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Thirteen "The Wonderfull Spectacle" the Civic Progress of Elizabeth I and the Troublesome Coronation

1. B. L. Egerton MS 985, f. 1. The text is reproduced in Leopold G. Wickham Legg, English Coronation Records (Westminster, 1901), 220-239. [BACK]

2. B. L. Tiberius E, viii, ff. 90-100. [BACK]

3. Ibid., f. 89. The text is reproduced in Legg, English Coronation Records , 240-241. [BACK]

4. John Strype, Memorials of Archbishop Cranmer (Oxford, 1848) 2:8. [BACK]

5. Chronicle of the Greyfriars of London , ed. John Gough Nichols (London, 1852), 84. [BACK]

6. Calendar of State Papers, Venetian , (1534-1554), ed. Rawdon Brown (London, 1873) 5:432. [BACK]

7. Edward M. Thompson, "The Revision of the Statutes of the Order of the Garter by King Edward the Sixth," Archaeologia 54 (1894): 184. [BACK]

8. J. E. Neale, Elizabeth I and Her Parliaments (1559-1581) (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1958) 2:42. [BACK]

9. B. L. Ashmole MS 862, f. 299. The text is reproduced and discussed by C. G. Bayne in a brief article, "The Coronation of Queen Elizabeth," English Historical Review 25 (1910): 550-553. [BACK]

10. John Ponet, "A Notable Sermon concerninge the Right Use of the Lordes Supper . . . preached before the Kynges Most Excellent Mayesty" (1550), C. iii; C. iii; and D. iii. [BACK]

11. Calendar of State Papers, Venetian , (1558-1580), ed. Rawdon Brown and G. Cavendish Bentinck (London, 1890) 7:2. [BACK]

12. Calendar of State Papers, Spanish , (1558-1567), ed. Martin A. S. Hume (London, 1892-1899) 1:375. [BACK]

13. C. G. Bayne reproduces and discusses the texts of all three in an earlier and lengthier article, also entitled "The Coronation of Queen Elizabeth," EHR 22 (1907): 650-673. [BACK]

14. See ibid., 656-657; A. F. Pollard, "The Coronation of Queen Elizabeth," EHR 25 (1910): 125-126; and William P. Haugaard, "The Coronation of Elizabeth I," Journal of Ecclesiastical History 19 (1968): 163-165. [BACK]

15. Bayne (1907), 670. [BACK]

16. Ibid., 671. [BACK]

17. See below in this volume. [BACK]

18. Bayne (1907), 663. [BACK]

19. Ibid., 661. [BACK]

20. Bayne, "The Coronation of Queen Elizabeth," EHR 24 (1909): 332-323; and Pollard (1910), 125. [BACK]

21. Calendar of State Papers, Spanish , (1558-1567) 1:25. [BACK]

22. A. L. Rowse, "The Coronation of Queen Elizabeth I," An Elizabethan Garland (London: Macmillan, 1954), 21. [BACK]

23. B. L. Egerton MS 3320. I saw this same illustration before reading Rowse's article and leapt to the same conclusion, but the objections raised by H. A. Wilson and Haugaard make certainty on these matters very difficult. [BACK]

24. H. A. Wilson, "The Coronation of Queen Elizabeth," EHR 23 (1908): 87-91. See also Haugaard, 168. [BACK]

25. Public Record Office, State Papers Domestic, Elizabeth, I, 68. The memorandum goes on to say, "I thynke it most necessary that before any p[ar]on published after the old manner, at the Coronation, that certain of the Principall Prelats be comytted to the Tower." [BACK]

26. Haugaard, 166 and 170. David Sturdy (below) briefly reviews both versions of the event and abstains from choosing between them, but he arrives at a conclusion similar to Haugaard's: "Whichever version is preferred, however, the outcome is the same: Elizabeth introduced a dramatic gesture into her coronation in order to publicise a statement on the religious ethos of the coming reign." I am arguing that unlike either of her predecessors, she effectively obscured rather than publicized the nature of her religious settlement for some time. [BACK]

27. Nicholas Sanders, The Rise and Growth of the Anglican Schism (1585), trans. David Lewis (London, 1877), 242-243. [BACK]

28. Patrick Collinson, The Elizabethan Puritan Movement (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1967), 31. [BACK]

29. See Collinson (ibid.) who discusses the Prayerbook's equivocation between the Puritans' "memorialist emphasis" and formulations "which could be construed as an affirmation of the real presence in the consecrated elements" (p. 34). See also M. M. Knappen, Tudor Puritanism (1939; reprint Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970), 169-170; and G. J. Cuming, The Anglican Liturgy (London, 1969), 132-133. [BACK]

30. Collinson, The Elizabethan Puritan Movement , 35. [BACK]

31. The Quenes Maiesties Passage through the Citie of London to Westminster the Day before her Coronacion , ed. James M. Osborn (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1960), 27. [BACK]

32. Jonathan Goldberg, James I and the Politics of Literature (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1983), 29. [BACK]

33. David Bergeron, "Elizabeth's Coronation Entry (1559): New Manuscript Evidence," ELR 8 (1978): 3-8. Goldberg makes the plausible suggestion that Elizabeth I saw and approved the scripts beforehand (p. 31). [BACK]

34. J. E. Neale, Elizabeth I and Her Parliaments, 1584-1601 2:119. [BACK]

35. The Quenes Maiesties Passage , 28. [BACK]

36. These drawings are included in B. L. Egerton MS 3320 and College of Arms MS. M6. [BACK]

37. Percy Ernst Schramm, A History of the English Coronation , trans. L. G. W. Legg (Oxford, 1937), 93. Ceremonial innovation and the shift from sacred rite to secular pageant is not necessarily a degradation. See David Cannadine's discussion of the very successful adaptations of the Victorian and modern monarchy in "The Context, Performance, and Meaning of Ritual: The British Monarchy and the 'Invention of Tradition,' c. 1820-1977," The Invention of Tradition , ed. Eric Hobsbawm and Terence Ranger (Cambridge, 1983), 101-165. [BACK]

38. Schramm, A History of English Coronation , 10. [BACK]

39. The Quenes Maiesties Passage , 7. [BACK]

40. Hamlet , IV.v.124. For a discussion of the problems of a power dependent on theatrical artifice, see Stephen Orgel's essay, "Making Greatness Familiar," Genre 15 (1982): 41-48; and my "'Thou Idol Ceremony': Elizabeth I, Henry V, and the Rites of the British Monarchy" (forthcoming). [BACK]

41. J. Wickham Legg, ed., The Coronation Order of King James I (London, 1902), lxiii. [BACK]

42. Arthur Wilson, Life and Reign of James the First , quoted in James I by His Contemporaries , ed. Robert Ashton (London, 1969), 63-64. [BACK]

43. Thomas Babington Macaulay, The History of English from the Accession of James II , ed. C. H. Firth (London, 1913-1914) 1;468-469. [BACK]

44. See Lois G. Schwoerer, "The Glorious Revolution as Spectacle: A New Perspective," in England's Rise to Greatness , 1660-1763 ed. Stephen B. Baxter (Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press, 1983), 109-149; and "Propaganda in the Revolution of 1688-89," The American Historical Review 82 (1977): 843-874. [BACK]

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