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1. Jonathan Crary, Techniques of the Observer: On Vision and Modernity in the Nineteenth Century (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1990). [BACK]

2. John Ruskin, Modern Painters, in The Works of John Ruskin, ed. E. T. Cook and Alexander Wedderburn (London: George Allen, 1904-12), 3:4.16.28. [BACK]

3. Thomas Carlyle, On Heroes, Hero-Worship, and the Heroic in History, in The Works of Thomas Carlyle (New York: Scribner, 1899-1901), 1:104. [BACK]

4. John Stuart Mill, "Tennyson's Poems," in Literary Essays, ed. Edward Alexander (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1967), 105. [BACK]

5. "On Some of the Characteristics of Modern Poetry and on the Lyrical Poems of Alfred Tennyson," in The Writings of Arthur Hallam, ed. T. H. Vail Motter (New York: MLA, 1943), 186-87. [BACK]

6. In Henry James, "The Art of Fiction," in Literary Criticism (New York: Library of America, 1984), 53. [BACK]

7. George Eliot, Adam Bede (Boston: Houghton Mufflin, 1968), 152 (chapter 27). [BACK]

8. Thomas Hardy, as quoted in Ian Gregor, introduction to The Woodlanders (London: Penguin, 1981), 13. [BACK]

9. Sec Crary, 3-19, for an account of the two arguments based in art history and the history of technology. Similar arguments can be made about literary history. [BACK]

10. (Princeton: Princeton University Press), 1983. [BACK]

11. Some sample titles are Richard Altick, Paintings From Books: Art and Literature in Britain, 1760-1900 (Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1985); Ann Bermingham, Landscape and Ideology: The English Rustic Tradition, 1740-1860 (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1986); Rhoda L. Flaxman, Victorian Word Painting and Narrative: Toward the Blending of Genres (Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1987); Peter Galassi, Before Photography: Painting and the Invention of Photography (New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1981); Michael Irwin, Picturing: Description and Illusion in the Nineteenth-Century Novel (London: Allen and Unwin, 1979); George Landow, William Holman Hunt and Typological Symbolism (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979); Richard L. Stein, The Ritual of Interpretation: The Fine Arts as Literature in Ruskin, Rossetti, and Pater (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1975); Herbert Sussman, Fact and Fiction: Typology in Carlyle, Ruskin, and the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1979). [BACK]

12. Jacques Lacan, The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psycho-Analysis, trans. Alan Sheridan (New York: Norton, 1981); Michel Foucault, Discipline and Punish, trans. Alan Sheridan (New York: Vintage Books, 1979); Guy Debord, Society of the Spectacle, rev, edition (Detroit: Black and Red, 1977). [BACK]

13. Roland Barthes, Mythologies, trans. Annette Lavers (London: Jonathan Cape, 1972); Image—Music—Text, trans. Stephen Heath (New York: Hill and Wang, 1977); Camera Lucida, trans. Stephen Heath (New York: Hill and Wang, 1981). [BACK]

14. Martin Jay, "Scopic Regimes of Modernity," in Vision and Visuality, ed. Hal Foster (Seattle: Bay Press, 1988). This volume also contains relevant essays by Jonathan Crary, Rosalind Krauss, Norman Bryson, and Jacqueline Rose. [BACK]

15. See especially Svetlana Alpers, The Art Of Describing: Dutch Art in the Seventeenth Century (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985); Mieke Bal, Reading Rembrandt: Beyond the Word-Image Opposition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991); Norman Bryson, Word and Image: French Painting of the Ancien Régime (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981), Vision and Painting: The Logic of the Gaze (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1983), and Tradition and Desire: From David to Delacroix (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984); Michael Fried, Absorption and Theatricality: Painting and Beholder in the Age of Diderot (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1980), and Realism, Writing, Disfiguration: On Thomas Eakins and Stephen Crane (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987). In her first chapter, Ba] provides a useful summary of recent work and of central methodological issues in the field of word-and-image studies. [BACK]

16. See, in particular, W. T. J. Mitchell, Iconology: Image, Text, Ideology (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986), which analyzes various theoretical answers to the questions what is an image and what is the difference between images and words; and Murray Krieger, Ekphrasis: The Illusion of the Natural Sign (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992), which argues that the ekphrastic impulse in literary theory is companion to the semiotic desire for the natural sign. For a more distinctly post-structuralist approach to the relationship between word and image, see Françoise Meltzer, Salomé and the Dance of Writing: Portraits of Mimesis in Literature (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987); and J. Hillis Miller, Illustration (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1992). [BACK]

17. George Eliot, Middlemarch (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1956), 194-95 (chapter 27). [BACK]

18. Walter Pater, The Renaissance (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1980), 186-87. [BACK]

19. Alexander Welsh, Strong Representations: Narrative and Circumstantial Evidence in England (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992), ix. [BACK]

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