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Chapter 3 Nostalgia for Paradise

1. Mircea Eliade, The Sacred and the Profane: The Nature of Religion: The Significance of Religious Myth, Symbolism, and Ritual Within Life and Culture, trans. Willard R. Trask (New York: Harcort Brace Jovanovich, 1959), 39-45. [BACK]

2. David Lowenthal provides some examples that are interesting because they involve "modem" groups, as in "Geography, Experience, and Imaginations: Towards a Geographical Epistemology," Annals of the Association of American Geographers 51 (1961): 241-260, 241. Eliade mentions ubiquitous nostalgia in his writings; see, for example, The Sacred and the Profane; 91-93, and Myths, Dreams, and Mysteries (New York: Harper, 1960), 95-98. [BACK]

3. Leslie Spier, The Sun Dance of the Plains Indians: Its Development and Diffusion , Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, vol. 16, pt. 7 (New York: Museum of Natural History, 1921) 453. [BACK]

4. Karl H. Schlesier, "Rethinking the Midewiwin and the Plains Ceremonial Called the Sun Dance," in Plains Anthropologist, 35, 127 (1990), 1-27. [BACK]

5. Ibid., 1. [BACK]

6. Ibid., 2. [BACK]

7. Dennis Stanford, "The Jones-Miller Site: An Example of Hell Gap Bison Procurement Strategy," Plains Anthropologist, Memoir #14 (1978): 97. [BACK]

8. Joseph G. Jorgensen, The Sun Dance Religion: Power for the Powerless (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1972), 7. [BACK]

9. Schlesier, "Rethinking the Midewiwin," 9. [BACK]

10. George Dorsey, The Cheyenne, Anthropological Series, vol. 9, nos. I and 2 (Chicago: Field Columbian Museum, 1905); George Bird Grinnell, The Cheyenne Indians: Their History and Way of Life, 2 vols. (New York: Cooper Square Publishers, 1962); E. Adamson Hoebel, The Cheyennes (New York: Holt, Rinehart, Winston, 1960); James Mooney, "The Indian Ghost Dance," Collections of the Nebraska Stage Historical Society 19 (1911): 168-182, and "The Ghost Dance Religion and the Sioux Outbreak of 1890 ," in Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, 1892-1893, pt. 2 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1896); abridged edition, ed. Anthony E C. Wallace (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1965); John H. Moore, The Cheyenne Nation: A Social and Demographic History (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1987); Peter Powell, Sweet Medicine: The Continuing Role of the Sacred Arrows, the Sun Dance, and the Sacred Buffalo Hat in Northern Cheyenne History: Volumes I and H (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1969); Karl H. Schlesier, The Wolves of Heaven: Cheyenne Shamanism, Ceremonies, and Prehistoric Origins (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1987). [BACK]

11. Mickey Pratt, personal communication, 1992. [BACK]

12. Donald J. Berthrong, The Southern Cheyennes (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1963), 66. [BACK]


13. Durkheim considered sentiment to be an essential aspect of the "mechanical" solidarity that he said was characteristic of traditional cultures. Modern cultures, according to Durkheim, were bound together by more rational, functional considerations. These had to do with the specializations necessary to an industrial society. In such a society, because of specialization, the members of the society. were mutually dependent upon one another, leading to an ''organic'' solidarity. The terms "mechanical" and "organic" Durkheim borrowed from the biological theory of evolution that was becoming influential at the time of his writings. "Mechanical" referred to those organisms in which one cell was so much like all others that the loss of one or more cells did not interfere with the functioning of the organism. An example would be the sponge. "Organic" life forms were those with specialized organs. Durkheim attributed the deterioration, or degradation, of ritual to the lessened dependency on mechanical solidarity. Michel Foucault made reference to Durkheim's ideas, although Foucault argued (as we shall see in a subsequent section) that surveillance replaced ritual as the principal binding force of society. What Foucault did not recognize is that surveillance is a kind of ritual. This is evident m the case of Bent's Old Fort. See Emile Durkheim, The Division of Labor in Society (New York: The Free Press, 1965), 124-126. [BACK]

14. In Cheyenne mythology., the holy man called Sweet Medicine had established five of the six military societies. Four of them—the Wolf Soldiers, the Fox Soldiers, the Dog Soldiers, and the Bull Soldiers or Red Shields—he formed by transforming himself into the animals that served as totems for these societies. The sixth society was said to have been created by a warrior named Owl Man after the Cheyenne had made contact with the Europeans. When performing at the Sun Dance and elsewhere, the members of this society danced with guns, to symbolize this association with the white man. [BACK]

15. Basil Bernstein, "A Sociolinguistic Approach to Socialization, with Some Reference to Educability," in Directions In Sociolinguistics: The Ethnography of Communication, ed. Dell Hymes (New York: Rinehart & Winston, 1977), 465-497. [BACK]

16. James P. Spradley, The Ethnographic Interview (New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1979). [BACK]

17. Victor Turner, The Anthropology of Performance (New York: PAJ Publications, 1986), 76. [BACK]

18. Schlesier, Wolves of Heaven. [BACK]

19. Mircea Eliade, Rites and Svmbols of Initiation (New York: Harper and Row, 1958), 93-94. [BACK]

20. Berthrong, The Southern Cheyennes. [BACK]

21. Fred R. Meyers, "Always Ask: Resource Use and Land Ownership among Pintupi Aborigines of the Australian Western Desert," in Resource Managers: North American and Australian Hunter-Gatherers, ed. Nancy, M. Williams and Eugene S. Hunn (Boulder: Westview Press). [BACK]

22. Ibid., 180. [BACK]

23. Schlesier, Wolves of Heaven, 13. [BACK]

24. James Clifford, The Predicament of Culture: Twentieth Century Ethnography, Literature, and Art (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1988), 1-17. [BACK]


25. Several ethnographers have noted this dual importance of the horse. See, for example, John C. Ewers, The Horse in Blackfoot Indian Culture, U.S. Bureau of Ethnology, vol. 159 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1955); Joseph Jablow, The Cheyenne Indian in Plains Indian Trade Relations, 1795-1840, Monographs of the American Ethnological Society (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1950); and Oscar Lewis, The Effects of White Contact Upon Blackfoot Culture: With Special Reference to the Role of the Fur Trade, Monographs of the American Ethnological Society, ed. A. Irving Hallowell (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1942). [BACK]

26. George Bird Grinnell, By Cheyenne Campfires (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1926), 34-37. [BACK]

27. Clifford Geertz, "Deep Play: Notes on the Balinese Cockfight," in The Interpretation of Cultures (New York, 1973). [BACK]

28. Ibid., 434. [BACK]

29. Another reason for decreased opportunity for young warriors was not necessarily related to the Sun Dance or to new forms of wealth. As time went on, the Cheyenne experienced intensified pressure by Anglos to curtail raiding—except on the enemies of the Anglos. When the Cheyenne were placed on reservations, of course, there were no sanctioned opportunities for raiding. [BACK]

30. Turner, Anthropology of Performance, 21-32. [BACK]

31. Claire R. Farrer, Living Life's Circle: Mescalero Apache Cosmovision (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1991), 57. [BACK]

32. Eliade, Sacred and Profane , 97. [BACK]

33. Stephen Jay Gould, Ontogeny and Phylogeny (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press, 1977). [BACK]

34. Weston La Barre, Shadow of Childhood (Norman: University of OKlahoma Press, 1991), 102-146. [BACK]

35. Differentiation is considered by Murray Bowen, Family Therapy in Clinical Practice (New York: Jason Aronson, 1990); individuation by M. L. von Franz, "The Process of Individuation," in Man and His Symbols, ed. Carl G. Jung (New York: Dell Publishing Co, 1964), 158-254. [BACK]

36. Bernstein, "Sociolinguistic Approach," 465-497. [BACK]

37. Mary Douglas, Natural Symbols (New York: Vantage Books, 1970), 138-139. [BACK]

38. R. H. Lowie, Primitive Religion (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1925). [BACK]

39. Douglas, Natural Symbols, 136. [BACK]

40. Eliade, Sacred and Profane , 66. [BACK]

41. William Brandon, Quivira (Columbus: Ohio University Press, 1990). [BACK]

42. Claude Lévi-Strauss , The Raw and the Cooked: Introduction to a Science of Mythology: I (New York: Harper & Row, 1969), 336. [BACK]

43. George R. Milner, E. Anderson, and V. G. Smith, "Warfare in Late Prehistoric West-Central Illinois," Amercian Antiquity 56, no. 4 (1991): 581-603. [BACK]

44. James Axtell, The European and the Indian: Essays in the Ethnohistory of Colonial North America (Oxford University Press: New York, 1981), 17-21. [BACK]

45. A. Irving Hallowell, "The Backwash of the Frontier," in Beyond the Frontier: Social Process and Cultural Change, ed. Paul Bohannon and Fred Plog (Garden City, N.Y.: Natural History Press, 1967), 344. [BACK]

46. Mary Douglas, Natural Symbols (New York: Pantheon, 1970), 125-139. [BACK]

47. Weston La Barre, Culture in Context (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1980), 152. [BACK]

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