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Five Copies in Context: The Coronation of Charles V in His Grandes Chroniques de France

Earlier versions of this paper were presented in March 1981 at the seminar on medieval historiography conducted by M. Bernard Guenée at the Ecole des Hautes-Etudes, Paris, and in January 1985 at the International Conference on Medieval Coronations in Toronto. I am grateful to the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, which funded my research in Europe and to the Research Board at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, which funded travel to Toronto. For the permission to reproduce illuminations from their manuscripts, I am indebted to the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris (figs. 5.1, 5.2 and 5.5) and to the Trustees of the British Library, London (figs. 5.3 and 5.4).

1. The pioneer in the study of the French ordines was Percy Schramm who published his findings in "Ordines-Studien 2: Die Krönung bei den Westfranken und die Franzosen," Archiv für Urkundenforschung 15 (1938): 3-55; and in Der König von Frankreich: Das Wesen der Monarchie vom 9. zum 16. Jahrhundert. Ein Kapitel aus der Geschichte des abendländischen Staates , 2 vols. (Weimar, 1939). For recent research, see Richard Jackson, Vive le Roi! A History of the French Coronation from Charles V to Charles X (Chapel Hill/London: University of North Carolina Press, 1984), the collective volume Le sacre des rois. Actes du Colloque international d'histoire sur les sacres et couronnements royaux (Reims 1975) (Paris, 1985), and the contributions to this volume. [BACK]

2. For this, see Claire Sherman, "The Queen in Charles V's Coronation Book : Jeanne de Bourbon and the Ordo ad Reginam Benediendem ," Viator 8 (1977): 255-298; and Claire Sherman, "Taking a Second Look: Observations on the Iconography of a French Queen: Jeanne de Bourbon (1338-1378)," in Feminism and Art History , ed. by Norma Broude and Mary D. Garrard (New York: Harper & Row, 1982), 101-117. Other early illustrated ordines are now under study. Jean-Claude Bonne is analyzing the illustrations of Paris, B.N. ms. lat. 1246, as part of a comprehensive study of this copy of the ordo with Jacques le Goff, and I have undertaken a study of a fragmentary copy of the last Capetian ordo (University Library, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign) which Harry Bober, in "The Coronation Book of Charles IV and Jeanne d'Evreux," Rare Books: Notes on the History of Old Books and Manuscripts 8 (1958): 1-12, suggested was used at the coronation of Charles IV. [BACK]

3. Scheller presented these preliminary findings in a paper entitled, "The French Coronation Ceremony and the Artists, 1365-1520," at the International Conference on Medieval Coronations in Toronto in 1985. For additional discussion of royal imagery by him, see Robert Scheller, "Imperales Königtum in Kunst und Staatsdenken der Französischen Frührenaissance," Kritische Berichte 6 (1978): 5-24; Robert Scheller, "Imperial Themes in Art and Literature of the Early French Renaissance: The Period of Charles VIII," Simiolus 12 (1981-1982): 5-59; and Robert Scheller, "Enseigns of Authority: French Royal Symbolism in the Age of Louis XII," Simiolus 13 (1983): 75-141. For a consideration of genres of narrative in one manuscript, see Anne D. Hedeman, ''Restructuring the Narrative: The Function of Ceremonial in Charles V's Grandes Chroniques de France," Studies in the History of Art 16 (1985): Pictorial Narrative in Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages , 171-181. [BACK]

4. For a critical edition of the Grandes Chroniques , see Jules Viard, ed., Les Grandes Chroniques de France , Société de l'histoire de France, 10 vols. (Paris, 1920-1953), and Roland Delachenal, ed., Les Grandes Chroniques de France: Chroniques des règnes de Jean II et de Charles V , Société de l'histoire de France, 4 vols. (Paris, 1910-1920). Henceforth I shall refer to these volumes by their editor and by the number of the volume. For a summary of the literary sources for the Grandes Chroniques , see Gabrielle Spiegel, The Chronicle Tradition of Saint-Denis: A Survey (Brookline, Mass. and Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1978).

For a history of Charles V, see Christine de Pizan, Le livre des fais et bonnes meurs du sage roi Charles V , ed. S. Solente, 2 vols. (Paris, 1936-1940); Roland Delachenal, Histoire de Charles V , 5 vols. (Paris, 1909-1931); Raymond Cazelles, Société politique, noblesse, et couronne sous Jean le Bon et Charles V , Mémoires et documents publiés pour la Société de l'Ecole des Chartes, 28 (Geneva-Paris, 1982); Schramm, Der König von Frankreich 1: 236-245; and Joseph Calmette, Charles V (Paris, 1945).

Previous discussions of Charles V's copy of the chronicle appear in Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, La librairie de Charles V , ed. F. Avril (Paris, 1968), no. 195, pp. 112-113; Paris, Grand Palais, Les fastes du Gothique: Le siècle de Charles V (Paris, 1981), no. 284, pp. 329-331; Claire Sherman, The Portraits of Charles V of France (1338-1380) (New York: College Art Association, 1969), 41-44; Marcel Thomas, "La visite de l'Empereur Charles IV en France d'après l'exemplaire des Grandes Chroniques executé pour le roi Charles V," Congrès international des bibliophiles, Vienna, 29 Septembre à 5 octobre, 1969 (Vienna, 1971), 85-98; Anne D. Hedeman, "Valois Legitimacy: Editorial Changes in Charles V's Grandes Chroniques de France ," Art Bulletin 66 (1984): 97-117; and Hedeman, "Restructuring the Narrative." [BACK]

5. Delachenal, Grandes Chroniques 4: 27-28, identifies the heraldry in the miniatures from the Grandes Chroniques and cites the Coronation Book as the model for the double picture in the chronicle. In addition, Sherman discusses the artistic relationship between the Grandes Chroniques and the Coronation Book . She does not note the heraldic discrepancies. See Sherman, Portraits , 37. [BACK]

6. For this and the following, see Hedeman, "Valois Legitimacy," 98-99, and 108-115; and Hedeman, "Restructuring the Narrative," passim . [BACK]

7. A mandament of 1377 commissioned bindings for two volumes containing the "Croniques de France and those which Pierre d'Orgement had made." For this, see Delachenal, Grandes Chroniques 1: xii. No such order survives for the version of the text ending in the life of Philip of Valois. Nevertheless a codicological study of the manuscript suggests that it was a complete book at that stage as well. [BACK]

8. The classic analysis of the difficulties faced by the new Valois line remains Raymond Cazelles, La société politique et la crise de la royauté sous Philippe de Valois (Paris, 1958). See also Cazelles, Jean le Bon et Charles V . For a summary, see Hedeman, "Valois Legitimacy," 97-98. [BACK]

9. For the scepter of Charlemagne, see Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, Fastes du Gothique , no. 202, pp. 32 and 249. For the scepter of Dagobert, see Bernard de Montfaucon, Les monuments de la monarchie françoise , 5 vols. (Paris, 1729-1733) 1: xxxv and pl. 1. [BACK]

10. On the Coronation Book see E. S. Dewick, ed., The Coronation Book of Charles V of France (Cottonian Ms. Tiberius B. VIII ), Henry Bradshaw Society, vol. 16 (London, 1899); R. A. Jackson, ed., "The Traité du sacre of Jean Golein," Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 113-114 (1969): 305-324; Jackson, "Les manuscrits des ordines de courronnement de la bibliothèque de Charles V, roi de France," Moyen Age , vol. 82, ser. 4, f. 31, no. 1 (1976): 76-88; Jackson, Vive le Roi , 26-33; Sherman, The Portraits , 34-37; and especially, Sherman, "The Queen.'' [BACK]

11. For the text, see Delachenal, Grandes Chroniques 2: 1-5. [BACK]

12. Dewick reproduces these images of coronation in Coronation Book , pls. 23 and 35. [BACK]

13. The elimination of the altars together with the juxtaposition of two distinct scenes from the Coronation Book in close proximity constitute a transformation, in Scheller's terms, of a factually narrative model into a condensed copy. From this point of view the double miniature in the Grandes Chroniques has more in common than first meets the eye with such scenes from Charles V's Grandes Chroniques as the Coronation of John the Good (fig. 5.2). [BACK]

14. Their arms are as follows: count of Flanders--or, a lion rampant sable; duke of Bourbon--azur, semé with fleurs-de-lis or, a bendelet gules; count of Toulouse--gules, a cross argent voided sable; count of Étampes--azur, semé with fleurs-de-lis or, a bendelet company gules and ermine; duke of Anjou--azur semé with fleurs-de-lis or, a border gules; archbishop of Reims--azur semé with fleurs-de-lis or, a cross argent; and bishop of Beauvais--or, a cross between four keys paleways, a ward in chief gules. [BACK]

15. The arms of the duke of Burgundy are: quarterly 1 and 4--azur, semé with fleurs-de-lis or, a border company white and gules; 2 and 3--banded with or and azur, a border gules. [BACK]

16. Delachenal, Grandes Chroniques 2: 2-3. [BACK]

17. For the list of peers in the Coronation Book , see Dewick, Coronation Book , cols. 13-14. For the list in the Traité du sacre , see Jackson, " Traité du sacre ," 312. [BACK]

18. Jackson, Vive le Roi , 161-162. [BACK]

19. Delachenal, Histoire 3: 88-89. [BACK]

20. Sherman, "The Queen," 288. Sherman concentrates on the queen's role in the ordinance. For the texts of these documents, see D. F. Secousse, Ordonnances des roys de France de la trosième race recueillies par ordre chronologique , 21 vols. (Paris, 1723-1849) 6: 26-32 (the majority), 45-49 (regency conditions), 49-54 (tutelle). For a recent discussion see Cazelles, Jean le Bon et Charles V , 579-581. [BACK]

21. For this and the following, see Jackson, " Traité du sacre ," 306-308. See as well Sherman, "The Queen," passim , for a discussion of the relationship between the Traité du sacre and the representations of the queen in the Coronation Book . [BACK]

22. ". . . les pers de France qui sont entour en significance des fors qui estoit entour salemon omnes tenentes gladios et ad bella doctissi. car sil ne tiennent le presentement les espees si sont il pres pour les prendre quant temps en est pour deffendre le Roy et le Royaume en grant hardement." Jackson, " Traité du sacre ," 317. [BACK]

23. See Hedeman, "Restructuring the Narrative," 173-174. [BACK]

24. For a description of the relationship between text and image in the Coronation Book , see Sherman, "The Queen," esp. 263-265. [BACK]

25. Prior to Charles V, Louis VIII (1223), Philip IV (1286), Louis X (1315), Philip V (1317), Philip VI (1328), and John the Good (1350) were crowned with their wives. Despite this, no other dual coronations are represented in Charles V's Grandes Chroniques . For a description of these earlier coronations, see Sherman, "The Queen," 268, n. 47. [BACK]

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