , 32 , 43 , 45 -46, 47 -50, 53 , 79 -80, 139 -40, 191 -92, 310 ;

filmed theater, 22 , 50 -52, 101 , 121 -23, 138 , 242 -45, 287 -89, 393 -94, 395 , 396 -97, 400 , 424 -26, 464 -69;

fire rescue films, 51 , 52 , 95 , 148 , 212 -34, 351 -52;

historical subjects, 55 , 138 , 336 -40, 364 -66, 395 , 424 -25, 430 -31, 464 -65, 534 n.47;

kidnapping films, 314 -16;

kiss films, 81 , 65 , 65 , 80 , 81 , 82 , 83 , 84 , 89 , 90 , 245 -49, 247 , 262 -64, 267 , 287 , 304 , 304 , 486 ;

melodramas, 292 -303, 305 -7, 332 , 407 -9, 421 -22, 424 , 461 -62, 465 -70, 534 n.47;

railway films, 66 -67, 95 -96, 97, 98 , 99 -100, 105 , 106 , 180 , 191 , 241 , 260 -65, 286 -87, 316 -17;

reenactments, 146 , 188 -90, 193 -94, 257 -59, 307 -8, 427 , 518 n.85;

tramp come-dies, 165 , 173 -74, 180 , 263 , 287 , 311 -12;

trick films, 139 , 176 , 341 -42, 404 -5, 423 , 429 -30, 447 , 460 ;

war films (acted), 146 -48, 150 -51, 181 -84, 273 -74, 415 -16;

westerns, 254 , 360 -63, 407 , 460 -61;

workplace films, 32 -35, 35 , 39 , 42 , 51 , 67 , 102 , 245 -48, 355 . See also Actualities; Popular culture

Financial data: for Eden Musee, 120 ;

for kinetoscope parlors, 45 ;

for Kleine, 482 -85;

for Motion Picture Patents Co., 439 -41, 443 ;

royalties received by Edison, 144 -45, 161 , 382 , 442 ;

salaries of Edison personnel, 161 , 178 , 192 , 236 , 240 , 265 , 291 -92, 383 -84, 391 , 417 , 449 , 453 -55;

sales, expenses, and profits for Edison Co., 44 , 47 , 93 , 114 , 142 -43, 145 , 146 , 156 , 159 , 186 , 195 , 240 , 288 -89, 317 -18, 322 -24, 329 -30, 332 , 383 -85, 417 , 448 , 456 , 457 , 464 , 472 , 474 , 475 , 480 -81. See also Prices

Fire films, 51 , 52 , 95 , 148 , 212 -34, 351 -52

A Fireman's Christmas Eve (vaudeville play), 220 -21

Fires: motion picture-related, 157 , 191 , 238 , 445

Fiske, Minnie Maddern, 466 -67, 467 , 472

Fitzgerald, Cissy, 65 , 83

Fitzsimmons, Robert, 139


564

Flattery, James H., 395

Fleming, George S., 10 ;

collaborative production with Porter, 160 -61, 192 , 339 ;

leaves Edison, 240 ;

salary, 161

Foley, J. G., 92 -93

Ford, Hugh, 161 , 470 , 549 n.45, 549 n.50

Ford, John, 1

Foreign films and lantern slides: acquired overseas for exhibition purposes, 144 , 197 , 239 ;

duped by the Edison Co., 190 , 192 , 194 , 198 , 235 , 238 , 239 -40, 253 , 256 , 274 , 277 -78, 279 , 516 n.45;

influence and impact on American industry, 259 . See also Méliès, Georges; Pathé Frères; other individual producers

Forepaugh's Wild West Show, 23

Fourier, Henri, 192

1492 (musical comedy), 50 , 62

Fox, William, 328 -29, 374 , 380

Frazer, Jinnie, 392

Frazer, John, 392

French, Bernard J. (Jim), 449

Frick, Henry, 19

Frohman, Charles: on vitascope, 77 , 89

Frohman, Daniel, 464 -65

Fuller, Amy, 84

Fuller, Mary, 464

Furniss, Harry, 464

Fynes, J. Austin, 118 , 142

G

Gammon, Frank R., 45 , 57 , 64 ;

incorporates Vitascope Co., 70 . See also Raff & Gammon

Garfield, James, 186

Gaudreault, André, 254

Gaumont, Léon, 437

Gaumont (Société des Etablissements Gaumont), 4 , 335 , 355 , 375 , 381 , 434 , 436 , 438 . See also British Gaumont

Gender. See Men; Women

General Film Company, 471 , 472 , 549 n.60

Genre, 101 , 151 , 254 . See also Film subjects

Gentleman Jack (play), 48

George Eastman House, 121 , 377

Georgie, Florence, 179

Gershel, Charles, 209

Gilmore, William E., 13 , 72

—assumes management of Edison Manufacturing Co., 45

—management (1895-1897), 57 -58, 65 , 71

—management (1897-1900), 125 -26, 134 , 155 -56

—management (1900-1902), 158 , 161 , 197 , 198 , 207 , 213

—management (1903-1908), 235 -36, 238 -39, 277 , 278 , 289 -90, 383 -85, 416 ;

and Association of Edison Licensees, 376 ;

and Edison break with Kleine, 278 -79;

and negotiations with Pathé, 335 -36

Gilroy, William J., 289 , 291 , 387 , 391 , 458

The Girl of the Golden West (play), 363

Glenroy Brothers, 499 n.26

Godard, Jean-Luc, 477

Golden, Joseph A., 465

Gonzales, Dionecio, 50

Goodell, Rev. E. L., 431

Goodfellow, William H., 375 , 377

Goodfellow Manufacturing Company, 375 , 379 , 434

Gordon, John, 466

Gove, Otis M., 454 -55

Graf, Thomas, 447

Grand Opera House (Harrisburg, Pa.), 96 -97

Greater New York Film Company, 329

Great Northern Film Company, 379 , 435 , 444

The Great Train Robbery (play), 256 -57, 525 n.72

Gregory, C. L., 455

Griffith, D. W. ("Lawrence"), 1 , 7 , 8 , 226 , 229 , 230 , 259 , 294 , 314 , 351 , 402 , 437 , 450 ;

as actor at Edison, 392 , 410 -11;

work compared with Porter and Edison films, 225 -26, 303 , 307 , 317 , 339 , 359 , 403 , 405 -6, 418 , 419 , 424 , 426 , 446 , 462 , 477

Grundy, James, 50

Gunning, Tom, 8 , 84 , 179 , 318 , 406 , 515 n.23

H

Hackett, James, 465 -66

Haddock, William F., 454 -56

Hagan, Claude, 221

Haggar, Walter, 253

Haggard, Rider, 22 , 426

Hale, George C., 222

Hale's Tours and Scenes of the World, 222 , 264 -65, 526 n.89

Hammerstein's Olympia Theater (New York City), 86 , 95

Hanaway, Frank, 525 n.59

Hands, Charles E., 132

Hansen, Miriam, 523 n.32

Hardin, John, 279 , 330

Harrington, George, 449 , 454

Harris, Adrienne, 346


565

Harris, Neil, 254

Harrisburg Telegraph , 93

Harrison, Frank, 55 -56

Hartung, Lieutenant, 50

Hayes, Howard W., 179 , 198 , 238 -39, 244

Hazel Kirke (play), 305 -6, 364 , 365

"Heap Fun Laundry" (vaudeville skit), 50

Hearst, William Randolph, 77 , 127 , 167

Heise, William, 33 , 115 ;

film production (1893-1895), 39 -42, 47 -53, 55 , 160 ;

film production (1896-1898), 64 -70, 93 -102, 112 -14, 146 ;

invention of motion picture system, 31 -34;

royalties received from Edison, 47

Hendricks, Gordon, 2 , 39 , 115 , 492 -93n.13, 498 n.1, 499 n.39

Henry, Prince of Prussia, 194

Hepworth, Cecil, 123 , 227 , 230 , 231 , 253 , 314 , 316 , 355

Heterosocial work patterns, 461 , 469 -70, 494 n.34

Hilliard, Robert, 293 -94

Hinkle Iron Company, 159

His Majesty and the Maid (play), 253

Historical subjects, 55 , 138 , 336 -40, 364 -66, 395 , 424 -25, 430 -31, 464 -65, 534 n.47

Hodkinson, William, 472 -73

Hoey, James F., 50 , 113

Holden, Delos, 281

Hollaman, Richard G., 117 -19;

and passion play films, 121 , 138 ;

promotes Simplex projector, 474

Holland, Andrew, 45 , 87

Holland, Edwin, 293 -94

Holland Brothers, 45 , 87

Holmes, E. Burton, 234 , 261 , 274 , 327 , 379 , 526 -27n.103, 536 n.94

Homosocial work patterns, 18 , 32 -35, 39 -40, 47 -49, 107 , 212 -23

Homosocial world on film, 32 -35, 39 -42, 47 -49, 94 -95, 113 -14, 253 -59

Honig, Arthur, 393 -94

Hood, Thomas, 421

Hopkins, George M., 35 , 37

Hopwood, Henry, 9

Hornbacker and Murphy, 49

Hornung, E. W., 312

Howe, Lyman H., 14 , 95 , 153 , 185 , 285 , 379 , 396 , 398 , 401

Hoyt, Charles, 51

Huber, George, 155

Huber's 14th Street Museum, 118 , 155 , 218 , 254 , 289

Humanovo Producing Company, 399 -400

Hunter, Robert, 295

I

Ideology, 10 -11, 292 -304, 309 -11, 355 , 406 ;

and representations of class conflict, 295 -97, 301 -2, 307 , 366 . See also Propaganda; Resistance to rationalization and efficiency

Illustrated lectures, 23 , 35 -38, 122 , 288 ;

combining slides and films, 122 -24, 145 , 173 , 234 , 288 , 369 -70. See also Lantern shows; Lantern slides; Travelogues

Illustrated songs, 79 , 119 , 150 -51, 218

Ince, Thomas, 469

Independent Motion Picture Company (IMP), 445 , 469

Independents, 379 -82, 433 -34, 442 -45, 537 n.30

Indianapolis Journal , 89 , 90

Indianapolis Sentinel , 89 , 90

Industrial films, 322 , 370 , 378 , 457 , 531 n.55

Intermittent mechanism for projection: introduced, 57 , 522 n.8

International Film Company, 92 , 114 , 115 , 119

International Projecting and Producing Company, 444

Intertitles, 243 -44, 273 , 275 , 294 , 317 -20, 340 , 356 -60, 365 , 402 -3, 404 , 407 , 412 -13, 420 -21, 450 , 452 , 462 , 523 n.31

Irwin, May, 65 , 80 , 83

Italian "Cinès," 335 , 379 -81, 435 , 437

J

Jacobs, Ken, 477

Jacobs, Lewis, 2 , 201 , 212 , 231 , 232 , 254 , 511 -12n.130, 526 n.88

Jamestown Exposition (1908), 333 , 424 , 533 n.29

Jamison, William L., 238 , 333 , 454 , 521 n.28

Jeffries, James, 141

Jenkins, Charles Francis, 124 , 444 ;

and phantoscope, 57 , 58 , 59 , 89

Jews, 351 -52, 460 . See also Anti-Semitism

Jump cuts, 108 , 184 , 477 . See also Editing

K

Kalatechnoscope projector. See Paley, William C.

Kalem Company, 329 , 335 , 375 -77, 380 , 400 , 417 , 421 , 451 , 456 -57, 463 , 537 n.30

Karr, Lawrence, 335


566

Kathleen Mavourneen; or, St. Patrick's Eve (play), 365

Kayser, Charles, 34 , 53 , 145

Keaton, Buster, 475 -76

Keith, Benjamin Franklin: and cinématographe, 88 , 502 n.48;

switches from biograph service to Kinetograph Co., 281

Keith's Union Square Theater (New York):

—exhibition services used: biograph, 98 , 118 , 126 , 239 , 253 ;

Lumière cinématographe, 68 -69, 87 , 88 , 91 , 118 , 502 n.48;

vitagraph, 239

—live acts at, 173 , 191 , 293

—as motion picture theater, 374 , 423

Keith theaters, 88 , 239 , 253 , 281 , 502 n.48;

and kinetograph rental service, 281 , 368 ;

as motion picture houses, 374 , 397

Kennedy, Harold, 392

Kennedy, Jeremiah J., 434 , 438 , 439

Kessel, Adam, 440 , 445

Keyes, George H., 322 -23

Keystone Courier , 19 -20, 21 , 24 , 292 . See also Connellsville Courier

Kichi, Toyou, 50

Kidnapping films, 314 -16

Kiefaber, Peter W., 65 , 77 , 88

Kinemacolor, 401 , 439

Kineopticon projector, 87 , 91

Kinetograph. See Camera technology

Kinetograph Company: Edison films produced for, 280 -82, 284 , 368 ;

established, 155 -56;

as exhibition service, 191 -92, 197 , 218 , 254 , 280 , 289 , 527 n.128;

and film rental business, 280 , 368 , 383 ;

offices of, 159 -60, 333

Kinetograph Department. See Edison Manufacturing Company

Kinetophone (1895; peep-hole), 53 -56

Kinetophone (1913), 473 , 474

Kinetoscope Company, 44 -45, 49 ;

involvement in film production, 56 ;

markets kinetophone, 53 -56;

sponsors Edison's efforts to invent projector, 53

Kinetoscope Exhibition Company, 45

Kinetoscope parlors, 42 , 44 -47, 48 , 49 , 53 , 75 , 78 , 85 , 86

Kinetoscopes, peep-hole: capacity enlarged to handle 150 ft. of film, 45 -46;

first public exhibition of, 35 -38;

invention of, 29 -31;

manufacture of, 38 -39, 48 ;

no longer profitable, 93 ;

parlors featuring, 42 , 44 -47, 48 , 49 , 75 ;

prices, 45 , 48 , 56 ;

versus projected image, 60 -61, 82 ;

replaced by mutoscopes, 143 ;

and rival manufacturers, 53 . See also Mutoscopes; Projecting kinetoscope

Kircher, Athanasius, 494 n.33

Kiss films, 65 , 65 , 80 , 81 , 82 , 83 , 84 , 89 , 90 , 245 -49, 247 , 262 -64, 267 , 287 , 304 , 304 , 486

Klein, James, 476

Kleine, George, 4 ;

and Biograph Association of Licensees, 379 -80, 434 ;

as distributor of Edison feature films (1915-1918), 472 -73;

on duping, 279 ;

as Edison sales agent, 155 -56, 278 -79;

and Kalem Co., 329 , 377 ;

and Motion Picture Patents Co., 435 -38, 439 , 440 , 442 , 444 ;

as sales agent for European producers, 279 , 376 ;

on Uncle Tom's Cabin , 244

Kleine Optical Company: accounts, 482 -84;

sued by Edison, 379 . See also Kleine, George

Klondike Exposition Company, 144 -45

Koster & Bial's: management of, 39 , 40 , 50 ;

Music Hall, 61, 62 , 65 ;

and premier of vitascope, 59 , 60 -64, 76 , 90

Koszarski, Richard, 541 n.135

Kremer, Theodore, 407

Kuhn, Edmund, 41 , 92 , 225

Kuleshov, Lev, 249 , 402

L

Lackawanna Railroad, 253 , 263

Lacombe, Judge E. Henry, 333

Laemmle, Carl, 27 ;

and film exchange, 328 -29, 374 , 380 , 434 , 443 -44;

and film production companies, 445 , 463 , 471

Lake Shore Film and Supply Company, 399

Langtry, Lillie, 466

Lantern shows, 66 , 186 , 200 -201, 207 , 218 -19, 220 , 304 , 517 n.75, 523 n.25. See also Illustrated lectures

Lantern slides, 226 ;

combined with films, 122 -24, 129 -31, 136 , 278 -79;

depicting dreams and visions, 200 -201;

and dissolves, 172 ;

editorial organization of, 183 ;

made for illustrated lectures, 144 ;

providing "visual newspaper," 141 . See also Illustrated lectures; Illustrated songs; Magic lantern; Travelogues

Lasky, Jesse, 473

Latham, Gray, 45 , 77 , 86

Latham, Otway, 45 , 48

Latham, Woodville, 45

Latham family: and eidoloscope, 57 , 60 ,


567

70 , 77 , 86 -87;

and Kinetoscope Exhibition Company, 45 -46, 47 -49

Latham loop, 379

Lauste, Eugene, 30

Lawrence, Florence, 336 , 337 , 337 -39, 534 n.47

Leacock, Richard, 476

Leander Sisters, 106 , 107

Lee, Fitzhugh, 127 , 130

Lee, Van C., 366 , 395 -96

Léger, Fernand, 476

Lehigh Valley Railroad, 95 -96, 97 , 98 -99

Leigh, Fred W., 348

Leigh Sisters, 55 , 62

Leonard, Marion, 463

Leonard, Michael, 47

Leslie's Weekly , 163

Levy, David, 254 , 259 , 492 n.12, 509 -10n.72, 529 n.148

Lewis, Max, 328 , 438 , 443 . See also Chicago Film Exchange

Leyda, Jay, 521 n.28, 542 n.184

Library of Congress, 4 , 232 -33, 244 , 286 -87, 320 , 321

Lighting, 392 ;

arc lights, 191 , 388 , 475 ;

complaints about, 422 , 426 , 451 ;

Cooper-Hewitt lights, 388 ;

sunlight, 32 , 152

Lights and Shadows of a Great City (lantern show), 523 n.25

Lincoln, Abraham, 186 , 415 -16

Lipton, Sir Thomas, 143

Little Christopher Columbus (musical burlesque), 51

Local views, 65 -66, 96 -98, 251 , 284 , 378 -79, 537 n.30. See also Actualities

Loew, Marcus, 328 , 399

Lombard, Thomas, 45

London Daily Mail , 132

Long, Samuel, 329 , 439

Long, William J. (nature writer), 351

Los Angeles Herald , 82

Los Angeles Times , 82 , 83 , 84 , 368

The Lost Paradise (melodrama), 89 -90

Louisana Purchase Exposition (1904), 278 -79

Low, Seth, 191

Lubin, Sigmund, 114 , 115 , 237 , 439

—dupes Edison films, 197

—dupes foreign films, 239 , 253

—exhibition service, 155 , 163

—member of Association of Edison Licensees, 376 , 382

—member of Motion Picture Patents Co., 437 , 442

—productions, 140 , 146 , 197 , 218 , 253 , 286 , 310 , 314 , 334 , 417 , 427 ;

films remade by Edison, 174 , 180 , 286 , 515 n.35;

remakes Edison subjects, 163 , 244 -45, 310

—sued by Edison for copyright infringement, 197 , 207 -8, 213 , 237 -38, 244

—sued by Edison for patent infringement, 115 , 333 ;

flees to Germany, 178 ;

returns from Germany, 197

—theaters owned by, 398

Lubin Manufacturing Company. See Lubin, Sigmund

Lucy Daley's Pickaninnies, 50

Lumière, Auguste and Louis, 60

—cinématographe, 58 , 59 , 68 -69, 87 -88, 91 , 98 , 117 -18, 507 n.25;

U.S. premiere of, 87 ;

versus vitascope, 87 , 88 , 98 , 502 n.48

—film productions of, 98 , 162 , 260 , 317 , 506 n.168

—films acquired by Raff & Gammon, 67

—Maguire & Baucus as agent for, 115

—and quality of film stock, 265 , 266

—as source for Edison films, 65 , 66 , 67 , 68 -69, 94 , 102

M

McAllister, Jessie, 392

Macart's Dog and Monkey Circus, 80

McCay, Winsor, 341 -42, 343

McChesney, L. C., 317 , 472

McClellan, Mayor George Brinton, 428

McCoy, Joseph, 266 -67, 278 , 381 , 384 , 416 -17

McCutcheon, Wallace:

—at Biograph, 276 , 281 ;

leaves, 335 ;

returns, 384

—at Edison, 405 , 461 ;

leaves, 384 ;

as Porter's collaborator, 161 , 291 -92, 302 , 312 , 314 -15, 325 , 329 , 334 , 336 -37, 338 -40, 349 , 360 , 364 -67, 390

McDermott, Marc, 463

McGlynn, Frank, 456

McGovern, Terry, 139 -40

McGraw, John, 322

MacKaye, Steele, 305 -7

McKinley, Pres. William, 187

—films and slides of, 69 , 101 , 176 , 186 ;

funeral, 184 -86, 517 n.68;

inauguration (1897), 98 -99;

inauguration (1901), 161 ;

at Pan-American Exposition, 184 -86, 517 n.66, 518 n.85

—and Spanish-American War, 127 , 130

McLoughlin, Edmund, 87

Magic lantern, 23 , 83 , 167 . See also Lantern shows; Lantern slides


568

Magniscope projector, 92 . See also Amet, Edward H.

Magowan, Kenneth, 232 , 254 , 491 -92n.4

Maguire, Franck (Franz) Z., 46 , 115 , 127

Maguire &: Baucus, 46 -47, 49 , 115 , 507 n.21. See also Continental Commerce Company

Maher, James H., 374

Mail and Express . See New York Mail and Express

"Maine" (battleship), 126 -28

Mambert, S. B., 472

Mannie (the Edison dog), 173 -74, 268 , 271 , 311 , 312 , 318 -19, 344 , 344 , 375 , 377

Marble, Scott, 256

Marey, Étienne-Jules, 31

Marion, Francis J., 329 , 335 , 439 , 456 -57

Markell, F. E., 18 , 74 -75

Markgraf, William, 13 ;

heads Edison's Kinetograph Department, 236 , 252 ;

purchases defective Lumière film stock, 265 , 266 ;

purchases kinetoscopes, 45

Marks, F. Croydon, 335

Martin, Lee, 50

Martinetti, William, 240 , 391 , 525 n.72

Marvin, Harry Norton, 156 , 379 , 434 , 437 -38, 439 ;

on cinema, 163

Mass communication: cinema as, 372 , 401 , 402 , 406 -7

Mast, Gerald, 232 -33, 491 -92n.4, 492 -93n.13, 521 -22n.30

Matching action, 225 . See also Editing

Matthews, Harry C., 449 , 452 -53, 455 -56

Mayne, Judith, 179

Maysles, Albert and David, 476

Medea (travesty), 22

Méliès, Gaston, 239 -40

Méliès, Georges, 2 , 162 , 200 , 230 , 511 n.115;

copyrights films in U.S., 240 ;

film production, 240 , 253 , 417 , 516 n.65;

films distributed through New York office, 239 -40, 241 , 277 , 335 ;

films duped by American producers, 192 , 196 , 209 , 238 ;

films emulated by Porter, 172 , 200 -201, 209 ;

films exhibited on U.S. screens, 139 , 172 , 178 ;

member of Association of Edison Licensees, 377 ;

and Motion Picture Patents Co., 438 , 440 ;

representational techniques, 209 , 226 -27, 231 ;

sued by Edison for patent infringement, 333 ;

use of dissolves, 172 ;

waning role in industry, 277

Melodramas, 292 -303, 305 -7, 332 , 407 -9, 421 -22, 424 , 461 -62, 465 -70, 534 n.47

Men:

—as audiences, 40 , 47 , 107 , 179 -80, 246 -47, 346 -47

—as film subjects, 200 , 280 -82;

as audiences in films, 104 , 105 , 107 , 179 -80, 246 , 251 , 252 ;

homosocial world on film, 32 -35, 39 -42, 47 -49, 94 -95, 113 -14, 253 -59, 343 -47, 494 n.34

—homosocial work patterns among, 18 , 32 -35, 39 -40, 47 -49, 107 , 212 -23

Menzies, William Cameron, 539 -40n.80

Merry, Harley, 288 -89

Metz, Christian, 179

Mexican Central Railroad, 109

Michelson, Annette, 494 n.27

Michtom, Morris, 349

Middle class, 23 , 24 , 292 -304, 305 -11, 312 -17, 327 -28, 473

Miles Brothers, 374 , 377 , 520 n.146, 537 n.30

Milk White Flag (musical farce), 51

Millais, John Everett, 220

Miller, Arthur, 459

Miller, Ashley, 454 , 455 , 455 , 464

Miner's Bowery Theater, 91

Miner's Eighth Avenue Theater, 192

Minstrel shows, 275 , 319 , 321 -22, 378 , 396 , 396 -397

Miss Jerry (picture play), 78 , 82

Mitchell, Mason, 146

Molnár, Ferenc, 399

Monroe, Marilyn, 179

Montgomery, David, 6

Moore, Alex T., 13 ;

heads Kinetograph Department, 265 -67, 368 , 384 -85, 450 ;

leaves Edison Co., 453

Moore, Annabelle. See Whitford, Annabelle

Moore, Clement Clarke, 340

Morse, Salmi, 121

Mosher, Norman H., 268 , 271 , 515 n.33, 537 n.12

Motion Picture Patents Company (MPPCo), 1 , 13 , 178 , 455 -56, 459 , 463 , 471 , 473 , 545 n.31;

initial agreements, 438 -42;

process of formation, 432 , 433 -38. See also Association of Edison Licensees

Mottershaw, Frank, 3

Moulton, William, 449

Mount Pelee, 208

Moving Picture World (MPW ), 376 , 394 , 395 , 402 , 415 -16, 422 , 428 , 431 , 433 , 437 , 447 , 459 , 466 , 469

Mulhall, Lucille, 323


569

Münsterberg, Hugo, 194

Murdock, John J., 444

Murphy, Dudley, 476

Murphy, Richard, 391 , 410 , 412 , 466 , 539 -40n.80

Murray, Mae, 525 n.59

Museum of Modern Art, 4 , 14 , 232 -33, 321 , 491 -92n.4

Musical accompaniment for films: kinetophone, 53 -55;

vitascope, 62

Mutoscopes, 58 , 143

Muybridge, Eadweard, 29 , 32 , 34 , 35 , 37 , 475

N

Nairs, Phineas, 297 , 392

Narrative:

—broken down by exhibition process, 84

—complex narratives, 254 -56, 359 -67, 393 -406, 418 -19, 425 -27, 446 -47

—constructed primarily by the exhibitor, 94 -95, 99 -100, 103 , 112 , 119 -20, 122 -25, 135 -37, 148 , 201 -2, 284 , 287 , 509 n.68

—constructed primarily by the producer in story film, 198 -99, 201 -2, 229 -30, 276 -77

—construction shared or contested by producer and exhibitor, 99 , 124 -25, 186 , 262 -64, 284 , 287 , 509 n.68, 524 n.51, 541 n.135

—distended by or subservient to nonnarrative impulses, 359 , 360 -62, 367 , 404 , 415 -16, 419

—intratextual redundancy, 344 -45, 349 , 353 -56;

and the chase, 259 -60, 354 -55, 362 , 528 -29n.143

—and nonnarrative elements, 172

—reliance on simple stories, 356 -59

—repetitions from different perspectives, 194 , 211 , 224 -29

—shift toward linear structures, 403 -7, 415 , 424

—within single-shot films, 113 , 165 , 167

Nation, Carrie, 162 , 163 , 164 , 167

National Board of Censorship, 10 , 445

National Federation of Women's Clubs, 31

National Film Company, 399

National Phonograph Company, 13 , 197

Newark Evening News , 212 , 213 -14

Newark Turnverein (athletic club), 39

Newmyer Opera House (Connellsville, Pa.), 22 -24

News films, 67 , 68 -69, 98 , 101 , 104 -5, 112 , 117 , 119 -20, 126 -33, 135 -36, 138 , 140 -41, 142 , 143 , 154 , 161 , 175 , 176 , 184 -86, 187 , 190 , 208 -9, 251 , 252 , 253 , 275 , 276 , 284 , 286 , 289 , 291 , 322 -23, 367 -68. See also Actualities

Newspapers, 40 , 163 , 167 ;

influence on films, 10 , 162 -67, 192 , 258 . See also Cinema . . . as a visual newspaper; Comic strips; Political cartoons

Newsreel, 476

New York American , 353

New York Central Railroad, 95

New York Clipper (Clipper ), 77 , 141 , 197 , 214 -15, 223 , 256 , 286 , 289 ;

description of Life of an American Fireman , 214 -15;

on vitagraph exhibitions, 141

New York Daily News , 61

New York Dramatic Mirror (NYDM ), 293 , 381 , 386 , 394 , 399 -400, 402 -3, 405 , 413 , 415 -16, 420 , 422 -26, 428 , 446 -47, 452 , 460 , 470

New York Herald , 60 , 136

New York Journal , 60 , 127 -31, 163 -67, 168 , 169 , 181 -83, 189 , 252 , 274 , 292 ;

on value of war with Spain, 127

New York Mail and Express , 117 , 118 , 120 , 127 , 141

New York Motion Picture Company, 445

New York Police Department, 308 -9

New York Sun , 316

New York Telegraph , 341 , 368

New York Times (NYT ), 60 -61, 163 , 167 , 187 , 189 , 223 , 334

New York Tribune , 163 , 258 -59

New York World , 65 , 122 , 184 , 187 , 288 , 292 -93, 301 , 301 , 345 , 351 ;

on attitudes toward war with Spain, 127

Niagara Falls, 66 -67, 83 , 84 , 96 , 153 , 187 , 267

Nickelodeons, 320 -21, 325 -29, 330 , 336 , 372 -73, 374 , 378 , 380 -81, 392 -93, 395 -402, 407 , 427 -32, 443 , 445 , 532 nn.5-6

Niver, Kemp, 4 , 171

Norcross, J. F., 18 , 21

Nordisk Film Company, 335 , 381

North American Phonograph Company, 71

Nostalgia, 15 , 27 , 34 , 94 , 99 , 320 -21, 340 , 345 -46, 363 , 364

Novelty, 53 -55, 78 -81, 82 , 137 , 221 , 340 -41, 349 , 352 -53, 415 , 461 ;

and familiarity, 319 . See also Cinema . . . as novelty

Novelty Song Film Company, 333 , 397

Number 973 (vaudeville play), 293 -94

O

Oakley, Annie, 50


570

Occidental and Oriental Steamship Company, 108 , 111 -12

Off-screen space, 225 , 226

Olcott, Sidney (John Sidney Allcott), 402 , 456 -57

Old maids, 167

"On a Good Old Five Cent Trolley Ride" (song), 320

O'Neill, James, 242 , 465

On Shanon's Shore (play), 383

Operational aesthetic, 254

Orange Camera Club, 369

Orange Chronicle , 53 -54

Order of United Mechanics, 20 -21

Orpheum Theater (Los Angeles), 81 -84

Orpheum Theater (San Francisco), 77 -80

Ott, Frederick P., 30

Ott, John, 52

Our Departed Heroes (lantern-slide subject), 186

Outcault, Richard F., 267 -72, 526 nn.95-97

Overlapping actions. See Continuity;

Representational practices

P

Paine, Richard S., 18 , 74 -75, 88 ;

acquires vitascope in New York, 75 ;

exhibits vitascope in Los Angeles, 81 -85;

exhibits vitascope in San Francisco, 77 -81

Paintings and illustrations: as film subjects, 55 , 182 , 220

Paley, William C.: as cameraman for Eden Musee, 120 -21, 510 nn.89, 90 ;

as Edison licensee, 125 -26, 143 ;

and filming of Spanish-American War, 127 -28, 131 -33;

and film production (1899-1902), 141 , 143 , 194 -95, 310 ;

and kalatechnoscope exhibition service, 142 , 173 ;

sued by Edison, 333

Paley & Steiner, 310 , 333

Palmer-McGovern Fight, 139 -40

Pan-American Exposition, 175 -76, 184 -87

Panoramas (camera movement), 249 -50;

absence of camera movement noted, 105 ;

panning on tripod, 107 , 153 -54, 184 , 186 , 187 -89, 193 , 211 , 226 , 241 , 249 -50, 251 , 287 , 323 ;

in pre-cinema, 186 ;

tilts, 153 , 154 , 175 -76;

on vehicles moving through space, 66 -67, 99 , 128 , 148 -49, 153 , 175 , 241 , 261 -65, 321 , 321 , 463

Pantomimes, 200 -201

Paper prints, 103 -4, 208 , 254 , 286

Papinta, 80

Paradise Lost (lantern show), 23

Parallel editing, 225 -26, 227 , 303 , 404 -5, 416 , 424 , 450 , 462 . See also Editing

Paris Exposition (1900), 145 , 152 -53, 175 , 220 , 513 n.164

Parker, Walter, 209

A Parlor Match (play), 113

Parsifal (opera, play), 287 -89

The Passing Show (revue), 50

Passion Play (Oberammergau), 121 -25, 138

Passion Play (Salmi Morse), 121

Passion play films, 121 -26, 132 , 136

Pastor's Theater (New York City), 50 , 91 , 118 , 141 , 150 , 362 , 374 , 381

Pateck, Alfred, 368 -69

Patents, 439 -42, 471 , 498 n.3. See also Association of Edison Licensees; Edison, Thomas Alva; Motion Picture Patents Company

—owned by Armat, 71 , 92 , 178 , 522 n.8;

litigation involving, 236 -37

—owned by Biograph, 178 , 379 ;

and Biograph Association of Licensees, 379 -82, 434 ;

litigation involving, 380 ;

and rivalry with Edison, 333 -34, 377 -79

—owned by Edison, 31 , 115 , 196 , 333 ;

licensees under, 116 , 125 -26, 134 , 143 , 154 -55, 161 , 376 -77, 445 ;

litigation involving, 12 , 114 , 115 -16, 125 , 134 , 144 , 154 , 156 , 178 , 278 , 289 , 333 -34, 335 , 375 -76, 379 -80

—and Motion Picture Patents Co., 438 , 441 ;

infringement litigation by, 442 , 459 , 471

—patent combination proposed by Armat, 178 -79, 237

Pathé Frères (Companie générale des phonographes, cinématographes, et appareils de précision):

—American distribution, 277 -78, 335 -36, 377 , 378 , 416 -17, 437

—film production, 12 , 335 , 344 , 404 -5, 518 n.85;

image tinting, 401 ;

subjects remade by Edison Co., 193 , 341 -42, 424

—films duped by Edison Co., 238 , 277 -78

—Kleine as western agent for, 279

—as licensee of Association of Edison Licensees, 376 , 382 , 434

—as licensee of Motion Picture Patents Co., 439

—Pathé News, 91

—sued by Edison, 333


571

Patriotism, 62 , 114 , 126 -27, 128 , 132 , 140 -41, 223 , 430 -31

Paul, Robert W., 53 , 63 , 253 , 518 -19n.108

Peck's Bad Boy and His Pa (lantern show with films), 344

Peiss, Kathy, 494 n.34

Pelzer, John, 384 -85, 453 -54

Pennebaker, D. A., 476

Phantoscope, 89 , 501 n.7

Phillips, Augustus, 392

Phonograph, 71 , 75 , 117 , 145 , 235 ;

as adjunct to films, 151 -52;

for kinetophone, 53 -55, 473

Phonograph parlors, 78 , 85 -86

Phonoscope , 122

Photography, 144

Picabia, Francis, 476

Pickford, Mary, 466 -67, 468 , 468 -70, 549 n.45

Picture songs, 150

Pinkerton, William A., 286 -87

Pioneer Days (play), 336

Plays: adapted from motion picture subject, 220 -21;

film adaptions of, 113 , 121 -24, 253 , 256 -57, 292 -96, 303 , 305 -7, 336 -40, 363 -67, 400 , 422 , 423 , 424 -26, 431 -32, 464 -69, 535 n.76;

filmed theater, 22 , 50 -52, 65 , 101 , 121 -23, 138 , 242 -45, 287 -89, 393 -94, 395 , 396 -97, 400 , 464 -69;

films providing backdrops for sets, 77 , 190 -91

Plebeian culture, 221 -23, 521 n.14

Plimpton, Horace G., 13 , 453 -56, 458 , 463 , 472

Plintom, A. D., 381

Point-of-view structures, 174 , 246 , 261 , 273 , 345 -46, 419 , 524 n.48

Political cartoons, 10 , 163 -66, 181 -83, 301 , 301

Popular culture:

—and copyright restrictions, 420 -21

—as source for film subjects: baseball, 345 -47;

boxing, 47 -49;

circuses, 51 , 100 -101;

comic photographs and post cards, 318 , 318 -19, 351 -53, 353 , 412 , 413 ;

comic strips, 62 , 165 -67, 245 , 267 -72, 281 , 341 -42, 343 , 353 -54, 354 , 526 n.84;

Coney Island, 67 -68, 93 -94, 94 , 148 -49, 192 , 220 , 245 , 249 -51, 275 , 276 , 321 , 323 , 324 , 391 , 419 ;

dime novels, 426 ;

ditties and sayings, 171 , 263 , 346 -47, 353 , 422 ;

fairy tales, 349 -51;

lantern shows, 186 , 218 -19, 226 ;

magazine tie-ins, 464 ;

minstrel shows, 275 , 319 , 321 -22, 378 , 396 , 396 -97;

newspaper stories, 150 , 163 , 187 , 257 -59, 308 , 345 , 349 -51, 415 ;

novels, 52 ;

nursery rhymes, 340 , 420 -21;

paintings and illustrations, 55 , 182 , 220 ;

photographs, 34 , 163 ;

plays, operas, and musical comedy adaptations, 50 -51, 51 , 52 , 65 , 101 , 113 , 121 -24, 138 , 242 -44, 253 , 256 -57, 287 -89, 292 -96, 303 , 305 -7, 336 -40, 363 -67, 415 , 424 -26, 431 -32, 464 -69, 535 n.76;

poems, 420 -22;

political cartoons, 10 , 62 , 163 -66, 181 -83, 191 , 301 , 301 ;

short stories, 312 ;

songs, 319 -20, 333 , 347 -49, 397 -98, 411 -12;

sporting events, 67 , 104 -5, 113 , 241 ;

vaudeville performers, 39 -41, 41, 42 , 43 , 50 , 55 , 64 , 65 , 69 , 102 , 169 , 173 , 179 , 180 , 190 -91, 245 , 249 -50, 321 -22;

vaudeville sketches, 50 , 422 , 423;

waxworks, 410 -11;

wild west shows and rodeos, 50 , 51 , 174 , 256 , 275 -76, 289 , 323 , 360 -63

Porter, Byron, 22 , 496 -97n.38

Porter, Charles W. (brother), 16 , 17

Porter, Edwin Stanton (Edward):

—and American Cinematograph Company: see and Eden Musee, below

—and American Sportagraph Company, 139 -40

—as builder of motion picture equipment, 7 , 119 , 121 , 139 , 141 , 157 -58, 160 , 457 , 474 -75;

and Simplex projector, 474 -75

—collaborative approach to work, 7 , 25 (see also Collaborative system of film production);

with Anderson, 253 , 525 n.59;

with Balsley, 25 , 26;

with Dawley, 383 -85, 390 -93, 402 , 417 , 450 , 461 , 466 -69;

with Fleming, 160 -62, 192 ;

with McCutcheon, 291 , 302 , 325 , 336 -40, 349 , 360 , 364 -65, 390 ;

with Smith, 240 -41;

and subsequent career, 461 -63, 465

—in Connellsville as youth and young adult: bankruptcy of tailoring business, 27 , 80 ;

early cultural experiences, 15 , 21 -24;

family, 16 -18, 495 nn.1, 3 ;

ill-health, 18 ;

invents electric regulator device, 25 ;

jobs, 22 -27;

learns photography, 22 , 497 n.41

—in Connellsville on visits, 81 , 241 , 320 -21

—on continuity between shots, 211

—and Defender Film Company, 459 -60

—and Eden Musee, 103 ;

exhibitions, 121 -23, 124 -25, 132 -33, 134 -37,


572

Porter, Edwin Stanton (continued ) 172 ;

joins as projectionist, 121 ;

works on new cinematograph projector, 119 , 121 , 157

—at Edison Manufacturing Company, 156 ;

demoted to advisory role, 453 -54;

film production (1901-1902), 160 -95, 197 -211, 212 -30;

film production (1903-1905), 241 -76, 280 -90, 292 -324;

film production (1905-1909), 336 -67, 383 -432, 446 -58;

fired, 458 ;

hired, 157 ;

as projectionist at charity events, 284 ;

serves only as studio head, 449 -53

—as electrician, 25 -26, 81 , 83 , 160 , 191

—emulates Edison, 24 , 102 , 157 , 160

—at Famous Players Film Company, 464 -71, 474 , 475

—versus Griffith, 225 -26, 303 , 307 , 317 , 339 , 359 , 403 , 405 -6, 418 , 419 , 424 , 426 , 462 , 477

—and historiography, 141

—as independent exhibitor, 102 , 119 -20

—personal archive destroyed, 275

—at Precision Machine Co., 474 -75

—on pressures of release system, 450

—resistance to changing system of representation, 393 -95, 402 -7, 410 , 416 , 418 -19, 433 , 446 -53, 475

—resistance to division of labor, 6 -7, 11 , 24 , 27 , 355 , 390 -93, 406 -7

—at Rex Motion Picture Manufacturing Company, 460 -63, 465 , 466 , 469

—salary, 161 , 192 , 265 , 291 -92

—at Sunlight Arc Company, 475

—and U.S. Navy, 27 -28, 60 , 74 , 81 , 102

—and vitascope, 73 ;

alerts Connellsville;

group to opportunity, 74 ;

installs electrical system for premiere, 60 ;

as projectionist with Connellsville group in Indiana, 88 -91;

as projectionist with Connellsville group in Los Angeles, 81 -86;

works for Raft & Gammon, 102

—with Wormwood Dog and Monkey Circus, 119 -20

Porter, Everette Melbourne (brother), 17 , 265

Porter, Mary Clark (mother), 16 , 495 n.3

Porter, Thomas, (father), 16 ;

undertaking business of, 16 -17

Powell, Professor (lecturer), 124

Powell, William, 476

Powers, James T., 323

Powers, T. E., 353

Pratt, George C., 221

Pre-cinema, 8 -9, 10 , 100

Precision Machine Company, 475

Prescott, Frederick M., 155

Presentationalism, 8 , 31 , 33 , 34 , 226 , 245 ;

assault on spectator, 63 , 79 , 94 , 95 , 95 -96, 97 , 264 ;

display, 41, 42 , 94 , 94 , 106 , 107 , 245 , 246 -49, 268 ;

frontal composition, 31 , 101 , 150 , 242 , 247-48 , 288 ;

indication, 7 , 242 ;

performers and objects isolated against plain background, 31 , 31 , 32 , 33 , 40, 41 , 42 , 65 , 84 , 102 , 114 , 246 -47, 250 , 264 , 524 n.48

Pressberger, Eneric, 476

Prices: for film prints, 143 , 191 -92, 197 , 208 , 245 , 288 -89, 330 , 439 -40, 456 , 472 ;

for film rentals, 280 ;

for kinetoscopes, 45 , 48 , 55 ;

for projectors, 93 , 442 , 545 n.33

Prior, Herbert, 390 , 392

Proctor, Frederick F., 23 ;

hires Paley's kalatechnoscope service, 142

Proctor's Pleasure Palace (New York):

—and exhibition services: biograph, 126 , 127 ;

cinématographe, 98 , 117 -18;

kintographe announced, 76 ;

Paley's kalatechnoscope, 142 , 173 ;

vitagraph, 138 ;

vitascope, 91

—provides offices for Paley's filmmaking;

activities, 142

Proctor's 23rd Street Theater (New York): and cinematograph (American Cinematograph Co.), 129 -31, 133 ;

and cinématographe, 98 ;

live performances at, 220 -21;

and Paley's kalatechnoscope, 142 , 173 ;

and vitagraph, 133 -34;

vitascope exhibition at, 91

Production practices, of cinema, 5 -8. See also Cinema;

Film production

Progressive ideology, 292 , 295 -96, 300 -302, 303 , 309

Projecting kinetoscope, 92 -93, 158

Projection technology: amateur formats (Home P. K.), 473 -74;

combination slide-film projector, 158 ;

Edison's efforts at invention of, 53 , 58 ;

endless film-band system, 63 -64;

illumination, 158 ;

intermittent mechanism introduced, 57 , 522 n.8;

reduced flicker and shaking, 118 -19, 121 , 158 ;

reframing device, 134 , 151 ;

shutter, 237 , 522 n.8;

Simplex projector, 474 -75;

synchronous recorded sound (kinetophone, 1913), 474 ;

take-up reel, 158

Projectograph projector, 102 , 505 n.147, 506 n.174

Projectors: animatographe, 107 ;


573

biograph, 91 -92, 141 -43 (see also American Mutoscope & Biograph Company);

cinematograph (Eden Musee), 118 -19, 121 , 442 ;

cinéma-tographe (Joly), 118 ;

cinématographe (Lumière), 58 , 59 , 60 , 68 -69, 87 -88, 91 , 98 , 117 -18, 507 n.25 (see also Lumière, Auguste and Louis);

edengraph, 442 ;

eidoloscope (Lathams), 53 , 57 ;

Home P. K., 473 -74;

kalatechnoscope, 142 , 173 (see also Paley, . William C.);

kinetophone (1913), 474 ;

kinodrome, 239 ;

phantoscope, 57 , 58 ;

projecting kinetoscope, 151 , 158 , 159 , 237 , 255 , 327 , 329 , 457 ;

projectoscope, 92 -93, 96 -98, 505 n.147, 506 n.174;

Simplex projector, 474 -75;

viascope, 442 ;

vitagraph, 134 , 158 (see also American Vitagraph Company);

vitascope, 57 -92 (see also Vitascope Company)

Propaganda, 127 , 129 -31, 132 -36, 308 , 368 -70. See also Ideology

Proto-Hollywood system of representation, 7 , 372 , 407 , 477

Pudovkin, Vsevolod, 402

Q

Quotidian views, 63 , 65 -69, 79 , 84 , 86 , 93 -96, 101 , 102 , 105 , 106 -7, 148 -49, 151 -52, 161 , 208 , 251 , 267 , 276 , 291 , 323 , 324

R

A Race for a Wife (play), 407 , 542 n.142

Racial prejudice, 20 , 303 , 312 -14. See also Anti-Semitism

Raff, Norman C., 45 , 58 , 65 , 70 -71, 505 n.121;

incorporates Vitascope Co., 70 . See also Raft & Gammon

Raff & Gammon. See also Gammon, Frank R.;

Raff, Norman C.; Vitascope; Vitascope Company

—and kinetoscopes: decline in business, 53 -56;

form Kinetoscope Co., 44 -45;

initial marketing of business, 44 -47;

involvement in film production, 49 -53, 56 ;

liquidate Kinetoscope Co., 70 ;

market kinetophone, 53 -56;

want Edison to invent projector, 53

—and vitascope: incorporate Vitascope Co., 70 ;

and plans for exploitation of, 58 -60;

reach agreements with Armat and Edison, 57 -58;

relations with Armat and Edison, 70 -71;

rename phantoscope, 58 ;

role of, in film production, 64 -70;

sell rights to, 70 -74

Railway films, 66 -67, 95 -96, 97, 98 , 99 -100, 105 , 106 , 180 , 191 , 241 , 286 -87, 316 -17;

comic relief in, 261 , 262 -64, 287 ;

Hale's Tours and Scenes of the World, 264 -65;

viewer-as-passenger convention in, 260 -65, 287

Ramsaye, Terry, 2 , 53 , 69 , 121 , 156 , 201 , 212 , 213 , 231 , 275 , 292 , 438 , 492 -93n.13, 505 n.147, 511 -12n.130, 529 n.145, 536 n.77

Ranous, William V., 449 , 536 n.77

Ray, Carrie Louis, 78

Raymond, Mellville B., 268

Realism, 55 , 62 , 63 , 83 , 84 , 167 , 211 , 259 , 264 -65, 293 -94, 306 -7, 308 -9, 331 , 388 ,