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Chapter 6 Bent's Old Fort as the New World

1. John S. D. Eisenhower, So Far From God: The U.S. War With Mexico 1844-1848 (New York: Anchor, 1989), xviii. [BACK]

2. David J. Weber, The Taos Trappers: The Fur Trade in the Far Southwest, 1540-1846 (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1986), 94-95. [BACK]

3. Janet LeCompte, "Manuel Armijo and the Americans," Journal of the West, 19, no. 3 (1980): 51-63. [BACK]

4. Walter Briggs, "Bent's Old Fort: Castle in the Desert," American West 15, no. 5 (1976): 10-17. [BACK]

5. Susan Shelby Magoffin, Down the Santa Fe Trail and Into New Mexico, ed. Stella M. Drumm, foreword by Howard R. Lamar (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1982). [BACK]

6. See Clifford Geertz's discussion of metaphor in "Deep Play: Notes on the Balinese Cockfight," in The Interpretation of Cultures (New York: Basic Books, 1973), 208-213; and also Colin Turbayne's groundbreaking work, The Myth of Metaphor (New Haven: Yale University, Press, 1970). [BACK]

7. Ian Hodder, "Post-Modernism, Post-Structuralism and Post-Processual Archaeology," in The Meanings of Things: Material Culture and Symbolic Expressions, ed. Ian Hodder (London: Unwin Hyman, 1989). [BACK]

8. Anthony Giddens, "Action, Subjectivity, and the Constitution of Meaning," in The Aims of Representation: Subject/Text/History, ed. Murray Krieger (New York: Columbia University Press, 1987). [BACK]

9. Rhys Isaac, The Transformation of Virginia 1740-1700 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1982), 302-306. [BACK]

10. Michel Foucault, Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison (New York: Vintage Books, 1979), 32-69. [BACK]

11. See ibid., 200. [BACK]

12. Ibid., 225. [BACK]

13. Quentin Skinner, Meaning and Context: Quentin Skinner and His Critics, ed. James Tully (Cambridge: Polity, 1988). [BACK]

14. Foucault, Discipline and Punish, 200. [BACK]

15. Ibid., 204. [BACK]

16. So named for Frederick Winslow Taylor, known as the "father of scientific management," who gained fame with his time and motion studies. These studies were first used to increase productivity in American mills in the late nineteenth century. His "modern" management techniques became the rage throughout American industry. [BACK]

17. Jeremy Bentham, Panopticon, or, the Inspection-House (London: R. Baldwin, 1812). [BACK]

18. Enid T. Thompson, "Fumishing Study for Bent's Old Fort Historic Sites, Colorado," Manuscript on file, National Park Service, Denver Service Center, 1973, p. 15. [BACK]

19. Mary Douglas, Natural Symbols (New York: Vantage Books, 1970), 125-139. [BACK]

20. National Park Service, "Bent's Old Fort Living History Orientation Handbook and Sourcebook," manuscript on file, Bent's Old Fort National Historic Site, La Junta, Colorado (n.d.), p. 35. [BACK]

21. Donald J. Berthrong, The Southern Cheyennes (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1963), 227. [BACK]

22. Unsigned article in St. Louis Weekly Reveille, May, 1846, pp. 167-168. [BACK]

23. Janet LeCompte, Pueblo, Hardscrabble, Greenhorn (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1978), 116. [BACK]

24. Harvey Lewis Carter, "Dear Old Kit ": The Historical Christopher Carson (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1968), 125-126. [BACK]


25. See Lewis Garrard, Wah-to-yah and the Taos Trail, introduction by A. B. Guthrie, Jr. (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1955); Francis Parkman, The Oregon Trail, ed. E. N. Feltskog (Madison: University, of Wisconsin Press, 1969); and Matthew C. Field, Matt Field on the Santa Fe Trail, ed. John E. Sunder (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1960). [BACK]

26. Magoffin, Down the Santa Fe Trail, 61. [BACK]

27. Ibid., 95. [BACK]

28. Ibid., xvii. [BACK]

29. Foucault, Discipline and Punish, 203. [BACK]

30. Douglas, Natural Symbols, 125-139. [BACK]

31. Magoffin, Down the Santa Fe Trail, 61. [BACK]

32. Rhys Isaac, The Transformation of Virginia 1740-1790 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1982), 104. [BACK]

33. LeCompte, Pueblo, 261. [BACK]

34. Thompson, "Furnishing Study," 126. [BACK]

35. Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche, Ecce Homo, part 4 in The Philosophy of Nietzsche (New York: Modern Library, 1900), 32. [BACK]

36. Roland Barthes , Mythologies (New York: Hill and Wang, 1972), 58-61. [BACK]

37. Douglas C. Comer, Bent's Old Fort 1976 Archeological Investigations: Trash Dump Exavations, Area Surveys, and Monitoring of Fort Construction and Landscaping (Denver: National Park Service, Denver Service Center, 1985). [BACK]

38. George Miller, "Classification and Economic Scaling of Nineteenth Century, Ceramics," manuscript on file, National Historic Parks and Sites Branch, Ottawa, Canada, 1979. Miller, a ceramics expert, has estimated that if undecorated whiteware were given a value of l, then transfer-printed ware should be assigned a value of 3. On this scale, porcelain would be 4—not that much more than transfer-printed ware—while most other decorated ceramics would be assigned a value of only about 1.3. [BACK]

39. John Solomon Otto, "Artifacts and Status Differences," in Research Strategies in Historical Archeology, ed. Stanley South (New York: Academy Press, 1977).

      The percentage of transfer-printed shards to total number of shards that might be calculated from Table 1 would be deceptively small, 8%, for several reasons. First of all, the trash dumps were utilized by everyone who occupied or frequented the fort, not just those in the uppermost social stratum among residents there, who would have been the most likely to have used transfer-printed ware. Also, a good number of the shards classified as "miscellaneous undecorated whiteware" in Table l were probably transfer-printed, because many transfer-printed vessels display large white, undecorated spaces. (Other decorative techniques, like hand-painting, spattering, or lustering, characteristically do not, in part because of the technologies utilized in their production.) In this case, too, many of the shards had been so blackened by the numerous fires set in the dump that decoration may have been hidden. Finally, only a small portion of the two trash dumps were excavated. The sampling strategy employed during the excavations there permitted an estimate of the total number of transfer-printed shards that might be present in both dumps to be made. At an 80% confidence level, one might expect 220 to 478 such shards. When one considers the small number of persons likely to have used transfer-printed ware, the ware seems better represented by these numbers. And, the estimate is based upon the number of shards recovered that were identified as being transfer-printed. Those not identified in this way, for reasons just described, would not then have contributed to the range estimated for both dumps; thus, the real number of transfer-printed shards is almost certainly higher than this. [BACK]


40. Jackson W. Moore, Bent's Old Fort, An Archeological Study (Boulder, Colo.: Pruett Press, 1973), 72; and Comer, Bent's Old Fort, 47, 65. [BACK]

41. Donald Shomette, personal communication, 1993. [BACK]

42. Jeff Miller, personal communication, 1977. [BACK]

43. Stanley South, Method and Theory in Historical Archaeology (New York: Academic Press, 1977), 42. [BACK]

44. Thompson, "Furnishing Study," 118. [BACK]

45. Magoffin, Down the Santa Fe Trail, 94. [BACK]

46. See Derek Robbins, The Work of Pierre Bourdieu (Boulder: Westview Press, 1991), 117-131. [BACK]

47. John Solomon Otto, "Artifacts and Status Differences," in Research Strategies in Historical Archeology, ed. Stanley South (New York: Academy Press, 1977). [BACK]

48. While no ceramics are known to have been produced commercially in New Mexico, far to the south in the Spanish colonial city of Puebla the same was not true. A full range of ceramics was produced there, although these ceramics were fired at a low temperature and therefore were less durable. Louanna Lackey, who has conducted ceramics research in Puebla for over two decades, reports that these included chocolate services and a few tea services. These ceramics found their market with the Spanish elite there and in nearby Mexico City, and some were carried north by Spanish missionaries and traders. See Louanna M. Lackey, "Elite Ceramics: Dishes Fit for a King," in Ceramic Ecology Revisited: The Technology and Socioeconomics of Pottery, ed. Charles C. Kolb (Oxford: British Archaeology Reports, 1988), 89-109. [BACK]

49. Thompson, "Furnishing Study," 21. [BACK]

50. Ibid., 15-16. She cites: RG 107—Microfilm 6, Federal Records Center, Denver; and Mexican Archives of New Mexico, New Mexico #1128, Santa Fe. [BACK]

51. Mark P. Leone, "The Georgian Order as the Order of Merchant Capitalism in Annapolis, Maryland," in The Recovery of Meaning: Historical Archaeology in the Eastern United States, ed. Mark P. Leone and Parker B. Potter (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1988), 242. [BACK]

52. Mircea Eliade, The Myth of the Eternal Return: Or, Cosmos and History (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1954), 5. [BACK]

53. Leone, "Georgian Order," 252. He cites Kimmerly Rorschach, The Early Georgian Landscape (New Haven, Conn.: Yale Center for British Art, 1983), 1-7. [BACK]

54. Thompson, "Furnishing Study," 6. [BACK]

55. Moore, Bent's Old Fort, 60. [BACK]

56. Comer, Bent's Old Fort. [BACK]

57. The incinerations produced many of the "unknown" ceramic shards listed in Table 1. [BACK]

58. Foucault, Discipline and Punish, 179. [BACK]

59. Comer, Bent's Old Fort, 59. [BACK]

60. Thompson, "Furnishing Study," 6. [BACK]

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