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Appendix C
Instrumentation Accompanying Healing Rituals in Central and Southern Africa

Initial names refer to ethnic entities; numbers in parentheses refer to Guthrie's linguistic groupings shown on map C.1 and related maps in appendices A and B; names in quotation marks refer to therapeutic ritual or association, or name cited in text; vocal arrangement and instrumental combination are in order of type: idiophone, membrophone, aerophone, and chordophone. Sources are given at end of entry.


Mongo-Ekonda (C.61a) "Elima": voice + bokwasa rasp/ elepo rattles/ whistle/ lokombe zither
(IMNZ [Institute des Musées Nationaux du Zaire] recording 75.3.3/1 by Boilo)

Mongo-Ekonda (C.61a) "Elima": voice + bokwasa rasp/ bell/ elepo rattles/ whistle/ lokombe zither
(IMNZ recording 75.3.7/1 by Boilo)

Mongo-Ekonda (C.61a) "Elima": voice + ingengele bell/ bokwasa rasp/ ilongo kettle drum
(IMNZ recording, 75.3.8/1 by Boilo)

Ntomba (Kinshasa) (C.35a) "Elima": voice (1 female healer, 2 female novices) + 4 rasps/ ilongo kettle drum
(IMNZ recording, 75.7.2/3 by Ludiongo)

Mongo-Ngelentandu (C.61a) "Zebola": voice + bell/ double gong/ drum
(IMNZ recording, 75.3.11/1 by Boilo)

Mongo-Nkundo (C.61b ) "Nzondo": voice + bakwasa rasp/ ilongo kettle drum
(IMNZ recording 75.3.15/6 Boilo)


Mongo-Batwa (C.60) "Nzondo" (Ilako): choir
(IMNZ recording 76.3.20/2 by Boilo)

Mongo (C.60) "Bongita": 2 soloists + choir + rattles
(IMNZ recording 75.6.1/4 by Quersin and Esole)

Tetela (C.71) "Wetsi": 1 male/ 2 females + 2 diwolo calabash rattles/ lokombe trapezoid drum
(IMNZ recording 75.8.7/3 by Quersin and Esole)

Tetela (C.71) "heating song": 2 females/ choir
(IMNZ recording 75.8.7/5 by Quersin and Esole)


Mongo-Bagandu (C.63) "Nkanga": 2 soloists/ 5 healers/ choir + 3 isanga rattles/ elonza bell/ mopati horn
(IMNZ recording 74.6.5/2 by Quersin)

Mongo-Bagandu (C.63) "Nkanga": vocal/ handclapping + isanga rattles
(IMNZ recording 74.6.7/1 by Quersin)

Boyela-Malemadja (C.74) "Wetsi W'okonda" (Balimo): 1 female + 2 males + choir + elanja gong/ isanga rattles/ ifange horn
(IMNZ recording 74.6.23/3 by Quersin)

Boyela-Makandja (C.74) "Wetsi W'okonda" (Balimo): 1 female/ 1 male/ choir + boyende rattles/ elondja gong/ lokombe trapezoid drum/ basuli sticks
(IMNZ recording 74.6.16/4 by Quersin)

Boyela-Makandja (C.74) "Wetsi W'okonda" (Balimo): 3 females/ female choir + rattles + ilonja gong + nkombe drum + ifonge horn
(IMNZ recording 74.6.23/5 by Quersin)

Boyela-Makandja (C.74) "Ekata" "Licit": 3 females/ choir/ handclapping + bell/ rattles/ trapezoid drum/ 2 membrane drums/ ifonge horn
(IMNZ recording 74.6.25/1 by Quersin)

Boyela-Makandja (C.74) "Licit": 1 female/ choir + ifonge horn
(IMNZ recording 74.6.19/3 by Quersin)

Boyela-Makandja (C.74) "Wetsi W'okenda": 2 females/ female choir + isanga rattles/ nkombe trapezoid drum
(IMNZ recording 74.6.30/2 by Quersin)

Ngbaka-Mabo (C.45) "Nzombo": vocal solo/ 30-voice choir
(IMNZ recording 75.6.32/1 by Quersin and Esole)

Budja (C.37) "music of healing": 4 males + 1 sanza hand piano/ 2 rattles
(IMNZ recording 75.6.56b /6 and 7)

Eastern Zaire

Warega (D.25) "Butii ": adult male choir + large drum/ small drum/ percussion stick
(IMNZ recording 74.14.6/6 by Kishilo)

Southern Savanna

Lunda-Tshokwe (K.11) "song of healing": I female soloist/ choir + lubemb double gong/ ngom drum/ kakakasj drum sticks
(IMNZ recording 75.2.13/4 by Gansemans)

Lunda (L.52) "healing songs": 4 females
(IMNZ recording 75.2.14/6 and 15/1 by Gansemans)

Pende (L.11) "Ngombo" divination: 1 female + dimba xylophone
(IMNZ recording 80.2.2/43 by Malutshi)

Pende (L.11) "Hamba": female vocal + ngoma drum
(IMNZ recording 80.2.2/34–42 by Malutshi)


Yaka (H.31) "divination": diviner/ assistant/ choir + nkoko trapezoid drum/ ngoma drum
(IMNZ recordings 74.4.2/13 and 74.16.4/5)

Luvale (K.14) "Hamba": female vocal/ choir + ngoma drums (Spring 1978)

Ndembu (L.52) "drums of affliction": solo/ choir + ngoma drums (Turner 1968)


Woyo (H.14) "divination song": female and mate vocal + ngondji double gong/ binthakidi rattles/ 2 ngoma-ngoma trapezoid drums/ pitu whistles
(IMNZ recording 81.2.9/3 by Quersin)

Woyo (H.14) "Nkazi Mbumba Maveko" nkisi song: female and male vocal + tshingoma trapezoid drum
(IMNZ recording 81.2.5/1 by Quersin)

Woyo (H.14) "Malembe Nyenda Kwamiye Lali" nkisi song: female vocal/handclapping
(IMNZ recording 80.1.1/11 by Quersin)

Kongo-Mpangu (H.16g) "Nkita": 8 females + rattles/ 2 ngoongi double gongs/ moondo single membrane drum
(Ciparisse 1972)

East Africa

Sukuma (Dar es Salaam) (F.20) "Mungano": solo/ choir + ngoma drums

Matumbe (Dar es Salaam) (P.13) "Manianga": solo/ choir + shakers/ ngoma drum

Matumbe (Dar es Salaam) (P.13) "Mbungi": vocal + wood gongs/ 5 ngoma drums

Zigua (Dar es Salaam) (G.31) "Maruhani": vocal + shakers/ 5 double membrane drums

Zigua (Dar es Salaam) (G.31) "Msagbiro": vocal + shakers

Southeast Africa

Zezuru (S.12): vocal + mbira hand pianos/ rattles/ ngoma drums
(Fry 1976:118)

Taabwa (M.41) "Lumbu": vocal choir + rattles/ 2 ngoma drums
(Roberts 1988:fig. 2)

Shona (S.10) "Bira dza vadzimu ": vocal + mbira hand pianos with gourd resonators
(Berliner 1981)


Southern Africa

Venda (S.21) "ngoma dza vadzimu ": soloist/ choir + shaker/ ngoma drums
(Blacking 1973)

Swazi (S.43) "sangoma": soloists/ choir + tigomene metal and membrane drums

Western Cape (S.40 and 50) "amagqira ": soloists/ choir + metal and membrane drum


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