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INDEX

A

Abbé Maury, 111 , 113

Abensour, Miguel, 8 , 149

Absolutism, French Revolution and, 275

Adams, John, 72

Agriculture, French Revolution and, 33

Alexander I, of Russia, 207

Ali, Mahamed, 123

Allegiance, oath of, 103 -104

Amants de Lyon, 71

America

American Revolution, 18 , 21 , 72 , 100 , 123

Brissot on, 253

Declaration of Independence, 225

Hegel on, 235

system of 1787, 83 , 86

Anarchism

Anarchists, 94

atheism and, 188

Saint-Just and, 140

Anaxagoras, 224

Ancien regime. See Old regime

Ancient democracies, 203 , 210 -212

Ancient Regime and the French Revolution, The (Tocqueville), 220 , 241 , 247 , 255 , 258 -259

Andrews, Richard, 6

Angers, occupation of, 58

Anjou, rebellion in, 58

Anthropology, 127

Anthropology (Kant), 208 , 213 -214

Anti-semitism, 105 -106, 114 -115

Antoinette, Marie, 77

Appel comme d'abus, 178

Arendt, Hannah, 2 , 6 , 105 -106, 150 , 183 , 201 , 230 -231

Arieli, Yehoshua, 115 n.7

Aristocracy, 40 , 49 , 62 -63, 98 -101

Aristotle, 211 , 221

Artois, struggle for power in, 55 -56

Assembly. See National Assembly

Assimilation, Jewish, 103

August Insurrection, 117

Aulard, Alphonse, 58 , 175 -176, 185 , 191

Authority, 178 , 190

B

Babeuf, F. N., 85 , 88

Bach, Dr., 88

Baker, K. M., 116 , 262 -263

Bakhtin, M. M., 249

Balzac, Honoré de, 36 , 43

Bankhash, Shaul, 29 n.46

Barbarism, 208 -209

Barère, B., 95

Barnave, 253 , 262 n.57

Baron, S. W., 116

Barra, suicide of, 88

Baurrel, Abbé, 174

Beaumarchais, C. de, 36 , 40

Beaumont, Gustave de, 260 n.11

Beethoven, L. yon, 9

Behrens, C. B. A., 28

Benjamin, Walter, 97


280

Berr, I. B., 103 , 104 , 108 , 115

Best, Geoffrey, 28 n.21, 29 nn.30, 44

Bicêtre, invasion of, 164

Bildung, principle of, 214

Billaud-Varenne, J. N., 142

Blanc, Louis, 37

Bloch, Marc, 121

Blumenberg, Hans, 235

Bodin, J., 83 , 126

Bolsheviks, 13 , 268 , 269

Bonaid, Louis de, 1 , 247 , 261 n.35

Bonaparte. See Napoleon

Bonneville, circle of, 175

Bossenga, Gail, 64 n.4

Bourbon monarchy, 80

Bourgeoisie, 39 , 42 , 52 , 63 , 78 -79, 91 , 155 , 209 , 270 , 272 , 257

Bourgeois revolution, 34 , 42 , 47 , 119 , 271

Bourgeois society, 38 , 95 , 99 , 267 , 269

Bourgeois universalism, 87

Brienne, Loménie de, 66 n.17

Brissot de Warville, Jacques-Pierre, 113 , 133 , 252 , 253

Brittany, rebellion in, 58

Broglie, Prince de, 112

Bucher, G., 9 , 146

Burke, Edmund, 125 , 153 , 219 -225, 247 , 248 , 254 , 261 n.33

Buvers de sang, 94 , 99

Buzot, François-Nicholas, 88

C

Cabanis, Dr., 202

Caesar, Julius, 232

Cagliostro, 203

Cahiers, views of, 181

Camus, Albert, 182

Canguilhem, G., 262 n.54

Capitalism, French, 98 , 271

Carlyle, T., 1 , 101

Carnot, L. N. M., 133

Carrier, drownings by, 60 , 62

Catholic Church, 81 , 96 , 98

Celan, Paul, 148

Centralization

aristocracy and, 40 , 49 , 62 -63

bourgeoise and, 63

bureaucracy and, 54

counterrevolution and, 62

Directory and, 54

French Revolution and, 52 , 63

monocameral assembly and, 253

Old Regime and, 49 -50

surveillance and, 54

Cercle Social, 86 , 175 , 202

"Ce sang etait-il si pur"? (Barnave), 94

Change

conservatism and, 125 -126

continuity and, 242 , 246

ethnocentricity of, 128

liberalism and, 125 -126

Marxism and, 125 -126

normality of, 124

Tocqueville on, 248 .

See also Continuity

Channu, Pierre, 46 n.20

Chapelier, Le, 83 , 85 , 88 -89

Charles X, 96

Chateaubriand, F. R., 146

Chaumette, P. G., 91 , 188

Chaunu, Pierre, 61

Chinese revolution, 15

Choiseul, E. F. de, 18

Christian Church

Comite Ecclesiastique, 181

egalitarianism and, 180

election ofpriests, 181

French-Roman relations, 181

novel of humanity, 175

reform within, 179

revolution and, 174 -176, 184

Richerist ideology and rebellion, 180

separate from state, 193 .

See also Church

Citizens, active, 110 , 181

Civic oath, 104

Civic virtue, 230

Civil code, 94 , 267

Civil constitution, 58 -60, 188

Civil rights, 97

Civil wars, French, 96

Civitas, Saint-Just on, 136 -137

Claims, material and communitarian, 93 , 98

Clapham, Sir John, 39

Class structure, 98 , 99 , 101 , 264

Class struggle, 35 , 42

Clausewitz, Carl von, 22

Clavière, Etienne, 88

Clermont-Tonnerre, S., 110 , 113 , 115

Cloots, A., 148 , 188

Club des Citoyennes Républicaines Révolutionnaires, 43 , 89 , 90

Cobb, Richard, 2 , 14 , 56


281

Cobban, Alfred, 5 , 14 , 46 , 117

Cobden, Richard, 43

Cochin, Augustin, 1 , 47 , 263 n.75

Colbert, J. B., 122

Comite Ecclesiastique, 181

Commerce, and French Revolution, 33 , 258

Committee of Public Safety, 170 n.22, 231

Commune, 161 , 170 n.27

Communism, 40

Communitarianism, 40 , 70 , 98

Comninel, G. C., 46 n.3

Complot des Prisons, 157 -158

Comte, Auguste, 9

Condorcet, Jean-Antione-Nicholas, 88 , 202 , 274

Conscription, 21 , 60

Consequentialism, 234

Conservatism, change and, 125

Consistency, writers and, 240

Conspiracy theories, 174

Constant, Benjamin, 202 -203, 211 , 273

Constituent assembly, 32 , 94 , 178 , 182 , 188 , 212 , 269 , 273 , 276

deputies to, 85

Kant on, 209

king and, 204

public goods, 89

rationalizing trend of, 191

Third Estate and, 180 .

See also National Assembly

Constitutional monarchy, 84 -85

Constitution of 1791, 32 , 83

Constitution of 1793, 83

Contest of the Faculties, The (Kant), 223

Continuity, and change, 242 , 246

Convention, 191 , 192 , 274

history of, 268

religion and, 185

Conventionnels, 86 , 94

Corday, Charlotte, 88

Cordeliers Club, 154

Corporate values, 96

Corporation, Jews as, 113

Corporatism, 76 , 81

Counterrevolution, 57

centralization and, 62

debate about, 58

geography of, 57

September massacres and, 157 , 168

start of, 58

in Vendée, 62

Cousin, Victor, 44

Creveld, Martin van, 27n.l, 29 n.38

Critique of Pure Reason (Kant), 222

Cromwell, Oliver, 193

Crowd in the French Revolution, The (Rudé), 153 -160

Crowds, revolutionary, 6 , 153 -156, 158 , 165

Cult of Reason, 189

Cult of Supreme Being, 174 , 185 , 186 , 191

Aulard-Mathiez controversy, 176

Cult of Reason and, 176

political moral of, 194

political task of, 190

Pontifex Maximus, 192

revolutionary church fiasco, 185

Robespierre and, 188

social value of, 192

Cultural synthesis, 84

D

D'Allard laws, 88 -89

Danton, George Jacques, 76 , 158 , 204

Dantonistes, 93

David, Natalie Z., 170 n

Davis, N. Z., 9 , 170 n.33

Dawson, Phillip, 66

De Broglie, Prince, 112

Declaration of Independence, 225

Declaration of the Rights of Man, 76 , 225

De la Force du Government (Constant), 94

De la Gorce, 174

De la Nature (Saint-Just), 134

De Maistre, J., 1

Democracy, 19 , 203 , 210 -212, 273 -274

Democracy in America (Tocqueville), 220 , 240 , 255 , 258 , 259

Démocratie dirigée, 189

Departments, creation of, 53

Dérapage, concept of, 46

Desmoulins, Camille, 88 -89, 148

Desmoulins, Lucile, 148

Destutt de Tracy, 202

Determinists, 242 , 247 -248

Dezamy, on Saint-Just, 133

Diamond Necklace affair, 76

Diderot, D., 189

Directory, 54 , 98

Direct rule. See Centralization

Doyle, William, 28 n.20, 28 n.23

Dreyfus Affair, 104

Dunn, John, 30 , 115 n.7

Duport, Adrien, 114


282

E

Economic policy, French, 79 , 99 -100, 186

Economics, creation of, 127

Economic transformation, 121

Eden treaty, 120 , 121

Educational systems, 73

Eglise constitutionelle, 175

Egypt, and French Revolution, 123

Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon (Marx), 268

Electoral laws, 110

Electorate, definition of, 40 -41

Elites

Britain and, 82

cultural transformation of, 69

public opinion, 80

sensibility of, 73 -75

as socially heterogeneous, 78

traditional opinion and, 100

Elster, J., 262 n.54

Elting, John R., 28 nn. 21, 28, 29

Emancipation, 103 -106, 109 -114

Encyclopedie (Diderot), 99 , 222

End of World History (Hegel), 234 -235

Engels, Friedrich, 39

English revolution, 31 , 35 , 123

Enlightenment, 189 , 222 , 225 , 236 , 254

economic progress and, 44

French Revolution and, 17

language of, 163

material origins of, 78

principles of, 79

seamier side of, 80

visions of, 243

Epistolary novel, 71

Equality, 40 , 75 , 130 , 258

identity and, 135

liberty and, 248 , 254

L'Esprit des Lois (Montesquieu), 228

L'Esprit révolutionnaire, 83 -84. See also Jacobinism

État social et politique de la France (Tocqueville), 249

F

Fabre d'Églantine, Philippe, 188

Fauchet, circle of, 175

Feast of the Federation, 186

Febvre, Lucien, 133

Federalism, 53 , 57

Federalist Papers, 86

Fehér, Ferenc, 116 n.10, 174 -197

Feudalism, defined, 80 -81

Feuerwerker, David, 115 n.1, 116 n.14

Fichte, J., 143

Fiscal policy, 18 -19

Floreal speech, 188 , 189 , 191

Forster, Georg, 201

Foucault, Michel, 163 , 192

Fouché, Joseph, 54 , 91 , 185 , 188

Fraternity, 130

Frederick the Great, 22

French armies, 24 -25

French Assembly. See National Assembly

French economy, 79 , 99 -100

French historiography, decline of, 2

French Jews, 109 -113

French left, 31

French Republic, Second, 268

French revolution

academic interpretation of, 13

agriculture and, 33

bourgeoise and, 40 , 63

centralization and, 49 , 52 , 54 , 63

changes in, 54 -55

class concept and, 42

cold issue, 4

commerce and, 33 , 258

consequences of, 33 , 37 , 247

debate about, 31 , 33 , 34

democracy and, 19

economic transformation, 12

geopolitical challenges, 16

German Liberals, 34

historiography of, 1

importance of wars, 23

influences of, 33

intentions and results, 31 -32

internalist interpretation, 15

interpretations of, 5 , 14 -15, 33 , 45

Iranian revolution and, 26

key words, 17

legacy of, 129

le mal revolutionnaire, 251 -252

liberty and, 241

loss of population, 61

modern strategy, 25

nineteenth-century view, 33

opponents to, 31

opposing blocs of 1789, 52

police and, 54

political interpretation of, 13 , 117

reversals, 55

revisionist interpretation, 5


283

rightists and, 31

social interpretation of, 14 , 117

social revolution, 35 , 45

totalitarian, 107

unexpected, 244

world-historical event, 27 .

See also Revolution; specific events, persons

Frozen Revolution, The , 185

Furet, Francois, 1 -8, 10 , 13 , 20 , 23 , 34 , 46 -47, 93 , 100 , 117 , 118 , 220 , 263 n.75

G

Gallican church, 180 , 202

civil constitution of, 180 , 181

reform of, 177 , 204

revolutionary reform of, 177

schism undermining, 184

Gauchet, M., 46 n.8

General will, 228

Genocide, 59 , 61 -62

Gens sans aveu, 156 , 158

Geography, creation of, 127

Geopolitical challenges, 16

Gervinus, 45

Ginzberg, Asher, 105 -106

Girondins, 88 , 91 , 190 , 193 , 211

Glorious Revolution, 31

Gobineau, Arthur de, 256

Godineau, Dominique, 74

Grande nation, 72 , 84 , 86 , 101

Grande terror, 162

Great Britain, 52 , 72 -73, 82

Great fear, 52 , 156

Grégoire, Henri, 110 , 113 , 115 , 175 , 202 , 215 n.5

Gregory VII, 175

Griewank, Karl, 27 n.2

Guerillas, 58

Guérin, Daniel, 2

Guilds, abolition of, 88 -89

Guizot, François, 35 , 36 , 46 , 264 -265

Gurvitch, George, 140

H

Ha'am, Ahad, 105 -106

Haiti, French Revolution and, 122 -123

Haskalah, 104 , 107

Hebertists, execution of, 92

Hegel

on consequentialism, 234

on German Constitution, 232

history and, 220 -236

idealism in, 224

Messianic theme in, 235

on Napoleon, 232 -233.

See also specific works

Heine, Heinrich, 201 , 210 , 222

Heller, Agnes, 4

Hermeneutics, 3 , 5 , 97 , 117 , 119

Heroism, 146 -147, 232 -233

Hertzberg, Arthur, 105 , 106 -107, 107 -108, 113 , 114

Hic rhodus, hic salt! , 91

Higonnet, Patrice, 2 , 4 , 5

Hirshman, Herbert, 74

Histories (Polybius), 221

History

creation of, 127

debate on French Revolution, 31

French liberal tradition, 34

historical revisionism, 34

historical schools, 219

historiography, 2

redefinition of, 128

repetition in, 246

Saint-Just on, 136

sociology and, 2

as text, 3

traditions and, 242

twentieth-century, 37

Hobbes, T., 126 , 221 , 226 , 229

Hobsbawm, E. J., 4 , 46

Hölderlin, F., 147

Holland, 82

Holland, Rose, 46 n.4

Holocaust, 98 , 104 , 105

Hugo, V., 174

Human rights, 225

Humboldt, A., 201 , 202

Hume, D., 127

Hunt, Lynn, 15 , 16 , 17 , 19 , 20 , 22 , 23 , 25 , 26 , 52

Huntington, Samuel P., 14 , 15

I

Identity, Saint-Just and, 135

Ideologies, 124 -125

It Principe (Machiavelli), 126 , 150 , 221 , 232 -233

Inconsistency, in human action, 240

Incorruptibles, 91

Individuality, 43 , 109 , 134

Industrialization, 33 , 39 , 44

Inquisition, 192

Instrumental rationality, 150


284

Insurrection, military, 57

Insurrection, of August (1792), 117

Integration, in Saint-Just, 142

Interpretation, 3 , 5 , 97 , 117 , 119

Iranian revolution, 26

Ireland, French Revolution and, 123

J

Jacobins, 84 , 220 , 268 , 269

calamity and, 37

capitalist layering, 82

catholicism of, 91

classical ideals in, 74

clubs, 20 , 85 -90, 154 , 186

contradictions of, 92 , 94

daily life, 90

decline of party, 157

dictatorship and, 176 , 267

differences among, 92 -93

L'esprit révolutionnaire, 86

illusion of, 89

insurrection of 1793, 161

Le Chapelier, 83

legitimacy of, 161

liberals and, 36

memory of, 97

orthodoxy and, 94 -95

politics of, 20

poor and, 91

revolutionary, 101

social life, 100

state system, 155 , 161 , 176 , 185 , 203

terrorism and, 103

universalist/individualist vision, 85 , 88

Jaurès, Jean, 1 , 175

Javogues, Claude, 56 -57

Jessenne, Jean-Pierre, 55 , 56

Jewish question, 104 -106, 108 -115

Journées révolutionnaires, 155 , 156 , 158 . See also September massacres

K

Kant, 2 , 145 , 191 , 201 , 204 , 211 , 222 -223, 227 , 234

on ancient democracies, 210 -212

Arendt on, 215

categorical imperative in, 229

church vs. religion, 215 n

Constant and, 202 -203

Copernican revolution and, 224

Danton and, 204

doctrine of virtue, 213

facturn brutum in , 206

lawful revolution, 207

on legal systems, 206

moral philosophy of, 206 , 212 -214

political philosophy of, 204 , 205 , 212 -214

on res publica noumenon , 210

on Robespierre, 201 , 205

on trial of king, 209

typology of regimes, 208 .

See also specific works

Kantorowicz, E., 146 , 183

Kates, Gary, 6

Kennedy, Michael L., 28 n.25

Kestnbaum, Meyer, 27

Key words, of French Revolution, 17

King. See Monarchy

Kocka, Jürgen, 47 n.31

Kojève, Alexandre, 233

Koselleck, R., 47 n.24

Kropotkin, Pierre, 148

L

La Chalotais system, 73

La Chapelle-Basse-Mer, 59 -60

Lacombe, C., 95

Lacos, Choderlos de, 76

Lacoue-Labarthe, P., 147

Lacroix, S., 116 n.13

Ladouce, Laurent, 59

Lafont de Saint-Yenne, on art, 75

Lally-Tollendal, motion of, 255

Lamartine, Alphonse de, 243

Lamennais, church and, 96

Landauer, Gustave, 148

Lasky, M. J., 149 n.19

Law, 204 -205, 212

Lebas, suicide of, 88

Lebon, Gustave, 154

Lebrun, François, 68

Lefebvre, Georges, 1 , 56 , 117

Lefort, Claude, 148

Leftists, 31

Legality, revolution and, 204 -205, 212

Legistes, 196 n

Le mal révolutionnaire, 251 -252, 254

Leninism, 268 -270

Lepelletier, Louis-Michel, 87 , 102 n

Lepetit, Bernard, 64

Lequino, on suicide, 87

Letters on the Aesthetic Education of Man (Schiller), 208

Levee en masse, 21 . See also Mobilization

Liaisons Dangereuses, Les (Lacos), 76


285

Liberal-bourgeois interpretation, 268 -270

Liberalism, 119 , 125

Liberty, 130

commerce and, 258

French Revolution and, 248

struggle for, 241

Tocqueville on, 242 -243, 258 -259

Locke, John, 125 , 126 , 266

Lodge. See Club

Loi Agraire, 92

Lord Acton, 46

Lotman, I. M., 260

Louis Napoleon, 207 , 246 , 256

Louis-Phillipe, 96 , 99

Louis XIII, 49

Louis XIV, 185 , 220

Louis XVI, 84 , 212 , 213 , 223

ideology of, 100

popularity of, 84

public/private life, 96

revolution of, 204

trial of, 235

Lowith, Karl, 235

Lucas, Colin, 47 , 56

Lynn, John A., 21 , 24 , 28 -29

M

Mably, on ideology, 82

Machiavelli, N., 126 , 150 , 221 , 231 -233

McNeill, William H., 28

Maier, H., 176

Maistre, J. de, 125 , 247 , 266

Malesherbes, 110

Mallet du Pan, 247 , 256

Le mal révolutionnaire, 251 -252, 254

Malthus, T. R., 127

Marat, Jean Paul, 133

cruelty of, 95

Massin on, 80

murder of, 88

plan de législation criminelle, 80

tyranny of freedom, 206

Markets, 90 , 186 , 257

Martyrs de prairial, 93

Marx, Karl, 14 , 34 , 36 , 42 , 125 , 127 , 264 , 268 -271

on Convention, 268

d'Allarde laws, 88 , 97

die deutsche Misere, 209 -210

historical necessity, 270

Jewish question, 268

Le Chapelier laws, 88 , 97

on market society, 267 .

See also specific works

Massin, on Marat, 80

Mathiez, Albert, 117 , 176 , 185 , 189 , 190 , 191 , 192 , 273

Maurras, on history, 1

Maury, Jean-Sifrein, abbé, 111 , 113

Mazarin, J., 50

Mercier, Louis Sebastien, 86 , 222

Michelet, Jules, 146 , 148

Middle class, 41 , 257 , 264 , 265

as bourgeoise class, 43

constitution of 1791, 35

as new France, 38

violence of, 94 -95

Mignet, F. A., 35 , 43 , 46 , 265 -266, 269

on bourgeoise revolution, 36

on equality, 41

on Third Estate, 40

Military life, 88

Military reforms, 21

Military re-organization, 18

Mill, John Stuart, 127 , 249

Mirabeau, Count, 196

Mitchell, Henry, 8 , 10

Modernity, 7 -8, 25 , 72 , 124

Monarchy, 50 , 80 , 81 , 84 -85. See also Old Regime

Montagnards, 86 , 118

military policy of, 21

1793 constitution and, 191

suicide and, 88

universalist vision of, 91

Montaigne, M. E., 86 , 211

Montesquieu, C. L., 70 , 75 , 126 , 231 , 241 , 252 , 253 , 254 , 256

Moore, Barrington, Jr., 14

Morality of the Means, 168 n

More, Thomas, 126

Mounier, Jean Joseph, 252

N

Nantes, massacre of, 62

Napoleon, 16 , 54 , 55 , 82 , 88 , 96 , 122 , 193 , 203 , 270

army and, 23 -24

civil code, 267

Hegel on, 233

Hundred Day rule of, 207

Napoleonic wars, 24 -26

significance of, 23

on social mobility, 43


286

Napoleonic concordat, 193 , 202

Nassau, William, 246

National Assembly, 32 , 33 , 85 , 154 , 161 , 204 , 207 , 253 . See also Constituent assembly

National development, in Sieyes, 112

Nationalism, 72 -73, 184

Nationality, 112

National regeneration, 17 , 19

National representation, 18 , 19

Natural rights, Hegel on, 25

Nature, concept of, 134 , 138 -140

Necker, Jacques, 80

Nietzsche, F., 1 , 3

Nineteenth century, 33 , 36

Nobility, 40 , 49 , 62 -63, 98 -101

Nodier, Charles, 143

La Nouvelle Héloïse (Rousseau), 71 , 75

Nozick, Robert, 226

O

Oath of Allegiance, 103 -104

Oath of Horatii (David), 77 , 86 -88

Old regime, 35 , 90 , 162 , 164 , 166 , 180 , 220 , 228 , 241 , 247 , 255 , 258 -259, 264 , 266 , 271 -272, 274 -275, 299

bureaucracy and, 97

decline of, 16

failure to restore, 45

framework of, 100 -101

freemasonry and, 90

Gallican church reform, 177

institutions of, 79

Jacobins and, 92

lost wars of, 17

modernizing effects, 80

public life, 70

republicans in, 96

revolutions and, 224

rhetorical legacy of, 84

Tocqueville on, 220 , 241 , 247 , 255 , 258 -259

unpopularity of, 90

women and, 99

On the Common Saying (Kant), 205

Oppositions, 129

Orientalism, 128

Owen, Robert, 39

P

Pacification, 58

Paine, T., 187

Pamphlets, 88 , 252

Parallel legal systems, 178

Paret, P., 28 n. 21, 29 n.45

Paris, 53 , 92 , 97 , 120

Parlements, 178

Pas-de-Calais, 55 -56

Patriotic party, 90

Payan, Claude, 189

Péthion, pamphlets by, 252 , 254

Pétion, Jerome, 88

Petty-bourgeoise, 154

Phenomenology (Hegel), 233 , 266

Philosophy, German, 222

Philosophy, of history, 8 -9

Philosophy of History (Hegel), 224 , 229 , 233 -234

Philosophy of Right (Hegel), 266

Physiocrats, 127

Plassey plunder, 120

Police, creation of, 54

Political fundamentalism, defined, 191

Political interpretation, of French Revolution, 5 , 117

Political science, creation of, 127

Political state, as savage state, 135

Politics

fundamentalism in, 191

sacrilizing of, 193

Saint-Just and, 135 -136, 144

Tocqueville and, 274

See also specific persons, issues

Popular justice, 165

Popular resistance, 57

Popular sovereignty, 182 -183

Pornography, 71 , 80

Posthistoire, 3 , 10

Postmodernity, 3

Prisons, 157 -158

Privacy

categories of, 77

common good and, 81

definition of, 71

elitist sensibility and, 73

feminized, 71

green and, 74 , 76

married life and, 74 , 76

nationalism and, 82 , 84 , 92

secularized, 71

women and, 72

Professionals, 52

Proletariat, definition of, 39

Property, 75 , 86 , 94

Protestant reformation, 123 , 224 , 265


287

Public sphere, 94

architecture and, 72

categories of, 77

civic harmony and, 74

elitist sensibility and, 73

nationalism and, 82 -84, 93

public good, 69 -101, 96 -98

public life, 71 , 71 , 72

secularized, 72

Punitive reforms, 95

Q

Quinet, Edgar, 133 , 175 , 194 n.6

R

Rabaut, Saint-Etienne, 252 , 254

Rabelais and His World (Bakhtin), 165

Rameau's Nephew (Diderot), 188

Ranke, L. von, 128

Rationalist fanaticism, 182

Reason, in Saint-Just, 95 , 139

Rebellions, 129

Reddy, William, 90

Reeve, Henry, 249

Reflections on the Revolution in France (Burke), 219

Reformation, 123 , 265

Regeneration, 87

Regicide, 147

Reign of Terror, 230 -231

Reine du Monde, 80

Religion, 174 , 187

Religion within Reason Alone (Kant), 202

Renouvier, on solidarisme, 96

Représentant en mission, 56

Republic, The (Plato), 221

Républicaines Révolutionnaires, 88 , 95

Republicanism

legality and, 94

as masculine, 77 , 96

revolution and, 90

Republic of letters, 80

Republic of virtue, 189 , 192 -193, 230 -231

Res publica noumenon , 210

Restoration, 36 , 96 , 264 , 269 , 271

Reubell, François, 111 , 112

Reveillon riots, 94

Revel, Jacques, 90

Revisionism, 34 , 37

Revolution

course of, 244

debate about, 30 -31

determination in, 243

etymology of, 13 , 221 -222

historical transformation of, 30 -31

middle class and, 266

modernization and, 14

people of 1792, 266

Saint-Just's concept of, 144

self-transformation and, 256

study of, 30

as virus, 248

Ricardo, D., 127

Richet, Denis, 34 , 46 n. 7

Richir, Marc, 5 , 95

Richter,Jean-Paul, 99

Ricoeur, P., 263

Rightists, 31 , 141

Rights, of citizenship, 96

Robespierre, Maximilien, 7 , 9 , 118 , 186 -193, 209 , 211 , 213 , 222 , 228 , 230 -231, 233 , 273

Brissot on, 91

corruption and, 76

execution of, 88

fall of, 157

Floreal speech, 188

Kant and, 201

Louvet and, 76

religious revolution and, 189

state religion and, 185

system of, 92 -94

Vendée's genocide, 59

Roederer, S., 74 , 79

Romme, G., 77 , 87 , 102

Rothenberg, G., 22 , 23 , 28 n.28, 29 n. 34

Rousseau, J.J., 15 , 38 , 112 , 126 , 142 , 143 , 188 -189, 227 -228, 230 -232

on General Will, 75 , 228

on ideal social condition, 74 .

See also specific works

Royalists, 94

Royer, C., 241

Rudé, George, 153 -160

Rural revolts, of 1792, 52

Russian revolution, 268 , 169

S

Sade, Marquis de, 71 , 95

Saint-Germain, C. L. de, 18

Saint-Just, L. A. de, 7 , 83 , 143 , 148 n. 1, 186 , 214 , 231

on Jacobins, 86

naturalism in, 141

paradox of, 143

rightists and, 31 , 141

sociability in, 137


288

Saint-Simon, Louis, 9 , 39

Salles, Saint Vincent de, 75

Saltpetriere, invasion of, 164

Sans-culottes, 91 -95, 155 -156, 161 , 170

insurrection in, 159

invasion of, 164

justice and, 159

revolutionary crowds and, 154

Savage state, 135 , 136

Scarlet Pimpernel, The , 162

Schama, Simon, 18

Schelling, F. W., 224

Schiller, F., 207 , 214

Schlegel, F., 201

Science, of society, 8 -9

Scott, James, 57

Scott, Samuel F., 28 n.8

Scott, Walter, 35

Secher, Reynald, 59 -61

Second Republic, 268

Second Treatise of Government (Locke), 22l, 225

Sédillot, René, 62

Self, 78 , 82

September massacres, 91 -94, 156 -159, 170

Seven Years' War, 17 -18

Sex roles, 72

Shiner, L., 261 n.49

Sieyès, Abbé, 8 , 85 , 112 , 113 , 92 , 202 , 210 -211, 252

Simon, Walter, 46 n. 10, 47 n.28

Singer, B., 6 , 8

Skocpol, Theda, 2 , 4 -7, 14 , 15 , 27 n.8, 29 n.47

Smith, Adam, 92

Smith, Goldwin, 37 , 38

Soboul, Albert, 133 , 134 , 155 , 273

Soboul, Georges, 117 , 118

Sociability, in Saint-Just, 137

Social Contract (Rousseau), 75 , 225 , 228

Social history, 2

Social interpretation, of revolution, 5 , 97 , 117 , 119

Socialism, 9 , 98

Social mobility, under Napoleon, 43

Social naturalism, in Saint-Just, 141

Social science, 8 -9, 126 -127

Society, 135 -136, 141 -142

capitalist, 82

delineation of, 166

focus of, 71

material, 85

politics and, 82

in various countries, 71 , 98 -100

Sociology, 9 , 127

Sole, Jacques, 46 n. 11

Solidarisme , 96

Sorbonne, 268

Souvenirs (Tocqueville), 243 , 244 , 250 , 257 , 258

SovereignSty, 184

Spinoza, B., 126

Spirit of the Law (Montesquieu), 228

Stael, Madame de, 175 , 186 , 187

Stalin, Joseph, 32

State, 85 , 97

in eighteenth century, 51

after French Revolution, 51

impact of war on, 51 -52

in Saint-Just, 97

savage state, 135

stages of development, 118 .

See also Centralization

Stein, Lorenz yon, 43

Stendhal, on modernity, 148

Stone, Bailey, 28 n. 19

Strife of the Faculties (Kant), 204 , 206

Supreme executive, 212

Sybel, Heinrich von, 33

T

Taine, H., 93

Tale of Two Cities, A (Dickens), 162

Talleyrand, C. M. de., 196

Talmon, Jacob, 105 , 106 , 107

Talmon, Jean-Louis, 115 n.6, 184 -185

Target, Guy, 76 , 108 , 109

Taylor, George V., 28 n. 18

Terror, 85 , 92 -93, 159 , 161 162, 187 , 191 , 269 , 273

executions and, 57

expulsion of, 94 -95

portrait of agent, 56

Saint-Just on, 145

Tocqueville on, 256

Thermidor, 100 , 186 , 193 , 202 -203, 267

Thermidorians, 94 , 269 , 273

Thierry, Augustin, 35 , 46 n. 8

Third Estate, 40 , 42 , 90 , 275

Third Republic, 96 -97

Tilly, Charles, 2 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 155

Times Literary Supplement , 56

Tocqueville, Alexis de, 1 , 14 , 16 , 35 , 37 , 44 , 46 , 122 , 240 , 274

on centralization, 49 -50

critics of, 25

goals in, 241


289

on middle class, 42

as political writer, 242

re-evaluation of French Revolution, 245 .

See also specific works

Tollendal, Lally, 255

Tönnesson, on militants, 2

Traite de Police (Delamare) 1705, 70

Treilhard, on monarchy, 185

Turgot, A. R. J., 274

Turreau, Gen., 60 , 62

Tyranny, 256

U

United States, 18 , 72 , 100 , 225

Universalists, 87 , 95

Un-reason, Barère on, 95

Ure, Dr. Andrew, 39

V

Valmy, battle of, 158

Varennes, crisis of, 211

Vendée, 61 -62, 188

Ventose, decrees of, 93

Vergniaud, P. V., 93

Versailles, 70

Vess, David M., 29 n. 41

Viala, suicide of, 88

Vichy regime, 98

Vigée-Lebrun, art of, 72

Villers, on Kant, 203

Violence

antistate, 172

crown and, 164

forms of, 159 , 163

legal use of, 167

modern state and, 167 -168

popular, 156 , 159 , 160 , 161 , 164

sociology of, 152 -153

as spectacle, 162

Volger, W. F., 46 n. 9

Vovelle, Michel, 59

W

Wallerstein, Immanuel, 5

Walzer, Michael, 146 , 209

War

defeats of Old Regime, 17

fiscal drain of, 18 -19

Great Britain and, 118 -119

importance of, 23

transformation of state, 51 -52

war debts, 54

Weber, Eugen, 108

Weber, Max, 14 , 167 , 211

Weltanschauung , 124 , 125

Whigs, radical, 100

Woloch, Isser, 20 , 28 n. 25, 28 n. 26

Women

in eighteenth century, 71 , 72

Jacobin view of, 92

nature of, 77

republican life of, 90

republican revolution and, 89 , 90

sex roles, 72

sexuality, 76 , 77

societies shutdowns, 92

World-system, 119 , 122

Y

Young-Bruehl, Elizabeth, 115 n. 7

Z

Zionism, 107


290

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