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1. BRO, Common Council Proceedings, vol. 3, f. 6v, printed with an incorrect citation in McGrath, ed., Merchants and Merchandise, p. 144. The six paper books do not appear to have survived. Possibly they were a version of the so-called “Proceedings and Debates,” many copies of which were made and circulated after this Parliament: see Robert C. Johnson, Mary Frear Keeler, Maija Jansson Cole, and William B. Bidwell, eds., Proceedings in Parliament, 1628, 6 vols. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977–1983), vol. 1, pp. 4–33; see also Wallace Notestein and Frances Helen Relf, eds., Commons Debates for 1629 (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 1921), introduction; R. Malcolm Smuts, “Parliament, the Petition of Right and Politics,” Journal of Modern History 50 (1978): pp. 714–15. [BACK]

2. See, e.g., PRO, SP 16/21/111, 16/23/105, 16/40/25, 16/42/84, 16/43/52, 16/47/37, 16/49/62, 16/51/31, 63, 66, 16/75/9, 16/77/10, 16/78/30, 34, 36, 16/79/6, 16/80/36, 42, 69, 16/82/24, 16/94/58, 58i, 63, 63i, 16/95/43, 46, 16/96/14, 16/100/42, 16/101/39, 16/109/28, 16/113/46, 16/119/50; APC (March 1625–May 1626), pp. 38, 272; APC (June–December 1626), pp. 47–49, 109–10, 129–30, 209, 415–16; APC (January–August 1627), pp. 33–34, 159–61, 398, 506, 508; APC (September 1627–June 1628), pp. 4, 55, 58, 75, 82–83, 105–6, 132–33; APC (July 1628–April 1629), pp. 57, 100. [BACK]

3. See, e.g., PRO, SP 16/1/12, 16/21/111, 16/22/22, 16/26/45, 16/29/17, 35, 16/32/33, 16/36/96, 16/37/54, 65, 86, 16/38/77, 90, 16/41/80, 16/42/8, 14, 70, 84, 16/47/20, 37, 16/48/2, 6, 7, 28, 16/49/62, 16/51/51, 66, 16/70/48, 52, 16/72/43, 16/73/11, 11i, 16/74/20, 16/82/52, 16/83/19, 23, 27, 16/87/25, 66, 16/91/75, 16/115/p. 19, 16/144/22, 16/177/12; APC (January–August 1627), pp. 353–54; APC (September 1627–June 1628), pp. 86–87, 186–87, 277, 287–88, 323–24, 342. See also J. W. Damer Powell, Bristol Privateers and Ships of War (Bristol: J. W. Arrowsmith, 1930), pp. 69–85. For a general account of Admiralty regulation of privateering, see Kenneth R. Andrews, Elizabethan Privateering: English Privateering during the Spanish War, 1585–1603 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1964), esp. pp. 22–31; Andrews, Trade, Plunder and Settlement, chap. 11. [BACK]

4. PRO, SP 16/94/58, 58i, 63, 63i, 16/95/43, 16/96/14, 16/100/42. By the spring of 1628 the resistance of the Bristolians to the Crown’s demands had become focused on the duke of Buckingham. One reason Buxton had such difficulty in the city was that his commission came from the Lord Admiral, not the Privy Council. As Buxton wrote to Edward Nicholas, many Bristolians “do think nay in a manner say that my Lords warrant will not be sufficient”: PRO, SP 16/95/46. [BACK]

5. See Livock, ed., City Chamberlain’s Accounts, p. xxv. [BACK]

6. PRO, SP 16/113/46. [BACK]

7. PRO, SP 16/108/11, 16/109/6, 28, 16/112/47, 48. [BACK]

8. Adams’s Chronicle, pp. 256, 258; PRO, SP 16/273/1. See also PRO, SP 16/373/84. [BACK]

9. Put another way, the Bristol magistrates appear to have been tending toward a form of “country ideology”: see J. G. A. Pocock, “Machiavelli, Harrington and English Political Ideologies in the Eighteenth Century,” in his Politics, Language and Time: Essays on Political Thought and History (New York: Atheneum, 1973), pp. 104–47, esp. pp. 123–24; Lawrence Stone, The Causes of the English Revolution, 1529–1642 (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1972), pp. 105–8; Lawrence Stone, “Results of the English Revolutions of the Seventeenth Century,” in J. G. A. Pocock, ed., Three British Revolutions: 1641, 1688, 1776 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1980), pp. 32–37. [BACK]

10. Ronald Syme, The Roman Revolution (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1960), p. 59. [BACK]

11. For the materials collected in the city’s register books, see LRB; Veale, ed., Great Red Book; Ralph, ed., Great White Book. [BACK]

12. See J. H. Hexter, “Power, Parliament and Liberty in Early Stuart England,” in his Reappraisals in History: New Views on History and Society in Early Modern Europe, 2d ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1979), pp. 163–218. [BACK]

13. J. H. Hexter, “The Birth of Modern Freedom,” Times Literary Supplement, 21 January 1983, pp. 51–54. [BACK]

14. H. E. Mathews, ed., Proceedings of the Company of Soapmakers, 1562–1642 (BRS 10, 1939), pp. 6–8, 194ff.; PRO, SP 16/288/49, 16/289/94, 16/308/14, 16/328/33, 33i, 16/356/101, 16/377/46; Adams’s Chronicle, pp. 256–57; Latimer, Annals, pp. 121–22. [BACK]

15. BRO, Common Council Proceedings, vol. 3, f. 110r. [BACK]

16. BRO, Common Council Proceedings, vol. 2, f. 134r; vol. 3, f. 198r. Derek Hirst argues that the freemen won a victory in 1640: Derek Hirst, The Representative of the People? Voters and Voting and the Early Stuarts (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1975), p. 195. But he misinterprets the evidence. The “allies” mentioned in the return for this election were the other freeholders, not the freemen. [BACK]

17. Based on analysis of BRO, Burgess Book (1607–51); see Sacks, Trade, Society and Politics, vol. 2, pp. 752–58. [BACK]

18. BRO, MS 04026 (9), f. 105r; Jean Vanes, “The Overseas Trade of Bristol in the Sixteenth Century,” Ph.D. thesis, University of London, 1975, p. 167. [BACK]

19. Edgeworth, Sermons, f. 209v. [BACK]

20. Ibid., f. 211r–v. [BACK]

21. Patrick Collinson, The Religion of Protestants (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1982). [BACK]

22. See above, pp. 145, 183–85, and 190–91. [BACK]

23. Edgeworth, Sermons, ff. 43v–44r. [BACK]

24. Ibid., f. 266r. [BACK]

25. Ibid., f. 279v. [BACK]

26. Ibid., f. 265v. [BACK]

27. Certain Sermons or Homilies Appointed to Be Read in the Churches in the Time of Queen Elizabeth I (1547–1571): A Facsimile Reproduction of the Edition of 1623, introduction by Mary Ellen Rickey and Thomas B. Stroup, 2 vols. in 1 (Gainesville, Fla.: Scholars’ Facsimiles and Reprints, 1968), part 1, pp. 69–77. See also ibid., part 2, pp. 271–310; Richard B. Bond, ed., Certain Sermons or Homilies (1547) and A Homily against Disobedience and Wilful Rebellion (1570): A Critical Edition (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1987), pp. 161–73, 209–59. [BACK]

28. See William Laud, The Works of the Most Reverent Father in God, William Laud, D.D. Sometime Lord Archbishop of Canterbury, ed. W. Scott and J. Bliss, 7 vols. in 9 (Oxford: John Henry Parker, 1847–1860), vol. 7, p. 31; Edward Elbridge Salisbury, Family Memorials: A Series of Genealogical and Biographical Monographs on the Families of Salisbury, Aldworth-Elbridge, Sewall, Pyldren-Dummer, Walley, Quincy, Wendell, Breese, Chevalier-Anderson and Phillips, 1 vol. in 2 (New Haven: Tuttle, Morehouse and Taylor, 1885), vol. 1, part 1, pp. 103–21, and “Pedigree of Aldworth-Elbridge,” facing p. 142. [BACK]

29. See, e.g., “Will of Alderman Robert Aldworth,” BRO, Great Orphan Book, vol. 2, ff. 16r–17r, and “Will of Alderman Henry Yate,” ff. 21r–24r. Aldworth’s own funeral monument is itself an example of the high baroque style favored by many of the followers of Laud in this period; for a photograph see Damer Powell, Bristol Privateers and Ships of War, facing p. 72. [BACK]

30. PRO, SP 16/41/80; Christopher Hill, Society and Puritanism in Pre-Revolutionary England (London: Secker and Warburg, 1964), pp. 13–29. [BACK]

31. See Whitson, Aged Christians Final Farewell; “Will of John Whitson,” BRO, Great Orphan Book, vol. 2, ff. 244v–250v; Jordan, Forming of the Charitable Institutions, pp. 23–24, 30, 33, 38, 39. But see also John Aubrey, Brief Lives, ed. Oliver Lawson Dick (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1974), pp. 366–67; McGrath, John Whitson, pp. 1–22. [BACK]

32. See above, pp. 220–21 and p. 408 n.92. [BACK]

33. BRO, Common Council Proceedings, vol. 3, ff. 44–45; “Will of William Tucker,” in Wadley, ed., Great Orphan Book, pp. 245–46; “Will of Christopher Whitson,” BRO, Great Orphan Book, vol. 2, ff. 100v–103v. [BACK]

34. “Will of William Yeamans, gent.,” PRO, PROB 6/17 Essex; “Will of Mathew Warren,” BRO, Great Orphan Book, vol. 2, ff. 36v–39v; George Bishop, A Relation of the Inhumane and Barbarous Sufferings of the People Called Quakers in the City of Bristol during the Mayoralty of John Knight commonly called Sir John Knight (London, 1665), p. 75; see also Mortimer, ed., Minute Book, p. 220. [BACK]

35. For the early history of the group see Hayden, ed., Records, pp. 13, 17, 19, 84, 88. [BACK]

36. See Collinson, Religion of Protestants, chap. 6. [BACK]

37. See above, pp. 145, 232. [BACK]

38. “Will of Edward Chetwyn,” PRO, PROB 6/115 Harvey; PRO, SP 16/35/92; Anthony à Wood, Athenae Oxonienses: An Exact History of all the Writers who have had their Education in the University of Oxford, 3d ed., with additions by Philip Bliss, 4 vols. (London: F. C. and J. Rivington, 1813–1820), vol. 2, p. 641, and vol. 4, p. 375; DNB, “Edward Chetwynd,” “John Chetwynd”; Thomas G. Barnes, Somerset, 1625–1640: A County Government during the “Personal Rule” (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1961), pp. 32, 34–35, 71; David Underdown, Somerset in the Civil War and Interregnum (Newton Abbot: David and Charles, 1973), pp. 22, 27, 143, 171. [BACK]

39. Many of them voted for “E” in the first election. If this indeed is the symbol for Giles Elbridge, it is perhaps understandable that the Aldworth faction should do so. [BACK]

40. Laud, Works, vol. 7, p. 568. For further evidence of poor relations between Berkshire and Laud, particularly involving their respective connections with the city of Oxford and the university, see ibid., vol. 4, pp. 174–75, and vol. 5, pp. 123–24, 244, 245, 274–80, 283–84. See also Edward Hyde, The History of the Rebellion and Civil Wars of England, new ed., 2 vols. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1843), vol. 1, p. 371. [BACK]

41. Bishop, Throne of Blood, p. 109. [BACK]

42. For the outlines of Chetwyn’s career in civic office see Beaven, Lists, p. 235. [BACK]

43. Mary F. Keeler, The Long Parliament, 1640–1641: A Biographical Study of Its Members (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1954), pp. 220–221, 255–56; CJ, vol. 2, pp. 415, 567; C. H. Firth and R. S. Rait, eds., Acts and Ordinances of the Interregnum, 1642–1660, 3 vols. (London: His Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1911) vol. 1, pp. 797–98. [BACK]

44. Latimer, Annals, pp. 157, 158, 181, 189, 205, 210, 214; DNB, “Sir John Glanville, the younger.” [BACK]

45. John Corbet, An Historical Relation of the Military Government of Gloucester from the beginning of the Civill Warre betweene the King and Parliament to the removall of Colonell Massie from that Government to the Command of the Westerne Forces (London, 1645), p. 14. [BACK]

46. Corbet, Military Government of Gloucester. See also Latimer, Annals, pp. 164–65; Roger Howell, Jr., “The Structure of Urban Politics in the English Civil War,” Albion 11 (1979): 118. [BACK]

47. The participation of “the middling sort” has been emphasized by Howell, “Structure of Urban Politics,” p. 115. For notes on the interrogation of the leaders and others, see Bodleian Library, Portland MSS, Nalson Papers, N. XIII, 151, 155–71, 190; see also Historical Manuscripts Commission, The Manuscripts of His Grace the Duke of Portland Preserved at Welbeck Abbey, 10 vols. (London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1891), vol. 1, p. 107. I am grateful to His Grace the Duke of Portland for permission to consult and photocopy this material. [BACK]

48. See Howell, “Structure of Urban Politics,” p. 118. [BACK]

49. In their petition to the king the Bristolians refer directly to the Londoners’ earlier petition, which the Bristolians say had invoked the king’s “Royall assistance and suffrage for the establishing an unanimous tranquillity throughout this Realme”: The Humble Petition of the Citie of Bristoll, for An Accommodation of Peace between His Majestie, and the Honourable the High Court of Parliament As it was presented to the Kings Most Excellent Majestie, at the Court at Oxford, by foure of the Aldermen of the said Citie; on Saturday the seventh of Januarie, with His Majesties gracious Answer therunto (Oxford, 1643), p. 3. See also The Petition of the Most Svbstantiall Inhabitants of the Citie of London, And the Liberties thereof, to the Lords and Commons for Peace Together with the Answer to the same And the Reply of the Petitioners (Oxford, 1642). For discussion of the campaign for “accommodation” in 1642, see Anthony Fletcher, The Outbreak of the English Civil War (London: Edward Arnold, 1981), pp. 264–82. For the link between accommodation and royalism, see John Pym, A Discoverie of the Great Plot for the Utter Ruine of the City of London and the Parliament. As it was at large made known…the eighth of June, 1643 (London, 1643); Edward Montague and John Pym, Two Speeches spoken by the Earl of Manchester and Jo: Pym; as a reply to his Maiesties answer to…Londons Petition (London, 1643); T. B. Howell, ed., Cobbett’s Complete Collection of State Trials, 33 vols. (London: R. Bagshaw, 1809–1826), vol. 4, pp. 626–53; Samuel R. Gardiner, History of the Great Civil War, 1642–1649, 4 vols. (London: Longmans, Green, 1901–4), vol. 1, pp. 7–9, 74–75, 146–49; see also Warren L. Chernaik, The Poetry of Limitation: A Study of Edmund Waller (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1968), pp. 19–34; Jack G. Gilbert, Edmund Waller (Boston: Twayne, 1979), pp. 24–25; J. H. Hexter, The Reign of King Pym (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1941), pp. 9–10, 31–32, 104n. 2; Valerie Pearl, London and the Outbreak of the Puritan Revolution: City Government and National Politics, 1625–43 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1961), pp. 253–56, 265–66. [BACK]

50. The Petition of the Most Svbstantiall Inhabitants…of London, sig. A1b. [BACK]

51. The Humble Petition, pp. 4–5. [BACK]

52. Ibid. [BACK]

53. Ibid. [BACK]

54. For a somewhat different interpretation of this material see Howell, “Structure of Urban Politics,” p. 119. [BACK]

55. Two State Martyrs, in Seyer, Memoirs, vol. 2, p. 373. [BACK]

56. J. Toombes, Jehovah Jirah, or Gods Providence in Delivering the Godly (London, 1643), sig. A4b. [BACK]

57. Clement Walker, The Severall Examinations and Confessions of the Treacherous Conspirators against the Citie of Bristol (London, 1643), p. 12. See also Bodleian Library, Portland MSS, Nalson Papers, N. XIII, 151, 155–71, 190, 210; HMC, The Manuscripts of His Grace the Duke of Portland Preserved at Welbeck Abbey, 10 vols. (London, 1891), vol. 1, p. 107. [BACK]

58. The Humble Petition, p. 5. [BACK]

59. Ibid. [BACK]

60. The usage here seems to owe a debt to James I’s speech at the opening of Parliament in 1624, when he specifically referred to the king and Parliament as husband and wife: LJ, vol. 3, p. 209. [BACK]

61. Sir Philip Sidney, The Countess of Pembroke’s Arcadia (The New Arcadia), ed. Victor Skretkowicz (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1987), p. 426. The Oxford English Dictionary gives this instance as the first known usage of “divorce.” [BACK]

62. See Howell, “Structure of Urban Politics,” p. 118. [BACK]

63. BRO, Common Council Proceedings, vol. 4, pp. 5, 6. [BACK]

64. In July the Common Council decided to withhold the petitions thus agreed upon “in regards they have bin so long retarded”: BRO, Common Council Proceedings, vol. 3, f. 122r–v. The first reference to the petitions is to be found on f. 119v. [BACK]

65. BRO, Common Council Proceedings, vol. 4, p. 13. [BACK]

66. Brian Manning falls into this trap in his The English People and the English Revolution (London: Heinemann, 1976), which is criticized by Howell, “Structure of Urban Politics,” pp. 114–15. [BACK]

67. It is evidence of the short-term political character of this grant that the original letters patent of 1643 do not survive in the records of the Merchant Venturers. The Society retained only a copy of the original, made under the Great Seal in 1669: Latimer, Merchant Venturers, pp. 106–7. [BACK]

68. William Prynne and Clement Walker, A True and Full Relation of the Prosecution, Arraignment, Tryall, and Condemnation of Nathaniel Fiennes, late Colonel and Governor of the City of Bristoll, Before a Councell of War held at Saint Albans during Nine dayes space in December, 1643 (London, 1643), pp. 16, 17, 42, 44, and the appended Catalogue of Witnesses, pp. 21, 27, 28, 32, 33; Hayden, ed., Records, pp. 17–19. [BACK]

69. SMV, Hall Book, vol. 1, p. 2. [BACK]

70. BRO, Common Council Proceedings, vol. 3, f. 122r. [BACK]

71. On the politics of these men in the 1640s see David Underdown, Pride’s Purge: Politics in the Puritan Revolution (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1972), pp. 366, 376, 393; John R. MacCormack, Revolutionary Politics in the Long Parliament (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1973), pp. 328, 335. [BACK]

72. See Hayden, ed., Records, p. 103; Mortimer, ed., Minute Book, pp. 58, 133, 218. [BACK]

73. These conclusions are based on analysis of McGrath, ed., Records, pp. 27–30, 261; Beaven, Lists, pp. 119 and 185–315. [BACK]

74. BRO, Common Council Proceedings, vol. 3, pp. 149, 165, and vol. 4, pp. 5, 18, 19, 178, 179; BRO, MS 04369 (1), pp. 69–70; BRO, MS 08157, pp. 37–46, 51–59; BRO, MS 01244; John Latimer, “The Mercers’ and Linen Drapers’ Company of Bristol,” BGAS 26 (1903): 288. The mercers’ and linendrapers’ act book beginning in 1647 has survived: Bristol Central Library, MS B 4939. [BACK]

75. BRO, Common Council Proceedings, vol. 3, pp. 160, 200; BRO, MS 04369 (1), pp. 61–67. This procedure was first adopted by the soapmakers in 1618 and later employed by the bakers in 1621, the wiredrawers in 1629, and the mechant taylors in 1640: BRO, Common Council Proceedings, vol. 2, f. 78r–v; BRO, MS 04369 (1), pp. 125, 130; F. F. Fox, ed., Ancient Fraternity of Merchant Taylors, p. 90. For a discussion of the significance of this change in enforcement procedures see Sacks, Trade, Society and Politics, vol. 1, pp. 138–40. [BACK]

76. BRO, Common Council Proceedings, vol. 3, p. 163. [BACK]

77. BRO, MS 04273 (1), f. 72r. [BACK]

78. See, e.g., the Merchant Taylors’ ordinance of 4 December 1649 complaining of the intrusions of numerous strangers in their craft and ordering that for the future only men apprenticed in Bristol could receive protection from the Merchant Taylors’ Company: Bristol Central Library, MS B 4788, Ordinance. [BACK]

79. BRO, MS 04369 (1), p. 127; see also John E. Pritchard, “Tobacco Pipes of Bristol of the XVIIth Century and Their Makers,” BGAS 45 (1923): 165–91. [BACK]

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