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Three— The Inquisition's Repression of Curanderos

1. Documents from the Archivo General de la Nación (México) (hereafter AGN), Protomedicato, tomo 2, expediente 8, fol. 272. [BACK]

2. AGN, Protomedicato, tomo 3, exp. 8, fol. 159: The intendant of Guanajuato stated that in that town there was no medical facility and that common cures were provided by women who practiced with extreme conscientiousness, employing domestic medicines.

Tomo 2, exp. 8, fol. 159: A mayor affirmed that if no doctor was available, it was common practice to employ a curandero "because as ignorant as they might be, they had more experience and knowledge than everyone else."

3. Ibid., tomo 3, exp. 8, fol. 159: In 1799 the viceroy of New Spain issued an edict affirming that "there is no prohibition against the curanderos giving aid to the infirm in the dwelling areas of Indians." [BACK]

2. AGN, Protomedicato, tomo 3, exp. 8, fol. 159: The intendant of Guanajuato stated that in that town there was no medical facility and that common cures were provided by women who practiced with extreme conscientiousness, employing domestic medicines.

Tomo 2, exp. 8, fol. 159: A mayor affirmed that if no doctor was available, it was common practice to employ a curandero "because as ignorant as they might be, they had more experience and knowledge than everyone else."

3. Ibid., tomo 3, exp. 8, fol. 159: In 1799 the viceroy of New Spain issued an edict affirming that "there is no prohibition against the curanderos giving aid to the infirm in the dwelling areas of Indians." [BACK]

4. The hallucinogens most frequently ingested were peyote ( Lophophora Williamisii ), ololiuqui ( Rivea Corymbosa ), and Ipomea Violacea and pipiltzintzin ( Savia Divinorum ). AGN, Edictos, tomo 2, fol. 87: The Holy Tribunal of the Inquisition circulated the first edict published in 1617, followed by many others during the colonial period, which stated that the use of hallucinogens would be harshly punished.

José Toribio Medina, Historia del Santo Oficio de la Inquisición en México (Mexico City: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Miguel Angel Porrúa, 1987), 160. Regarding the prohibition of peyote and other hallucinogens, the inquisitors reasoned that ingestion established an implicit pact with the Devil, because "they estrange the senses and create visions and phantasms." [BACK]

5. The following research has been carried out in the Instituto de Investigaciones Antropológicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. [BACK]

6. Richard E. Greenleaf, Inquisición y sociedad en el México colonial (Madrid: Ediciones José Porrúa Turanzas, 1985), 9. Greenleaf affirms that in colonial Mexico neither the Tribunal nor its agents were able to exercise control over the ideas of the colonial population or the Indians. [BACK]

7. A. S. Turberville, La Inquisición española (Mexico City: Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1971), 30. [BACK]

8. Greenleaf, Inquisición , 6. break

9. Ibid, 19. Bull issued by Leo X in April 1521 and confirmed by Adrian VI in the Bula Omnimoda in 1522. [BACK]

8. Greenleaf, Inquisición , 6. break

9. Ibid, 19. Bull issued by Leo X in April 1521 and confirmed by Adrian VI in the Bula Omnimoda in 1522. [BACK]

10. Medina, Historia, 24-28. [BACK]

11. Julio Caro Baroja, El Señor Inquisidor y otras vidas por oficio (Madrid: Alianza Editorial, 1968), 21. [BACK]

12. José Miranda, "Indios." In Los tribunales de la Nueva España (Mexico City: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 1980), 165. Miranda notes that the Indians, "due to their actual situation--due to the difference in civilizations--had to be juridically assigned to a special category as Spaniards, that of the uncouth and the poor, and were therefore subjected, like the latter, to a system of guardianship and protection, for it was assumed that conferring upon them a status of equality with the common citizens, i.e., the Spaniards, or even with those who were not citizens, i.e., the castes, would only create prejudice against them." [BACK]

13. AGN, Inquisición, tomo 830, exp. 11, fol. 156. The commissar of Aguascalientes declared: "Because she is a pure-blooded Indian whose practice and punishment do not concern the Holy Office, let her be merely sternly reprimanded."

Tomo 1433, exp. 25, fol. 224: The commissar of Masaya, Nicaragua, has determined that "because she is an Indian, let the accused be placed in the file with the despised ones, forewarning the corresponding commissioner of the Indians."

14. Ibid., tomo 842, fol. 104. In Bolaños, Jalisco, Juana Ma. Nava, a recidivist Indian, was detained and imprisoned for being an evil curandera. The Holy Office sent an order to the commissioner "to free her immediately," warning him: "Do not for any motive apprehend anyone who has been accused."

15. Ibid., tomo 824, exp. 13, fol. 213. On certain occasions it was difficult to determine whether or not "pure Indians" were involved, as occurred with the commissioner of Querétaro, since Miguel Sánchez's parents were unknown.

Tomo 1468, fol. 85: In the case of Juana Ma. Vanegas, "La Chalis," it was suggested to the priest of Paso del Norte that he formalize her file, as it was unclear whether or not she was an Indian. Tomo 1182, fol. 69: In the case of the Indian woman Lugarda, the denouncer's husband was called in to testify.

16. Ibid., fols. 60-63; Miranda, "Indios," 172. Miranda points out that "Indians could not be fined by law but could only be sentenced to lashes, forced labor, torture, or death. A sentence of forced labor was not carried out in galleys or other state institutions (prisons or otherwise) but rather in private institutions such as workshops, bacon shops, bakeries, etc., whose owners bought the labor of the prisoner for the duration of the sentence." [BACK]

13. AGN, Inquisición, tomo 830, exp. 11, fol. 156. The commissar of Aguascalientes declared: "Because she is a pure-blooded Indian whose practice and punishment do not concern the Holy Office, let her be merely sternly reprimanded."

Tomo 1433, exp. 25, fol. 224: The commissar of Masaya, Nicaragua, has determined that "because she is an Indian, let the accused be placed in the file with the despised ones, forewarning the corresponding commissioner of the Indians."

14. Ibid., tomo 842, fol. 104. In Bolaños, Jalisco, Juana Ma. Nava, a recidivist Indian, was detained and imprisoned for being an evil curandera. The Holy Office sent an order to the commissioner "to free her immediately," warning him: "Do not for any motive apprehend anyone who has been accused."

15. Ibid., tomo 824, exp. 13, fol. 213. On certain occasions it was difficult to determine whether or not "pure Indians" were involved, as occurred with the commissioner of Querétaro, since Miguel Sánchez's parents were unknown.

Tomo 1468, fol. 85: In the case of Juana Ma. Vanegas, "La Chalis," it was suggested to the priest of Paso del Norte that he formalize her file, as it was unclear whether or not she was an Indian. Tomo 1182, fol. 69: In the case of the Indian woman Lugarda, the denouncer's husband was called in to testify.

16. Ibid., fols. 60-63; Miranda, "Indios," 172. Miranda points out that "Indians could not be fined by law but could only be sentenced to lashes, forced labor, torture, or death. A sentence of forced labor was not carried out in galleys or other state institutions (prisons or otherwise) but rather in private institutions such as workshops, bacon shops, bakeries, etc., whose owners bought the labor of the prisoner for the duration of the sentence." [BACK]

13. AGN, Inquisición, tomo 830, exp. 11, fol. 156. The commissar of Aguascalientes declared: "Because she is a pure-blooded Indian whose practice and punishment do not concern the Holy Office, let her be merely sternly reprimanded."

Tomo 1433, exp. 25, fol. 224: The commissar of Masaya, Nicaragua, has determined that "because she is an Indian, let the accused be placed in the file with the despised ones, forewarning the corresponding commissioner of the Indians."

14. Ibid., tomo 842, fol. 104. In Bolaños, Jalisco, Juana Ma. Nava, a recidivist Indian, was detained and imprisoned for being an evil curandera. The Holy Office sent an order to the commissioner "to free her immediately," warning him: "Do not for any motive apprehend anyone who has been accused."

15. Ibid., tomo 824, exp. 13, fol. 213. On certain occasions it was difficult to determine whether or not "pure Indians" were involved, as occurred with the commissioner of Querétaro, since Miguel Sánchez's parents were unknown.

Tomo 1468, fol. 85: In the case of Juana Ma. Vanegas, "La Chalis," it was suggested to the priest of Paso del Norte that he formalize her file, as it was unclear whether or not she was an Indian. Tomo 1182, fol. 69: In the case of the Indian woman Lugarda, the denouncer's husband was called in to testify.

16. Ibid., fols. 60-63; Miranda, "Indios," 172. Miranda points out that "Indians could not be fined by law but could only be sentenced to lashes, forced labor, torture, or death. A sentence of forced labor was not carried out in galleys or other state institutions (prisons or otherwise) but rather in private institutions such as workshops, bacon shops, bakeries, etc., whose owners bought the labor of the prisoner for the duration of the sentence." [BACK]

13. AGN, Inquisición, tomo 830, exp. 11, fol. 156. The commissar of Aguascalientes declared: "Because she is a pure-blooded Indian whose practice and punishment do not concern the Holy Office, let her be merely sternly reprimanded."

Tomo 1433, exp. 25, fol. 224: The commissar of Masaya, Nicaragua, has determined that "because she is an Indian, let the accused be placed in the file with the despised ones, forewarning the corresponding commissioner of the Indians."

14. Ibid., tomo 842, fol. 104. In Bolaños, Jalisco, Juana Ma. Nava, a recidivist Indian, was detained and imprisoned for being an evil curandera. The Holy Office sent an order to the commissioner "to free her immediately," warning him: "Do not for any motive apprehend anyone who has been accused."

15. Ibid., tomo 824, exp. 13, fol. 213. On certain occasions it was difficult to determine whether or not "pure Indians" were involved, as occurred with the commissioner of Querétaro, since Miguel Sánchez's parents were unknown.

Tomo 1468, fol. 85: In the case of Juana Ma. Vanegas, "La Chalis," it was suggested to the priest of Paso del Norte that he formalize her file, as it was unclear whether or not she was an Indian. Tomo 1182, fol. 69: In the case of the Indian woman Lugarda, the denouncer's husband was called in to testify.

16. Ibid., fols. 60-63; Miranda, "Indios," 172. Miranda points out that "Indians could not be fined by law but could only be sentenced to lashes, forced labor, torture, or death. A sentence of forced labor was not carried out in galleys or other state institutions (prisons or otherwise) but rather in private institutions such as workshops, bacon shops, bakeries, etc., whose owners bought the labor of the prisoner for the duration of the sentence." [BACK]

17. AGN, Inq., tomo 878, exp. 853, fol. 510, and tomo 302, exp. 8g, fols. 128-130.

18. Ibid., tomo 1150, exp. 10, fol. 136. As the commissioner of Salamanca, Guanajuato, notes in 1772, "these territories are very contaminated with similar superstitions, the people even desire to believe thus and do not wish to believe continue

that the illnesses they suffer are the will of God our Father, but rather they vacillate and then believe that they are bewitched, from which follow all the inconsistencies . . ." [BACK]

17. AGN, Inq., tomo 878, exp. 853, fol. 510, and tomo 302, exp. 8g, fols. 128-130.

18. Ibid., tomo 1150, exp. 10, fol. 136. As the commissioner of Salamanca, Guanajuato, notes in 1772, "these territories are very contaminated with similar superstitions, the people even desire to believe thus and do not wish to believe continue

that the illnesses they suffer are the will of God our Father, but rather they vacillate and then believe that they are bewitched, from which follow all the inconsistencies . . ." [BACK]

19. There is abundant information from the inquisitorial records which facilitates a reconstruction of various aspects of New Spanish popular culture; one source on traditional colonial medicine is Gonzalo Aguirre Beltrán's Medicina y magia (Mexico City: Instituto Nacional Indigenista, 1963). [BACK]

20. AGN, Inq., tomo 878, exp. 83, fol. 510, and tomo 830, exp. 3, fol. 49. Nicolau Eimeric and Francisco Peña, El manual de los Inquisidores (Barcelona: Muchnik Editores, 1983), 132. Eimeric indicates the great precautions that the commissioners must have taken in these cases, since people might accuse themselves in order to avoid punishment brought on by another's accusation. [BACK]

21. AGN, Inq., tomo 746, fol. 522: In "observance of the Holy Office," the Indian Miguel Juan presented himself before the priest of Chapa de Mota to accuse Diego de Alanís, a mulatto. Tomo 862, exp. 37, fol. 288: The priest carried out his duties in the name of the Holy Office in order to locate curanderos or idolaters in Tixtla, and thus found the Indian Sebastián Salvador.

22. Ibid., tomo 862, exp. 30, fol. 216: The curandero Manuel José de Moctezuma, a castizo, was denounced by the mulatto Miguel Antonio for refusing to cure his wife. Tomo 785, exp. 12, fol. 253: Luis Antonio Contreras threatened to denounce María Teresa in the Holy Office and finally actually did so, for her refusal to remove a spell she had cast on him because of jealousy. Tomo 674, exp. 12, fol. 96: María Calderón was accused by Nicolás Ramírez, husband of the sick woman, who was called later to testify.

23. Ibid., tomo 1036, exp. 10, fol. 189: The accuser Nicolás Saucedo had been bewitched by his brother Pascual de Salazar for having taken away his rifle. Tomo 337, exp. 14, fol. 4: Juan Conquero, a Portuguese man, denounced his concubine, Ana de Carvajal, a black woman, for having bewitched him; he had tried to leave her but found to the contrary that every day he loved her more. Tomo 848, fol. 28: During trial, Manuela "La Lucera" denounced Roque de los Santos, with whom she had an "illicit relationship." [BACK]

21. AGN, Inq., tomo 746, fol. 522: In "observance of the Holy Office," the Indian Miguel Juan presented himself before the priest of Chapa de Mota to accuse Diego de Alanís, a mulatto. Tomo 862, exp. 37, fol. 288: The priest carried out his duties in the name of the Holy Office in order to locate curanderos or idolaters in Tixtla, and thus found the Indian Sebastián Salvador.

22. Ibid., tomo 862, exp. 30, fol. 216: The curandero Manuel José de Moctezuma, a castizo, was denounced by the mulatto Miguel Antonio for refusing to cure his wife. Tomo 785, exp. 12, fol. 253: Luis Antonio Contreras threatened to denounce María Teresa in the Holy Office and finally actually did so, for her refusal to remove a spell she had cast on him because of jealousy. Tomo 674, exp. 12, fol. 96: María Calderón was accused by Nicolás Ramírez, husband of the sick woman, who was called later to testify.

23. Ibid., tomo 1036, exp. 10, fol. 189: The accuser Nicolás Saucedo had been bewitched by his brother Pascual de Salazar for having taken away his rifle. Tomo 337, exp. 14, fol. 4: Juan Conquero, a Portuguese man, denounced his concubine, Ana de Carvajal, a black woman, for having bewitched him; he had tried to leave her but found to the contrary that every day he loved her more. Tomo 848, fol. 28: During trial, Manuela "La Lucera" denounced Roque de los Santos, with whom she had an "illicit relationship." [BACK]

21. AGN, Inq., tomo 746, fol. 522: In "observance of the Holy Office," the Indian Miguel Juan presented himself before the priest of Chapa de Mota to accuse Diego de Alanís, a mulatto. Tomo 862, exp. 37, fol. 288: The priest carried out his duties in the name of the Holy Office in order to locate curanderos or idolaters in Tixtla, and thus found the Indian Sebastián Salvador.

22. Ibid., tomo 862, exp. 30, fol. 216: The curandero Manuel José de Moctezuma, a castizo, was denounced by the mulatto Miguel Antonio for refusing to cure his wife. Tomo 785, exp. 12, fol. 253: Luis Antonio Contreras threatened to denounce María Teresa in the Holy Office and finally actually did so, for her refusal to remove a spell she had cast on him because of jealousy. Tomo 674, exp. 12, fol. 96: María Calderón was accused by Nicolás Ramírez, husband of the sick woman, who was called later to testify.

23. Ibid., tomo 1036, exp. 10, fol. 189: The accuser Nicolás Saucedo had been bewitched by his brother Pascual de Salazar for having taken away his rifle. Tomo 337, exp. 14, fol. 4: Juan Conquero, a Portuguese man, denounced his concubine, Ana de Carvajal, a black woman, for having bewitched him; he had tried to leave her but found to the contrary that every day he loved her more. Tomo 848, fol. 28: During trial, Manuela "La Lucera" denounced Roque de los Santos, with whom she had an "illicit relationship." [BACK]

24. Eimeric and Peña, El manual, 145: Eimeric indicates that a trial by interview was called for, in which the inquisitor brought in witnesses to clarify public rumors.

AGN, Inq., tomo 1028, exp. 7, fol. 245: The vicar of Tlanepantla reported as a public error the healings of the Spaniard Petra de Torres, and called two witnesses to testify. Tomo 1427, exp. 14, fol. 78: Dominga "La Polla" was imprisoned by the mayor of the district of Querétaro, as there were many accusations made by the sick people of the Barrio de Santa Ana, where she worked. Tomo 1168, exp. 16, fol. 232: Juan de Córdova "heard it said" that Joseph "El Zapatero" was very sought after as a curandero. [BACK]

25. AGN, Inq., tomo 767, exp. 33, fol. 534: Fray Juan de Zapata, a conventional Augustinian, wrote to the Holy Office and asked for its judgment regarding the superstitious cures of "La Cirujana." Tomo 826, exp. 14, fol. 336: The continue

chaplain of Aguascalientes sent the report so that the Holy Office would make a judgment on the case of Juana de Bustos.

26. Ibid., tomo 543, exp. 3, fol. 13: In the case of Esteban Lorenzo, the Instructions were sent to the priest of Metepec to proceed properly and make more information available to him. Appropriate formalities were recommended in the following cases: tomo 826, exp. 52, fol. 15: "La Caballero," in Izúcar; tomo 826, exp. 43, fol. 446: Francisca Avilés, in the Sultepec mines; and tomo 826, exp. 54, fol. 535: Lucía Berrueto, in Sultepec.

27. Ibid., tomo 1365, exp. 4, fol. 23: In Querétaro, Jerónimo Ortiz was called on to testify, but the black woman María Fernández could not be found, accused ten years after the crime had been committed, so that "no investigation of her manner of living was possible." Tomo 1397, exp. 14, fol. 205: In the case of the mulatto Juan "El Cojo," four witnesses were called; it was decided, however, that since "nobody knew him, nor did he appear in the parish register," he was already dead. [BACK]

25. AGN, Inq., tomo 767, exp. 33, fol. 534: Fray Juan de Zapata, a conventional Augustinian, wrote to the Holy Office and asked for its judgment regarding the superstitious cures of "La Cirujana." Tomo 826, exp. 14, fol. 336: The continue

chaplain of Aguascalientes sent the report so that the Holy Office would make a judgment on the case of Juana de Bustos.

26. Ibid., tomo 543, exp. 3, fol. 13: In the case of Esteban Lorenzo, the Instructions were sent to the priest of Metepec to proceed properly and make more information available to him. Appropriate formalities were recommended in the following cases: tomo 826, exp. 52, fol. 15: "La Caballero," in Izúcar; tomo 826, exp. 43, fol. 446: Francisca Avilés, in the Sultepec mines; and tomo 826, exp. 54, fol. 535: Lucía Berrueto, in Sultepec.

27. Ibid., tomo 1365, exp. 4, fol. 23: In Querétaro, Jerónimo Ortiz was called on to testify, but the black woman María Fernández could not be found, accused ten years after the crime had been committed, so that "no investigation of her manner of living was possible." Tomo 1397, exp. 14, fol. 205: In the case of the mulatto Juan "El Cojo," four witnesses were called; it was decided, however, that since "nobody knew him, nor did he appear in the parish register," he was already dead. [BACK]

25. AGN, Inq., tomo 767, exp. 33, fol. 534: Fray Juan de Zapata, a conventional Augustinian, wrote to the Holy Office and asked for its judgment regarding the superstitious cures of "La Cirujana." Tomo 826, exp. 14, fol. 336: The continue

chaplain of Aguascalientes sent the report so that the Holy Office would make a judgment on the case of Juana de Bustos.

26. Ibid., tomo 543, exp. 3, fol. 13: In the case of Esteban Lorenzo, the Instructions were sent to the priest of Metepec to proceed properly and make more information available to him. Appropriate formalities were recommended in the following cases: tomo 826, exp. 52, fol. 15: "La Caballero," in Izúcar; tomo 826, exp. 43, fol. 446: Francisca Avilés, in the Sultepec mines; and tomo 826, exp. 54, fol. 535: Lucía Berrueto, in Sultepec.

27. Ibid., tomo 1365, exp. 4, fol. 23: In Querétaro, Jerónimo Ortiz was called on to testify, but the black woman María Fernández could not be found, accused ten years after the crime had been committed, so that "no investigation of her manner of living was possible." Tomo 1397, exp. 14, fol. 205: In the case of the mulatto Juan "El Cojo," four witnesses were called; it was decided, however, that since "nobody knew him, nor did he appear in the parish register," he was already dead. [BACK]

28. Eimeric and Peña, El manual, 140. Refer to the examination of witnesses.

29. Ibid., 165: Eimeric notes that the excessive number of witnesses was liable to extend the trial, although he believes that at times more witnesses than the stipulated number were necessary. AGN, Inq., tomo 1300, exp. 12, fol. 187-259; tomo 964, exp. 6 fols. 354-373; and tomo 1228, exp. 12, fols. 347-393.

30. Ibid., tomo 811, exp. 16, fol. 463-470: In the case of "La Durana," two of the witnesses were her children. Tomo 1300, exp. 12, fol. 254: A doctor appears among the witnesses, called to testify and give his opinion as a specialist.

31. Ibid., tomo 598, exp. 15, fol. 538: The prosecutor requested the detention of Estefania de los Reyes. Tomo 322, exp. 2, fol. 154: Agustina Rangel was formally accused by the prosecutor.

32. Ibid., tomo 844, exp. 6, fol. 509.

33. Ibid., tomo 322, exp. 2, fol. 142. This is what occurred with Agustina Rangel.

On the secret jails and the buildings occupied by the Tribunal of the Holy Office, refer to Francisco de la Maza, El palacio de la Inquisición (Mexico City: Instituto de Investigaciones Estéticas, 1951), 82 pp., illustrations and plans. [BACK]

28. Eimeric and Peña, El manual, 140. Refer to the examination of witnesses.

29. Ibid., 165: Eimeric notes that the excessive number of witnesses was liable to extend the trial, although he believes that at times more witnesses than the stipulated number were necessary. AGN, Inq., tomo 1300, exp. 12, fol. 187-259; tomo 964, exp. 6 fols. 354-373; and tomo 1228, exp. 12, fols. 347-393.

30. Ibid., tomo 811, exp. 16, fol. 463-470: In the case of "La Durana," two of the witnesses were her children. Tomo 1300, exp. 12, fol. 254: A doctor appears among the witnesses, called to testify and give his opinion as a specialist.

31. Ibid., tomo 598, exp. 15, fol. 538: The prosecutor requested the detention of Estefania de los Reyes. Tomo 322, exp. 2, fol. 154: Agustina Rangel was formally accused by the prosecutor.

32. Ibid., tomo 844, exp. 6, fol. 509.

33. Ibid., tomo 322, exp. 2, fol. 142. This is what occurred with Agustina Rangel.

On the secret jails and the buildings occupied by the Tribunal of the Holy Office, refer to Francisco de la Maza, El palacio de la Inquisición (Mexico City: Instituto de Investigaciones Estéticas, 1951), 82 pp., illustrations and plans. [BACK]

28. Eimeric and Peña, El manual, 140. Refer to the examination of witnesses.

29. Ibid., 165: Eimeric notes that the excessive number of witnesses was liable to extend the trial, although he believes that at times more witnesses than the stipulated number were necessary. AGN, Inq., tomo 1300, exp. 12, fol. 187-259; tomo 964, exp. 6 fols. 354-373; and tomo 1228, exp. 12, fols. 347-393.

30. Ibid., tomo 811, exp. 16, fol. 463-470: In the case of "La Durana," two of the witnesses were her children. Tomo 1300, exp. 12, fol. 254: A doctor appears among the witnesses, called to testify and give his opinion as a specialist.

31. Ibid., tomo 598, exp. 15, fol. 538: The prosecutor requested the detention of Estefania de los Reyes. Tomo 322, exp. 2, fol. 154: Agustina Rangel was formally accused by the prosecutor.

32. Ibid., tomo 844, exp. 6, fol. 509.

33. Ibid., tomo 322, exp. 2, fol. 142. This is what occurred with Agustina Rangel.

On the secret jails and the buildings occupied by the Tribunal of the Holy Office, refer to Francisco de la Maza, El palacio de la Inquisición (Mexico City: Instituto de Investigaciones Estéticas, 1951), 82 pp., illustrations and plans. [BACK]

28. Eimeric and Peña, El manual, 140. Refer to the examination of witnesses.

29. Ibid., 165: Eimeric notes that the excessive number of witnesses was liable to extend the trial, although he believes that at times more witnesses than the stipulated number were necessary. AGN, Inq., tomo 1300, exp. 12, fol. 187-259; tomo 964, exp. 6 fols. 354-373; and tomo 1228, exp. 12, fols. 347-393.

30. Ibid., tomo 811, exp. 16, fol. 463-470: In the case of "La Durana," two of the witnesses were her children. Tomo 1300, exp. 12, fol. 254: A doctor appears among the witnesses, called to testify and give his opinion as a specialist.

31. Ibid., tomo 598, exp. 15, fol. 538: The prosecutor requested the detention of Estefania de los Reyes. Tomo 322, exp. 2, fol. 154: Agustina Rangel was formally accused by the prosecutor.

32. Ibid., tomo 844, exp. 6, fol. 509.

33. Ibid., tomo 322, exp. 2, fol. 142. This is what occurred with Agustina Rangel.

On the secret jails and the buildings occupied by the Tribunal of the Holy Office, refer to Francisco de la Maza, El palacio de la Inquisición (Mexico City: Instituto de Investigaciones Estéticas, 1951), 82 pp., illustrations and plans. [BACK]

28. Eimeric and Peña, El manual, 140. Refer to the examination of witnesses.

29. Ibid., 165: Eimeric notes that the excessive number of witnesses was liable to extend the trial, although he believes that at times more witnesses than the stipulated number were necessary. AGN, Inq., tomo 1300, exp. 12, fol. 187-259; tomo 964, exp. 6 fols. 354-373; and tomo 1228, exp. 12, fols. 347-393.

30. Ibid., tomo 811, exp. 16, fol. 463-470: In the case of "La Durana," two of the witnesses were her children. Tomo 1300, exp. 12, fol. 254: A doctor appears among the witnesses, called to testify and give his opinion as a specialist.

31. Ibid., tomo 598, exp. 15, fol. 538: The prosecutor requested the detention of Estefania de los Reyes. Tomo 322, exp. 2, fol. 154: Agustina Rangel was formally accused by the prosecutor.

32. Ibid., tomo 844, exp. 6, fol. 509.

33. Ibid., tomo 322, exp. 2, fol. 142. This is what occurred with Agustina Rangel.

On the secret jails and the buildings occupied by the Tribunal of the Holy Office, refer to Francisco de la Maza, El palacio de la Inquisición (Mexico City: Instituto de Investigaciones Estéticas, 1951), 82 pp., illustrations and plans. [BACK]

28. Eimeric and Peña, El manual, 140. Refer to the examination of witnesses.

29. Ibid., 165: Eimeric notes that the excessive number of witnesses was liable to extend the trial, although he believes that at times more witnesses than the stipulated number were necessary. AGN, Inq., tomo 1300, exp. 12, fol. 187-259; tomo 964, exp. 6 fols. 354-373; and tomo 1228, exp. 12, fols. 347-393.

30. Ibid., tomo 811, exp. 16, fol. 463-470: In the case of "La Durana," two of the witnesses were her children. Tomo 1300, exp. 12, fol. 254: A doctor appears among the witnesses, called to testify and give his opinion as a specialist.

31. Ibid., tomo 598, exp. 15, fol. 538: The prosecutor requested the detention of Estefania de los Reyes. Tomo 322, exp. 2, fol. 154: Agustina Rangel was formally accused by the prosecutor.

32. Ibid., tomo 844, exp. 6, fol. 509.

33. Ibid., tomo 322, exp. 2, fol. 142. This is what occurred with Agustina Rangel.

On the secret jails and the buildings occupied by the Tribunal of the Holy Office, refer to Francisco de la Maza, El palacio de la Inquisición (Mexico City: Instituto de Investigaciones Estéticas, 1951), 82 pp., illustrations and plans. [BACK]

34. AGN, Inq., tomo 75, exp. 22, fol. 170: Instructions sent by Pedro de los Ríos, notary of the Holy Office, to the commissioners in 1572. Medina, Historia, p. 22: Pedro de los Ríos was named Notary of the Secret and arrived in New Spain with don Pedro Moya de Contreras, inquisitor general, in 1571. [BACK]

35. AGN, Inq., tomo 862, exp. 30, fol. 217.

36. Ibid., tomo 1240, exp. 14, fol. 350; tomo 1427, exp. 14, fol. 78: The mayor made Dominga "La Polla" a prisoner and brought her before the commissioner of the Holy Office, who assured him that imprisonment was not necessary.

37. Ibid., tomo 767, exp. 33, fol. 534; tomo 1053, exp. 7, fol. 433; tomo 1240, exp. 14, fol. 350; and tomo 1176, exp. 5, fol. 105.

Eimeric and Peña, El manual, 117: Peña comments that "the fugitive, as a result of his evasion, transforms himself into an outlaw." break [BACK]

35. AGN, Inq., tomo 862, exp. 30, fol. 217.

36. Ibid., tomo 1240, exp. 14, fol. 350; tomo 1427, exp. 14, fol. 78: The mayor made Dominga "La Polla" a prisoner and brought her before the commissioner of the Holy Office, who assured him that imprisonment was not necessary.

37. Ibid., tomo 767, exp. 33, fol. 534; tomo 1053, exp. 7, fol. 433; tomo 1240, exp. 14, fol. 350; and tomo 1176, exp. 5, fol. 105.

Eimeric and Peña, El manual, 117: Peña comments that "the fugitive, as a result of his evasion, transforms himself into an outlaw." break [BACK]

35. AGN, Inq., tomo 862, exp. 30, fol. 217.

36. Ibid., tomo 1240, exp. 14, fol. 350; tomo 1427, exp. 14, fol. 78: The mayor made Dominga "La Polla" a prisoner and brought her before the commissioner of the Holy Office, who assured him that imprisonment was not necessary.

37. Ibid., tomo 767, exp. 33, fol. 534; tomo 1053, exp. 7, fol. 433; tomo 1240, exp. 14, fol. 350; and tomo 1176, exp. 5, fol. 105.

Eimeric and Peña, El manual, 117: Peña comments that "the fugitive, as a result of his evasion, transforms himself into an outlaw." break [BACK]

38. AGN, Inq., tomo 322, exp. 2, fol. 172 and tomo 767, exp. 33, fol. 530. Eimeric and Peña, El manual : 148-151: Eimeric includes feigning insanity and illness among "the ten deceptions of the heretics in order to respond without confessing." [BACK]

39. AGN, Inq., tomo 1313, exp. 12, fol. 4, and tomo 1240, exp. 14, fol. 350: It was recommended to the priest of Guanajuato that in the presence of a notary "he make identification carefully by an apothecary or herbalist if one is available in that place . . . or if not, by two local elders of good conscience and who have knowledge of herbs . . . and if there is rosemary or peyote, or any other herb commonly applied to some superstitious use."

40. Ibid., tomo 1150, exp. 10, fol. 231.

41. Ibid., tomo 522, exp. 2, fol. 152. Eimeric and Peña, El manual , 187-188. Peña's note reads: "What can be done if the accused individual who is to be interrogated is a pregnant woman? She should not be tortured or terrorized, lest she give birth or abort. Other means should be employed to extract from her the confession before she delivers. After delivery there is no obstacle." [BACK]

39. AGN, Inq., tomo 1313, exp. 12, fol. 4, and tomo 1240, exp. 14, fol. 350: It was recommended to the priest of Guanajuato that in the presence of a notary "he make identification carefully by an apothecary or herbalist if one is available in that place . . . or if not, by two local elders of good conscience and who have knowledge of herbs . . . and if there is rosemary or peyote, or any other herb commonly applied to some superstitious use."

40. Ibid., tomo 1150, exp. 10, fol. 231.

41. Ibid., tomo 522, exp. 2, fol. 152. Eimeric and Peña, El manual , 187-188. Peña's note reads: "What can be done if the accused individual who is to be interrogated is a pregnant woman? She should not be tortured or terrorized, lest she give birth or abort. Other means should be employed to extract from her the confession before she delivers. After delivery there is no obstacle." [BACK]

39. AGN, Inq., tomo 1313, exp. 12, fol. 4, and tomo 1240, exp. 14, fol. 350: It was recommended to the priest of Guanajuato that in the presence of a notary "he make identification carefully by an apothecary or herbalist if one is available in that place . . . or if not, by two local elders of good conscience and who have knowledge of herbs . . . and if there is rosemary or peyote, or any other herb commonly applied to some superstitious use."

40. Ibid., tomo 1150, exp. 10, fol. 231.

41. Ibid., tomo 522, exp. 2, fol. 152. Eimeric and Peña, El manual , 187-188. Peña's note reads: "What can be done if the accused individual who is to be interrogated is a pregnant woman? She should not be tortured or terrorized, lest she give birth or abort. Other means should be employed to extract from her the confession before she delivers. After delivery there is no obstacle." [BACK]

42. AGN, Inq., tomo 522, exp. 2, fol. 154.

43. Ibid., fol. 209.

44. Ibid., tomo 862, exp. 37, fol. 297: Joseph González was severely reprimanded in the presence of six or eight persons and forbidden to practice as a curandero.

45. Ibid., tomo 1036, exp. 10, fol. 196, and tomo 1254, exp. 9, fols. 144-145.

46. Ibid., tomo 1111, exp. 57, fol. 456.

47. Ibid., tomo 767, exp. 33, fol. 534, and tomo 964, exp. 6, fol. 375.

48. Ibid., tomo 1228, exp. 12, fol. 390, and tomo 767, exp. 30, fols. 480-491. [BACK]

42. AGN, Inq., tomo 522, exp. 2, fol. 154.

43. Ibid., fol. 209.

44. Ibid., tomo 862, exp. 37, fol. 297: Joseph González was severely reprimanded in the presence of six or eight persons and forbidden to practice as a curandero.

45. Ibid., tomo 1036, exp. 10, fol. 196, and tomo 1254, exp. 9, fols. 144-145.

46. Ibid., tomo 1111, exp. 57, fol. 456.

47. Ibid., tomo 767, exp. 33, fol. 534, and tomo 964, exp. 6, fol. 375.

48. Ibid., tomo 1228, exp. 12, fol. 390, and tomo 767, exp. 30, fols. 480-491. [BACK]

42. AGN, Inq., tomo 522, exp. 2, fol. 154.

43. Ibid., fol. 209.

44. Ibid., tomo 862, exp. 37, fol. 297: Joseph González was severely reprimanded in the presence of six or eight persons and forbidden to practice as a curandero.

45. Ibid., tomo 1036, exp. 10, fol. 196, and tomo 1254, exp. 9, fols. 144-145.

46. Ibid., tomo 1111, exp. 57, fol. 456.

47. Ibid., tomo 767, exp. 33, fol. 534, and tomo 964, exp. 6, fol. 375.

48. Ibid., tomo 1228, exp. 12, fol. 390, and tomo 767, exp. 30, fols. 480-491. [BACK]

42. AGN, Inq., tomo 522, exp. 2, fol. 154.

43. Ibid., fol. 209.

44. Ibid., tomo 862, exp. 37, fol. 297: Joseph González was severely reprimanded in the presence of six or eight persons and forbidden to practice as a curandero.

45. Ibid., tomo 1036, exp. 10, fol. 196, and tomo 1254, exp. 9, fols. 144-145.

46. Ibid., tomo 1111, exp. 57, fol. 456.

47. Ibid., tomo 767, exp. 33, fol. 534, and tomo 964, exp. 6, fol. 375.

48. Ibid., tomo 1228, exp. 12, fol. 390, and tomo 767, exp. 30, fols. 480-491. [BACK]

42. AGN, Inq., tomo 522, exp. 2, fol. 154.

43. Ibid., fol. 209.

44. Ibid., tomo 862, exp. 37, fol. 297: Joseph González was severely reprimanded in the presence of six or eight persons and forbidden to practice as a curandero.

45. Ibid., tomo 1036, exp. 10, fol. 196, and tomo 1254, exp. 9, fols. 144-145.

46. Ibid., tomo 1111, exp. 57, fol. 456.

47. Ibid., tomo 767, exp. 33, fol. 534, and tomo 964, exp. 6, fol. 375.

48. Ibid., tomo 1228, exp. 12, fol. 390, and tomo 767, exp. 30, fols. 480-491. [BACK]

42. AGN, Inq., tomo 522, exp. 2, fol. 154.

43. Ibid., fol. 209.

44. Ibid., tomo 862, exp. 37, fol. 297: Joseph González was severely reprimanded in the presence of six or eight persons and forbidden to practice as a curandero.

45. Ibid., tomo 1036, exp. 10, fol. 196, and tomo 1254, exp. 9, fols. 144-145.

46. Ibid., tomo 1111, exp. 57, fol. 456.

47. Ibid., tomo 767, exp. 33, fol. 534, and tomo 964, exp. 6, fol. 375.

48. Ibid., tomo 1228, exp. 12, fol. 390, and tomo 767, exp. 30, fols. 480-491. [BACK]

42. AGN, Inq., tomo 522, exp. 2, fol. 154.

43. Ibid., fol. 209.

44. Ibid., tomo 862, exp. 37, fol. 297: Joseph González was severely reprimanded in the presence of six or eight persons and forbidden to practice as a curandero.

45. Ibid., tomo 1036, exp. 10, fol. 196, and tomo 1254, exp. 9, fols. 144-145.

46. Ibid., tomo 1111, exp. 57, fol. 456.

47. Ibid., tomo 767, exp. 33, fol. 534, and tomo 964, exp. 6, fol. 375.

48. Ibid., tomo 1228, exp. 12, fol. 390, and tomo 767, exp. 30, fols. 480-491. [BACK]

49. Eimeric and Peña, El manual , 151. Medina, Historia , 35 ff. for the descriptions of the autos de fe in which the accounts of the assistants are transcribed and in which the social and religious ritual of the punishment is discernible.

Michel Foucault, Vigilar y castigar (Mexico City: Siglo Veintiuno Editores, 1980), 48-52, analyzes the transcendental significance of public execution on both the social and individual levels. [BACK]

50. AGN, Inq., tomo 848, fol. 12: Patients who accepted the cure were sentenced to six months' service in a hospital.

51. Ibid., tomo 844, exp. 6, fol. 543.

52. Ibid., tomo 522, exp. 2, fols. 209 and 226-233. Medina, Historia , 333, registers this case among those who abjured that day in Santo Domingo. On the procedure of abjuration as a consequence of slight suspicion, see Eimeric and Peña, El manual , 190-191. [BACK]

50. AGN, Inq., tomo 848, fol. 12: Patients who accepted the cure were sentenced to six months' service in a hospital.

51. Ibid., tomo 844, exp. 6, fol. 543.

52. Ibid., tomo 522, exp. 2, fols. 209 and 226-233. Medina, Historia , 333, registers this case among those who abjured that day in Santo Domingo. On the procedure of abjuration as a consequence of slight suspicion, see Eimeric and Peña, El manual , 190-191. [BACK]

50. AGN, Inq., tomo 848, fol. 12: Patients who accepted the cure were sentenced to six months' service in a hospital.

51. Ibid., tomo 844, exp. 6, fol. 543.

52. Ibid., tomo 522, exp. 2, fols. 209 and 226-233. Medina, Historia , 333, registers this case among those who abjured that day in Santo Domingo. On the procedure of abjuration as a consequence of slight suspicion, see Eimeric and Peña, El manual , 190-191. [BACK]

53. AGN, Inq., tomo 1235, exp. 1, fols. 186-187.

54. Ibid., tomo 1333, fol. 359. break [BACK]

53. AGN, Inq., tomo 1235, exp. 1, fols. 186-187.

54. Ibid., tomo 1333, fol. 359. break [BACK]


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