Preferred Citation: Kennedy, Dane. The Magic Mountains: Hill Stations and the British Raj. Berkeley:  University of California Press,  c1996 1996.



Select Bibliography

Archival Records

The archival records are so vast and so widely scattered that it would have required a Herculean effort to work through all of them. My aim was more modest—a selective examination of material from some of the more important archives in the hope of obtaining a reasonably balanced appreciation of the public issues that arose regarding hill stations. A list of the principal archives and classes of documents I consulted follows.

HimachaI Pradesh State Archives, Simla

Annual Reports of the Simla Municipality

Simla Municipal Corporation Records

Simla Municipal Proceedings

India Office Library and Records, London

Board's Collection

India and Bengal Dispatches

Madras Dispatches

Proceedings of the Government of the United Provinces

Public and Judicial Department

Indian National Archives, New Delhi

Home Department Proceedings

Foreign Department Proceedings

Tamil Nadu State Archives, Madras

Annual Reports, Coonoor Municipality

Annual Reports, Kodaikanal Municipality

Annual Reports, Ootacamund Municipality

West Bengal State Archives, Calcutta

Proceedings of the Lieutenant Governor of Bengal



Atkinson, Edwin T. The Himalayan Gazetteer . 1882. 3 vols. Reprint, Delhi: Cosmo Publications, 1973.

The Imperial Gazetteer of India . New ed. 26 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1908. Thornton, Edward, A Gazetteer of the Territories under the Government of the East-India Company, and of the Native States on the Continent of India . 1858. Reprint, Delhi: Neeraj, 1984.


Allen, B. C. Assam District Gazetteers . Vol. 10: The Khasi and Jaintia Hills . Allahabad: Pioneer Press, 1906.


Darjeeling District Gazetteer, Statistics, 1901-02 . Calcutta: Bengal Secretariat, 1905.

Dash, Arthur Jules. Bengal District Gazetteers: Darjeeling . Alipore, Bengal: Bengal Government Press, 1947.

Hunter, W. W. A Statistical Account of Bengal . Vol. 10: Districts of Darjiling and Jalpaiguri, and State of Kuch Behar . London: Trubner, 1876.

O'Malley, L.S.S. Darjeeling . Calcutta: Bengal Secretariat Book Depot, 1907.


Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency . Vol. 19: Satara , Bombay: CentralGovernment Press, 1885; Vol. 19B: Satara , Bombay: Phaltan and Aundh, 1926.

Imperial Gazetteer of India, Provincial Series, Bombay Presidency . 2 vols. Calcutta: Superintendent of Government Printing, 1909.

Central Provinces

Central Provinces District Gazetteers. Hoshangabad District . Vol. B: Statistical Tables . Allahabad: Pioneer Press, 1904; Statistical Tables 1891-1926 . Nagpur: Government Press, 1927.

Corbett, G. L., and R. V. Russell. Central Provinces District Gazetteers: Hoshangabad District . Vol. A. Calcutta: Thacker, Spink, 1908.


Francis, W. The Nilgiris . Madras: Government Press, 1908.

Gazetteer of Southern India . Madras: Pharoah, 1855.

Grigg, H. B. A Manual of the Nilagiri District . Madras: Government Press, 1880.

Imperial Gazetteer of India, Provincial Series: Madras . Vol. 2. Calcutta: Government Printing, 1908.

Madras District Gazetteers, Statistical Appendix for Madura District . Madras: Government Press, 1905, 1915, 1930, 1933.


Madras District Gazetteers, Statistical Appendix for the Nilgiri District . Madras: Government Press, 1905, 1928, 1933.

Richards, F. J. Salem . Madras: Government Press, 1913.


Gazetteer of the Gurdaspur District 1883-84 . Lahore: Arya Press, 1884.

Punjab District Gazetteers, Gurdaspur District, 1914 . Vol. 21A. Lahore: Government Printing, 1915.

Punjab District Gazetteers, Gurdaspur District Statistical Tables, 1904 . Vol. 21B. Lahore: "Civil and Military Gazette" Press, 1904; Statistical Tables , 1912. Vol. 21B. Lahore: Singh and Sons, 1913; Statistical Tables, 1936 . Vol. 14B. Lahore: Government Printing, 1936.

Punjab District Gazetteers, Kangra District, 1924-25 . Vol. 7A. Lahore: Government Printing, 1926.

Punjab District Gazetteers, Rawalpindi District, 1907 . Vol. 28A. Lahore: "Civil and Military Gazette" Press, 1909.

Punjab District Gazetteers, Simla District, 1904 . Vol. 8A. Lahore: "Civil and Military Gazette" Press, 1908.

Punjab District Gazetteers, Simla District Statistical Tables, 1904 . Vol. 7B. Lahore: "Civil and Military Gazette" Press, 1909.

Punjab District Gazetteers, Simla District Statistical Tables, 1936 . Vol. 6B. Lahore: "Civil and Military Gazette" Press, 1936.

Punjab Government. Gazetteer of the SimIa District, 1888-89 . Calcutta: Central Press, n.d.

United Provinces

District Gazetteers of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh: Supplementary Notes and Statistics . Vol. 1: Dehra Dun District . Allahabad: Government Press, 1924.

District Gazetteers of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh: Supplementary Notes and Statistics up to 1931-2 . Vol. 1D: Dehra Dun District . Allahabad: Government Press, 1934.

District Gazetteers of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh: Supplementary Notes and Statistics . Vol. 34: Naini Tal District . Allahabad: Government Press, 1925.

Imperial Gazetteer of India, Provincial Series: United Provinces of Agra and Oudh . 2 vols. Reprint, New Delhi: Usha Publications, 1984.

Neville, H. R. Naini Tal: A Gazetteer, Being Volume XXXIV of the District Gazetteers of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh . Allahabad: Government Press, 1904.

Walton, H. G. Almora: A Gazetteer, District Gazetteers of the United Provinces . Vol. 35. Allahabad: Government Press, 1911.

———. British Garhwal. A Gazetteer, Being Vol. XXXVI of the District Gazetteers of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh . Allahabad: Government Press, 1910.


———. Dehra Dun: A Gazetteer, District Gazetteers of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh . Vol. 1. Allahabad: Government Press, 1911.

Garhwal. Supplementary Notes and Statistics . Vol. 36. N.p., 1914.

Government Reports

Great Britain, Parliamentary Papers (PP) and Debates

Papers Connected with the Re-organization of the Army in India . Session 2, VIII, 1859.

Papers Relative to the Formation of a Sanitarium on the Neilgherries for European Troops . Session 729, XLI, 1850.

Report of the Commissioners Appointed to Inquire into the Sanitary State of the Army in India . XIX, 1863.

Reports from the Select Committee on Colonization and Settlement (India) , 1857-59.

Hansard Parliamentary Debates , 3d series, vol. 293 (1884) and vol. 336 (1889); 4th series, vol. 47 (1897) and vol. 50 (1897).


Bamber, C. J. Report on an Outbreak of Enteric Fever in Simla during the Summer of 1904 . Lahore: "Civil and Military Gazette" Press, 1904.

Committee upon the Financial Condition of Hill Schools for Europeans in Northern India. Vol. 1: Report . Simla: Government Printing Office, 1904; Vol. 2: Evidence and Appendices . Calcutta: Government Printing Office, 1905.

Ellis, R. S. Report on the Stations of Ootacamund and Coonoor . Madras: Adelphi Press, 1865.

———. Reports upon the Military and Civil Station of Bellary, and upon the Mountain Sanitarium of Ramandroog . Madras: Adelphi Press, 1867.

General Report on the Administration of the Several Presidencies and Provinces of British India, 1856-57 . Pt. 1. Calcutta: Calcutta Gazette Office, 1858.

Guide to the Records of the Nilgiris District from 1827 to 1835 . Madras: Government Press, 1934.

Hamilton, Lt.-Col. Douglas. Report on the High Ranges of the Annamullay Mountains . Madras: Fort Saint George Gazette Press, 1866.

———. Report on the Pulni Mountains . Madras: United Scottish Press, 1864.

———. Report on the Shevaroy Hills . Madras: Fort Saint George Gazette Press, 1862.

———. Sketches of the Shevaroy Hills . London: War Office, 1865.

Ibbetson, Denzil. Report on the Census of the Panjab, Taken on February 1881 . Calcutta: Superintendent of Government Printing, 1883.

Lawrence, A.J. Report on the Existing Schools for Europeans and Eurasians throughout India . Calcutta: Government Printing, 1873.

Medical Board Office, Madras Presidency. Report on the Medical Topography and Statistics of Neilgherry Hills . Madras: Vepery Mission Press, 1844.


Mercer, Alfred. Report on the Progress of Education of European Children during the Quinquennium 1912-13—1916-17 . Calcutta: Bengal Secretariat Book Depot, 1917.

Palmer, C., W. G. Murray, and V. Ball. Report on the Hill of Mahendragiri . Calcutta: Calcutta Central Press, 1870.

Public Works Department. Completion Report of the New Viceregal Lodge at Simla . Serial no. 22. Calcutta: Government Printing, 1890.

Public Works Department. Completion Reports of Public Office Buildings and Clerks' Cottages at Simla . Serial no. 21. Calcutta: Government Printing, 1889.

Ranking, J. L. Report upon the Sanitary Condition of Ootacamund . Madras: Adelphi Press, 1868.

Report of the Commission Appointed to Deal with the Transfer of the Punjab Government to the Hill Station of Dalhousie . Simla: Government Printing Office, 1902.

Report of the Conference on the Education of the Domiciled Community in India, Simla, July 1912 . Calcutta: Government Printing, 1912.

Report of the Simla Extension Committee, 1898 . Simla: Punjab Government Branch Press, 1898.

Report of the Simla Improvement Committee . Simla: Government Monotype Press, 1907.

Report of the Simla Sanitary Investigation Committee . Simla: Punjab Government Branch Press, 1905.

Report on the Administration of the Madras Presidency, 1874-75 . Madras: Government Press, 1876.

Report on the Government Botanical and Horticultural Gardens, Ootacamund, for the Year 1854-55 . Madras: Fort Saint George Gazette Press, 1856.

Report on the Summer Census of Dalhousie, 1911 . Lahore: Punjab Government Press, 1912.

Report on the Summer Census of Murree, 1911 . Lahore: Punjab Government Press, 1912.

Report on the Summer Census of Simla, 1911 . Lahore: Punjab Government Press, 1912.

Robertson, W. R. Report on the Agricultural Conditions, Capabilities, and Prospects of the Neilgherry District . Madras: Government Gazette Press, 1875.

Selections from the Records of the Bengal Government . No. 17: Report on Darjeeling , by W. B. Jackson. Calcutta: Thos. Jones, 1854.

Selections from the Records of the Government of Bengal . No. 36, pt. 2: The Maghassani Hills as a Sanatarium . Calcutta: Bengal Military Orphan Press, 1861.

Selections from the Records of the Government of Bengal . No. 38: Papers Relating to a Sanatarium upon Mount Parisnath . Calcutta: Bengal Military Orphan Press, 1861.

Selections from the Records of the Government of India (Military Department) . Nos. 1-3: Report on the Extent and Nature of the Sanitary Establishments for European Troops in India . Calcutta: Military Department Press, 1861, 1862.


Statistics of the British-Born Subjects Recorded at the Census of India, 17th February 1881 . Calcutta: Superintendent of Government Printing, 1883.

Guidebooks, Memoirs, other Primary Sources

Annesley, James. Researches into the Causes, Nature, and Treatment of the More Prevalent Diseases of India, and of Warm Climates Generally . 2 vols. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green, 1828.

Baikie, Robert. The Neilgherries . 2d ed. Calcutta: J. Thomas, 1857.

———. Observations on the Neilgherries . Ed. W. H. Smoult. Calcutta: Baptist Mission Press, 1834.

Balfour, Edward. Statistical Data for Forming Troops and Maintaining Them in Health in Different Climates and Localities . London: Statistical Society of London, 1845.

Barron, Capt. Richard. Views in India, Chiefly among the Neelgherry Hills . London: Robert Havell, 1837.

Bastavala, D. S. Simla . Bombay: Tata, 1925.

Bayley, H. V. Dorje-ling. Calcutta: G. H. Huttman, 1838.

Bellasis, A. F. An Account of the Hill Station of Matharan, near Bombay . Bombay: Education Society's Press, 1869.

Bhanja, K. C. Darjeeling at a Glance . Darjeeling, 1942.

———. Wonders of Darjeeling and the Sikkim Himalaya . N.p., 1943.

Bharucha, Perin. Mahabaleswar : The Club 1881-1981 . Bombay: Asian Printers, c. 1981.

Blackham, Col. Robert J. Scalpel, Sword and Stretcher . London: Sampson Law, Marston, 1931.

Blavatsky, H. P. The People of the Blue Mountains . 1893. Reprint, Wheaton, Ill.: Theosophical Press, 1930.

Bomwetsch, G. S. Before the Glory of the Snows: A Hand Book to Darjeeling . Calcutta: Central Press, 1899.

Bowen, F. O.Hand-Book of Kodaikanal . Trichinopoly: N.p., 1932.

Breeks, James Wilkinson. An Account of the Primitive Tribes and Monuments of the Nilagiris . London: India Museum, 1873.

Brown, Percy. Tours in Sikhim and the Darjeeling District . Calcutta: W. Newman, 1917.

Browning, Oscar. Impressions of Indian Travel . London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1903.

Buchanan, W. J. "Notes on Old Darjeeling." Bengal: Past and Present 2, no. 6 (Oct. 1908): 439-58.

Buck, Edward J. Simla Past and Present . 1904. Reprint, Delhi: Sumit Publications, 1979.

———. Simla Past and Present . 2d ed. 1925. Reprint, Simla: Minerva Book House, 1989.

Buckland, C. T. Sketches of Social Life in India . London: W. H. Allen, 1884.

Burton, E. F. An Indian Olio . London: Spencer Blackett, 1888.

Burton, Isabel. AEI: Arabia Egypt India, A Narrative of Travel . London and Belfast: William Mullan & Sons, 1879.


———. The Life of Captain Sir Richard F. Burton . 2 vols. London: Chapman and Hall, 1893.

Burton, Richard F. Goa, and the Blue Mountains . 1851. Reprint, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991.

Butler, Iris. The Viceroy's Wife: Letters of Alice, Countess of Reading, from India, 1921-25 . London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1969.

Caine, W. S. Picturesque India: A Handbook for European Travellers . London: George Routledge & Sons, 1890.

The Call of the Nilgiris . Madras: Higginbotham, 1911.

Campbell, A. "Note on the Lepchas of Sikkim." Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 92 (1840): 379-93.

Campbell, Major Walter. The Old Forest Ranger; or, Wild Sports in India . London: Virtue Brothers, 1863.

Carey, W. H., comp. A Guide to Simla with a Descriptive Account of the Neighbouring Sanitaria . Calcutta: Calcutta Central Press, 1870.

Charles, Sir R. Havelock. "Neurasthenia and Its Bearing on the Decay of Northern Peoples in India." Transactions of the Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 7, no. 1 (Nov. 1913): 2-31.

Chesson, John. "Hill Sanitaria of Western India: Panchgunny." Bombay Miscellany 4 (1862): 335-70. Reprinted as Second Report on the Hill-Station of Panchgunny, near Mahableshwur . Bombay: Alliance Press, 1862.

Choksi, Sarabhai. Mahableshwar and Panchgani Guide . Bombay, n.d.

"Civilian." The Civilian's South India . London: John Lane, Bodley Head, 1921.

Clarke, Hyde. Colonization, Defence and Railways in Our Indian Empire . London: J. Weale, 1857.

———. "The English Stations in the Hill Regions of India." Journal of the Statistical Society 44 (Sept. 1881): 528-73.

———. "On the Organization of the Army of India, with Especial Reference to the Hill Regions." Journal of the Royal United Service Institution 3 (1860): 18-27.

Cornelius, A. W. Dehra Dun—Mussoorie—Landour Guide . N.p., 1947.

Cornish, W. R. "The Shervaroy Hills." In The Hill Ranges of Southern India , ed. John Shortt. Madras: Higginbotham, 1870-83.

Crawford, D. G. A History of the Indian Medical Service 1600-1913 . Vol. 1. London: W. Thacker, 1914.

Crawfurd, John. Notes on the Settlement or Colonization of British Subjects in India . London: James Ridgeway, 1833.

Cullimore, D. H. The Book of Climates . 2d ed. London: Bailliere, Tindall, & Cox, 1891.

Cumming Constance F. Gordon From the Hebrides to the Himalayas . 2 vols. London: Sampson Low, Marston, Searle, & Rivington, 1876.

———. In the Himalayas and on the Indian Plains . London: Chatto & Windus, 1884.

Curran, William. "Further Evidence in Favour of a Hill Residence for European Soldiers in India." Irish Journal of Medical Science 52, no. 104 (1871): 391-416.

———. "The Himalayas as a Health Resort." Practitioner (Jan. 1871): 27-44.


Dabake, Vishnu Bhikaji. Hand Book to Matheran . 3d ed. Poona: Pratibha Press, 1938.

Dalhousie, Marquess of. Private Letters of the Marquess of Dalhousie . Ed. J.G.A. Baird. Edinburgh and London: William Blackwood & Sons, 1910.

Darjeeling . Pamphlet reprinted from the Calcutta Review , no. 55 (1857).

Darjeeling and Its Mountain Railway . Calcutta: Darjeeling Himalayan Railway Co., 1921.

Darjeeling Himalayan Railway Company. The Darjeeling Himalayan Railway. Illustrated Guide for Tourists . London: McCorquodale, 1896.

Dastur, N. M. Pocket Book of Mahabaleshwar and Panchgani . 3d ed. Poona: Chitrashala Press, 1944.

Denning, Margaret B. Mosaics from India . Chicago: Fleming H. Revell, 1902.

Dilke, Charles Wentworth. Greater Britain: A Record of Travel in English-Speaking Countries . Vol. 2. London: Macmillan, 1869.

Diver, Maud. The Englishwoman in India . Edinburgh and London: William Blackwood & Sons, 1909.

Donaldson, Florence. Lepcha Land . London: Sampson Low, Marston, 1900.

The Dorjeeling Guide . Calcutta: Samuel Smith, 1845.

Douglas, James. Bombay and Western India . 2 vols. London: Sampson Low, Marston, 1893.

"Doz." Simla in Ragtime: An Illustrated Guide Book . Simla: Station Press, 1913.

Drummond, Capt. H. Notes on the Colonization of the Himalayas . Edinburgh, 1845.

Dufferin and Ava, Marchioness of. Our Viceregal Life in India: Selections from My Journal 1884-1888 . London: John Murray, 1890.

Duke, Joshua. Kashmir and Jammu: A Guide for Visitors . Calcutta: Thacker, Spink, 1903.

Dulles, Rev. John W. Life in India; or Madras, the Neilgherries, and Calcutta . Philadephia: American Sunday-School Union, 1855.

Duncan, Sara Jeannette. The Pool in the Desert . 1903. Reprint, Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1984.

Eagan, J.S.C. The Nilgiri Guide and Directory . Mysore: Wesleyan Mission Press, 1911.

Eastern Bengal State Railway. From the Hooghly to the Himalayas . Bombay: Times Press, 1913.

Eden, Emily. Up the Country: Letters from India , 1930. Reprint, London: Virago, 1984.

Edwardes, Sir Herbert Benjamin, and Herman Merivale. Life of Sir Henry Lawrence . 2d ed. 2 vols. London: Smith, Elder, 1872.

Ewart, Joseph. Goodeve's Hints for the General Management of Children in India in the Absence of Professional Advice . 6th ed. Calcutta: Thacker, Spink, 1872.

Fayrer, Sir Joseph. "The Hill Stations of India as Health Resorts." British Medical Journal 1 (June 9, 1900): 1393-97.

———. Recollections of My Life . Edinburgh and London: William Blackwood & Sons, 1900.

———. Tropical Dysentery and Chronic Diarrhoea . London: J. & A. Churchill, 1881.


Felkin, Robert W. "On Acclimatisation." Scottish Geographical Magazine 7 (1891): 647-56.

Ferguson, J. Six Weeks' Trip through India . Colombo: A. M. & J. Ferguson, 1902.

Fitzgerald-Lee, J. Guide to Dharmsala and the Kangra Valley . Lahore: "Civil and Military Gazette" Press, 1899.

Fletcher, F.W.F. Sport on the Nilgiris and in Wynaad . London: Macmillan, 1911.

Forsyth, Capt. J. The Highlands of Central India . London: Chapman & Hall, 1871.

Franks, H. George. In and around Mahableshwar . Poona: Poona Star Press, n.d.

Fraser, James Baillie, Journal of a Tour through Part of the Snowy Range of the Himala Mountains and to the Sources of the Rivers Jumna and Ganges . London: Rodwell & Martin, 1820.

Frazer, H. L. Views of the Neilgherries . Calcutta: H. M. Smith, 1856-57.

Fullerton, Lt.-Col. James. Views in the Himalaya and Neilgherry Hills . London: Dickinson, c. 1848.

Gandhi, Mahatma. "Five Hundredth Storey." In Collected Works , vol. 20. Delhi: Government of India, 1966.

Gay, F. Drew. The Prince of Wales; or, From Pall Mall to the Punjaub . Detroit: Craig and Taylor, 1878.

Geofry [pseud.]. Ooty and Her Sisters, or Our Hill Stations in South India . Madras: Higginbotham, 1881.

Giles, Lt.-Col. G. M. Climate and Health in Hot Countries . London: John Bale, Sons, 1904.

Gleig, G. R. The Life of Major-General Sir Thomas Munro, Bart . 3 vols. London: Henry Colburn & Richard Bentley, 1830.

Gore, F. St. J. Lights and Shades of Hill Life . 1895. Reprint, Delhi: Oriental Publishers, 1972.

Graham, Rev. J. A. On the Threshold of Three Closed Lands . Edinburgh: R. & R. Clark, 1897.

Grant Duff, Sir Mountstuart E. Notes from a Diary Kept Chiefly in Southern India 1881-1886 . 2 vols. London: John Murray, 1899.

———. Notes of an Indian Journey . London: Macmillan, 1876.

Guide to Mussoorie . Mussoorie: Mafasilite Printing Works, c. 1907.

A Guide to Ootacamund and Its Neighbourhood . Madras: Lawrence Asylum Press, 1889.

A Guide to the Neilgherries . Madras: Thomas & Davis, 1886.

Gupta, Om Prakash. Mount Abu: The Olympus of Rajasthan . Ajmer, 1939.

Gurdon, Major P.R.T. The Khasis . London: David Nutt, 1907.

Hamilton, Gen. Douglas. Records of Sport in Southern India . London: R. H. Porter, 1892.

A Handbook for Travellers in India, Burma and Ceylon . 10th ed. London: John Murray, 1920.

Hare, Augustus J. C. The Story of Two Noble Lives . Vol. 2. London: George Allen, 1893.

Harkness, Capt. Henry. A Description of a Singular Aboriginal Race Inhabiting the Summit of the Neilgherry Hills . London: Smith, Elder, 1832.

Harrop, F. Beresford. Thacker's New Guide to Simla . Simla: Thacker, Spink, 1925.


Hathorn, Capt. J. G. A Hand-Book of Darjeeling . Calcutta: R. C. Lepage, 1863.

Heber, Bishop. Bishop Heber in Northern India: Selections from Heber's Journal . Ed. M. A. Laird. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1971.

Hervey, H. The European in India . London: Stanley Paul, 1913.

Hill, Sir Claude H. India—Stepmother . Edinburgh: William Blackwood, 1929.

"Hill Stations of India as Sanitaria for the British Soldier." Calcutta Journal of Medicine 1, no. 8 (Aug. 1868): 308-13.

Hodgson, B. H. Essays on the Languages, Literature and Religion of Nepal and Tibet . Part 2. 1874. Reprint, Varanasi: Bharat-Bharati, 1971.

Hogg, Francis R. Practical Remarks Chiefly concerning the Health and Ailments of European Families in India . Benares: Medical Hall Press, 1877.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton. Himalayan Journals . 2 vols. London: John Murray, 1854.

Hornaday, William T. Two Years in the Jungle: The Experience of a Hunter and Naturalist in India, Ceylon, the Malay Peninsula and Borneo . New York: Scribner's, 1908.

Hosten, H. "The Centenary of Darjeeling." Bengal: Past and Present 39, pt. 2, no. 78 (April-June 1930): 106-23.

Hough, James. Letters on the Climate, Inhabitants, Productions, etc. of the Neilgherries, or Blue Mountains of Coimbatoor . London: John Hatchard, 1829.

Hull, Edmund C. P. The European in India; or, Anglo-Indian's Vade-Mecum . 2d ed. London: Henry S. King, 1872.

Hunt, Major S. Leigh, and Alexander S. Kenny. On Duty under a Tropical Sun . London: W. H. Allen, 1882.

———. Tropical Trials: A Handbook for Women in the Tropics . London: W. H. Allen, 1883.

Hutchinson, Capt. J. B. Guide to Dalhousie and the Neighbouring Hills . 2d ed. Rev. H. A. Rose. Lahore: "Civil and Military Gazette" Press, 1898.

Illustrated Guide to the Nilgiris . Madras: Higginbotham, 1912.

Indian Railways. Mussoorie . Calcutta: East India Railway Press, 1931.

Jacquemont, Victor. Letters from India . Vol. 1. London: Edward Churton, 1834.

Jervis, Lt. H. Narrative of a Journey to the Falls of the Cavery with an Historical and Descriptive Account of the Neilgherry Hills . London: Smith, Elder, 1834.

Johnson, James. The Influence of Tropical Climates on European Constitutions . 3d ed. New York: Evert Duyckinck, George Long, Collins, 1826.

Kail, Owen C. The Hill Station of Matheran . Bombay: Thacker, 1947.

Kaye, M. M. The Sun in the Morning: My Early Years in India and England . New York: St. Martin's Press, 1990.

King, Mrs. Robert Moss. The Diary of a Civilian's Wife in India 1877-1882 . 2 vols. London: Richard Bentley & Son, 1884.

Kinney, T. The Echo Guide to Mussoorie . Mussoorie: Echo Press, 1908.

Kipling, Rudyard. "His Private Honour." In Many Inventions , 126-49. New York: Doubleday, 1925.

———. Kim . New York: Dell, 1959.

———. Plain Tales from the Hills . London: Penguin, 1987.

———. Something of Myself and Other Autobiographical Writings . Ed. Thomas Pinney. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.


———. Verse: Definitive Edition . Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1952.

Kisch, H. M. A Young Victorian in India: Letters . Ed. Ethel A. Waley Cohen. London: Jonathan Cape, 1957.

"Kumaon and Its Hill-Stations." Calcutta Review 26 (Jan.-June 1856): 373-97.

"A Lady Resident." The Englishwoman in India . London: Smith, Elder, 1865.

Lang, John. Wanderings in India: And Other Sketches of Life in Hindostan . London: Routledge, Warne, and Routledge, 1859.

Lawrence, Sir Walter Roper. The India We Served . London: Cassell, 1928.

The Lawrence Military Asylum . Sanawur: Lawrence Military Asylum Press, 1858.

Lear, Edward. Indian Journal . Ed. Ray Murphy. London: Jarrolds, 1953.

Letters from India and Kashmir . London: George Bell & Sons, 1874.

Lewis, J. T. The Rugby Guide to Matheran . Poona: Deccan Herald, c. 1908.

Lowrie, John C. Two Years in Upper India . New York: Robert Carter, 1850.

Macaulay, Thomas Babington. Letters . Ed. Thomas Pinney. Vol. 3. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976.

McCurdy, Major E. A. Three Panoramic Views of Ootacamund . London: Smith, Elder, c. 1830.

McCurdy, Capt. E. A. Views of the Neilgherries, or Blue Mountains of Coimbetoor . London: Smith, Elder, c. 1830.

Maclean, William Campbell. Diseases of Tropical Climates . London: Macmillan, 1886.

MacPherson, Duncan. Reports on Mountain and Marine Sanitaria . Madras: Fort Saint George Gazette Press, 1862.

Mahableshwur Guide . Bombay: Education Society's Press, 1875.

Mainwaring, Col. G. B. A Grammar of the Rong (Lepcha) Language . 1876. Reprint, Delhi: Daya Publishing House, 1985.

Makay, George. Remarks on the Climate, with Advice to Invalids and Others Visiting the Neilgherry Hills . Madras: Gantz Brothers, 1870.

Marryat, Florence. "Gup." Sketches of Anglo-Indian Life and Character . London: Richard Bentley, 1868.

Marshall, William E. A Phrenologist amongst the Todas . London: Longmans, Green, 1873.

Martin, Sir James Ranald. Influence of Tropical Climates in Producing the Acute Endemic Diseases of Europeans , 2d ed. London: John Churchill, 1861.

Masters, John. Bugles and a Tiger . New York: Ballantine, 1968.

Mehta, Ved. Daddyji . New York: Norton, 1972.

Metz, F. The Tribes Inhabiting the Neilgherry Hills . 2d ed. Mangalore: Bazel Mission Press, 1864.

Mignan, Capt. Robert. Notes Extracted from a Private Journal, Written during a Tour through a Part of Malabar, and among the Neilgherries . Bombay: American Mission Press, 1834.

Mitchell, Mrs. Murray. In Southern India . London: Religious Tract Society, 1885.

Molony, J. Chartres. "An Indian Hill Station." Blackwood's Magazine 247, no. 1495 (May 1940): 625-39.

Moore, W. J. Health Resorts for Tropical Invalids in India, at Home, and Abroad . London: J. & A. Churchill, 1881.


———. A Manual of Family Medicine and Hygiene for India . 7th ed. London: J. & A. Churchill, 1903.

———. A Manual of the Diseases of India . 2d ed. London: J. & A. Churchill, 1886.

Morris, John. Eating the Indian Air . London: Hamish Hamilton, 1968.

"Mountaineer." A Summer Ramble in the Himalayas . London: Hurst & Blackett, 1860.

Murphy, C. W. A Guide to Naini Tal and Kumaun . Allahabad: Pioneer Press, 1906.

Murray, James. Account of Malcolm Pait, on the Mahableshwur Hills . Bombay: Chesson & Woodhall, 1863.

Murray, Major William. An Account of the Neilgherries, or, Blue Mountains of Coimbatore, in Southern India . London: Smith, Elder, 1834.

Murray-Aynsley, Mrs. J. C. Our Tour in Southern India . London: F. V. White, 1883.

Nanavati, Hiralal Dayabhai. Mount Abu . Bombay: N.p., 1919.

Newall, Major-Gen. D.J.F. The Highlands of India Strategically Considered . London: Harrison & Sons, 1882.

Newman's Guide to Darjeeling and Neighbourhood . Calcutta: W. Newman, 1900, 1919.

Nicholl, Major-Gen. T. A Hand-Book to Coonoor and Neighbourhood . Madras: Lawrence Asylum Press, 1888.

Northam, John. Guide to Masuri, Landaur, Dehra Dun, and the Hills North of Dehra . Calcutta: Thacker, Spink, 1884.

O'Brien, R. D. Darjeeling, the Sanitarium of Bengal; and Its Surroundings . Calcutta: W. Newman, 1883.

O'Donnell, C.J. "Simla, Calcutta and Darjeeling as Centres of Government." Calcutta Review 83 (Oct. 1886): 398-419.

O'Dwyer, Sir Michael. India As I Knew It 1885-1925 . 2d ed. London: Constable, 1925.

"An Old Indian." From Calcutta to the Snowy Range . London: Tinsley Brothers, 1866.

Oliver, Mrs. A. K. The Hill Station of Matheran . Bombay: Times of India, 1905.

Ootacamund as the Seat of the Madras Government . Pamphlet reprinted from the Madras Mail, 1869.

Ormsley, Capt. V. Almoriana: Leaves from a Hill Journal . [Allahabad:] Pioneer Press, 1901.

Ouchterlony, Capt. J. Geographical and Statistical Memoir of a Survey of the Neilgherry Mountains . Madras: Higginbotham, 1868.

Parasnis, Rao Bahadur D.B. Mahabaleshwar . Bombay: Lakshmi Art Printing Works, 1916.

Parks, Fanny. Wanderings of a Pilgrim, in Search of the Picturesque . 2 vols. London: Pelham Richardson, 1850.

Parmanand, Hansraj. Key to Matheran . 2d ed. Bombay: Free Press Bulletin Press, 1935.

Peacock, E. B. A Guide to Murree and Its Neighbourhoo d. Lahore: W. Ball, 1883.

Pearson, J. T. "A Note on Darjeeling." Bound newspaper article, 1839. Reprinted in Fred Pinn, The Road to Destiny: Darjeeling Letters 1839 . Calcutta: Oxford University Press, 1986).


Philips, C. H., ed. The Correspondence of Lord William Cavendish Bentinck . 2 vols. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1977.

"Pilgrim" [P. Barron]. Notes of Wanderings in the Himmala . Agra: Agra Ukhbar Press, 1844.

Pinn, Fred. The Road to Destiny: Darjeeling Letters 1839 . Calcutta: Oxford University Press, 1986.\

Platt, Kate. The Home and Health in India and the Tropical Colonies . London: Bailliere, Tindall & Cox, 1923.

Powers, Capt. O.E.S. Dehra Dun Past and Present: Guide and Directory to Dehra and the Doon District . Dehra Dun: Goorkha Press, 1929.

Price, Sir Frederick. Ootacamund: A History . Madras: Government Press, 1908.

Prinsep, Val C. Imperial India: An Artist's Journals . 2d ed. London: Chapman & Hall, 1879.

Rees, J. D. Lord Connemara's Tours in India . London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, 1892.

Reynolds-Ball, Eustace. The Tourist's India . London: Swan Sonnenschein, 1907.

Ricketts, L. C. "English Society in India." Contemporary Review 101 (1912): 681-88.

Roberts, Lord. Forty-One Years in India . 2 vols. London: Macmillan, 1900.

Robertson, George P. Darjeeling Route Guide . Darjeeling: Bose Press, 1913.

Russell, William Howard. My Diary in India . 2 vols. London: Routledge, Warne, & Routledge, 1860.

Sandwith, F. M. "Hill Stations and Other Health Resorts in the British Tropics." Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 10, no. 22 (Nov. 15, 1907): 361-70.

Sarkar, H. C. Guide to Shillong . Calcutta: W. Newman, n.d.

Savory, Isabel. A Sportswoman in India . London: Hutchinson, 1900.

Schmid, Rev. B. "Remarks on the Origin and Languages of the Aborigines of the Nilgiris." Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society 3, pt. 1, no. 12 (Jan. 1849): 50-53.

Scott, Alicia Eliza. A Lady's Narrative , 1834. London: Webster & Larkin, 1874.

———. Simla Scenes Drawn from Nature . London: Dickinson, c. 1846.

Scott, Paul. Staying On . New York: Avon, 1977.

Scott, W.L.L. Views of the Himalayas . London: N.p., 1852.

Scudder, Horace E. Life and Letters of David Coit Scudder, Missionary in Southern India . New York: Hurd & Houghton, 1864.

Sen, Sudhir Chandra. The Simla Kali Bari . Simla: N.p., 1932.

Shaw, Mary. "Some South India Hill Stations." Scottish Geographical Magazine 59, no. 3 (Jan. 1944): 81-87, and 60, no. 3 (Dec. 1944): 80-85.

Shillong and Its Neighbourhood . N.p., c. 1913.

Shortt, John. An Account of the Tribes on the Neilgherries . Madras: Higginbotham, 1868.

———, ed. The Hill Ranges of Southern India . Madras: Higginbotham, 1870-83.

Smith, J. Y. Matheran Hills: Its People, Plants, and Animals . Edinburgh: Maclachlan & Stewart, 1871.

Sprawson, Cuthbert Allan. Moore's Manual of Family Medicine and Hygiene for India . 8th ed. London: J. & A. Churchill, 1916.

Steel, Flora Annie. The Garden of Fidelity . London: Macmillan, 1929.


———, and G. Gardiner. The Complete Indian Housekeeper and Cook . Rev. ed. London: William Heinemann, 1917.

Stevenson, Rev. Dr. "A Collection of Words from the Languages of the Todas, the Chief Tribe on the Nilgiri Hills." Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society 1, no. 4 (April 1842): 155-67.

Taylor, G. Hutton. Thacker's Guide Book to Darjeeling and Its Neighbourhood . Calcutta: Thacker, Spink, 1899.

Thomas, Capt. George Powell. Views of Simla . London: Dickinson, c. 1846.

Thurston, Edgar. Anthropology of the Todas and Kotas of the Nilgiri Hills . Madras: Government Press, 1896.

Tilt, Edward John. Health in India for British Women . 4th ed. London: J. & A. Churchill, 1875.

Towelle, W. Martin. Towelle's Hand Book and Guide to Simla . Simla: Station Press, 1877.

Trevelyan, G. O. The Competition Wallah . 2d ed. London: Macmillan, 1866.

Tull, Barbara Mitchell, ed. Affectionately, Rachel: Letters from India 1860-1884 . Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1992.

The Visitors' Handbook of the Nilgiris . Madras: G. Ramasawmy Chetty, 1897.

Waddell, L. A. Among the Himalayas . 1899. Reprint, Delhi: Mittal Publications, 1979.

White, Lt. George Francis. Views in India, Chiefly among the Himalaya Mountains . Ed. Emma Roberts. London and Paris: Fisher, Son, 1838.

Williams, G.R.C. Historical and Statistical Memoir of Dehra Doon . Roorkee: Thomason Civil Engineering College Press, 1874.

Wilson, Andrew. The Abode of Snow: Observations on a Journey from Chinese Tibet to the Indian Caucasus . Edinburgh and London: William Blackwood & Sons, 1875.

Wilson, Francesca H. My Trip to Matheran . Madras: Higginbotham, 1888.

———. The Shevaroys . Madras: Higginbotham, 1888.

Wilson, Lady. Letters from India . 1911. Reprint, London: Century Publishing, 1984.

Younghusband, Sir Francis. Kashmir . London: Adam and Charles Black, 1911.

Secondary Sources

Adas, Michael. "From Avoidance to Confrontation: Peasant Protest in Precolonial and Colonial Southeast Asia." In Colonialism and Culture , ed. Nicholas B. Dirks, 89-126. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1992.

Aiken, S. Robert. "Early Penang Hill Station." Geographical Review 77, no. 4 (Oct. 1987): 421-39.

Allen, Charles. Plain Tales from the Raj . London: Futura Publications, 1976.

———, and Sharanda Dwivedi. Lives of the Indian Princes . London: Century, 1984.

Anderson, David, and Richard Grove, eds. Conservation in Africa: People, Policies, Practices . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

Andrews, Malcolm. The Search for the Picturesque: Landscape Aesthetics and Tourism in Britain, 1760-1800 . Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1989.


Archer, Mildred. Early Views of India: The Picturesque Journeys of Thomas and William Daniell 1782-1794 . London: Thames and Hudson, 1980.

———, and Ronald Lightbown. India Observed: India as Viewed by British Artists 1760-1860 . London: Victoria and Albert Museum, 1982.

Arnold, David. "Cholera and Colonialism in British India." Past and Present 113 (Nov. 1986): 118-51.

———. Colonizing the Body: State Medicine and Epidemic Disease in Nineteenth-Century India . Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.

———. "European Orphans and Vagrants in India in the Nineteenth Century." Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 7, no. 2 (Jan. 1979): 104-27.

———, ed. Imperial Medicine and Indigenous Societies . Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1988.

———. "Touching the Body: Perspectives on the Indian Plague." In Selected Subaltern Studies , ed. Ranajit Guha and Gayatri ChakravortySpivak, 391-426. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.

———. "White Colonization and Labour in Nineteenth-Century India." Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 9, no. 2 (Jan. 1983): 133-58.

Balfour, Lady Betty. The History of Lord Lytton's Indian Administration, 1876 to 1880 . London: Longmans, Green, 1899.

Ballhatchet, Kenneth. Race, Sex and Class under the Raj: Imperial Attitudes and Policies and Their Critics, 1793-1905 . New York: St. Martin's Press, 1980.

Barr, Pat. The Dust in the Balance: British Women in India 1905-1945 . London: Hamish Hamilton, 1989.

———. The Memsahibs: The Women of Victorian India . London: Secker & Warburg, 1976.

———, and Ray Desmond. Simla: A Hill Station in British India . New York: Scribner's, 1978.

Bayly, C. A. Imperial Meridian: The British Empire and the World, 1780-1830 . London: Longman, 1989.

———. Indian Society and the Making of the British Empire . New Cambridge History of India 11.1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

Bence-Jones, Mark. Palaces of the Raj . London: Allen & Unwin, 1973.

Berreman, Gerald D. Hindus of the Himalayas . Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1963.

———. "The U.P. Himalaya: Culture, Cultures and Regionalism." In The Himalaya: Nature, Man and Culture , ed. O. P. Singh, 227-65. New Delhi: Rajesh Publications, 1983.

Bhasin, Raja. Simla: The Summer Capital of British India . New Delhi: Viking, 1992.

Bhasin, Veena. Ecology, Culture and Change: Tribals of Sikkim Himalayas . New Delhi: Inter-India Publications, 1989.

Bishop, Peter. The Myth of Shangri-La: Tibet, Travel Writing and the Western Creation of Sacred Landscape . Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1989.

Bond, Ruskin, and Ganesh Saili. Mussoorie and Landour: Days of Wine and Roses . New Delhi: Lustre Press, 1992.

Booth, Martin. Carpet Sahib: A Life of Jim Corbett . Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1990.


Bose, M. L. Social History of Assam . New Delhi: Concept, 1989.

Brockway, Lucile H. Science and Colonial Expansion: The Role of the British Royal Botanic Gardens . New York: Academic Press, 1979.

Bruce-Chwatt, Leonard Jan. Essential Malariology . London: Heinemann, 1980.

Bührlein, Monika. Nuwara Eliya: "Hill Station" und Zentraler Ort im Hochland der Insel Ceylon (Sri Lanka) . Stuttgart: Steiner Verlag, 1991.

Calhoun, Craig, ed. Habermas and the Public Sphere . Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1992.

Callan, Hilary, and Shirley Ardener, eds. The Incorporated Wife . London: Croom Helm, 1984.

Carter, Paul. The Road to Botany Bay: An Essay in Spatial History . London: Faber & Faber, 1987.

Cell, John W. "Anglo-Indian Medical Theory and the Origins of Segregation in West Africa." American Historical Review 91, no. 2 (April 1986): 307-35.

Chamberlin, J. Edward, and Sander L. Gilman, eds. Degeneration: The Dark Side of Progress . New York: Columbia University Press, 1985.

Chaudhuri, Nupur. "Memsahibs and Motherhood in Nineteenth-Century Colonial India." Victorian Studies 31, no. 4 (summer 1988): 517-35.

———, and Margaret Strobel, eds. Western Women and Imperialism: Complicity and Resistance . Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1992.

Clifford, James, and George E. Marcus, eds. Writing Culture: The Poetics and Politics of Ethnography . Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1986.

Cohn, Bernard S. An Anthropologist among the Historians and Other Essays . Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1987.

———. "The Census, Social Stratification and Objectification in South Asia." Folk 26 (1984): 25-49.

———. "Clothes and Colonialism in British India." Paper presented to symposium on Clothes and Organization of Human Experience, Aug. 1983.

———. "The Command of Language and the Language of Command." In Subaltern Studies , vol. 4, ed. Ranajit Guha, 276-329. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1985.

———. "Law and the Colonial State in India." In History and Power in the Study of Law , ed. June Starr and Jane F. Collier, 131-52 Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1989.

———. "Representing Authority in Victorian India." In The Invention of Tradition , ed. Eric Hobsbawm and Terence Ranger, 165-209. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982.

Colley, Linda. Britons: Forging the Nation 1707-1837 . New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992.

Corfield, P. J. The Impact of English Towns 1700-1800 . Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Curtin, Philip D. Death by Migration: Europe's Encounter with the Tropical World in the Nineteenth Century . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

———. "Medical Knowledge and Urban Planning in Tropical Africa." American Historical Review 90, no. 3 (June 1985): 594-613.


Davidoff, Leonore. The Best Circles: Women and Society in Victorian England . Totowa, N.J.: Rowman and Littlefield, 1973.

———, and Catherine Hall. Family Fortunes: Men and Women of the English Middle Class 1780-1850 . London: Hutchinson, 1987.

Davies, Philip. Splendours of the Raj: British Architecture in India 1660-1947 . Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1987.

Desai, Anita. Fire on the Mountain . London: Penguin, 1981.

Dewan, Dick B. Education in the Darjeeling Hills: An Historical Survey, 1835-1985 . New Delhi: Indus, 1991.

Dozey, E. C. A Concise History of the Darjeeling District since 1835 . Calcutta: N. Mukherjee, 1922.

D'Souza, Austin A. Anglo-Indian Education: A Study of Its Origins and Growth in Bengal up to 1960 . Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1976.

Edwardes, Michael. Bound to Exile: The Victorians in India . New York: Praeger, 1970.

Ellsworth, Edward W. Science and Social Science Research in British India, 1780-1880 . New York: Greenwood Press, 1991.

Ernst, Waltraud. Mad Tales from the Raj: The European Insane in British India, 1800-1858 . London: Routledge, 1991.

Evenson, Norma. The Indian Metropolis: A View toward the West . New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989.

Farrell, J. G. The Hill Station . Ed. John Spurling. London: Fontana, 1987.

Farwell, Byron. Armies of the Raj . New York: Norton, 1989.

Ford, George H. "Felicitous Space: The Cottage Controversy." In Nature and the Victorian Imagination , ed. U. C. Knoepflmacher and G. B. Tennyson, 29-48. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977.

Freitag, Sandria B. "Enactments of Ram's Story and the Changing Nature of 'The Public' in British India." South Asia 14, no. 1 (June 1991): 65-90.

Fyson, P. F. The Flora of the South Indian Hill Stations . Vol. 1. Madras: Superintendent Government Press, 1932.

Gadd, David. Georgian Summer: Bath in the Eighteenth Century . Ridge Park, N.J.: Noyes Press, 1972.

Geertz, Clifford. Works and Lives: The Anthropologist as Author . Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1988.

Gilbert, Edmund W. Brighton: Old Ocean's Bauble . London: Methuen, 1954.

———. "The Growth of Inland and Seaside Health Resorts in England." Scottish Geographical Magazine 55, no. 1 (Jan. 1939): 16-35.

Goodman, Dena. "Public Sphere and Private Life: Toward a Synthesis of Current Historiographical Approaches to the Old Regime." History and Theory 31, no. 1 (1992): 1-20.

Gopal, Sarvepalli. Jawaharlal Nehru: A Biography . Vol. 1. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1976.

Gordon, Leonard A. Brothers against the Raj . New York: Columbia University Press, 1990.

Gorer, Geoffrey. Himalayan Village: An Account of the Lepchas of Sikkim . London: Michael Joseph, 1938.


Goswami, B. B., ed. Cultural Profile of Shillong . Calcutta: Anthropological Survey of India, 1979.

Grove, Richard H. "Colonial Conservation, Ecological Hegemony and Popular Resistance: Towards a Global Synthesis." In Imperialism and the Natural World , ed. John M. MacKenzie, 15-50. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1990.

———. "Conserving Eden: The (European) East India Companies and Their Environmental Policies on St. Helena, Mauritius and in Western India, 1660 to 1854." Comparative Studies in Society and History 35, no. 2 (April 1993): 318-351.

Guha, Ramachandra. "Saboteurs in the Forest: Colonialism and Peasant Resistance in the Indian Himalaya." In Everyday Forms of Peasant Resistance , ed. Forrest D. Colburn, 64-92. New York and London: M. E. Sharpe, 1989.

———. The Unquiet Woods: Ecological Change and Peasant Resistance in the Himalaya . Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989.

———, and Madhav Gadgil. "State Forestry and Social Conflict in British India." Past and Present 123 (May 1989): 141-77.

Habermas, Jürgen. The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society . Trans. Thomas Burger. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1989.

Harris, F. R. Jamsetji Nusserwanji Tata . London: Oxford University Press, 1925.

Headrick, Daniel R. The Tentacles of Imperialism: Technology Transfer in the Age of Imperialism, 1850-1940 . New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.

Heathcote, T. A. The Indian Army: Garrison of British Imperial India, 1822-1922 . London: David & Charles, 1974.

Helly, Dorothy O., and Susan M. Reverby, eds. Gendered Domains: Rethinking Public and Private in Women's History . Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1992.

Hembry, Phyllis. The English Spa 1560-1815 . Rutherford, N.J.: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1990.

Hockings, Paul. A Bibliography for the Nilgiri Hills of Southern India . Rev. ed. 2 vols. New Haven: Human Relations Area Files, 1978.

———. "British Society in the Company, Crown and Congress Eras." In Blue Mountains: The Ethnography and Biogeography of a South Indian Region , ed. Paul Hockings, 334-59. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1989.

———. "John Sullivan of Ootacamund." In Journal of Indian History Golden Jubilee Volume , ed. T. K. Ravindran, 863-71. Trivandrum: University of Kerala, 1973.

———. "Tourism and English National Identity: Corkaquiney and the Nilgiris." In Dimensions of Social Life , ed. Paul Hockings, 633-51. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 1987.

Hutchins, Francis G. The Illusion of Permanence: British Imperialism in India . Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1967.

Hyam, Ronald. Empire and Sexuality: The British Experience . Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1990.

Hyde, H. Montgomery. Simla and the Simla Hill States under British Protection 1815-1835 . Lahore: University of the Panjab, 1961.


Inden, Ronald. "Orientalist Constructions of India." Modern Asian Studies 20, no. 3 (July 1986): 401-46.

Irving, Robert Grant. Indian Summer: Lutyens, Baker, and Imperial Delhi . New Haven: Yale University Press, 1981.

Kalyanasundaram, M. S. Indian Hill Stations . Madras: Tamil Pathakalayam, 1961.

Kanwar, Pamela. "The Changing Image of Simla." Urban History Association Occasional Papers Series 10, 1989.

———. "The Changing Profile of the Summer Capital of British India: Simla 1864-1947." Modern Asian Studies 18, no. 2 (1984): 215-36.

———. Imperial Simla . Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1990.

Keay, John. When Men and Mountains Meet: The Explorers of the Western Himalayas 1820-75 . London: John Murray, 1977.

Keenan, Brigid. Travels in Kashmir: A Popular History of Its People, Places and Crafts . Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1989.

Kelley, Theresa M. Wordsworth's Revisionary Aesthetics . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

Kennedy, Dane. "The Perils of the Midday Sun: Climatic Anxieties in the Colonial Tropics." In Imperialism and the Natural World , ed. John M. MacKenzie, 118-40. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1990.

Kenny, Judith Theresa. "Constructing an Imperial Hill Station: The Representation of British Authority in Ootacamund." Ph.D. diss., Syracuse University, 1990.

Kincaid, Dennis. British Social Life in India 1608-1937 . London: George Routledge & Sons, 1938.

King, Anthony D. The Bungalow: The Production of a Global Culture . London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1984.

———. Colonial Urban Development: Culture, Social Power and Environment . London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1976.

———. "Culture, Social Power and Environment: The Hill Station in Colonial Urban Development." Social Action 26, no. 3 (July-Sept. 1976): 195-213.

Kupperman, Karen Ordahl. "Fear of Hot Climates in the Anglo-American Colonial Experience." William and Mary Quarterly , 3d ser., 41 (April 1984): 213-40.

Lee-Warner, Sir William. The Life of the Marquis of Dalhousie . 2 vols. London: Macmillan, 1904.

Lind, Mary Ann. The Compassionate Memsahibs: Welfare Activities of British Women in India, 1900-1947 . New York: Greenwood Press, 1988.

Livingstone, David N. "Human Acclimatization: Perspectives on a Contested Field of Inquiry in Science, Medicine and Geography." History of Science 25 (1987): 359-94.

Lunt, James. "Simla: The British in India." History Today 18, no. 9 (Sept. 1968): 599-605.

MacKenzie, John M. The Empire of Nature: Hunting, Conservation and British Imperialism . Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1988.

Macleod, Roy, and Milton Lewis, eds. Disease, Medicine, and Empire: Perspectives on Western Medicine and the Experience of European Expansion . London: Routledge, 1988.

MacMillan, Margaret. Women of the Raj . London: Thames & Hudson, 1988.


Mahajan, Jagmohan. Picturesque India: Sketches and Travels of Thomas and William Daniell . New Delhi: Lustre Press, 1983.

Mandelbaum, David G. "Culture Change among the Nilgiri Tribes." In Beyond the Frontier: Social Process and Culture Change , ed. Paul Bohannan and Fred Plog, 199-208. Garden City, N.Y.: Natural History Press, 1967.

Mann, Thomas. The Magic Mountain . Trans. H.-T. Lowe-Porter. New York: Knopf, 1946.

Marshall, P.J. "British Immigration into India in the Nineteenth Century." In European Expansion and Migration: Essays on the International Migration from Africa, Asia, and Europe , ed. P. C. Emmer and M. Morner, 179-96. New York: Berg, 1992.

———. "The Whites of British India, 1780-1830: A Failed Colonial Society?" International History Review 12, no. 1 (Feb. 1990): 26-44.

Mason, Philip. A Matter of Honor . New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1974.

Metcalf, Thomas R. The Aftermath of Revolt: India 1857-1870 . Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1964.

———. An Imperial Vision: Indian Architecture and Britain's Raj . Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989.

Mitchell, Nora. "The Indian Hill-Station: Kodaikanal." University of Chicago Department of Geography Research Paper 141, 1972.

Mitchell, W.J.T. "Imperial Landscape." In Landscape and Power , ed. W.J.T. Mitchell, 5-34. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994.

Moore-Gilbert, B. J. Kipling and "Orientalism ." London: Croom Helm, 1986.

Morris, Jan, with Simon Winchester. Stones of Empire: The Buildings of the Raj . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983.

Morris, John. Living with Lepchas . London: Heinemann, 1938.

Mukherjee, Bharati. The Tiger's Daughter . New York: Fawcett Crest, 1971.

Nicolson, Marjorie Hope. Mountain Gloom and Mountain Glory: The Development of an Aesthetics of the Infinite . Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1959.

Nightingale, Florence. Cassandra . Reprint, New York: Feminist Press, 1979.

Oldenburg, Veena Talwar. The Making of Colonial Lucknow 1856-1877 . Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1989.

Ollman, Arthur. Samuel Bourne: Images of India . Carmel, Calif.: Friends of Photography, 1983.

Ousby, Ian. The Englishman's England: Taste, Travel and the Rise of Tourism . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Pakenham, Simona. Cheltenham . London: Macmillan, 1971.

Pal, Pratapaditya, and Vidya Dehejia. From Merchants to Emperors: British Artists and India 1757-1930 . Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1986.

Panikar, K. M. The Himalayas in Indian Life . Bombay: Bharatiya Bhavan, 1963.

Panter-Downes, Mollie. Ooty Preserved: A Victorian Hill Station in India . New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1967.

Pearson, R. Eastern Interlude: A Social History of the European Community in Calcutta . Calcutta: Thacker, Spink, 1933.

Pemble, John. The Mediterranean Passion: Victorians and Edwardians in the South . Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1987.


Pick, Daniel. Faces of Degeneration: A European Disorder, c. 1848-1918 . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

Pieper, Jan. Die Anglo-Indische Station oder die Kolonialisierung des Götterberges . Bonn: Rudolf Habelt Verlag, 1977.

Pinney, Christopher. "Classification and Fantasy in the Photographic Construction of Caste and Tribe." Visual Anthropology 3 (1990): 259-88.

Prest, John. The Garden of Eden: The Botanic Garden and the Re-creation of Paradise . New Haven: Yale University Press, 1981.

Pubby, Vipin. Simla Then and Now: Summer Capital of the Raj . New Delhi: Indus, 1988.

Ramusack, Barbara N. "Cultural Missionaries, Maternal Imperialists, Feminist Allies: British Women Activists in India, 1865-1945." Women's Studies International Forum 13, no. 4 (1990): 309-21.

Rawat, A. S. "Henry Ramsay: The Uncrowned King of Kumaon." In Himalaya Frontier in Historical Perspective , ed. N. R. Ray, 184-89. Calcutta: Institute of Historical Studies, 1986.

Reed, Robert R. "City of Pines: The Origins of Baguio as a Colonial Hill Station and Regional Capital." Center for South and Southeast Asia Studies Research Monograph 13, Berkeley, Calif., 1976.

———. "The Colonial Genesis of Hill Stations: The Genting Exception." Geographical Review 69, no. 4 (Oct. 1979): 463-68.

———. "Remarks on the Colonial Genesis of the Hill Station in Southeast Asia with Particular Reference to the Cities of Buitenzorg (Bogor) and Baguio." Asian Profile 4, no. 6 (Dec. 1976): 545-91.

Renford, Raymond K. The Non-official British in India to 1920 . Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1987.

Riddy, John. "Some Official British Attitudes towards European Settlement and Colonization in India up to 1865." In Essays in Indian History , ed. Donovan Williams and E. Daniel Ports, 17-41. London: Asia Publishing House, 1973,

Rivers, W. H. R. The Todas . London: Macmillan, 1906.

Rooksby, R. L. "W.H.R. Rivers and the Todas." South Asia 1 (Aug. 1971): 109-21.

Rosaldo, Renato. "Imperialist Nostalgia." Representations 26 (spring 1989): 107-22.

Saha, K. D. "The Study of Community-wide Distribution and the Growth of Population in Shillong." In Cultural Profile of Shillong , ed. B. B. Goswami, 4-31. Calcutta: Anthropological Survey of India, 1979.

Said, Edward W. Orientalism . New York: Vintage, 1979.

Savage, Victor R. Western Impressions of Nature and Landscape in Southeast Asia . Singapore: Singapore University Press, 1984.

Schmiechen, James A. "The Victorians, the Historians, and the Idea of Modernism." American Historical Review 93, no. 2 (April 1988): 287-316.

Sen, Jahar. Darjeeling: A Favoured Retreat . New Delhi: Indus, 1989.

Senftleben, W. "Some Aspects of the Indian Hill Stations: A Contribution towards a Geography of Tourist Traffic." Philippine Geographical Journal 17, no. 1 (Jan.-March 1973): 21-29.

Showalter, Elaine. The Female Malady: Women, Madness, and English Culture, 1830-1980 . New York: Penguin, 1985.


Singh, Amar Kaur Jasbir. Himalayan Triangle: A Historical Survey of British India's Relations with Tibet, Sikkim and Bhutan 1765-1910 . London: British Library, 1988.

Spangenberg, Bradford. British Bureaucracy in India: Status, Policy and the I.C.S. in the Late 19th Century . New Delhi: Manohar Books, 1976.

Spear, Percival. The Nabobs . 1963. Reprint, Calcutta: Rupa, 1991.

Spencer, J. E., and W. L. Thomas. "The Hill Stations and Summer Resorts of the Orient." Geographical Review 38 , no. 4 (Oct. 1948): 637-51.

Stanford, J. K. Ladies in the Sun: The Memsahib's India 1790-1860 . London: Gallery Press, 1962.

Stoler, Ann Laura. "Making Empire Respectable: The Politics of Race and Sexual Morality in 20th-Century Colonial Cultures." American Ethnologist 16, no. 4 (Nov. 1989): 634-59.

———. "Rethinking Colonial Categories: European Communities and the Boundaries of Rule." Comparative Studies in Society and History 13, no. 1 (1989): 134-61.

Strobel, Margaret. European Women and the Second British Empire . Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991.

Subba, Tanka B. Dynamics of a Hill Society . Delhi: Mittal, 1989.

Swanson, Maynard W. "The Sanitation Syndrome: Bubonic Plague and Urban Native Policy in the Cape Colony, 1900-1909." Journal of African History 18, no. 3 (1977): 387-410.

Symonds, Richard. "Eurasians under British Rule." In Oxford University Papers on India , vol. 1, pt. 2, 28-42. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1987.

Tanna, Kaku J. Plantations in the Nilgiris: A Synoptic History . N.p., c. 1969.

Tarapor, Mahrukh. "John Lockwood Kipling and British Art Education in India." Victorian Studies 24, no. 1 (autumn 1980): 53-81.

Thakur, R. N. Himalayan Lepchas . New Delhi: Archives Publishers, 1988.

Tinker, Hugh. The Foundations of Local Self-Government in India, Pakistan and Burma . New York: Praeger, 1968.

Trevelyan, Raleigh. The Golden Oriole . New York: Viking, 1987.

Tucker, Richard P. "The British Colonial System and the Forests of the Western Himalayas, 1815-1914." In Global Deforestation and the Nineteenth-Century World Economy , ed. Richard P. Tucker and J. F. Richards, 146-66. Durham: Duke University Press, 1983.

———. "The British Empire and India's Forest Resources: The Timberlands of Assam and Kumaon, 1914-1950." In World Deforestation in the Twentieth Century , ed. John F. Richards and Richard P. Tucker, 91-111. Durham: Duke University Press, 1988.

———. "The Depletion of India's Forests under British Imperialism: Planters, Foresters, and Peasants in Assam and Kerala." In The Ends of the Earth: Perspectives on Modern Environmental History , ed. Donald Worster, 118-40. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

Tyagi, Nutan. Hill Resorts of U.P. Himalaya: A Geographical Study . New Delhi: Indus, 1991.

Walker, Anthony R. The Toda of South India: A New Look . Delhi: Hindustan, 1986.


———. "Toda Society between Tradition and Modernity." In Blue Mountains: The Ethnography and Biogeography of a South Indian Region , ed. Paul Hockings, 186-205 (Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1989).

Waller, P. J. Town, City, and Nation: England 1850-1914 . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983.

Ware, Vron. Beyond the Pale: White Women, Racism and History . London: Verso, 1992.

Westlake, Graeme D. An Introduction to the Hill Stations of India . New Delhi: Indus, 1993.

Woodruff, Philip [pseud. for Philip Mason]. The Men Who Ruled India . Vol. l: The Founders . Vol. 2: The Guardians . Reprint, New York: Schocken, 1964.

Wright, Gillian. The Hill Stations of India . Lincolnwood, Ill.: Passport Books, 1991.

Wyckoff, Charlotte Chandler. Kodaikanal: 1845-1945 . Nagercoil, Travancore: London Mission Press, 1945.

Yalland, Zoe. Traders and Nabobs: The British in Cawnpore 1765-1857 . Salisbury, Wiltshire: Michael Joseph, 1987.

Yule, Col. Henry, and A. C. Burnell. Hobson-Jobson . New ed. 1886. Reprint, Delhi: Rupa, 1989.



Preferred Citation: Kennedy, Dane. The Magic Mountains: Hill Stations and the British Raj. Berkeley:  University of California Press,  c1996 1996.