Preferred Citation: Bak, János M., editor Coronations: Medieval and Early Modern Monarchic Ritual. Berkeley:  University of California Press,  c1990 1990.


Twelve The Origins and Descent of the Fourth Recension of the English Coronation

This study came about as a result of a reenactment of the coronation of Henry V, organized, edited, and musically directed by me, and produced as authentically as possible by the Poculi Ludique Societas and the Medieval Music Group of the University of Toronto. A shortened version of the production was videotaped in color for distribution by the media center of the university. I should like to thank all those who made that reenactment possible. In particular I should like to remember gratefully John Brückmann, who generously loaned me many films for long periods and willingly gave much of his time advising me.

For permission to publish the facsimiles, I should like to acknowledge the Bodleian Library (fig. 12.3) the Dean and Chapter of Westminster Abbey (fig. 12.1) and the Master and Fellows of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge (fig. 12.2).

1. A companion article entitled "Antiphons and Acclamations: The Politics of Music in the Coronation Service of Edward II, 1308," The Journal of Musicology 6 (1988): 150-68, documents and exemplifies the discussion summarized in the following paragraphs. A third article, "The Music of the Late Medieval English Coronation Ceremonies," for which a place of publication has yet to be found, deals with general matters of musical style and performance of the chants in the coronation, including those discussed in the remainder of the present study.

2. H. Pirenne, A History of Europe , trans. B. Miall (Garden City, N.Y.: 1958) 2:85, 90.

3. J. Brückmann, "English Coronations, 1216-1308: The Edition of the Coronation Ordines," doctoral dissertation, Toronto 1964, table XIV (following p. 384).

4. Compare the groupings in H. G. Richardson and G. O. Sayles, "Early Coronation Records," Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research 13 (1935-1936), 129-45 and 14 (1936-1937), 1-9, 145-148, and in P. E. Schramm, "Ordines-Studien III: Die Krönung in England vom 10. Jh. bis zur Neuzeit," Archiv für Urkundenforschung 15 (1938): 305-91 and 16 (1939): 279-286.

5. H. G. Richardson, "The Coronation of Edward II," Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research 16 (1938-1939), 7, 11; Brückmann, "English Coronations," 335-337.

6. Brückmann, as above, 337-339.

7. L. B. Wilkinson, "Notes on the Coronations Records of the Fourteenth Century," English Historical Review 70 (1955): 581-600, here 591-592.

8. Ibid.

9. J. Wickham Legg, ed., Missale ad usum ecclesie Westmonasteriensis , 3 vols. (London, 1891-97; Henry Bradshaw Soc. 1, 5, 12), here: addendum preceding vol. 3, describing the Accompt roll of 1384 which lists charges incurred for preparing Lytlington's Missal. Cf. Richardson and Sayles, "Early Coronation," 138-139.

10. T. A Sandquist, "English Coronations," doctoral dissertation, Toronto 1962, 7-10.

11. P. E. Schramm, A History of the English Coronation , trans. L. G. Wickham Legg (Oxford, 1937), 80.

12. Schramm, "Ordines-Studien," 345.

13. Personal communication.

14. Wilkinson, "Notes," 591, 596.

15. See my "Music . . .," as in n. 1, above.

16. M. Andrieu, Le pontifical romain au moyen-âge , 4 vols. (Vatican City, 1938-1941, Studi e testi, 86-88, 99), here: 2:367 and 3:391; H. A. Wilson, ed., The Pontifical of Magdalen College (London, 1910; Henry Bradshaw Soc. 39), 89; here 249 and 251.

17. W. H. Frere, ed., The Winchester Troper (London, 1894; Henry Bradshaw Soc. 8), f. 53v in the manuscript.

18. MS 4 of table 1, f. 67; L. G. Wickham Legg, Three Coronation Orders (London, 1900; Henry Bradshaw Soc. 19), 163-164.

19. Wilson, Pontifical , 89.

20. The Ms Harley 561 (MS k of table 2, a fifteenth-century copy of the Fourth Recension which has a very peculiar position in the transmission of the music) gives a chant different from either English version and from that in fifteenth-century French sources.

21. MS 5 of table 12.1, p. 279; Legg, Three , 53; MS 3 of table 1, p. 138; L. G. Wickham Legg, English Coronation Records (Westminster, 1901), 15 (with chorus for clerus ).

22. Brückmann, "English Coronations," 457.

23. MS f on table 12.2, f. 196v; MS e of table 12.2, f. 97, gives hec for hanc .

24. MS b of table 12.2, f. 62.

25. MSS c and d of table 12.2, f. 64 and p. 402 respectively.

26. W. G. Henderson, ed., Liber Pontificalis Chr. Bainbridge (Durham, 1875; Surtees Soc. 61), 270; Legg, English , 15; Legg, Three , 53; Brückmann, "English Coronations," 412.

27. Legg, English , 86-87.

28. . . . capella regia solemniter decantat sequens responsorium . . . "Ecce mitto" . . . Introeuntibus autem illis in ecclesiam usque ad introitum chori cantet predicta capella hanc antiphonam "Domine in virtute ," see D. H. Turner's note on music in W. Ullmann, ed., Liber regie capelle (London, 1961; Henry Bradshaw Soc. 92), 50.

29. See F. Ll. Harrison, Music in Medieval Britain (London, 1958), 244.

30. C. Marbach, ed. Carmina scripturarum (Strassburg, 1907; repr. Hildesheim 1963), 371; Andrieu, Le pontifical 2:386, 3:427.

31. Ullmann, Liber , 26-27.

32. Andrew Hughes, Medieval Manuscripts for Mass and Office: A Guide to their Organization and Terminology (Toronto 1982), 86.

33. I refer only to the source with music, the Magdalen Pontifical (as n. 16 above), MS 6 of table 12.1. The Second Recension Order with music does not give the Alleluya; this may provide a clue about the coronation for which the Magdalen Pontifical was used.

34. See above, n. 32.

35. Antiphonaire monastique, XIII e siècle, Codex F. 160 de la Bibl. de la cathédrale de Worcester (Tournai, 1922, Paléographie musicale, I:12), pl. 201.

36. E. H. Kantorowicz, Laudes Regiae. A Study in Liturgical Acclamations and Medieval Ruler Worship (with a Study of the Music of the Laudes and Musical Transcriptions by M. F. Bukofzer) (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1946), passim.

37. Ibid., 101, 174, 180.

38. I. Bent, "The English Chapel Royal Before 1300," Proc. of the Royal Musical Association 90 (1983-1984), 77-95, here 89.

39. Legg, English , 69-76.

40. See B. Stäblein, "Prefätion," Die Musik in Geschichte and Gegenwart ; P. Wanger, Einführung in die gregorianische Melodien , Gregorianische Formenlehre (Leipzig 1921; repr. Hildesheim, 1970) 3:69-82; F. H. Dickinson, ed. Missale ad usum . . . ecclesie Sarum (Oxford, 1861-1883), 597-610.

41. W. J. Birkbeck, in Legg, Miss. Westmon . 3:1401.

42. Ibid.

43. Henderson, Liber , 98, 118, 130, 144, 161.

44. Hoc modo incipiantur omnes Prefationes ad missam per totum annum tam in feriis quam in festis , Dickinson, Missale . . . Sarum , 607.

45. MS i in table 12.2, f. 1-1; MS j f. 18v-19; MS f f. 204v-5 (or 205v-6).

46. Brückmann, "English Coronations," 160.

47. Psalm 44, Eructavit cor meum , contains almost as many regal references as Psalm 20 and provides texts for parts of the service.

48. Brückmann, "English Coronations," 384.

49. See, for example, the differentia of Unxerunt , the melody of Firmetur at exal-, prece- , and Alle- , and numerous melodic and textual variants in the responses of the coronation Preface, and in the same Preface variants at Electorum, fortitudo, redditam, iterumque, predixisti, ut per, et exempla, tuamque, benedictione. habere facias.

50. Not just MS b , as Brückmann states.

51. MS a stands alone in the differentia and flexa of Firmetur , in the gradual at sicut incensum and Elevatio , and in the coronation Preface at Deo nostro and Dignum et justum .

52. MS e stands alone in omitting the choral responses in the coronation Preface and at et humilium, diluvi , and David vocem in the same item; MS f stands alone in the coronation Preface at servicio, imitari, adiuvante , and exhill- .

53. Many of the variants in n. 49, as well as linking MS g with a, b, c , and d , may be used to demonstrate the unanimity of e, f, h, i, j , and k .

54. Brückmann, "English Coronations," 337-9.

55. Some evidence on these matters is assembled in Bent, "Chapel Royal", Kantorowicz, Laudes (esp. Bukofzer's Study), 98, and elsewhere; Sandquist, "English coronations," 56, 307; Ullmann, Liber , esp. in Turner's appendix.

56. Other citations of interest but not used for anything specific are as follows: Bailey, Terence The Processions of Sarum and the Western Church , (Toronto, Pontifical Institute of Medieval Studies 1971 Studies and Texts, 21).

Brückmann, John, "Latin Manuscript Pontificals and Benedictionals in England and Wales," Traditio 29 (1973): 391-458.

Doble, G. H., ed., Pontificale Lanalet , (London, 1937 Henry Bradshaw Society 74).

Frere, Walter H., ed., The Use of Sarum , 2 vols. (Cambridge, 1898, 1901; reprint 1969).

———, ed., Antiphonale Sarisburiense (London: 1901-1924; reprint 1966).

Greenwell, W., ed., The Pontifical of Egbert, Archbishop of York , (Durham, 1853 Surtees Society 27).

Hesbert, René-Jean, "Les manuscrits liturgiques de l'église de Rouen," Bulletin Philologique et Historique (1955-1956): 441-483.

———, Corpus antiphonalium officii , 4 vols., Rerum Ecclesiasticarum Documenta, ser. major, Fontes 7, 8, 9, 10 (Rome, 1963, 1965, 1968, 1970).

Leroquais, Victor, Les pontificaux manuscrits des bibliothèques publiques de France , 4 vols. (Paris, 1937).

Maskell, William, ed., Monumenta ritualia ecclesie Anglicanae , 3 vols. (London, 1846, 1847).

Richardson, H. G., "The Coronation of Edward I," Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research 15 (1937-1938): 94-99.

Turner, Derek H., ed., The Claudius Pontificals , Henry Bradshaw Society 97 (London, 1971).

Vogel, Cyrille, and Reinhard E'ze, eds., Le Pontifical romano-germanique du dixième siècle , 2 vols., (Vatican City, 1963 Studi e Testi 226, 227).

Wordsworth, Christopher, Salisbury Ceremonies and Processions (Cambridge, 1901).


Preferred Citation: Bak, János M., editor Coronations: Medieval and Early Modern Monarchic Ritual. Berkeley:  University of California Press,  c1990 1990.