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Two— The Horror of Monsters*

1. Lucien Febvre, "Sensibility and History: How to Reconstitute the Emotional Life of the Past," in A New Kind of History (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1973), 24. [BACK]

2. This chapter is a fragment of a much longer manuscript entitled "The History of Horror: Abominations, Monsters, and the Unnatural." That manuscript is a comparative historical analysis of the three concepts mentioned in the title, linking each of them to the reaction of horror and thus taking a first step toward writing a history of horror. I then use this comparative history to consider both the phenomenology of horror and its moral analysis, interlacing historical and philosophical concerns throughout. [BACK]

3. Jean Delumeau, La Peur en Occident: Une citié assiegié (Paris: Fayard, 1978), and Le Péché et la peur: La culpabilisation en Occident (Paris: Fayard, 1983). [BACK]

4. For useful discussion, see, among many others, Jacques Le Goff, "Mentalities: A History of Ambiguities," in Jacques Le Goff and Pierre Nora, eds., Constructing the Past (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985); Robert Mandrou, "L'histoire des mentalités," in the article "Histories," Encyclopedia Universalis (Paris: Encyclopedia Universalis France, 1968); Jean Delumeau, "Déchristianization ou nouveau modèle de christianisme," Archives de Science sociales des Religion 40 (Juillet--Décembre 1975); and Carlo Ginzburg, The Cheese and the Worms (New York: Penguin Books, 1980), "Preface to the Italian Edition." [BACK]

5. This is emphasized by Alphonse Dupront in his seminal essay, "Problémes et méthodes d'une histoire de la psychologie collective," Annales (Janvier--Fevrier 1961). [BACK]

6. I have tried to do this for the history of sexuality in "How to Do the History of Psychoanalysis: A Reading of Freud's Three Essays on the Theory of continue

Sexuality," Critical Inquiry (Winter 1986); "Sex and the Emergence of Sexuality," Critical Inquiry (Autumn 1987); and "Closing Up the Corpses: Diseases of Sexuality and the Emergence of the Psychiatric Style of Reasoning," forthcoming in George Boolos, ed., Mind, Method, and Meaning: Essays in Honor of Hilary Putnam (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). [BACK]

7. See Dupront, "Problémes et méthodes," 9. [BACK]

8. Martin Luther, Werke (Weimar: H. Böhlau, 1930-1985), XI:370-385. [BACK]

9. In my interpretation of this pamphlet, I follow Jean Céard, La Nature et les prodiges (Geneva: Librarie Droz, 1977), 79-84. [BACK]

10. Martin Luther and Phillip Melancthon, Of Two Wonderful Popish Monsters , trans. John Brooke. (Imprinted at London: Colophon, 1579.) I have modernized spelling and punctuation. The quotation comes from the first page of Brooke's preface, which is unpaginated in the 1579 edition of the pamphlet.

11. Ibid.

12. Ibid. The quotation comes from the second page of Brooke's preface. [BACK]

10. Martin Luther and Phillip Melancthon, Of Two Wonderful Popish Monsters , trans. John Brooke. (Imprinted at London: Colophon, 1579.) I have modernized spelling and punctuation. The quotation comes from the first page of Brooke's preface, which is unpaginated in the 1579 edition of the pamphlet.

11. Ibid.

12. Ibid. The quotation comes from the second page of Brooke's preface. [BACK]

10. Martin Luther and Phillip Melancthon, Of Two Wonderful Popish Monsters , trans. John Brooke. (Imprinted at London: Colophon, 1579.) I have modernized spelling and punctuation. The quotation comes from the first page of Brooke's preface, which is unpaginated in the 1579 edition of the pamphlet.

11. Ibid.

12. Ibid. The quotation comes from the second page of Brooke's preface. [BACK]

13. Jean Delumeau, Le Péché et la peur , 153. [BACK]

14. I am following Delumeau's account here. Ibid., 152-158. But chap. 4 as a whole should be read in this context. [BACK]

15. Quoted in Delumeau, La Péché et la peur , 155. [BACK]

16. Ambroise Paré, Des monstres et prodiges (Edition Critique et commentée par Jean Céard) (Geneva: Librarie Droz, 1971). There is an English translation under the title On Monsters and Marvels (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982). I have tried to follow the English translation in my quotations, but I have altered in whenver I felt it was necessary to preserve Paré's meaning. For some inexplicable reason, the English renders prodiges as "marvels" rather than "prodigies," a translation that cannot help but result in obfuscation. [BACK]

17. Jean Céard, La Nature et les prodiges . [BACK]

18. Katharine Park and Lorraine J. Daston, "Unnatural Conceptions: The Study of Monsters in Sixteenth- and Seventeenth-Century France and England," Past and Present 92 (August 1981). For some premedieval treatments of monsters, see Bruce MacBain, Prodigy and Expiation: A Study in Religion and Politics in Republican Rome (Collection Latomus: Brussels, 1982); Raymond Bloch, Les prodiges dans l'antiquité classique (Paris: Presses Universitaire de France, 1963); and E. Leichty, "Teratological Omens," in La Divination en Mésopotamine ancienne et dans les régions voisines (Paris: Presses Universitaire de France, 1966). [BACK]

19. Thomas Aquinas, The Summa Theologica (literally translated by the Fathers of the English Dominican Province) (New York: Benziger Brothers), Second Part of the Second Part, Question 53 Second Article. I have generally followed this translation, although in paraphrasing Aquinas, I have also consulted the Latin and facing-page English translation of the Summa by the Blackfrairs (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964-1980). I have appropriated terminology from each of the translations when I thought it appropriate.

20. Ibid., 157-158.

21. Ibid., II-II, Q. 154, Art. 12, Reply.

22. Ibid., 161.

23. Ibid., II-II, Q. 154, Art. 12, Rep. Obj. 4 break

24. Ibid., 160. A useful discussion of this part of Aquinas can be found in John Boswell, Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980). See esp. chap. 11. [BACK]

19. Thomas Aquinas, The Summa Theologica (literally translated by the Fathers of the English Dominican Province) (New York: Benziger Brothers), Second Part of the Second Part, Question 53 Second Article. I have generally followed this translation, although in paraphrasing Aquinas, I have also consulted the Latin and facing-page English translation of the Summa by the Blackfrairs (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964-1980). I have appropriated terminology from each of the translations when I thought it appropriate.

20. Ibid., 157-158.

21. Ibid., II-II, Q. 154, Art. 12, Reply.

22. Ibid., 161.

23. Ibid., II-II, Q. 154, Art. 12, Rep. Obj. 4 break

24. Ibid., 160. A useful discussion of this part of Aquinas can be found in John Boswell, Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980). See esp. chap. 11. [BACK]

19. Thomas Aquinas, The Summa Theologica (literally translated by the Fathers of the English Dominican Province) (New York: Benziger Brothers), Second Part of the Second Part, Question 53 Second Article. I have generally followed this translation, although in paraphrasing Aquinas, I have also consulted the Latin and facing-page English translation of the Summa by the Blackfrairs (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964-1980). I have appropriated terminology from each of the translations when I thought it appropriate.

20. Ibid., 157-158.

21. Ibid., II-II, Q. 154, Art. 12, Reply.

22. Ibid., 161.

23. Ibid., II-II, Q. 154, Art. 12, Rep. Obj. 4 break

24. Ibid., 160. A useful discussion of this part of Aquinas can be found in John Boswell, Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980). See esp. chap. 11. [BACK]

19. Thomas Aquinas, The Summa Theologica (literally translated by the Fathers of the English Dominican Province) (New York: Benziger Brothers), Second Part of the Second Part, Question 53 Second Article. I have generally followed this translation, although in paraphrasing Aquinas, I have also consulted the Latin and facing-page English translation of the Summa by the Blackfrairs (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964-1980). I have appropriated terminology from each of the translations when I thought it appropriate.

20. Ibid., 157-158.

21. Ibid., II-II, Q. 154, Art. 12, Reply.

22. Ibid., 161.

23. Ibid., II-II, Q. 154, Art. 12, Rep. Obj. 4 break

24. Ibid., 160. A useful discussion of this part of Aquinas can be found in John Boswell, Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980). See esp. chap. 11. [BACK]

19. Thomas Aquinas, The Summa Theologica (literally translated by the Fathers of the English Dominican Province) (New York: Benziger Brothers), Second Part of the Second Part, Question 53 Second Article. I have generally followed this translation, although in paraphrasing Aquinas, I have also consulted the Latin and facing-page English translation of the Summa by the Blackfrairs (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964-1980). I have appropriated terminology from each of the translations when I thought it appropriate.

20. Ibid., 157-158.

21. Ibid., II-II, Q. 154, Art. 12, Reply.

22. Ibid., 161.

23. Ibid., II-II, Q. 154, Art. 12, Rep. Obj. 4 break

24. Ibid., 160. A useful discussion of this part of Aquinas can be found in John Boswell, Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980). See esp. chap. 11. [BACK]

19. Thomas Aquinas, The Summa Theologica (literally translated by the Fathers of the English Dominican Province) (New York: Benziger Brothers), Second Part of the Second Part, Question 53 Second Article. I have generally followed this translation, although in paraphrasing Aquinas, I have also consulted the Latin and facing-page English translation of the Summa by the Blackfrairs (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964-1980). I have appropriated terminology from each of the translations when I thought it appropriate.

20. Ibid., 157-158.

21. Ibid., II-II, Q. 154, Art. 12, Reply.

22. Ibid., 161.

23. Ibid., II-II, Q. 154, Art. 12, Rep. Obj. 4 break

24. Ibid., 160. A useful discussion of this part of Aquinas can be found in John Boswell, Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980). See esp. chap. 11. [BACK]

25. Ambroise Paré, On Monsters and Marvels , 3. IN 1579, Paré added a third category to that of monsters and marvels, namely, the maimed ( les multilez ). I shall not discuss this category, since, as Céard notes, after the preface, Paré no longer uses the concept of the maimed. See Ambroise Paré, Des monstres et prodiges , 151. [BACK]

26. Jean Céard, La Nature et les prodiges , 304-305. [BACK]

27. On this topic, see Stuart Clark, "The Scientific Status of Demonology," in Brian Vickers, ed., Occult and Scientific Mentalities in the Renaissance (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984). [BACK]

28. Paré, On Monsters , 152. [BACK]

29. Céard, La Nature et les prodiges , 293-295. [BACK]

30. Paré, On Monsters , 5. In this chapter, Paré also considers the monsters that are produced when a man copulates with a woman during her period; he analogizes such activitiy to bestiality, since "it is a filthy and brutish thing to have dealings with a woman while she is puring herself." Without discussing this important topic here, I simply note that the same chapte of Leviticus which prohibits bestiality also prohibits intercourse with a woman during her period (the relevant chapter is Leviticus 18, not 16 as Paré states). [BACK]

31. Paré, Des monstres , chap. IX. This chapter appears as chap. XX in the English translation. [BACK]

32. Paré, On Monsters , 67.

33. Ibid., 73. [BACK]

32. Paré, On Monsters , 67.

33. Ibid., 73. [BACK]

34. See Delumeau, La Péché et la peur , 156. [BACK]

35. Quoted in John Block Friedman, The Monstrous Races in Medieval Art and Thought (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1981), 182. Friedman's book is a useful introduction to the topic of monstrous races, a topic I shall not discuss here. [BACK]

36. Paré, On Monsters , 8. [BACK]

37. For an English example, see John Sadler's The Sicke Woman's Private Looking-Glasse , relevant portions of which are excerpted in Paré, On Monsters , 174-176. [BACK]

38. Lorraine Daston, "The Decline of Miracles." Unpub. ms., 12. [BACK]

39. Paré, On Monsters , 69. The practice of killing both the human being and the beast involved in bestial copulation has a long history that goes back to the law of Leviticus 20: 15-16. I have been able to find a few exceptions where the beast was spared. The most interesting of these exceptions is reported as follows:

E. P. Evans states that at Vanvres in 1570 one Jacques Verrons was hung for copulating with a she-ass. The animal was acquitted on the grounds that she was in a victim of violence and had not participated of her own free will. The prior of the local convent and several citizens of the town signed a certificate saying that they had known said she-ass for four years, and that she had always shown herself to be virtuous both at home and abroad and had never given occasion of scandal to anyone. This document was produced at the trial and is said to have exerted a decisive influence upon the judgment of the court.

Quoted in Harry Hoffner, "Incest, Sodomy and Bestiality in the Ancient Near East," Harry Hoffner, ed., Orient and Occident , Band 22 of Alter Orient und Altes continue

Testament (Germany: Verlag Butzon & Bercker Kevelaer, 1973), 83, fn. 13. This exceptional case should not misdirect one to think that trials for bestiality required the ascription of normal responsibility to animals. For discussion, see J. J. Finkelstein, The Ox that Gored , esp. 69-72. [BACK]

40. Edward Tyson, "A Relation of two Monstrous Pigs, with the Resemblance of Human Faces, and two young Turkeys joined by the Breast," Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society XXI (1669): 431. I have modernized spelling and punctuation.

41. Ibid., 434. [BACK]

40. Edward Tyson, "A Relation of two Monstrous Pigs, with the Resemblance of Human Faces, and two young Turkeys joined by the Breast," Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society XXI (1669): 431. I have modernized spelling and punctuation.

41. Ibid., 434. [BACK]

42. Both Treves's memoir and the relevant medical reports are reprinted in Ashley Montagu, The Elephant Man (New York: E. P. Dutton, 1979). [BACK]

43. See Aquinas's discussion in Summa Theologica , I-II, Q. 91, Art. 2, and Q. 94. [BACK]

44. I have taken my list from Art. I, Sect. 4, of S. Tissot, L'Onanisme, Dissertation sur les maladies produites par la masturbation , 5th ed. (Lausanne: Marc Chapuis, 1780). Tissot's list is entirely representative of other eighteenth-century discussions. An English translation of Tissot's book appeared in 1832: Treatise on the Diseases Produced by Onanism (New York: Collins and Hennay, 1832). I have often found it necessary to modify the English translation. For discussions of the masturbation literature, see T. Tarczylo, "L' Onanisme de Tissot," Dix-huitième Siècle 12 (1980), and Sexe et liberté au siècle des Lumières (Paris: Presses de la Renaissance, 1983); J. Stengers and A. Van Neck, Histoire d'une grande peur: La masturbation (Brussels: Editions de l'Universite de Bruxelles, 1984). [BACK]

45. A representative example is Alfred Hitchcock, "Insanity and Death from Masturbation," Boston Medical and Surgical Journal 26 (1842). [BACK]

46. Tissot, L'Onanisme , 33. [BACK]

47. See, e.g., the last paragraph of the introduction to L'Onanisme .

48. Ibid., 3.

49. Ibid., 121. [BACK]

47. See, e.g., the last paragraph of the introduction to L'Onanisme .

48. Ibid., 3.

49. Ibid., 121. [BACK]

47. See, e.g., the last paragraph of the introduction to L'Onanisme .

48. Ibid., 3.

49. Ibid., 121. [BACK]

50. Pierre Guiraud, Dictionnaire historique, stylistique, rhétorique, étymologique, de la littérature érotique (Paris: Payot, 1978), 76.

51. Ibid., 215. [BACK]

50. Pierre Guiraud, Dictionnaire historique, stylistique, rhétorique, étymologique, de la littérature érotique (Paris: Payot, 1978), 76.

51. Ibid., 215. [BACK]

52. Ambroise Tardieu, Étude médico-légale sur les attentats aux moeurs , Septième éd. (Paris: J. B. Ballière, 1878), 198. The category of sodomy has proven notoriously flexible and has been used to encompass a variety of activities. However, despite the flexibility, I believe that this category has more conceptual unity than has sometimes been attributed to it. I discuss this issue in the manuscript of which this chapter is an excerpt.

53. Ibid., 255.

54. Ibid., 195.

55. Ibid., 237.

56. Ibid., 236.

57. Ibid., 258.

58. Ibid., 260. [BACK]

52. Ambroise Tardieu, Étude médico-légale sur les attentats aux moeurs , Septième éd. (Paris: J. B. Ballière, 1878), 198. The category of sodomy has proven notoriously flexible and has been used to encompass a variety of activities. However, despite the flexibility, I believe that this category has more conceptual unity than has sometimes been attributed to it. I discuss this issue in the manuscript of which this chapter is an excerpt.

53. Ibid., 255.

54. Ibid., 195.

55. Ibid., 237.

56. Ibid., 236.

57. Ibid., 258.

58. Ibid., 260. [BACK]

52. Ambroise Tardieu, Étude médico-légale sur les attentats aux moeurs , Septième éd. (Paris: J. B. Ballière, 1878), 198. The category of sodomy has proven notoriously flexible and has been used to encompass a variety of activities. However, despite the flexibility, I believe that this category has more conceptual unity than has sometimes been attributed to it. I discuss this issue in the manuscript of which this chapter is an excerpt.

53. Ibid., 255.

54. Ibid., 195.

55. Ibid., 237.

56. Ibid., 236.

57. Ibid., 258.

58. Ibid., 260. [BACK]

52. Ambroise Tardieu, Étude médico-légale sur les attentats aux moeurs , Septième éd. (Paris: J. B. Ballière, 1878), 198. The category of sodomy has proven notoriously flexible and has been used to encompass a variety of activities. However, despite the flexibility, I believe that this category has more conceptual unity than has sometimes been attributed to it. I discuss this issue in the manuscript of which this chapter is an excerpt.

53. Ibid., 255.

54. Ibid., 195.

55. Ibid., 237.

56. Ibid., 236.

57. Ibid., 258.

58. Ibid., 260. [BACK]

52. Ambroise Tardieu, Étude médico-légale sur les attentats aux moeurs , Septième éd. (Paris: J. B. Ballière, 1878), 198. The category of sodomy has proven notoriously flexible and has been used to encompass a variety of activities. However, despite the flexibility, I believe that this category has more conceptual unity than has sometimes been attributed to it. I discuss this issue in the manuscript of which this chapter is an excerpt.

53. Ibid., 255.

54. Ibid., 195.

55. Ibid., 237.

56. Ibid., 236.

57. Ibid., 258.

58. Ibid., 260. [BACK]

52. Ambroise Tardieu, Étude médico-légale sur les attentats aux moeurs , Septième éd. (Paris: J. B. Ballière, 1878), 198. The category of sodomy has proven notoriously flexible and has been used to encompass a variety of activities. However, despite the flexibility, I believe that this category has more conceptual unity than has sometimes been attributed to it. I discuss this issue in the manuscript of which this chapter is an excerpt.

53. Ibid., 255.

54. Ibid., 195.

55. Ibid., 237.

56. Ibid., 236.

57. Ibid., 258.

58. Ibid., 260. [BACK]

52. Ambroise Tardieu, Étude médico-légale sur les attentats aux moeurs , Septième éd. (Paris: J. B. Ballière, 1878), 198. The category of sodomy has proven notoriously flexible and has been used to encompass a variety of activities. However, despite the flexibility, I believe that this category has more conceptual unity than has sometimes been attributed to it. I discuss this issue in the manuscript of which this chapter is an excerpt.

53. Ibid., 255.

54. Ibid., 195.

55. Ibid., 237.

56. Ibid., 236.

57. Ibid., 258.

58. Ibid., 260. [BACK]

59. Michael Mitchell, Monsters of the Guilded Age: The Photographs of Charles Eisenmann (Toronto: Gauge Publishing Limited, 1979), 28, 30. I am indebted to Ian Hacking for providing me with this book. break

* I would like to thank Rosemarie Bodenheimer, Jonathan Dewald, Rita Goldberg, Ilona Karmel, Kathleen Kete, Jessica Marcus, and John Maynard for their helpful comments on earlier versions of this chapter. [BACK]


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