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Nine Gesture in the Coronation Ceremonies of Medieval Poland

1. M. Joysse, L'Anthropologie du geste (Paris, 1962); R. Brillant, Gesture and Rank in Roman Art: The Use of Gestures to Denote Status in Roman Sculpture and Coinage (Copenhagen, 1963); G. Neumann, Gesten und Gebärden in der griechischen Kunst (Berlin, 1966); G. Durand, Les structures anthropologiques de l'imaginaire (Paris, 1969); La Communication par le geste. Actes des sessions organisées par la recherche du sacré à l'Abresle 1965-1968 (Paris, 1970); Gestes et paroles dans les diverses familles liturgiques. Conférences Saint-Serge, XXIV e semaine d'études liturgiques (Rome, 1978, Bibliotheca Ephemerides liturgicae, Subsidia 14). [BACK]

2. See, e.g., P. E. Schramm, A History of English Coronation , trans. L. G. Wickham Legg (Oxford, 1937); P. E. Schramm, Herrschaftszeichen und Staatssymbolik , 3 vols. (Stuttgart, 1954-1956); P. E. Schramm, Der König von Frankreich . . ., 2d ed. (Weimar, 1960). See also: C. A. Bouman, Sacring and Crowning . . . (Groningen, 1957); R. A. Jackson, Vive le roi! A History of French Coronation from Charles V to Charles X (Chapel Hill and London: University of North Carolina Press, 1984); H. D. Duncan, Symbols in Society (London, 1962); A. M. Hocart, Kingship (Oxford, 1927; reprinted 1969). [BACK]

3. A. Gieysztor, "Non habemus caesarem nisi regem. La couronne fermée des rois de Pologne à la fin du XV e et au XVI e siècle," Bibliothèque de l'Ecole des chartes (1969) 127:5-26; "Spektakl i liturgia--polska koronacja królewska [Spectacle and Liturgy: The Polish Royal Coronation]," in Kultura elitarna a kultura masowa w Polsce inline imageinline image (Wroclaw, 1978), 9-23; "Ornamenta regia w Polsce XV wieku [Royal Insignia in Fifteenth-century Poland]," in Sztuka i ideologia XV wieku (Warsaw, 1978), 155-163. [BACK]

4. S. Ktrzeba, ed., "Ordo coronandi Regis Poloniae," in Archiwum Komisji Akademia inline image (1910-1913), vol. 2; S. Ktrzeba, ed. "Zródla polskiego ceremonialu koronacyjnego [Sources of the Polish Coronation Ceremony]," Przeglad Historiczny (1911), 12:71-83, 285-307; cf. also his short overview Koronacja królów i królowych w Polsce [Coronation of Kings and Queens in Poland] (Warsaw 1918); Schramm, "Das polnische Königtum," in Herrschaftszeichen 3:939-962. The Cracow Cathedral MS 35 from the late fourteenth century contains a German ordo with the royal initial W[ladislas]. In the fifteenth century some additions were incorporated from the Durand Pontificale. The ordo in the Cracow MS 17, twice as long as the previous one, linked to the 1434 coronation of Wladislas III, is based on an ordo for the kings of Bohemia from the fourteenth century, which in turn goes back to English ceremonials with borrowings from the German ordo. The "ordo cornandae reginae,'' edited by Kutrzeba, mentioned above, and also in Corpus iuris Polonici , ed. O. Balzer (Warsaw, 1906), 3:208-212 has the same Bohemian-English parentage. [BACK]

5. Cf. Schramm, Herrschaftszeichen , 3:961. [BACK]

6. M. Bielski, Kronika polska , 1st ed. (1597, reprinted Sanok, 1856), 3:1207. [BACK]

7. E. Sniezynska-Stolot, "Dworski ceremonial pogrzebowy królów polskich w XIV. w. [Courtly Ceremonial at the Funeral of Polish Kings in the fourteenth-century]," in Sztuka i ideologia XV wieku (Warsaw, 1978), 89-110; cf. E. M. Hallam, "Royal Burial and the Cult of Kingship in France and England 1060-1330," Journal of Medieval History 8 (1982): 359-380. [BACK]

8. Cf. the ordo of 1434, of c. 1555(?), Kutrzeba, "Ordo," 162, 175. In Westminster Abbey "only an illustrious and select circle could get near" the ceremony, according to Schramm, English Coronation , 93. [BACK]

9. Cf. Kutrzeba, "Ordo," 175, 185; Jan inline image , "Historia," in Opera , ed. A. Przedziecki (Cracow 1873-1878) 13:546. From the sixteenth century to 1764 the king is said to be dressed in sandalis, tunica, chirotecis, amicto, alba, dalmatica et pallio seu cappa , according to Kutrzeba, "Ordo," 195. [BACK]

10. Ordines of 1434, 1530, and the ceremonial of 1764, Kutrzeba, "Ordo," 47, 162, 196. [BACK]

11. See the ordines and inline image , Opera 13:33. [BACK]

12. Gieysztor, "Spektakl," 16-17. [BACK]

13. Ibid., 17-18. [BACK]

14. In the ordo of 1540: Et rex accepto ense vibrat illum ; similarly in the ceremonial of 1764 (Kutrzeba, "Ordo," 204). This rite appears also in Wladisalas Jagiellonczyk's 1440 Hungarian coronation, see inline image , Opera 13:645. For the history of the regalia, see W. Eliasz Radzikowski, Korony królóv polskich [Crowns of Polish Kings] (Poznan, 1899); F. Kopera, Dzieje skarbca koronnego [History of the Crown Jewels] (Cracow, 1904); C. Estreicher, The Mystery of the Polish Crown Jewels (London, 1945); Schramm, Herrschaftszeichen 3:957, 986. [BACK]

15. The armilla in fashion of a stole made of cloth of gold to be put about the king's neck and fastened above and beneath the elbows with silk ribbons is still in use in England, but, like the stole of the kings of Poland, is not handled during the coronation act. [BACK]

16. Wladislas Jagiello organized in 1412 a solemn entry of the insignia (crown, orb, scepter, and sword) to Cracow after their return from Hungary where they had been since 1382; they were placed in St. Mary's, the main parish church of the city, on public display (inline image , Opera 13:144). This crown, sometimes called the corona privilegiata was supplemented in the sixteenth century with two crossed arches surmounted by orb and cross, symbolically underlining the new ideas of Polish sovereignty (Gieysztor, "Non habemus," 5-26). The crown was confiscated by the Prussians in 1795 and secretly melted down in 1811 (Estreicher, Mystery ). For the metaphorical and political significace of the crown, see J. inline image , "Die Krone des polnischen Königtums im 14. Jh. Eine Studie aus der Geschichte der Entwiclung der polnischen ständischen Monarchie," in Corona Regni: Studien über die Krone als Symbol des Staates im späteren Mittelalter , ed. M. Hellmann (Weimar, 1961), 399-548. [BACK]

17. The crucufix taken by John Casimir to Paris after his abdication can be still seen in the treasury of Notre Dame, the Holy-Cross reliquary altered in the early nineteenth century; a study by E. Dabrowska is in print. [BACK]

18. Knighting as the first royal act also seems to be one of the specific features of the Polish coronation with parallels only in Hungary, whence it may have been brought by Wladislas Jagiellonczyk. In England the king conferred knighthood at the Tower two nights before the coronation (Schramm, English Coronation , 93-95). [BACK]

19. If the king was married, his first act after the coronation was to attend the queen's crowning (Kutrzeba, "Ordines," 212-216), just as in England; see J. Wickham Legg, Three Coronation Orders , (London, 1900, H. Bradshaw Soc. 19), 62-63. [BACK]

20. For this aspect, see C. Deptula, "Problema mitu monarchy-dawcyz zywnosci w Polsce sredniowiecznej na przykladzie podania o Piascie [Problem of the Myth of a Food-providing Monarch in Medieval Poland on the Example of the Piast-legend]," Zeszyty Naukowe Kat. Univ. Lubelski 18, no. 3 (1975): 41-56; for a Dumézilian approach to sacred kingship cf. D. Dubuisson, "Le roi indo-européen et la synthèse des trois fonctions," Annales: ESC 33 (1978): 21-34. [BACK]

21. Opera 13:547. [BACK]

22. It was followed by a tournament in the main courtyard of Wavel Castle. As Schramm ( English Coronation , 90) observed, "Men of the late Middle Ages were brought up on courtly and knightly festivities no less than on ecclesiastical, for, there being no antithesis between the, two, the were complementary to one another and encouraged each other." [BACK]

23. "La prière de l'Eglise est ergon dont la dynamique propre et incressante durant la liturgie," Andronikoff, Gestes et paroles , 15. [BACK]

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