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Introduction Coronation Studies—Past, Present, and Future

1. In English usage the one word describing the placing of the royal headgear on the new ruler, "coronation," denotes the entire set of rites connected to the ascension to power; from the late Middle Ages the ceremonial beginning of a papal pontificate came also to be called coronatio. In France the anointment (sacre) acquired a central position. In German scholarship both terms Krönung and Weihe (consecration) are used. However, a proper definition of our interests should include many other symbolic events and gestures, such as the royal funeral preceding the new king's (or queen's, or pope's) inauguration, the different types of royal festivities, the rulers' entries into their capitals and other cities before and after the coronation, formal first acts of government (such as the lit de justice in France, the secular oath and knighting in Poland and Hungary, the general indulgence by a new pope), and so on. [BACK]

2. I very much regret two obvious gaps: Germany, that is, the medieval empire, and the kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula. There were plans for papers regarding both, but unfortunately the authors' other obligations prevented them from submitting these in time. Naturally, Byzantium must also be included if any claim to an overview should be valid, for the Greek imperial usage was most a powerful model, at least in the early Middle Ages. However, the extensive coverage of France reflects not only a special interest in French coronation studies both in that country and in North America but also the great number of challenging questions posed by the religion royale and its transformations. [BACK]

3. I add quotation marks because I feel that the vicissitudes of academic life in our hectic age are not exactly conducive to the development of master-pupil relations and schools in the classical sense. As a matter of fact few of the medievalist doctorandi and doctorandae of the leading scholars mentioned below remained in the field and continued their work, or if they did so, many of them departed from the path of their "fathers." [BACK]

4. For example, P. E. Schramm, Die deutschen Kaiser und Könige in Bildern ihrer Zeit , 1st ed. (Leipzig, 1928), last posthumous ed. by F. Müterich (Munich, 1983); E. H. Kantorowicz, "The 'King's Advent' and Enigmatic Panels in the Doors of S. Sabina," Art Bulletin 26 (1944): 207-231, reprinted in Selected Studies , ed. M. Cherniavsky and R. E. Giesey (Locust Valley, N.Y.: J. J. Augustin, 1965), 37-75; E. H. Kantorowicz, "The Carolingian King in the Bible of S. Paolo fuori le mura," reprinted in Selected Studies , 81-94; G. Ladner's books on the images of the popes, from I ritratti dei Papi nell'antichità e nel medioevo 1 (Vatican City, 1941) to Die Papstbildnisse des Altertums und des Mittelalters vol. 6 (Vatican City, 1984). The comparable studies for the Eastern Empire include such classics as A. Grabar, L'empereur dans l'art byzantin. Recherches sur l'art officiel de l'empire d'Orient (Paris, 1936, reprinted: London, 1971). The overview of the Slavic material, F. Kämpfer, Das russische Herrscherbild von den Anfängen bis Peter d. Gr.: Studien zur Entwicklung der politischen Ikonographie im byzantinishen Kulturkreis (Recklinghausen, 1978), with extensive literature, is, as far as I can see, the first attempt to apply modern semiotic analysis to this field (see pp. 17-102). [BACK]

5. G. Waitz, "Die Formeln der deutschen Königs- und der römischen Kaiserkrönung vom 10. bis zum 12. Jahrhundert," Abhandlungen der kgl. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen , 18 (1873). There was an earlier dissertation submitted to the University of Halle by Hermann Schreiber ("De ceremoniis conditionibusque, quibus . . . usi sunt") in 1870, but only a fifty-three page short excerpt (to Berengar, 915 A.D.) was published. Waitz was followed by Joseph Schwarzer in Forschungen zur deutschen Geschichte 22 (1882) covering the entire Middle Ages, but too superficially. On the studies of English coronation around the turn of the century, see Sturdy, in this volume; on the relevant French scholarship, see the bibliography in R. A. Jackson, Vive le Roi! A History of the French Coronations from Charles V to Charles X (Chapel Hill/London: University of North Carolina Press, 1984), 280-299. [BACK]

6. Relevant medieval texts include, among other works, the "Libellus de cerimoniis aule imperatoris," from the eleventh century, edited as part of the "Graphia auree urbis Roma," with commentary, in vol. 3, pp. 338-352 of Percy E. Schramm's Kaiser, Könige und Päpste: Gesammelte Abhandlungen , 4 vols. (Stuttgart, 1968-1971), henceforth referred to as KKP ; the allegorical interpretations of insignia by Honorius Augustodunensis ("Gemma animae," c. 224-225, Migne PL 172: 612), by Godfrey of Viterbo ("Pantheon,'' XXVI, MG SS 22: 272ff.), and by Sicardus of Cremona ("Mitrale,'' II, 6: De regalibus insignis, Migne PL 213: 82), and several others. That these are not reliable sources for the actual appearance of insignia or for events at a ceremony, but rather suggest something about the perception of all these, has been often pointed out; see, e.g., my "Der Reichsapfel," in Insignia Regni Hungariae (Budapest, 1986), 193f. The French tracts, beginning with the "Traité du sacre" of Jean Golein, ed. R. A. Jackson, Proc. of Am. Phil. Soc. 113 (1969), through the great seventeenth-century edition of ceremonial texts by the two Godefroys to the renewed discussion after the Restoration, are discussed and listed in Jackson, Vive le Roi . [BACK]

7. From his Table-Talk , quoted in J. L. Nelson, "Ritual and Reality in Early Medieval ordines," reprinted in her Politics and Ritual in Early Medieval Europe (London, 1986), 329. [BACK]

8. Referred to by E. Eichmann, Die Kaiserkrönung im Abendland: Ein Beitrag zur Geistesgeschichte des Mittelalalters , 2 vols. (Würzburg, 1942), vii. [BACK]

9. On the politics of scholarship in this era see E.-W. Beckenförde, Die deutsche verfassungsgeschichtliche Forschung im 19. Jahrhundert (Berlin, 1961), and also F. W. Maitland's "Introduction" to the selected English translation of Otto Gierke's Genossenschaftsrecht: Political Theories of the Middle Ages (Cambridge, 1900). [BACK]

10. G. von Below, Der deutsche Staat des Mittelalters , 2d ed (Leipzig, 1925), the first hundred pages of which summarize the controversial literature. [BACK]

11. P. E. Schramm, Herrschaftszeichen und Staatssymbolik. Beiträge zu ihrer Geschichte vom dritten bis zum sechtzehnten Jahrhundert , 3 vols, (Stuttgart, 1954-1956; MGH Schriften 13: 1-3) I, 1; quoted in English translation in J. M. Bak, "Medieval Symbology of the State: Percy E. Schramm's Contribution," Viator 4 (1973): 34. [BACK]

12. In regard to the political use of royal tradition int the last century, see now also D. Cannadine, "The Context, Performance and Meaning of Ritual: The British Monarchy and the 'Invention of Tradition', c. 1820-1977." In The Invention of Tradition , ed. E. Hobsbawm and T. Ranger (London, 1983); reprinted in an abbreviated form in Rites of Power: Symbolism, Ritual and Politics Since the Middle Ages , ed. S. Wilentz: (Philadelpia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1983). [BACK]

13. First published as Publications de la faculté des lettres de l'Université de Strasbourg vol. 19 (Strasbourg, 1924); reprinted Paris, 1961 and now also Paris, 1983, with a preface by J. Le Goff. An English translation was published only in 1973, transl. J. A. Anderson, The Royal Touch: Sacred Kingship and Scrofula in England and France (London, 1973). [BACK]

14. Ecclesiastical historians and students of sacred kingship have also contributed much to our knowledge of monarchical presentations, and so have researchers on Germanic, pre-Christian, and early medieval rulership. A few titles from the many: O. Höfler, Germanisches Sakralkönigtum (Tübingen, 1952); H. Wolfram, "Methodische Fragen zur Kritik am 'Sakralen' Königtum," in Festschrift O. Höfler (Vienna, 1968); J. M. Wallace-Hadrill, Early Germanic Kingship in England and the Continent (Oxford, 1971); W. A. Chaney, The Cult of Kingship in Anglo-Saxon England (Manchester, 1970); and the collective volumes, Das Königtum: Seine geistigen und rechtlichen Grundlagen. Mainau Voträge 1954 , ed. Th. Mayer (Vorträge und Forschungen 3, 1955; repr. Sigmaringen, 1973); R. Schneider, ed., Das spätmittelalterliche Königtum in europäischem Vergleich (Vort. u. Forsch. 32; Sigmaringen, 1986); The Sacral Kingship: Contributions to the VIIIth International Congress on the History of Religion (Leiden, 1959); Early Medieval Kingship , ed. P. H. Sawyer and I. N. Wood (Leeds, 1977); and so on. [BACK]

15. See KKP 2: 201ff.; referring to P. L. Ward., "The Coronation Ceremony in Medieval England," Speculum 24 (1939): 160-178. See also P. L. Ward, "An Early Version of the Anglo-Saxon Coronation Ceremony," English Historical Review 57 (1942): 345-361. Of course, Schramm could not fully accept Ward's findings, because these have essentially proven the weakness of his datings and filiations. [BACK]

16. See n. 11, above. Most of the "Ordines-studien" are now reprinted in KKP 2 and 3. A bibliography of Schramm's work (up to 1963, compiled by A. Ritter) is in the Festschrift Percy Ernst Schramm: zu seinem siebzigsten Geburtstag , ed. P. Classen and P. Scheibert, 2 vols. (Wiesbaden, 1964) 2: 291-321. The volumes of KKP contain a number of updating comments to earlier studies. [BACK]

17. See Viator 4 (1973): 59, with reference to related works by Treitinger, Deér, Dölger, and others. The landmark articles of A. Alföldi, with whom both Schramm and Kantorowicz held close friendship, on the late Antique models are now collected in his Die monarchische Repräsentation im römischen Kaiserreich (Darmstadt, 1970); on the transition period from antiquity to early Middle Ages and Byzantium see now M. McCormick, Eternal Victory (Cambridge, 1987) and the excellent overview, with extensive literature by J. L. Nelson, "Symbol in Context: Rulers' Inauguration Rituals in Byzantium and the West in the Early Middle Ages," reprinted in her Politics and Ritual , 259-282. Recently A. Cameron has done much in this field, see, e.g., "The Construction of Court Ritual: The Byzantine Book of Ceremonies," Rituals of Royalty: Power and Ceremonial in Traditional Societies , ed. D. Cannadine and S. Price (Cambridge, 1987), 106-136. [BACK]

18. See n. 8, above; a list of his works (most of which are in the field of law and church history) can be found in the Festschrift Eduard Eichmann zum 70. Geburtstag , ed. M. Grabmann and K. Hoffman (Paderborn, 1940), 685-687. [BACK]

19. Fritz Kern, Gottesgnadentum und Widerstandsrecht im frütheren Mittelalter (c. 1914; rev. ed. by R. Buchner, Münster, 1954; reprinted Darmstadt, 1962); partial English trans. by S. B. Chrimes, as pt. I of Kingship and Law in the Middle Ages (Oxford, 1939; reprinted New York: Harper & Row, 1956, 1970); Erdmann's works are reprinted in two posthumous collections: Forschungen zur politischen Ideenwelt des Frühumittelalters , ed. F. Baethgen (Berlin, 1951), with bibliography, and Ottonische Studien , ed. H. Beumann (Darmstadt, 1968); only his Origins of the Idea of Crusade is available in English, trans. M. M. Baldwin and W. Goffart (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1977). [BACK]

20. For example: M. Andrieu, Le pontifical romain au moyen âge , 6 vols. (Vatican City, 1938-1941, Studi e Testi, 86-88, 99); C. Vogel and R. Elze, Le pontifical Romano-Germanique du X e siècle, 3 vols. (Vatican City, 1963-1972, Studi e Testi, 226-227, 269); see also the titles in the notes to Schimmelpfennig's article in this volume. [BACK]

21. A bibliography of Ullmann's writings, 1940-1979, compiled by Peter Linehan, is in Authority and Power: Studies in Medieval Law and Goverment presented to Walter Ullmann on his Seventieth Birthday , ed. B. Trieney and P. Linehan (Cambridge, 1980), 225-274; the fullest statements of Ullmann's mature approach to coronation rituals are The Carolingian Renaissance and the Idea of Kingship (London, 1969), lecture IV; and Law and Politics in the Middle Ages (London, 1975), 207-208, 263-266. For a critical appreciation of some of his views, see F. Oakley, "Celestial Hierarchies Revisited: Walter Ullmann's Vision of Medieval Politics," Past & Present 60 (1975): 3-48; also J. L. Nelson, "The Lord's Anointed and the People's Choice: Carolingian Royal Ritual," in Cannadine and Price, Rituals , 137-180, esp. 144-149. [BACK]

22. An essential bibliography of Kantorowicz's work, complied by himself, is printed in his Selected Studies , xi-xiv; cf. also the biography by Eckhart Grünewald, Ernst Kantorowicz und Stefan George: Beiträge zur Biographie des Historikers bis zum Jahre 1938 und zu seinem Jugendwerk "Kaiser Friedrich der Zweite" (Wiesbaden, 1982) and the essay by Ralph Giesey, "Ernst Kantorowicz: Scholarly Triumphs and Academic Travails in Weimar Germany and the United States," Leo Baeck Institute Year Book 30 (1985): 191-202. [BACK]

23. Kaiser Friedrich der Zweite , 2 vols. (Berlin, 1927-1931), truncated English translation without the essential Ergänzungsband by E. O. Lorimer, Frederick the Second (London, 1931; reprinted 1957); same in French by A. Kohn (Paris, 1987) and the two Italian ones (by M. Offergeld-Merlo, Milan, 1976, and G. P. Colombo, Milan, 1976), although the last includes some notes from the volume of references. [BACK]

24. Laudes Regiae: A Study in Liturgical Acclamations and Medieval Ruler Worship with a Study of the Music of the Laudes and Musical Transcriptions by M. F. Bukofzer (Berkeley, Los Angeles, University of California Publications in History 33, 1946). [BACK]

25. The King's Two Bodies: A Study in Mediaeval Political Theology (Princeton University Press: Princeton, 1957; reprinted Princeton, 1966); a Spanish translation was published in 1985 in Madrid, a German in 1987 in Munich; an Italian (Milan, 1988) and a French version (Paris, 1988) have just appeared. [BACK]

26. The Royal Funeral Ceremony in Renaissance France (Geneva, 1960; reprinted 1984); in French as Le roi ne meurt jamais (Paris, 1987). See also now his Cérémonial et puissance souveraine: France, XV e -XVII e siècles (Paris, 1987). [BACK]

27. Sacring and Crowning. The Development of the Latin Ritual for the Anointing of Kings and the Coronation of the Emperor before the XIth Century (Groningen, 1951, Bijdragen van het Institutt voor Middeleuwse Geschiedenis der Rijksuniversitet te Utrecht 30). [BACK]

28. See above, n. 4. [BACK]

29. Most of his studies are now collected as Päpste, Kaiser, Könige und die mittelalterliche Herrschersymbolik , ed. L. Schmugge and B. Schimmelpfennig (London, 1982). Of course, his chef d'oeuvre, so far, is the edition of the imperial coronation ordines in MGH Font. iur. germ. ant. 9 (Hanover, 1960) containing the only complete corpus of such records for any medieval polity. [BACK]

30. "Is Politics Still the Backbone of History?," Daedalus 100 (1971): 1-19. The importance of ritual and symbology for political history is now nicely argued by D. Cannadine in his "Introduction: The Divine Rite of Kings," in Cannadine and Price, Ritual , 1-19, with extensive references to the parallel studies in anthropology. See also L. Bryant, The King and the City in the Parisian Royal Entry Ceremony (Geneva, 1986); Sarah Hanley, The Lit de Justice of the Kings of France: Constitutional Ideology in Legend, Ritual and Discourse (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1983); for Jackson, see above, n. 5; for Nelson above, n. 7. [BACK]

32. See J. L. Nelson's paper prepared for the Toronto conference on "The Second English Ordo," printed in her Politics , 361-370, with bibliography. [BACK]

33. On this see also Nelson, "The Rites of the Conqueror," in her Politics , 375-401. [BACK]

34. See Viator 4 (1973): 63; some years ago Giesey and I noted that we both have gradually given much more attention also to the other side of the dualist equation in medieval monarchy--diets, parliaments, estates, electors--than our teachers ever did. [BACK]

35. In 1980-1982 the Shelby Cullom Davis Center for Historical Studies at Princeton University explored in a symposium and in many seminar meetings the problems of "Ideology and power"; the result of these discussions was published in the volume edited by S. Wilentz on Rites of Power (see above, n. 10), which contains a 1977 article by Clifford Geertz that was crucial in inspiring this research, papers written by scholars while being fellow-in-residence at the Davis Center (Hanley, Agulhon, Isaac, Lüdtke) and other contributions on topics from the early Middle Ages to our own times. In his introduction (pp. 1-10, "Teufelsröckh's Dilemma: On Symbolism, Politcs, and History"), Sean Wilentz explores the causes of renewed interest in political symbology among American historians. The papers of the 1981 Mainz colloquium were published under the editorship of H. Duchhardt, Herrscherweihe und Königskrönung im frühneuzeitlichen Europa (Wiesbaden, 1983). Changes in function and significance of medieval rites were explored, for examples, by Sarah Hanley (see above, n. 30) and by R. Giesey (in this volume) in regard to the French lit de justice ; similar developments in central Europe toward a more law-oriented symbology were noted both by E. Fügedi, ''Coronation in Medieval Hungary," Studies in Medieval and Renaissance History NS 2 (1980): 159-189, esp. 179 ff.) and myself, Königtum und Stände in Ungarn im 14.-16. Jahrhundert (Wiesbaden, 1973), esp. 79-91. [BACK]

36. See the wide range of ceremonial events discussed in both Cannadine and Price, Rituals , and Wilentz, Rites of Power . [BACK]

37. On these aspects I have learned much from the books of I. A. Gurevich: Categories of Medieval Culture , trans. G. L. Campbell (London, 1984), and Medieval Popular Culture: Problems of Perception and Belief , trans. J. M. Bak and P. Hollingsworth (Cambridge, 1988). [BACK]

38. The association founded at the 1985 Toronto conference, MAJESTAS: Rulership-Souveraineté-Herrschertum , has sponsored several sessions on different scholarly meetings about relevant subjects and found that interest in these topics is again growing among historians of various orientations. [BACK]

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