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Epilogue Modern Ritual at Bent's Old Fort

1. Clifford Geertz, "Deep Play: Notes on the Balinese Cockfight," in The Interpretation of Cultures (New York: Basic Books, 1973), 122. [BACK]

2. Ibid., 219. [BACK]

3. Mark P. Leone, "Time in American Archeology," in Social Archeology (New York: Academic Press), 1978. [BACK]

4. Geertz, "Deep Play," 194. [BACK]

5. Eric Berne, What Do You Say After You Say Hello? (Toronto: Bantam Books, 1972), 148. [BACK]

6. Ibid., 153. [BACK]

7. Gramsci developed the idea of cultural hegemony in notebooks he kept while in prison. He attributed the failure of communist revolutions largely to the control over the media, educational systems, advertising, churches, and other means for the propagation of culture by the ruling classes. Two selections of these notebooks have been translated into English and provide a full discussion of Gramsci's theory: Antonio Gramsci, The Modern Prince , trans. Louis Marks (London: Lawrence and Wishart, 1957), and Selections from the Prison Notebooks of Antonio Gramsci , trans. Q. Hoare and G. Nowell Smith (London: Lawrence and Wishart, 1971). [BACK]

8. Unless one employs that term even more broadly than I have done here and says that culture is only ideology that has taken various guises. I stop short of this. [BACK]

9. David M. Pletcher, The Diplomacy of Annexation: Texas, Oregon, and the Mexican War (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1973), 5. [BACK]

10. Richard White, The Middle Ground: Indians, Empires, and the Republics in the Great Lakes Region, 1650-1815 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991). [BACK]

11. David J. Sandoval, "Gnats, Goods, and Greasers: Mexican Merchants on the Santa Fe Trail ," Journal of the West 28 (1989): 25. [BACK]

12. Susan Calafate Boyle, "Comerciantes, Arrieros, y Peones: The Hispanos and the Santa Fe Trade," manuscript on file, National Park Service, Denver Service Center, 1992; and Jere Krakow, personal communication, 1993. [BACK]

13. See, for example, Rhys Isaac, The Transformation of Virginia, 1740-1790 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1982), 163-177. [BACK]

14. Mary Douglas, Natural Symbols, 137. [BACK]

15. Anthony Giddens, Emile Durkheim: Selected Writings (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1972), 22. [BACK]

16. Merrill J. Mattes, "From Ruin to Reconstruction," in Bent's Old Fort, ed. Cathryne Johnson (Denver: Colorado Historical Society, 1976), 61. [BACK]


17. It is of some importance to note here that, as is almost always the case, local and state governments and organizations sought to place the historic site within the National Park System. The federal government almost never takes the initiative in establishing National Park units. Thus, the federal government is not aggressively pursuing an agenda of "cultural hegemony," at least through such actions. On the contrary, local governments and organizations are typically eager to establish an affiliation with the federal system, thereby legitimating the importance of, or validating, their own history. [BACK]

18. Mattes, "From Ruin to Reconstruction," 76. [BACK]

19. Robert E Berkhofer, Jr., "The Challenge of Poetics to (Normal) Historical Practice," Poetics Today 9 (1988): 441. [BACK]

20. Mary Douglas, Natural Symbols (New York: Vantage Books, 1970), 125. [BACK]

21.Isaac, The Transformation of Virginia . [BACK]

22. Geertz, "Deep Play," 94-95. [BACK]

23. During the time of Bent's Old Fort, however, this would have been far north of the typical range of the Southern Cheyenne and Arapaho, who were kept to the south by the opportunties offered by the fort. [BACK]

24. John Eddy, "Astronomical Alignment of the Big Horn Medicine Wheel," 184 (1974): 1035-1043. [BACK]

25. Ibid., l036. [BACK]

26. George Grinnell, "The Medicine Wheel," American Anthropologist 24 (1922): 299-310, discussed on 307ff. [BACK]

27. Eddy, "Astronomical Alignment," 1036. [BACK]

28. Ibid. [BACK]

29. Geertz, "Deep Play," 128. [BACK]

30. Ibid. [BACK]

31. Quoted in Joseph Campbell, Historical Atlas of World Mythology, Volume 1: The Way of the Animal Powers, Part 2: Mythologies of the Great Hunt (New York, Harper & Row, 1988). [BACK]

32. Yi-Fu Tuan, Segmented Worlds and Self: Group Life and Individual Cam (Minneapolis: University, of Minnesota Press), 175. [BACK]

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