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Index

A

Acker, Joan, 1 n, 2 , 3 n, 7 n, 13 , 79 n, 81 n, 170 n, 173 , 174 n, 176 , 178 n, 180 n, 182 , 183

Affirmative action, 4 , 15 , 19 , 131 , 201 ;

benefits to white women, 33 ;

business support for, 29 -31;

and class relations, 54 ;

compared with comparable worth, 135 ;

in Contra Costa County, 92 , 94 , 100 , 102 -3, 106 , 109 -11, 129 ;

definition of, 20 ;

and elimination of jobs, 141 ;

employers' responses to, 28 -34;

enforcement of, 20 , 23 -24, 41 n;

and entry of men into women's jobs, 155 , 157 ;

under Executive Order 11246, 22 ;

and federal government, 20 -26, 32 ;

and gender roles, 18 ;

goals and timetables in, 33 ;

and labor markets, 142 ;

and lowpaid women, 159 ;

as management tool, 30 ;

and organized labor, 26 -28;

in public sector, 25 -26;

and racial discrimination, 27 ;

rhetoric of, 53 , 59 n;

and San Jose movement, 90 ;

and seniority, 26 -27, 175 ;

underlying principles of, 34 ;

and women's economic status, 23

"Affirmative Action and City Women" (San Jose report), 61 , 62

American Federation of Labor (AFL), 36 ;

and "manly wage," 12

American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFLCIO), 7 , 9 , 105 ;

and affirmative action, 26 -28;

in postwar era, 13 .

See also Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO)

American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees (AFSCME), 11 , 197 ;

national activities of, 48 , 103 n;

in Washington State, 47 -49

American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees Local 101 (Santa Clara County), 55 , 60 -61, 67

American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees local 512 (Contra Costa County), 127 n

Amercian Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees Local 2700 (Contra Costa County), 100 -103

American Library Association (ALA), 49

American Nursing Association (ANA), 105 , 106

American Telephone and Telegraph, 30 -31, 142 ;

job integration at, 155

Automation, office, 148 , 149

B

Banking industry, and affirmative action, 142

Baron, James N., 32 -33, 153

Becalli, Bianca, 158 -59

Bell, Daniel, 179

Beller, Andrea, 31 -32

Benchmark Committee (Contra Costa County), 118 -21

Benchmark jobs, 77 , 120 , 121

Benokraitis, Nijole V., 24

Bielby, William T., 32 -33

Blue-collar workers, 8 , 141 -42;

women, 138 , 150 , 196

"Bottlenecking," at job entry levels, 138 , 139 n, 150 n

Bush administration, 11 , 25 , 196

"Business unionism," 11 n;

and AFL, 13

C

California Nurses Association (CNA), 104 , 106

Callahan, Bill, 63 n, 87 , 88 , 89 , 190

Carter administration, 24 -25, 44 , 47


244

Cisternann, Harry, 115 -16, 120 , 164

City Women for Advancement (San Jose), 57 -63, 69 , 70 , 184

Civil Rights Act (1964), 21 -22

Civil Rights Commission, 27 n, 55 ;

report on comparable worth, 145 n

Civil rights movement, 21 , 26 , 40 -41, 42 , 191

Class antagonism, within women's movements, 34 -46

Class differentiation, among working women, 191 -98

Class identification:

in Contra Costa County movement, 95 -99, 163 -66, 184 -88;

versus gender identification, 183 -91;

in San Jose movement, 63 , 68 -70, 88 -90, 160 -63, 184 -88

Class politics, 2 ;

in comparable worth, 169 -75;

discourse of, 12 -14, 54 , 183 -89;

in feminist discourse, 14 -17, 197 -98

Class structure, 7 , 198

Clerical work, 7 , 17 ;

and changes in technology, 148 , 149 ;

growth of jobs in, 136 -37

Clerical workers, 7 , 8 ;

in Contra Costa County movement, 100 -104, 128 -29, 139 , 212 ;

job satisfaction among, 146 -49;

participation in San Jose's Hay study, 75 -76, 77 , 78 ;

and San Jose union, 68 -72;

unionization of, 10 ;

at Yale University, 53

Clerical workers, women, 8 , 177 ;

alliances with female professionals, 8 n, 166 -67;

in Contra Costa County movement, 93 , 95 -100, 107 ;

in San Jose, 57 -63;

social relations among, 147 n, 188 ;

value of comparable worth for, 145 .

See also Women, low-paid

Coalition of Labor Union Women (CLUW), 27 , 43 , 196

Collective bargaining, 2 ;

by public-sector employees, 10 n

Colorado Springs, Colorado, job evaluation studies in, 112

Commissions on the Status of Women, 41 , 47 , 48 ;

in Santa Clara County, 58

Comparable worth (pay equity):

advocacy of librarians for, 48 -49, 64 -67;

arguments for, 2 , 4 -6;

during Bush administration, 25 ;

during Carter administration, 24 ;

as choice of San Jose workers, 62 ;

and class conflict, 46 , 175 ;

and class politics, 35 ;

and class relations, 2 , 169 -75, 186 ;

compared with affirmative action, 19 , 135 ;

definition of, 1 ;

economic consequences of, 198 -202;

and entry of men into women's jobs, 154 ;

and the family, 13 , 14 , 171 ;

and female professionals, 143 , 145 ;

and feminism, 14 -19, 131 ;

gender-based interest in, 160 -68;

and gender politics, 35 , 46 ;

and gender relations, 184 -88;

implementation in Contra Costa County, 105 , 111 -14;

implementation in San Jose, 86 , 89 -90;

judicial decisions concerning, 50 -51;

and labor movement, 10 , 11 , 184 ;

liberal foundations of, 3 -4, 16 -17, 176 ;

and the marketplace, 16 , 61 , 96 , 107 , 116 , 170 , 172 , 176 , 198 n;

and men's wages, 170 ;

popularity of, among clerical workers, 145 ;

in private sector, 46 -47, 149 ;

in public sector, 46 -47, 149 ;

and racial segregation, 5 -6;

radical elements of, 183 , 191 , 198 , 202 ;

during Reagan administration, 25 , 52 , 128 ;

and sex stereotypes, 18 , 132 ;

among white-collar workers, 8 ;

in World War II, 5

Comparable Worth Coalition (Contra Costa County), 107 , 109 -11, 164 , 176 , 185 ;

agitation tactics of, 122 -24;

collective bargaining efforts of, 114 -18, 121 , 124 ;

constituency of, 126 , 127 n;

formation of, 110 ;

and job evaluation, 113 -16;

and San Jose strikers, 109 -10

Comparable worth movement, 3 , 4 ;

emergence of, 20 , 46 -53;

limitations of, 160 -82;

in San Jose, 139

Comparable Worth Project, 119 n

Comparable Worth Project Leadership Training Conference (1986), 208

Concerned Library Active Workers (CLAW) of San Jose, 64 -65, 67 , 184 ;

membership in MEF, 69

Concord, California, comparable worth in, 128 n, 170

Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), 9 ;

organizing drives of, 11 .

See also American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO)

Consciousness-raising, 59 , 174

Contra Costa Comparable Worth Task Force, 140 , 212

Contra Costa County, 3 , 53 ;

Board of Supervisors, 95 , 110 -11, 114 , 120 , 122 , 163 ;

budget constraints in, 117 -18, 130 ;

career ladders in, 101 ;

clerical activism in, 100 -104, 184 , 187 ;

collective bargaining in, 114 -18;

comparable


245

worth movement in, 92 -95, 102 -3;

contract settlement in, 114 ;

demographics of, 93 ;

economic slowdown in, 126 ;

female employees in, 92 ;

private sector employment in, 124 -26;

Sheriff's Department, 139 ;

Social Services Department, 101 ;

strike (1972), 95 -96, 98 -99, 185 ;

union activity in, 97 , 100 -104, 109 , 113 , 117 , 119 , 126 -27, 130 , 173

Contra Costa Employees Local 1 , 124 , 126 -28, 170 , 173 , 174

County of Washington v. Gunther,50 , 86

Curia, Patt, 76

D

Declining Significance of Race, The (Wilson), 191

Department of Labor, 13

Depression (United States), 156

Deskilling processes, 8 n, 137 -38

Doughtie, Diana, 97 , 103 -4, 109 , 189

E

Eagle Forum, 195

Ehrenreich, Barbara, 197 -98

Eisenstein, Zillah B., 17 , 44

Eligibility workers, 104 , 108 , 140 n;

in Contra Costa County, 127 n

Engineering technicians:

in Contra Costa County, 127 n, 212 ;

in San Jose, 207 -8;

solidarity of, with women workers, 172 -74

Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), 22 -25, 41 ;

during Carter administration, 49 -52;

in comparable worth actions, 49 -53;

under Eleanor Holmes Norton, 24 -25, 47 ;

during Reagan administration, 25 ;

and Sears, Roebuck case, 132 -33;

strategies in litigation of, 50

Equal Pay Act, 38 -39, 42 , 50 , 108

Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), 40 , 41 , 98 , 192 -96;

and business, 38 ;

class conflicts over, 36 -39;

economic consequences of, 44 ;

failure of, 43 -44

Evans, Sarah M., 1 n, 3 , 83 n, 167 -68, 171 , 176 , 179 -80, 181 , 199 n

Executive Order 11246 (1966), 21 -22

F

Factory jobs:

women in, 150 n;

in World War II, 5

Families, traditional, 12 n, 13 , 14 ;

and women's wages, 45 , 171

"Family wage," 12 -13

Feagin, Joe R., 24

Federal government, enforcement of affirmative action by, 20 -26

Feldberg, Rosyln, 5 , 16 -17, 175 -76

Feminism:

alliances of, with labor, 159 , 168 , 183 , 198 ;

and class conflict, 34 -46;

contemporary, 40 -46;

"first-wave," 35 ;

Left, 15 , 16 ;

postmodern, 19 ;

radical, 15 n;

"second-wave," 5 , 38 , 40 -46, 192

Feminist movement, 6 , 14 ;

and black activism, 40 ;

class conflict in, 20 , 34 -46, 53 ;

strategies of, 1 ;

and working-class women, 35 , 37 , 40 , 44 .

See also Women's rights movement

"Feminization of poverty," 45 , 95 , 98 , 100 , 197

Ferraro, Geraldine, 90

Ferree, Myra Marx, 42 , 194 n

Ferrero, Mike, 66 , 73 -75, 78 , 89 ;

and affirmative action, 103 ;

and San Jose strike, 85 , 86

Finney, Lee, 108 , 115 -17, 119 , 123 -24, 124 n, 127 , 130 , 164 -66, 202

Flammang, Janet, 72 , 86 , 117 n, 166 -67

Flextime, 61 , 157

Ford administration, 23

G

Gelb, Joyce, 35 , 44

Gender:

as cause of poverty, 45 , 95 , 98 , 100 ;

and class structure, 182 ;

and comparable worth, 16 -19, 35 , 160 -68, 184 -88;

discourse of, 19 , 34 , 54 , 92 , 184 -85, 189 , 191 , 201 ;

ideology of, 155 , 156 ;

politics of, 2 , 35 , 46

Gender division of labor. See Sex segregation of jobs

Gender gap (voting pattern), 197

Gender identification:

versus class identification, 183 -91,

in Contra Costa County movement, 95 -99, 105 -9, 163 -66, 173 , 184 -86;

in San Jose movement, 58 , 65 -66, 90 , 161 -63, 184 -88

General Motors, affirmative action at, 26 -27

Godard, Joan, 190

Grass-roots movements, 3 , 46 , 53 , 160 , 168 , 179 -82, 187 , 188 , 198 ;

in Contra Costa County, 95

H

Habermas, Jürgen, 72 -73, 179

Hacker, Sally L., 142

Harlan, Sharon L., 138 , 150 n

Hartmann, Heidi, 32 , 142 n, 155 n

Hay Associates, 71 , 72 , 73 , 113 n;

system of job evaluation, 74 -83

Hay Associates job evaluation study, 61 , 72 -91, 113 , 138 , 161 ;


246

Hay Associates job evaluation study (continued )

results of, 84 -85, 87 ;

union involvement in, 73 -75, 78 , 79 , 83 ;

work of evaluation committee in, 77 -81.

See also Job descriptions (in Hay system); Job evaluation

Hayes, Janet Gray, 56 , 87 n, 161 -62

"Hay Guide Chart-Profile Method," 78

Hierarchies, gender-based, 152 -57, 158 , 177 ;

legitimacy of, 160 ;

and traditional family, 171

Hierarchies, skill-based, 175 -78

Hofstra University, comparable worth strike at, 190

Homemakers, 156 , 193 ;

as available labor pool, 125 -26

I

Insurance industry, and affirmative action, 142

International Union of Electrical Workers (IUE), 47 n

J

Jenkins, Maxine, 63 , 70 , 103

Job descriptions (in Hay system), 75 -77, 181

Job evaluation:

in Contra Costa County, 112 , 119 -21, 124 ;

litigation arising from, 112 -14, 120 , 130 ;

media coverage of, 114 ;

methodology of, 47 , 51 , 79 n, 81 -82, 112 -13, 171 ;

politics of, 178 , 180 ;

in San Jose, 72 -91, 181 ;

technology of, 116 , 129 , 178 .

See also Hay Associates job evaluation study

Job integration, 31 -32, 116 , 202 ;

in Contra Costa County, 103 , 106 , 111 , 129 ;

and entry of men into women's jobs, 150 , 155 ;

negative consequences of, 135 ;

and new technology, 137 ;

social barriers to, 154 ;

strategies for, 19 , 142 .

See also Sex segregation of jobs

Job satisfaction, 143 , 144 -45;

among clerical workers, 146 -49;

in female professions, 158

Job sharing, 61

Job stress, as factor in comparable worth, 79 -80

Johansen, Elaine, 49 , 167

Johnson, Lyndon, 21

K

Kanter, Rosabeth Moss, 136 -37, 146 -47

Kautzer, Kathleen, 174 n

Kennedy administration, 39

Kessler-Harris, Alice, 19 , 132 -34

L

"L.A. Law" (television series), 147 n

Labor market, 18 , 154 ;

and affirmative action, 142 ;

women's position in, 132 -33, 156

Labor movement, 2 -3, 6 -7;

alliances of, with feminists, 27 , 159 , 168 , 183 , 198 ;

decline of, 14 ;

minority groups in, 6 , 27 n;

new agenda of, 7 -11, 183 ;

in postwar era, 5 ;

revitalization of, 11 ;

solidarity of, 27 , 188 -89.

See also Unions

League of Women Voters: in San Jose, 56 ;

in Contra Costa County, 100

Lemons v. City of Denver,50

Leonard, Jonathan S., 32

Librarians:

advocacy of comparable worth, 48 -49;

in San Jose, 64 -67, 75 -76, 207 , 208

Librarianship, 8 ;

degradation of status in, 137 ;

men in, 152 -53

"Living wage," 2 ;

discourse of, 12 -13

Los Angeles County, job evaluation studies in, 112

Luker, Kristen, 192 -94

M

Managerial employees, women, 139 -40, 162 , 191 ;

alliances of, with low-paid women, 161 , 163 , 166 -67, 191 -92;

in Contra Costa County, 166

Mansbridge, Jane, 189 n, 192 -94

Marketplace, and determination of wages, 72 , 116 , 123 , 125 , 128 , 130 , 178

"Market wage," 13

Maternity leave, 133 -34

McPeak, Sunne, 110 , 115 , 123 -24, 127 , 164 -66, 167

Meany, George, 9

Men, working-class, and comparable worth, 169 -71, 175

Men's jobs:

degradation of status in, 173 ;

women's entry into, 136 -42, 146

Meyers-Milias-Brown Act (California), 119 n

Milkman, Ruth 5 , 9 -10, 13 , 43 n, 134 , 156

Minnesota:

AFSCME action in, 174 n;

comparable worth actions in, 53 , 83 n, 167 , 170 n, 171 , 179 -80, 181

Minorities:

in middle class, 191 ;

professionals among, 26 ;

in public sector, 25 -26

Mobilization, political, 183 -91, 196

"Mommytrack," 157

Ms . (magazine), 45 , 156 , 197

Mueller, Carol, 35 , 166 -67

Municipal Employees Federation (MEF) (Santa Clara County), 67 , 68 -72

N

National Academy of Sciences' (NAS) report on the wage gap (Treiman and Hartmann 1981), 50 , 51 -52


247

National Association of Colored Women, 37 n

National Committee on Pay Equity (NCPE), 1 n, 28 , 49 , 52 , 115 , 118 , 119 n, 199 n;

and Contra Costa County negotiations, 124 , 125

National Federation of Business and Professional Women's Clubs, 36

National Lawyers Guild, 27 n

National Organization for Women (NOW), 15 , 27 n, 117 , 189 n;

class antagonism in, 41 ;

formation of, 40 -41;

membership of, 44 ;

and minority women, 42 ;

1987 convention of, 197 ;

in San Jose, 56

National Woman's Party, 35 -39, 40 , 41 n, 166 ;

and equal pay measures, 38

National Women's Political Caucus, 15 , 117 ;

in Contra Costa County, 95 ;

in San Jose, 56

Nelson, Barbara J., 1 n, 3 , 83 n, 167 , 171 , 176 , 179 -80, 181 , 199 n

New Deal, 39 n, 43

New Jersey, pay equity policies in, 176

New Left, 40

New Mexico, pay equity policies in, 176

New Right, 43

Nineteenth Amendment, 35

9 to 5 (clerical rights group), 9 , 196 , 201

Nixon administration, 23

Norton, Eleanor Holmes, 24 , 47 , 49 , 50

Nurses:

advocacy of comparable worth by, 49 , 107 ;

in Contra Costa County, 93 , 104 -8, 123 , 185

Nursing profession, 8 , 143 n;

job satisfaction in, 144 -45;

men in, 152 ;

sex segregation in, 151 -52

Nussbaum, Karen, 201

O

Occupational preferences, 143 -45

O'Farrell, Brigid, 138 , 150 n, 156 -57

Office of Civil Rights, 23 n, 26 n

Office of Federal Contract Compliance (OFCC), 22 , 32 ;

during Carter administration, 24

Oregon State, comparable worth actions at, 81 n, 170 n, 175 n, 176 , 178 , 180

P

Pacific Bell, 125 , 165

Padavic, Irene, 150 n

Pay equity. See Comparable worth

Philco-Ford, 56

Pink-collar ghetto, 6 , 33 , 122 , 136 , 167 , 174 , 186

Pink-collar workers, 9 , 142 , 158 , 172 , 184 , 196 -97;

unionization of, 188 , 200 n

"Pink power" campaign (Contra Costa County), 122

Politics, scientization of, 73 -74, 111 -14, 177 -78

Politics, technocratic, 72 -73, 160 , 178 -82;

in Contra Costa County, 93 ;

in San Jose, 91

Poverty, 45 -46;

feminization of, 45 , 95 , 98 , 100 , 197

President's Commission on the Status of Women, 39

Professionals, women, 204 ;

and class differentiation, 191 -92;

in Contra Costa County, 104 -9;

and San Jose union, 68 -72

Professions, female, 8 , 16 , 31 , 207 , 212 ;

alliances of, with clerical women, 8 n, 166 -67;

and comparable worth, 143 , 145 ;

entry of men into, 151 ;

gender differentiation in, 152 -53;

negative images of, 144

Proposition 13 (California), 71 , 117

Protective legislation, 36 -39;

support of unions for, 42

Public-sector employment, 2 , 25 ;

and comparable worth, 200 -201

R

Racial discrimination, 22 ;

and affirmative action, 27 ;

and comparable worth, 5 -6

Reagan administration, 11 , 25 , 52 , 128 , 196

Reaganomics, 117

Recreation professionals, 67 -68

Reed, Sally, 162 -63, 167 , 170

Remick, Helen, 47 -48, 159

Reproductive rights, 41 , 192 -95

Resegregation of jobs, 135 , 136 -42;

in Contra Costa County, 139

Reskin, Barbara F., 18 , 32 , 142 n, 150 n, 155 n

Roe v. Wade,196

Rosenbaum, James E., 33

Rosenberg, Rosalind, 132 , 133 , 143

Rupp, Leila J., 36 , 39 , 40 n

S

Salaries, regression line of. See Trend line

San Jose:

appointment of women's coordinator in, 62 -63;

commitment to affirmative action in, 55 -57;

contract settlement in, 86 ;

demographics of, 54 ;

employees in, 55 ;

employment policies of, 56 ;

feminist community in, 128 , 163 ;

job evaluation program in, 70 ;

media coverage of strike in, 87 -88;

salary negotiations in, 84 -86;

strike in, 3 , 63 ,


248

84 -91, 95 , 110 , 128 , 162 -63, 184 -85;

union activity in, 63 , 67 , 68 -72, 181

Schlafly, Phyllis, 5 , 48 n, 195

Sears, Roebuck, sex discrimination suit against, 132 -33, 158

Semiprofessions, 8 , 65 , 66 , 105 n, 200 ;

AFSCME representation of, 48 ;

in Contra Costa County, 104 -9;

in San Jose, 55 , 64 -68;

and unions, 67 , 109

Seniority, and affirmative action, 26 -27, 175

Service Employees International Union (SEIU), 9

Service Employees International Union Local 535, Contra Costa County, 104

Service sector of the economy, 7 , 9 , 183 ;

women in, 33 , 192 , 193 , 195

Sex discrimination, 40 -41;

and Contra Costa County movement, 96 -97;

lawsuits concerning, 22 -24, 30 -31, 32 ;

legality of, 5 , 34 ;

in male labor movement, 8 , 9 .

See also Wage discrimination, sex-based

Sex segregation of jobs, 1 -2, 5 , 6 , 31 -32, 131 , 135 , 136 ;

and affirmative action, 28 ;

and the labor market, 199 n;

literature on, 142 ;

and protection of women, 154 ;

and protective legislation, 36 -39, 42 ;

public opinion on, 156 ;

in San Jose, 57 ;

and unemployment, 155 n;

in women's professions, 151 .

See also Job integration

Sex stereotypes, 151

Sexual harassment, 136 , 147 , 150 n

Shaeffer, Ruth Gilbert, 30 , 33

Shell Oil, 125

Sick-outs, in San Jose, 71 -72, 84 , 88

Silicon Valley, 54 , 71 , 117 n

Single mothers, 45 ;

in Contra Costa County, 97 , 98

"Social unionism," 11

Social workers, 8 ;

in Contra Costa County, 93 , 104 , 108 -9, 123 , 185

Sparr, Pamela, 45

Stagflation, 44 , 98

Standard Oil, 125

State Commission on the Status of Women (California), 95

Steinberg, Ronnie, 3 , 15 , 17 , 39 n, 159 , 167 , 173 , 183

Supreme Court, 50 , 86

T

Taylor, Verta, 36 , 39 , 40 n

Teaching profession, 8 , 143 n;

degradation of status in, 137 ;

growth in, 151

Title VII (Civil Rights Act), 21 -22, 23 , 26 , 40 , 44 n;

in Washington State, 48

Tokenism, 37 n, 163

Trend line, 170 , 171 ;

in Contra Costa County study, 120 , 124 n, 128 n;

in San Jose Hay study, 81 -83, 175

U

Unions:

in Contra Costa County action, 97 , 100 -104, 109 , 113 , 117 , 119 , 126 -27, 130 , 173 ;

elections in, 8 ;

gender composition of, 10 ;

in public sector, 10 ;

in San Jose, 63 , 67 , 68 -72;

support of, for ERA, 42 .

See also Labor movement

Unions, women in, 5 , 35 -36, 42 , 88 -89, 110 n, 126 -28, 187 ;

in Contra Costa County, 119 , 121 ;

in San Jose, 172

United Auto Workers (UAW), pink-collar workers in, 9 , 197

United Clerical Employees (Contra Costa County), 95 -100, 110 , 187

Upward mobility, 48 , 140 ;

among clerical workers of San Jose, 58 , 71 ;

in Contra Costa County, 100 -101, 107 , 129

U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, 27 n, 52 ;

report on comparable worth, 145 n

W

Wage discrimination, sex-based, 44 n, 47 ;

lawsuits against, 49 ;

during World War II, 46 -47.

See also Sex discrimination

Wage gap, 5 , 28 -29, 51 , 128 n, 129 , 170 , 205 -6;

in Contra Costa County, 119 ;

documentation of, 180 -81;

in Minnesota comparable worth action, 180 ;

in private sector, 31 ;

in San Jose, 62 , 91

War Labor Board, 38

Washington State, comparable worth activities in, 47 , 70 , 83 , 84 n, 109 n, 112 , 129

Weber, Max, 72 , 179

Weber v. Kaiser Aluminum and United Steelworkers,28

Welfare Rights Organization (Contra Costa County), 99 n

Wharton, Amy S., 153

Wilson, William J., 191 -92

Woman's Party. See National Woman's Party

Women:

in class structure, 7 -8;

in labor force, 42 , 194 , 203 ;

poor, 15 ;

protective legislation for, 36 -39;

in publicsector employment, 69 ;

subordination of, 12 -13.

See also Unions, women in

Women, low-paid, 2 , 44 , 112 , 131 , 159 ;

alliances of, with management women,


249

161 , 163 , 166 -67, 191 -92;

class theory of, 8 n;

coalitions of, with labor, 175 ;

in Contra Costa County, 3 , 54 , 126 , 128 , 163 , 184 ;

dissatisfaction among, 143 ;

and job evaluation, 178 ;

politicization of, 168 , 181 , 183 ;

in San Jose, 54 .

See also Clerical workers, women

Women, minority, 15 , 32 ;

and affirmative action, 33 -34;

in clerical work, 149 ;

and feminist movement, 35

Women, Work, and Wages: Equal Pay for Jobs of Equal Value (Treiman and Hartmann 1981) (National Academy of Sciences), 50 , 51 -52, 115

Women, working-class:

and Contra Costa County movement, 97 ;

and feminist movement, 35 , 37 , 40 , 44 .

See also Women, low-paid

Women's Agenda (Pennsylvania), 197

Women's Bureau (Department of Labor), 36 , 37 n, 49 , 166 ;

endorsement of ERA by, 43 ;

union women in, 38

Women's Economic Agenda Project (California), 197

Women's Equity Action League, 15

Women's jobs, benefits for women of, 142 -50;

degradation of status in, 137 -138, 140 , 158 -59, 177 ;

entry of men into, 250 -59;

during recessions, 154 -55;

reevaluation of, 5 , 147 ;

value of, 4 -5

Women's Lobbyist Fund (Montana), 197

Women's rights movement, 1 , 26 , 192 ;

constituency of, 2 -3;

before 1960s, 35 -39.

See also Feminism; Feminist movement

Women's Trade Union League (WTUL), 36 -37


250

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