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Three State and Counterrevolution in France

1. Alexis de Tocqueville, The Old Régime and the French Revolution (Garden City, N.J.: Doubleday, 1955), p. 60. [BACK]

2. Michel Antoine, Le Conseil du Roi sous le règne de Louis XV (Geneva: Droz, 1970); Douglas Clark Baxter, Servants of the Sword: Intendants of the Army, 1630-70 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1976); William H. Beik, Absolutism and Society in Seventeenth-Century France (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985); Julian Dent, Crisis in Finance: Crown, Financiers, and Society in Seventeenth-Century France (Newton Abbot: David and Charles, 1973); Daniel Dessert, Argent, pouvoir, et société au Grand Siècle

(Paris: Fayard, 1984); Robert R. Harding, Anatomy of a Power Elite: The Provincial Governors of Early Modern France (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1978); A. Lloyd Moote, The Revolt of the Judges: The Parlement of Paris and the Fronde (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1971); Sharon Kettering, Patrons, Brokers, and Clients in Seventeenth-Century France (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986). [BACK]

3. For the uneven geographical distribution of royal institutions of control, see Bernard Lepetit, "Fonction administrative et armature urbaine: Remarques sur la distribution des chefs-lieux de subdélégation en France à la fin de l'Ancien Régime," Institut d'Histoire Economique et Sociale de l'Université de Paris I, Recherches et Travaux , 11 (1982): 19-34. For the crucial place of corporate institutions in royal relations with localities, and their transformation during the Revolution, see Gail Bossenga, "City and State: An Urban Perspective on the Origins of the French Revolution," in Keith Michael Baker, ed., The French Revolution and the Creation of Modern Political Culture . 1: The Political Culture of the Old Regime (Oxford: Pergamon, 1988); and Bossenga, "La Révolution française et les corporations: Trois exemples lillois,'' Annales; Economies, Sociétés, Civilisations 43 (1988): 405-426. [BACK]

4. Bossenga, "La Révolution française," 405-426; Bossenga, "City and State," pp. 115-140. [BACK]

5. Gunnar Artéus, Till Militärstatens Förhistoria. Krig, professionalisering och social förändering under Vasasönernas regering (Stockholm: Probus, 1986); Peter Burke, "CityStates," in John A. Hall, ed., States in History (Oxford: Blackwell, 1986); Eric J. Evans, The Forging of the Modern State: Early Industrial Britain, 1783-1870 (London: Longman, 1983); Marjolein 't Hart, "Taxation and the Formation of the Dutch State, 17th Century," paper presented to the Vlaams-Nederlandse Sociologendagen, Amsterdam, 1986; Jonathan I. Israel, The Dutch Republic and the Hispanic World (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1982); Leon Jespersen, "The Machtstaat in Seventeenth-Century Denmark," Scandinavian Journal of History 10 (1985): 271-304; Sven A. Nilsson, "Imperial Sweden: Nation-Building, War and Social Change,'' in Sven A. Nilsson, ed., The Age of New Sweden (Stockholm: Livrustkammaren, 1988); Ervin Pamlényi, ed., A History of Hungary (London: Collet's, 1975); Traian Stoianovich, "Model and Mirror of the Premodern Balkan City," Studia Balcanica . III: La Ville Balkanique XVe-XIXe siècle (1970): 83-110; Ernst Werner, Die Geburt einer Grossmacht—die Osmanen (1300-1481) (Vienna: Böhlhaus, 1985); Andrzej Wyczanski, "La frontière de l'unité européenne au XVIème siècle: Liens—cadres—contenu," in Actes du Colloque FrancoPolonais d'Histoire (Nice: Laboratoire d'Histoire Quantitative, Université de Nice, 1981). [BACK]

6. Raymond Grew, "The Nineteenth-Century European State," in Charles Bright and Susan Harding, eds., Statemaking and Social Movements (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1984); Arno Mayer, The Persistence of the Old Regime (New York: Pantheon, 1981). [BACK]

7. M. S. Anderson, War and Society in Europe of the Old Regime 1619-1789 (London: Fontana, 1988); Gunnar Artéus, Krigsmakt och Samhälle i Frihetstidens Sverige (Stockholm: Militärhistoriska Förlaget, 1982); Richard Bean, "War and the Birth of the Nation State," Journal of Economic History 33 (1973): 203-221; Geoffrey Best, War and Society in Revolutionary Europe, 1770-1870 (London: Fontana, 1982); Klaus-Richard Böhme, "Schwedische Finanzbürokratie und Kriegführung 1611 bis 1721," in Goran

Rystad, ed., Europe and Scandinvia: Aspects of the Process of Integration in the 17th Century (Lund: Esselte Studium, 1983); Otto Busch, Militarsystem und Sozialleben im alten Preussen 1713-1807: Die Anfänge der sozialen Militarisierung der preussisch-deutschen Gesellschaft (Berlin: de Gruyter, 1962); Sir George Clark, "The Social Foundations of States," in F. L. Carsten, ed., The New Cambridge Modern History . 5: The Ascendancy of France, 1648-88 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1969); James B. Collins, Fiscal Limits of Absolutism: Direction Taxation in Early Seventeenth-Century France (Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press, 1988); Brian M. Downing, "Constitutionalism, Warfare, and Political Change in Early Modern Europe," Theory and Society 17 (1988): 7-56; Michael Duffy, ed., The Military Revolution and the State, 1500-1800 (Exeter: University of Exeter, 1980; Exeter Studies in History, 1); Samuel E. Finer, "State- and Nation-Building in Europe: The Role of the Military," in Charles Tilly, ed., The Formation of National States in Westerm Europe (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1975); Jean-Philippe Genet and Michel Le Mené, eds., Genèse de l'Etat moderne. Prélèvement et Redistribution (Paris: Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 1987); Alain Guillerm, La pierre et le vent. Fortifications et marine en Occident (Paris: Arthuad, 1985); J. R. Hale, War and Society in Renaissance Europe, 1450-1620 (New York: St. Martin's, 1985); Jan Lindegren, ''The Swedish 'Military State,' 1560-1720," Scandinavian Journal of History 10 (1985): 305-336; William H. McNeill, The Pursuit of Power: Technology, Armed Force and Society since A.D. 1000 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982); Geoffrey Parker, The Military Revolution: Military Innovation and the Rise of the West, 1500-1800 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988); Josef V. Polisensky, War and Society in Europe, 1618-1648 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978); Simon Schama, "The Exigencies of War and the Politics of Taxation in the Netherlands 1795-1810," in J. M. Winter, ed., War and Economic Development: Essays in Memory of David Joslin (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1975). [BACK]

8. J. E. D. Binney, British Public Finance and Administration 1774-92 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1958); Norman Chester, The British Administrative System, 1780-1870 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1981); Emmeline W. Cohen, The Growth of the British Civil Service 1780-1939 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1965); Eric J. Evans, The Forging of the Modern State: Early Industrial Britain, 1783-1870 (London: Longman, 1983); William Kennedy, English Taxation 1640-1799 (New York: Augustus Kelley, 1964; first published in 1913); Peter Mathias and Patrick O'Brien, "Taxation in Britain and France, 1715-1810: A Comparison of the Social and Economic Incidence of Taxes Collected for the Central Governments," Journal of European Economic History 5 (1976): 601-650. [BACK]

9. George C. Comninel, Rethinking the French Revolution: Marxism and the Revisionist Challenge (London: Verso, 1987); William Doyle, The Ancien Régime (Atlantic Highlands, N.J.: Humanities Press International, 1986); Jean Egret, La préRévolution française (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1962); Georges Frêche, Toulouse et la région Pyrénées au siècle des Lumières (vers 1670-1789) (Paris: Cujas, 1974); Bailey Stone, The Parlement of Paris, 1774-1789 (Chapel Hilt: University of North Carolina Press, 1981). [BACK]

10. For surveys of popular collective action during the early Revolution, see Richard Cobb, The Police and the People (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1970); Colin Lucas, "The Crowd and Politics between Ancien Régime and Revolution in France,"

Journal of Modern History 60 (1988): 421-457; John Markoff, "Contexts and Forms of Rural Revolt: France in 1789," Journal of Conflict Resolution 30 (1986): 253-289; Charles Tilly, The Contentious French (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1986). [BACK]

11. John Markoff, "The Social Geography of Rural Revolt at the Beginning of the French Revolution," American Sociological Review 50 (1985): 761-781; Markoff, "Contexts and Forms of Rural Revolt," 253-289. [BACK]

12. For the telling contrast between members of parlements, who came overwhelmingly from noble families and who generally lined up against the Revolution, and provincial magistrates, largely bourgeois and at least passive supporters of the Revolution, see Philip Dawson, Provincial Magistrates and Revolutionary Politics in France, 1789-1795 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1972), esp. chap. 8. [BACK]

13. Lynn Hunt, Politics, Culture, and Class in the French Revolution (Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press, 1984), p. 155; for detailed studies of provincial bourgeois in the Revolution, see Michel Vovelle, ed., Bourgeoisies de province et Révolution (Grenoble: Presses Universitaires de Grenoble, 1987). [BACK]

14. Lynn Hunt, Revolution and Urban Politics in Provincial France: Troyes and Reims, 1786-1790 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1978). [BACK]

15. Harriet G. Rosenberg, A Negotiated World: Three Centuries of Change in a French Alpine Community (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1988), 72-89. [BACK]

16. Ted Margadant, "Towns, Taxes, and State-Formation in the French Revolution," paper presented to the Irvine Seminar on Social History and Theory, April 1988; Ted Margadant, "Politics, Class, and Community in the French Revolution: An Urban Perspective," paper presented to Conference on Revolutions in Comparison, University of California, Los Angeles, 1988; Marie-Vic Ozouf-Marignier, ''De l'universalisme constituant aux intérêts locaux: Le débat sur la formation des départements en France (1789-1790), Annales: Economies, Sociétés, Civilisations 41 (1986): 1193-1214; Patrick Schultz, La décentralisation administrative dans le département du Nord (1790-1793) (Lille: Presses Universitaires de Lille, 1982). [BACK]

17. Clive H. Church, Revolution and Red Tape: The French Ministerial Bureaucracy 1770-1850 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1981), chap. 3. In response to the financial crisis, Minister Loménie de Brienne had already established a national treasury in 1788; the revolutionaries then consolidated the organization, expanded its scope, and nationalized the debt: J. F. Bosher, French Finances, 1770-1795: From Business to Bureaucracy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970), chaps. 11 to 15. [BACK]

18. Jacques Aubert and Raphaël Petit, La police en France: Service public (Paris: Berger-Levrault, 1981), p. 84; Jacques Aubert et al., L'Etat et sa police en France (1789-1914) (Geneva: Droz, 1979); Iain A. Cameron, "The Police of Eighteenth-Century France," European Studies Review 7 (1977): 47-75; Robert M. Schwartz, Policing the Poor in Eighteenth-Century France (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1988). [BACK]

19. Owen Connelly, Napoleon's Satellite Kingdoms (New York: Free Pess, 1965). [BACK]

20. Jean-Pierre Jessenne, Pouvoir au village et Révolution: Artois 1760-1848 (Lille: Presses Universitaires de Lille, 1987). [BACK]

21. Colin Lucas, The Structure of the Terror: The Example of Claude Javogues and the Loire (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1973). [BACK]

22. "The Bull Who Bearded the Terrible Twelve," Times Literary Supplement , 26 October 1973, p. 1320. [BACK]

23. James C. Scott, Weapons of the Weak: Everyday Forms of Peasant Resistance (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985). [BACK]

24. Quick reviews of resistance to the Revolution and its conquests both inside and outside of France appear in François Lebrun and Roger Dupuy, eds., Les résistances à la Révolution (Paris: Imago, 1987). In Jean Nicolas, ed., Mouvements populaires et conscience sociale, XVIe-XIXe siècles (Paris: Maloine, 1985), see especially Alan Forrest, "Les soulèvements populaires contre le service militaire, 1793-1814"; and Colin Lucas, "Résistances populaires à la Révolution dans le sud-est," in Gwynne Lewis and Colin Lucas, eds., Beyond the Terror: Essays in French Regional and Social History , 1794-1815 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983)—see especially Colin Lucas, "Themes in Southern Violence after 9 Thermidor," and Gwynne Lewis, "Political Brigandage and Popular Disaffection in the South-East of France 1795-1804." [BACK]

25. Donald Greer, The Incidence of the Terror during the French Revolution (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1935), p. 147. [BACK]

26. Alan Forest, Society and Politics in Revolutionary Bordeaux (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1975), chap. 5; James N. Hood, "Protestant-Catholic Relations and the Roots of the First Popular Counterrevolutionary Movement in France," Journal of Modern History 43 (1971): 245-275; James N. Hood, "Revival and Mutation of Old Rivalries in Revolutionary France," Past and Present 82 (1979): 82-115; Gwynne Lewis, The Second Vendée: The Continuity of Counter-Revolution in the Department of the Gard, 1789-1815 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1978); Martyn Lyons, Révolution et Terreur à Toulouse (Toulouse: Privat, 1980); William Scott, Terror and Repression in Revolutionary Marseilles (New York: Barnes and Noble, 1973); Michel Vovelle, "Massacreurs et massacrés. Aspects sociaux de la Révolution en Provence, après Thermidor," in Lebrun and Dupuy, eds., Les résistances à la Révolution . [BACK]

27. Paul Bois, "Aperçu sur les causes des insurrections de l'Ouest à l'époque révolutionnaire," in J.-C. Martin, ed., Vendée-Chouannerie (Nantes: Reflets du Passé, 1981); T. J. A. Le Goff and D. M. G. Sutherland, "Religion and Rural Revolt in the French Revolution: An Overview," in János M. Bak and Gerhard Benecke, eds., Religion and Rural Revolt (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1984); Clément Martin, La Vendée et la France (Paris: Le Seuil, 1987). [BACK]

28. Alphonse Aulard, The French Revolution (London: Unwin, 1910), 2:306-307. [BACK]

29. Reynald Secher, Le génocide français. La VendéeVengé (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1986). [BACK]

30. Laurent Ladouce, "Was France the Fatherland of Genocide?" The World and I , January 1988, p. 686.

31. Ibid., p. 687. [BACK]

30. Laurent Ladouce, "Was France the Fatherland of Genocide?" The World and I , January 1988, p. 686.

31. Ibid., p. 687. [BACK]

32. Michel Vovelle, "L'Historiographie de la Révolution française à la veille du Bicentenaire," Annales Historiques de la Révolution française 272 (1988): 119. [BACK]

33. The truncated published version appeared as La Chapelle-Basse-Mer, village vendéen. Révolution et révolution (Paris: Perrin, 1986). [BACK]

34. Charles Tilly, "Civil Constitution and Counter-Revolution in Southern Anjou," French Historical Studies 1 (1959): 172-199; "Local Conflicts in the Vendée Before the Rebellion of 1793," French Historical Studies 2 (1961): 209-231; "Some Problems in the History of the Vendée," American Historical Review 67 (1961): 19-33; "Rivalités de bourgs et conflits de partis dans les Mauges," Revue du Bas-Poitou et des Provinces de

l'Ouest no. 4 (July-August 1962): 3-15. La Vendée. Révolution et révolution (Paris: Arthème Fayard, 1970); Claude Petitfrère, Blancs et bleus d'Anjou (1789-1793 , 2 vols. (Paris: Champion, 1979). For reservations as to the generality of the rural-urban split in all the West's counterrevolutionary regions, see T. J. A. Le Goff and D. M. G. Sutherland, "The Revolution and the Rural Community in Eighteenth-Century Brittany," Past and Present 62 (1974): 96-119; T. J. A. Le Goff and D. M. G. Sutherland, "The Social Origins of Counter-Revolution in Western France," Past and Present 99 (1983): 65-87; Donald Sutherland, The Chouans: The Social Origins of Popular Counter-Revolution in Upper Brittany, 1770-1796 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1982); and Roger Dupuy, De la Révolution à la Chouannerie. Paysans en Bretagne 1788-1794 (Paris: Flammarion, 1988). [BACK]

35. Compare the descriptions of events in La Séguinière, Saint-Lambert-duLattay, and Saint-Luigné in Secher, Génocide , pp. 88-89, with accounts of the same events in Tilly, Vendée , pp. 254-255. [BACK]

36. Secher, Chapelle-Basse-Mer , pp. 154-155. Actually the series begins with 115, 139, 102, and 127 births in 1789-1792 and ends with 74, 120, 105, and 77 births in 1797-1800, whose variability provides little evidence—logical or statistical—of any trend whatsoever. For cautions concerning any computations of revolutionary population losses in the Vendée, see François Lebrun, "Les conséquences démographiques de la Guerre de Vendée: L'exemple des Mauges," in Lebrun and Dupuy, eds., Les résistances à la Révolution . [BACK]

37. Secher, Génocide , p. 265. [BACK]

38. Yves Blayo, "Mouvement naturel de la population française de 1740 à 1829," Population 30 (Special Number, 1975): 15-64; David R. Weir, "Life Under Pressure: France and England, 1670-1870," Journal of Economic History 44 (1984): 27-47. [BACK]

39. Etienne van de Walle, The Female Population of France: A Reconstruction of 82 Départements (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1974), pp. 125, 349, 364, 435, 453. The figures are female crude birth rates, which provide a good approximation of total crude birth rates and an excellent indication of trends and differences. According to these figures, the proper multiplier for Inférieure around 1803 was 34; by 1808 it was 37. [BACK]

40. Secher, Génocide , p. 253. [BACK]

41. Pierre Chaunu, "Avant-propos," in Secher, Génocide , pp. 23, 24. [BACK]

42. René Sédillot, Le coût de la Révolution française (Paris: Perrin, 1987), p. 28. [BACK]

43. Donald Greer, The Incidence of the Terror during the French Revolution (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1935), p. 38. [BACK]

44. Alphonse Aulard, ed., Recueil des actes du Comité de Salut Public (Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1895) 8: 505. [BACK]

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