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Three— The Animal Connection*

1. Genesis 2:20-22. break [BACK]

2. For an overview of attitudes toward animals in Western philosophy and theology, see John Passmore, "The Treatment of Animals," Journal of the History of Ideas 36 (1975): 195-218. Marc Shell offers an idiosyncratic and benign interpretation of those attitudes in "The Family Pet," Representations 15 (1986): 121-153. For another interpreation of the significance of pets, see Harriet Ritvo, "The Emergence of Modern Pet-keeping," in Andrew Rowan, ed., Animals and People Sharing the World (Hanover, N.H.: New England University Press, 1988), 13-32. [BACK]

3. William Swainson, On the Hobits and Instincts of Animals (London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1840), 74. [BACK]

4. Charles Hamilton Smith, Introduction to the Mammalia (Edinburgh: W.H. Lizars, 1842), 74. [BACK]

5. George John Romanes, Mental Evolution in Animals (LondoN: Kegan Paul, Trench, 1883), inset. [BACK]

6. Donald R. Griffin, Animal Thinking (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1984), vii-viii. [BACK]

7. Robert Nozick, "About Mammals and People," New York Times Book Review , Nov. 27, 1983; Tom Regan, The Case for Animal Rights (Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press, 1983). [BACK]

8. Stephen Kellert has has worked out a typology of ten basic attitudes toward animals--naturalistic, ecologistic, humanistic, moralistic, scientistic, aesthetic, utilitarian, dominionistic, negativistic, and neutralistic. Only the first four admit the possibility of a categorization not based on the axiomatic division between humans and animals, and they by no means require such a reversal. For an overview of his analysis and the reserach that support it, see Stephen R. Kellert, "Human-Animal Interactions: A Review of American Attitudes to Wild and Domestic Animals in the Twentieth Century," in Rowan, Animals and People Sharing the World , 137-176. [BACK]

9. Donna Haraway, "Animal Sociology and Natural Economy of the Body Politic, Part II: The Past Is the Contested Zone: Human Nture and Theories of Production and Reproduction in Primate Behavior Studies," Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 4 (1978): 55-56; Sarah Blaffer Hrdy, "Empathy, Polyandry, and the Myth of the Coy Female," in Ruth Bleier, ed., Feminist Approaches to Science (New York: Pergamon, 1986), 119-146. [BACK]

10. For an exploration of the relationship of twentieth-century paleoanthropology to twentieth-century cultural history, see Roger Lewin, Bones of Contention: Controversies in the Search for Human Origins (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1987). [BACK]

11. M. Godine, "Comparative Influence of the Male and Female in Breeding," Farrier and Naturalist 1 (1828): 468. [BACK]

12. William Youatt, Cattle: Their Breeds, Management, and Diseases (London: Bladwin and Craddock, 1834), 523. It should be remembered that oxen are castrated animals. [BACK]

13. Judith Neville Lytton, Toy Dogs and Their Ancestors, Including the History and Management of Toy Spaniels, Pekingese, Japanese and Pomeranians (New York: D. Appleton, 1911), 194-195. break [BACK]

14. The struggles of breeders to determine the ideal form of the pig is elaborately chronicled in Julian Wiseman, The History of the British Pig (London: Duckworth, 1986). [BACK]

15. For a thorough review of the breeding practices of eighteenth-century improvers in comparison with those of their predecessors, see Nicholas Russell, Like Engend'ring Like: Heredity and Animal Breeding in Early Modern England (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986). Less revisionist overviews include R. Trow-Smith. A History of British Livestock Husbandry, 1700-1900 (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1959), and Stephen J. G. Hall and Juliet Clutton-Brock, Two Hundred Years of British Farm Livestock (London: British Museum [Natural History], 1989). [BACK]

16. Ambrose Blacklock, A Treatise on Sheep (Glasgow: W.R. McPhun, 1838), 67; John Lawrence, A General Treatise on Cattle, the Ox, the Sheep, and the Swine (London: H.D. Symonds, 1805), 30-31. [BACK]

17. Harrison Weir, Our Cats and All About Them (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1889), 96.

18. Ibid., 96. [BACK]

17. Harrison Weir, Our Cats and All About Them (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1889), 96.

18. Ibid., 96. [BACK]

19. John Farley, Gametes and Spores: Ideas About Sexual Reproduction 1750-1914 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1982), chaps. 1 and 2. See also Frederick B. Churchill, "Sex and the Single Organism: Biological Theories of Sexuality in Mid-Nineteenth Century," Studies in the History of Biology 3 (1979): 139-177. [BACK]

20. James A. Secord has discussed the contribution of pigeon fancying to Darwin's theory of evolution in "'Nature's Fancy': Chrles Darwin and the Breeding of Pigeons," Isis 72 (1981): 163-186. Darwin continued to make use of information supplied by animal breeders after he wrote On the Origin of Species , most notably, in The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication (1868). [BACK]

21. Exposure to scientific data and theory would not necessarily have made any difference. At least some Victorian scientists shared breeders' inclination to identify women with other mammalian females, eagerly but without much evidence conflating the human menstrual cycle with the oestrus cycle of dogs and cattle. Thomas Laqueur, "Orgasm, Generation, and the Politics of Reproductive Biology," in Catherine Gallagher and Thomas Laquer, eds., The Making of the Modern Body: Sexuality and Society in the Nineteenth Century (Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press, 1987), 24-35. [BACK]

22. "The Physiology of Breeding," The Agricultural Magazine, Plough, and Farmer's Journal (June 1855): 17. [BACK]

23. William M'Combie, Cattle and Cattle-Breeders (Edinburgh: William Blackwood, 1867), 153. [BACK]

24. Youatt, Cattle , 524. [BACK]

25. John Boswell, "Essay upon the Breeding of Live Stock, and on the Comparative Influence of the Male and Female Parents in Impressing the Offspring," Farmer's Magazine I, NS (1838): 248. [BACK]

26. William M'Combie, Cattle and Cattle-Breeders , 118-119, Robert Oliphant Pringle, The Livestock of the Farm , ed. and rev. James MacDonald (Edinburgh: William Blackwood, 1886), 101-102. break [BACK]

27. John Jennings, Domestic and Fancy Cats: A Practical Treatise on Their Varieties, Breeding, Management, and Diseases (London: L. Upcott Gill, n.d.), 45. [BACK]

28. Everett Millais, "Influence; with special reference to that of the sire," in The Dog Owners' Annual for 1894 (London: Dean), 153. [BACK]

29. Vero Shaw, The Illustrated Book of the Dog (London: Cassell, 1881), 525. [BACK]

30. Hugh Dalziel, The Collie: As a Show Dog, Companion, and Worker , rev. J. Maxtee (London: L. Upcott Gill, 1904), 48. [BACK]

31. Dalziel, British Dogs: Their Varieties, History, Characteristics, Breeding, Management, and Exhibition (London: "Bazaar," 1879-1880), 462-463. [BACK]

32. Gordon Stables, The Practical Kennel Guide; with Plain Instructions How to Rear and Breed Dogs for Pleasure, Show, and Profit (London: Cassell Petter and Galpin, 1877), 121. [BACK]

33. Millais, "Influence," 153. At an earlier period, this theory was occasionally applied to human matings as well. Thus, according to John Aubrey, the distinguished seventeenth-century doctor, William Harvey claimed that "he that marries a widow makes himself Cuckold." Quoted in Alan MacFarlane, Marriage and Love in England, 1300-1840 (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1986), 232. [BACK]

34. G. H. Andrews, Modern Husbandry: A Practical and Scientific Treatise on Agriculture (London: 1853), 163. [BACK]

35. Millais, "Influence," 153. [BACK]

36. Frances Simpson, Cats and All About Them (London: Isbister, 1902). 64. [BACK]

37. Lytton, Toy Dogs , 195. Scientists took the notion of telegony more seriously than the scantly evidence would seem to justify, perhaps for the same reasons that made it appealing to animal breeders. Richard Burkhardt, Jr., "Closing the Door on Lord Morton's Mare: The Rise and Fall of Telegony," Studies in the History of Biology 3 (1979): 16-17. [BACK]

38. Dalziel, Collie , 41. [BACK]

39. William Taplin, The Sportsman's Cabinet, or, A correct delineation of the various dogs used in the sports of the field (London, 1803), I: 27-28. [BACK]

40. Shaw, Illustrated Book of the DogK , 524. [BACK]

41. Dalziel, Collie , 48. [BACK]

42. John Mills, A Treatise on Cattle (London: J. Johnson, 1776), 271, 310, 401.

43. Ibid., 387. [BACK]

42. John Mills, A Treatise on Cattle (London: J. Johnson, 1776), 271, 310, 401.

43. Ibid., 387. [BACK]

44. George Hanger, Cononel George Hanger, to All Sportsmen, and Particularly to Farmers, and Game Keepers (LondoN: George Hanger, 1814), 47. [BACK]

45. Stables, Practical Kennel Guide , 125.

46. Ibid., 123-124. [BACK]

45. Stables, Practical Kennel Guide , 125.

46. Ibid., 123-124. [BACK]

47. Shaw, Illustrated Book of the Dog , 523. [BACK]

48. C. J. Davies, The Kennel Handbook (London: John Lane, 1905), 66. break [BACK]

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