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Notes

Introduction

1. For the formative period of this movement through 1933, see Weiner, Models . [BACK]

2. Hosking, "Beginnings of Independent Political Activity," 1-2. [BACK]

3. Weiner, Models , and especially the revised introduction to the Russian-language edition, Ekologiia v Sovetskom soiuze . Also Weiner, "Changing Face of Soviet Conservation." Elisabeth S. Clemens provides an illuminating example of how the temperance movement in the United States similarly served as a surrogate avenue for women to engage in politics, and, indeed, to change the way politics was conducted. See Clemens, People's Lobby . [BACK]

4. The NEP (New Economic Policy) was inaugurated in 1921 by V. I. Lenin to help rebuild the Soviet Union's war-ravaged economy. It featured the relegalization of small-scale private enterprise and domestic commerce and was accompanied by a liberalization in the cultural sphere. [BACK]

5. Zalygin, "Otkroveniia ot nashego imeni." [BACK]

6. Gerovitch and Struchkov, "Epilogue," 489. [BACK]

7. As late as 1989, V. V. Dëzhkin wrote in his V mire zapovednoi prirody , 158: "However, the main thing for us is our conviction that the question 'How much are zapovedniki worth?' is wrongheaded and not germane. Zapovedniki are valuable in and of themselves!" The term "geography of hope" is Wallace Stegner's. [BACK]

8. Pronger, Arena of Masculinity , 93-94, sensibly reminds us: "Identity lies in primordial human being; cultural categories are only modes of understanding and action that are variously appropriated and relinquished by human beings. . . . [C]ategories are ways that people think of themselves and others in certain social spheres. These are ways of interpreting oneself in certain situations." Although I use the term social identity throughout the book, it is appropriate here to disavow a reified understanding of that term. [BACK]

9. Yanitsky, Russian Environmentalism , 52. One university circle emerged just over a year earlier, independently, in Tartu, Estonia. break [BACK]

10. Interview with Evgenii A. Shvarts, Moscow, May 26, 1996. [BACK]

11. Yanitsky [Ianitskii], Russian Environmentalism , 36.

12. Ibid., 167.

13. Ibid., 61. [BACK]

11. Yanitsky [Ianitskii], Russian Environmentalism , 36.

12. Ibid., 167.

13. Ibid., 61. [BACK]

11. Yanitsky [Ianitskii], Russian Environmentalism , 36.

12. Ibid., 167.

13. Ibid., 61. [BACK]

14. Hosking, First Socialist Society , 408. [BACK]

15. Huskey, Russian Lawyers and the Soviet State . [BACK]

16. Shlapentokh, Soviet Intellectuals and Political Power , 55. [BACK]

17. TsKhSD f. 17, op. 138, d. 35, listy 26-29. [BACK]

18. RGAE f. 3, op. 1, d. 335, list 67 rev. Letter of July 23, 1957 to V. A. Varsonof'eva. Upon hearing about Fridman's death, Protopopov, in a letter to Varsonof'eva of February 10, 1959 (RGAE f. 3. op. 1, d. 325, list 40) wrote, "She deserves to be memorialized according to the customs of civic activism." [BACK]

19. See RGAE f. 3, op. 1, d. 335, listy 64 (postcard of Fridman to Varsonof'eva of April 25, 1956); also letters of July 25, 1958 (listy 75-76 rev.); November 19, 1958 (list 78); late 1958 (undated) (listy 79-81 rev.). [BACK]

20. Fehér, Heller, and Márkus, Dictatorship over Needs , 66.

21. Ibid, 63.

22. Ibid. [BACK]

20. Fehér, Heller, and Márkus, Dictatorship over Needs , 66.

21. Ibid, 63.

22. Ibid. [BACK]

20. Fehér, Heller, and Márkus, Dictatorship over Needs , 66.

21. Ibid, 63.

22. Ibid. [BACK]

23. Yanitsky [Ianitskii], Russian Environmentalism , 92. [BACK]

24. Petro, "'Project of the Century,'" 242.

25. Ibid., 243. [BACK]

24. Petro, "'Project of the Century,'" 242.

25. Ibid., 243. [BACK]

26. Scott, Domination and the Arts of Resistance . Hidden transcripts form part of the armamentarium of subordinate groups. See also Scott, Weapons of the Weak . [BACK]

27. O. N. Ianitskii, "Ekologicheskaia politika i ekologicheskoe dvizhenie v Rossii," 19. Speech to the Working Group of eco-sociologists and leaders of ecological organizations, Moscow, May 19-21, 1995. Unpublished typescript, courtesy of O. N. Ianitskii. [BACK]

28. See, for example, Jancar-Webster, "Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union," 210. [BACK]

29. Yanitsky [Ianitskii], Russian Environmentalism , 9. [BACK]

Chapter One— Environmental Activism and Social Identity

1. See Florenskii and Shutova, "Da skroetsia t'ma," 731; on the tradition of studenchestvo , see Kassow, Students , Professors , and the State . [BACK]

2. Florenskii and Shutova, "Da skroetsia t'ma," 731. Kedrograd was an experimental forest plantation planned and run by graduates of the Leningrad Technical Forestry Academy, 1959-76. See chapter 15. [BACK]

3. For an excellent discussion of the specifically Russian elements of professional identity in the late tsarist period, see the editor's introduction and conclusion in Balzer, Russia's Missing Middle Class . [BACK]

4. Goldschmidt, Human Career . [BACK]

5. See introduction and conclusion in Balzer, Russia's Missing Middle Class . [BACK]

6. McClelland, Autocrats and Academics , 60. He quotes Kliment A. Timiriazev, a Russian plant physiologist and member of the "generation of the sixties." [BACK]

7. Parallels to the eighteenth-century Masonic movement are suggestive. The Il- soft

luminati conceived of themselves as a higher moral community precisely because they were intellectually "enlightened," while regarding the defense and promotion of enlightenment as a sacred moral duty. See Koselleck, Critique and Crisis , especially chapter 6. [BACK]

8. McClelland, Autocrats and Academics , 65.

9. Ibid., 69-71. See also Weiner, Models , 125ff; Joravsky, Soviet Marxism and Natural Science , 153-63; and Graham, Science in Russia , 121-23. [BACK]

8. McClelland, Autocrats and Academics , 65.

9. Ibid., 69-71. See also Weiner, Models , 125ff; Joravsky, Soviet Marxism and Natural Science , 153-63; and Graham, Science in Russia , 121-23. [BACK]

10. McClelland, Autocrats and Academics , 71.

11. Ibid., 73. I have used McClelland's translation. The quotation is from Mikhal'son, "Rasshirenie i natsional'naia organizatsiia." [BACK]

10. McClelland, Autocrats and Academics , 71.

11. Ibid., 73. I have used McClelland's translation. The quotation is from Mikhal'son, "Rasshirenie i natsional'naia organizatsiia." [BACK]

12. Quoted from Vernadskii, "Osnovoiu zhizni," 218-19, in Yanitsky, Russian Environmentalism , 11. [BACK]

13. Kassow, Students , Professors , and the State , 6.

14. Ibid., 4-6. [BACK]

13. Kassow, Students , Professors , and the State , 6.

14. Ibid., 4-6. [BACK]

15. On the Masons, Koselleck writes: "The Masons have nothing to do with politics directly. . . . [Nonetheless,] their virtue does not cease to be a 'crime'—that is, a threat to the State—until they, not the sovereign, determine what is right and what is wrong. Morality is the presumptive sovereign. Directly nonpolitical, the Mason is indirectly political after all. . . . [This] political secret of the Enlightenment was not to be shrouded just from the outside; as a result of its seemingly non-political beginnings it was concealed from most of the Enlighteners themselves." Koselleck, Critique and Crisis , 84-85. [BACK]

16. Sergei Zalygin endorsed this point in his review of the Russian edition of Models of Nature . See Zalygin, "Otkroveniia ot nashego imeni," 215. [BACK]

17. Notwithstanding the sometimes heroic efforts by Sergei Ivanovich Vavilov and other leaders of the USSR Academy of Sciences to defend the ideal. See Vucinich, Empire of Knowledge . [BACK]

18. See Iaroshevskii, Repressirovannaia nauka ; Kumnanev, Tragicheskie sud ' by ; and Soyfer, Lysenko . [BACK]

19. Kassow, Students, Professors, and the State , 8. [BACK]

20. McClelland, Autocrats and Academics, 97; and Kassow, Students , Professors , and the State, passim . [BACK]

21. Hosking, First Socialist Society , 403. [BACK]

22. Zhigulin, Chërnye kamni . Zhigulin was one of the few survivors of a group of students in Voronezh who were arrested in 1949 for organizing a political group seeking a return to "Leninist norms." [BACK]

23. See, for example, Dawson, Eco-Nationalism . [BACK]

Chapter Two— Archipelago of Freedom

1. Gerovich and Struchkov, "Epilogue," 487. [BACK]

2. For extensive background on the formative period of Russian nature protection, see Weiner, Models ; Shtil'mark, Istoriografiia ; and Boreiko, Askania-Nova . [BACK]

3. See Weiner, Models , especially chapters 1 and 6.

4. Ibid., chapter 7. [BACK]

3. See Weiner, Models , especially chapters 1 and 6.

4. Ibid., chapter 7. [BACK]

5. Gor'kii, "Iz stat'i 'O biblioteka Poeta'," 56-57. break [BACK]

6. Weiner, Models , chapter 10 and passim . [BACK]

7. Gerovich and Struchkov, "Epilogue," 488-89. On the theme of retreat from Stalinist realities as a journey to Kitezh, see also Turbin, "Kitezhane"; and Anna Akhmatova's 1940 poem, "Kitezhanka." [BACK]

8. Vorontsov, "Nature Protection," 372ff. [BACK]

9. Sepp, "Neobkhodimo reorganizovat' nauchnye obshchestva," 20. [BACK]

10. Until 1933 the Main Administration was subordinated to the Science Sector of the RSFSR People's Commissariat of Education. In September 1933 it was directly subordinated to VTsIK, the All-Russian Central Executive Committee of the RSFSR Congress of Soviets. Later, in 1938 it was transferred to the aegis of the RSFSR Council of People's Commissars (which soon became the RSFSR Council of Ministers). [BACK]

11. A zemstvo is a local, elective organ of self-government with responsibility for education, among other matters. [BACK]

12. Biographical information is from V. N. Makarov, "Avtobiografiia" (typed and signed), April 19, 1938, and from "Avtobiografiia" (handwritten and signed), October 15, 1950, both from his personal archives. Courtesy of Feliks Robertovich Shtil' mark. [BACK]

13. Makarov, 1938 "Avtobiografiia" and 1950 "Avtobiografiia." See the 1911 farewell poem from the first through third graders of the Kostroma First Four-Year School, entitled "Proshchal'nyi privet," and the farewell letter, dated September 28, 1913, from fourth-year students of the City School attached to the Moscow Teachers' Institute. [BACK]

14. Makarov, 1938 "Avtobiografiia" and 1950 "Avtobiografiia." [BACK]

15. See Weiner, Models , chapter 9. [BACK]

16. See ARAN f. 1593, op. 1, d. 191, listy 1-130. "Stenogramma Vsesoiuznoi faunisticheskoi konferentsii." [BACK]

17. See Weiner, Models , 141ff.

18. Ibid., 135. [BACK]

17. See Weiner, Models , 141ff.

18. Ibid., 135. [BACK]

19. From V. N. Makarov, letter to the Head of the Scientific Sector of Narkompros RSFSR and to its Party Collective, TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 1, listy 9-18. Emphasis in original.

20. Ibid., list 11, quoted from Kol'man, "Sabotazh v nauke," 75. [BACK]

19. From V. N. Makarov, letter to the Head of the Scientific Sector of Narkompros RSFSR and to its Party Collective, TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 1, listy 9-18. Emphasis in original.

20. Ibid., list 11, quoted from Kol'man, "Sabotazh v nauke," 75. [BACK]

21. Makarov, letter to the Head of the Scientific Sector, listy 9-10. [BACK]

22. Although Oleg V. Khlevniuk, in In Stalin's Shadow , 58-60, points to the readiness of some leading factory managers as late as autumn 1933 to stand up to the USSR Prosecutor-General and even to use their private police forces to prevent entry by the state's law enforcement agents, the situations are not exactly comparable. [BACK]

23. See especially Boreiko's series "Istoriia boli i geroizma" and Shtil'mark, Istoriografiia . [BACK]

24. The most prominent of these were Dmitrii Evstaf'evich Beling, Evdokiia Grigor'evna Bloshenko, Aleksei Feodos'evich Vangengeim, Pëtr Evgen'evich Vasil'kovskii, Vladimir Georgievich Geptner, Aleksandr Pavlovich Gunali, Iurii Andreevich Isakov, Vladimir Emmanueloxich Martino, Sergei Ivanovich Medvedev, Vasilii Petrovich Nalimov, Mikhail Nikolaevich Poloz, Boris Evgen'evich Raikov, Pëtr Petrovich Smolin, Vladimir Vladimirovich Stanchinskii, Nikolai Mikhailovich Fëdorovskii, Boris Konstantinovich Fortunatov, Khachatur (Khristofor) Georgievich Shaposhnikov, Frants Frantsevich Shillinger, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Shummer, and Aleksandr continue

Aloizevich Ianata. From Vladimir Evgen'evich Boreiko, "Razgrom prirodookhrany v SSSR (1929-1939)," in his Belye piatna istoii , 161. Boreiko includes a few more names than I have listed here but even his list is surely incomplete. [BACK]

25. When I first described these events in a previous book, much of my account was inferred from published speeches and journal articles, which were the only sources available then. In the intervening period many more sources about Stanchinskii and Askania-Nova have come to light through the efforts of Ukrainian researcher Vladimir Evgen'evich Boreiko and me, generally confirming the broad flow of events. [BACK]

26. This question will be taken up in detail in my forthcoming biography of Vladimir Vladimirovich Stanchinskii, in collaboration with Vladimir Evgen'evich Boreiko. [BACK]

27. Boreiko, Askania-Nova , 91. On Stanchinskii and Askania-Nova, see also Weiner, Models ; Gramma, "Eretiki i buntari"; and Boreiko, Populiarnyi biografo-bibliograficheskii , 2:1 19-27. The last includes a bibliography about Stanchinskii's life and work. [BACK]

28. Encouragingly, Bukharin's deputy editor on the staff of Izvestiia , Kantorovich, paid a visit to the Kavkazskii zapovednik and wrote up the trip in the paper. Interview with Andrei Aleksandrovich Nasimovich, April 16, 1980. [BACK]

29. Letter of F. F. Shillinger, no date cited, ARAN f. 445, op. 4, d. 190, listy 111-12. Cited in Boreiko, "Frants Frantsevich Shillinger," 204-5. Another letter, to the academician N. M. Kulagin and dated November 7, 1937, which contains almost the same language and was probably written at the same time, is cited by Shtil'mark, Istoriografiia , 80, in ARAN f. 1674, op. 1, d. 339 (no listy cited). [BACK]

30. Ol'ga Borisovna Lepeshinskaia, "Dokladnaia zapiska nauchnomu otdelu TsK VKP(b) o rezul'tatakh obsledovaniia zapovednikov v RSFSR. Zametki. Otpusk," nine pages of two-sided typed carbons plus longhand, penciled notes in a small notebook, listy 10-102, in ARAN, f. 1588, op. 1, d. 102, listy 1-102. The author is the same Olga Lepeshinskaia who in the late 1940s and early 1950s became one of the most notorious scientific cranks with her claim that she could produce living beings from albumin. [BACK]

31. Shtil'mark, Istoriografiia , 80. See ARAN f. 445, op. 4, d. 19, listy 76-80.

32. Ibid., list 1 rev.

33. Ibid., listy 2 rev., 4 . She implied that in 1922 Shillinger planned the creation of the Crimean reserve to promote a White landing ("Snaipery. Bloshenko, Shelinger [sic]. Ideia o sozdaniia zapovednika na beregu Kryma v 22 godu," list 4).

34. Ibid., list 25. These allegations were totally without evidence and have been denied by Adela Frantsevna Shillinger, the activist's daughter, who still lives in Moscow.

35. Ibid., list 3.

36. Ibid.

37. Ibid., listy 5 and 7 rev.

38. Ibid., list 5.

39. Ibid., list 27.

40. Ibid., list 26 rev.

41. Ibid., list 16 rev. Lepeshinskaia blames Gorbunov and Krylenko for recommending these politically suspect individuals. break

42. Ibid., list 28 rev.

43. Ibid., list 7 rev.

44. Ibid., list 8.

45. Ibid., listy 9, 37 rev., and 39. [BACK]

31. Shtil'mark, Istoriografiia , 80. See ARAN f. 445, op. 4, d. 19, listy 76-80.

32. Ibid., list 1 rev.

33. Ibid., listy 2 rev., 4 . She implied that in 1922 Shillinger planned the creation of the Crimean reserve to promote a White landing ("Snaipery. Bloshenko, Shelinger [sic]. Ideia o sozdaniia zapovednika na beregu Kryma v 22 godu," list 4).

34. Ibid., list 25. These allegations were totally without evidence and have been denied by Adela Frantsevna Shillinger, the activist's daughter, who still lives in Moscow.

35. Ibid., list 3.

36. Ibid.

37. Ibid., listy 5 and 7 rev.

38. Ibid., list 5.

39. Ibid., list 27.

40. Ibid., list 26 rev.

41. Ibid., list 16 rev. Lepeshinskaia blames Gorbunov and Krylenko for recommending these politically suspect individuals. break

42. Ibid., list 28 rev.

43. Ibid., list 7 rev.

44. Ibid., list 8.

45. Ibid., listy 9, 37 rev., and 39. [BACK]

31. Shtil'mark, Istoriografiia , 80. See ARAN f. 445, op. 4, d. 19, listy 76-80.

32. Ibid., list 1 rev.

33. Ibid., listy 2 rev., 4 . She implied that in 1922 Shillinger planned the creation of the Crimean reserve to promote a White landing ("Snaipery. Bloshenko, Shelinger [sic]. Ideia o sozdaniia zapovednika na beregu Kryma v 22 godu," list 4).

34. Ibid., list 25. These allegations were totally without evidence and have been denied by Adela Frantsevna Shillinger, the activist's daughter, who still lives in Moscow.

35. Ibid., list 3.

36. Ibid.

37. Ibid., listy 5 and 7 rev.

38. Ibid., list 5.

39. Ibid., list 27.

40. Ibid., list 26 rev.

41. Ibid., list 16 rev. Lepeshinskaia blames Gorbunov and Krylenko for recommending these politically suspect individuals. break

42. Ibid., list 28 rev.

43. Ibid., list 7 rev.

44. Ibid., list 8.

45. Ibid., listy 9, 37 rev., and 39. [BACK]

31. Shtil'mark, Istoriografiia , 80. See ARAN f. 445, op. 4, d. 19, listy 76-80.

32. Ibid., list 1 rev.

33. Ibid., listy 2 rev., 4 . She implied that in 1922 Shillinger planned the creation of the Crimean reserve to promote a White landing ("Snaipery. Bloshenko, Shelinger [sic]. Ideia o sozdaniia zapovednika na beregu Kryma v 22 godu," list 4).

34. Ibid., list 25. These allegations were totally without evidence and have been denied by Adela Frantsevna Shillinger, the activist's daughter, who still lives in Moscow.

35. Ibid., list 3.

36. Ibid.

37. Ibid., listy 5 and 7 rev.

38. Ibid., list 5.

39. Ibid., list 27.

40. Ibid., list 26 rev.

41. Ibid., list 16 rev. Lepeshinskaia blames Gorbunov and Krylenko for recommending these politically suspect individuals. break

42. Ibid., list 28 rev.

43. Ibid., list 7 rev.

44. Ibid., list 8.

45. Ibid., listy 9, 37 rev., and 39. [BACK]

31. Shtil'mark, Istoriografiia , 80. See ARAN f. 445, op. 4, d. 19, listy 76-80.

32. Ibid., list 1 rev.

33. Ibid., listy 2 rev., 4 . She implied that in 1922 Shillinger planned the creation of the Crimean reserve to promote a White landing ("Snaipery. Bloshenko, Shelinger [sic]. Ideia o sozdaniia zapovednika na beregu Kryma v 22 godu," list 4).

34. Ibid., list 25. These allegations were totally without evidence and have been denied by Adela Frantsevna Shillinger, the activist's daughter, who still lives in Moscow.

35. Ibid., list 3.

36. Ibid.

37. Ibid., listy 5 and 7 rev.

38. Ibid., list 5.

39. Ibid., list 27.

40. Ibid., list 26 rev.

41. Ibid., list 16 rev. Lepeshinskaia blames Gorbunov and Krylenko for recommending these politically suspect individuals. break

42. Ibid., list 28 rev.

43. Ibid., list 7 rev.

44. Ibid., list 8.

45. Ibid., listy 9, 37 rev., and 39. [BACK]

31. Shtil'mark, Istoriografiia , 80. See ARAN f. 445, op. 4, d. 19, listy 76-80.

32. Ibid., list 1 rev.

33. Ibid., listy 2 rev., 4 . She implied that in 1922 Shillinger planned the creation of the Crimean reserve to promote a White landing ("Snaipery. Bloshenko, Shelinger [sic]. Ideia o sozdaniia zapovednika na beregu Kryma v 22 godu," list 4).

34. Ibid., list 25. These allegations were totally without evidence and have been denied by Adela Frantsevna Shillinger, the activist's daughter, who still lives in Moscow.

35. Ibid., list 3.

36. Ibid.

37. Ibid., listy 5 and 7 rev.

38. Ibid., list 5.

39. Ibid., list 27.

40. Ibid., list 26 rev.

41. Ibid., list 16 rev. Lepeshinskaia blames Gorbunov and Krylenko for recommending these politically suspect individuals. break

42. Ibid., list 28 rev.

43. Ibid., list 7 rev.

44. Ibid., list 8.

45. Ibid., listy 9, 37 rev., and 39. [BACK]

31. Shtil'mark, Istoriografiia , 80. See ARAN f. 445, op. 4, d. 19, listy 76-80.

32. Ibid., list 1 rev.

33. Ibid., listy 2 rev., 4 . She implied that in 1922 Shillinger planned the creation of the Crimean reserve to promote a White landing ("Snaipery. Bloshenko, Shelinger [sic]. Ideia o sozdaniia zapovednika na beregu Kryma v 22 godu," list 4).

34. Ibid., list 25. These allegations were totally without evidence and have been denied by Adela Frantsevna Shillinger, the activist's daughter, who still lives in Moscow.

35. Ibid., list 3.

36. Ibid.

37. Ibid., listy 5 and 7 rev.

38. Ibid., list 5.

39. Ibid., list 27.

40. Ibid., list 26 rev.

41. Ibid., list 16 rev. Lepeshinskaia blames Gorbunov and Krylenko for recommending these politically suspect individuals. break

42. Ibid., list 28 rev.

43. Ibid., list 7 rev.

44. Ibid., list 8.

45. Ibid., listy 9, 37 rev., and 39. [BACK]

31. Shtil'mark, Istoriografiia , 80. See ARAN f. 445, op. 4, d. 19, listy 76-80.

32. Ibid., list 1 rev.

33. Ibid., listy 2 rev., 4 . She implied that in 1922 Shillinger planned the creation of the Crimean reserve to promote a White landing ("Snaipery. Bloshenko, Shelinger [sic]. Ideia o sozdaniia zapovednika na beregu Kryma v 22 godu," list 4).

34. Ibid., list 25. These allegations were totally without evidence and have been denied by Adela Frantsevna Shillinger, the activist's daughter, who still lives in Moscow.

35. Ibid., list 3.

36. Ibid.

37. Ibid., listy 5 and 7 rev.

38. Ibid., list 5.

39. Ibid., list 27.

40. Ibid., list 26 rev.

41. Ibid., list 16 rev. Lepeshinskaia blames Gorbunov and Krylenko for recommending these politically suspect individuals. break

42. Ibid., list 28 rev.

43. Ibid., list 7 rev.

44. Ibid., list 8.

45. Ibid., listy 9, 37 rev., and 39. [BACK]

31. Shtil'mark, Istoriografiia , 80. See ARAN f. 445, op. 4, d. 19, listy 76-80.

32. Ibid., list 1 rev.

33. Ibid., listy 2 rev., 4 . She implied that in 1922 Shillinger planned the creation of the Crimean reserve to promote a White landing ("Snaipery. Bloshenko, Shelinger [sic]. Ideia o sozdaniia zapovednika na beregu Kryma v 22 godu," list 4).

34. Ibid., list 25. These allegations were totally without evidence and have been denied by Adela Frantsevna Shillinger, the activist's daughter, who still lives in Moscow.

35. Ibid., list 3.

36. Ibid.

37. Ibid., listy 5 and 7 rev.

38. Ibid., list 5.

39. Ibid., list 27.

40. Ibid., list 26 rev.

41. Ibid., list 16 rev. Lepeshinskaia blames Gorbunov and Krylenko for recommending these politically suspect individuals. break

42. Ibid., list 28 rev.

43. Ibid., list 7 rev.

44. Ibid., list 8.

45. Ibid., listy 9, 37 rev., and 39. [BACK]

31. Shtil'mark, Istoriografiia , 80. See ARAN f. 445, op. 4, d. 19, listy 76-80.

32. Ibid., list 1 rev.

33. Ibid., listy 2 rev., 4 . She implied that in 1922 Shillinger planned the creation of the Crimean reserve to promote a White landing ("Snaipery. Bloshenko, Shelinger [sic]. Ideia o sozdaniia zapovednika na beregu Kryma v 22 godu," list 4).

34. Ibid., list 25. These allegations were totally without evidence and have been denied by Adela Frantsevna Shillinger, the activist's daughter, who still lives in Moscow.

35. Ibid., list 3.

36. Ibid.

37. Ibid., listy 5 and 7 rev.

38. Ibid., list 5.

39. Ibid., list 27.

40. Ibid., list 26 rev.

41. Ibid., list 16 rev. Lepeshinskaia blames Gorbunov and Krylenko for recommending these politically suspect individuals. break

42. Ibid., list 28 rev.

43. Ibid., list 7 rev.

44. Ibid., list 8.

45. Ibid., listy 9, 37 rev., and 39. [BACK]

31. Shtil'mark, Istoriografiia , 80. See ARAN f. 445, op. 4, d. 19, listy 76-80.

32. Ibid., list 1 rev.

33. Ibid., listy 2 rev., 4 . She implied that in 1922 Shillinger planned the creation of the Crimean reserve to promote a White landing ("Snaipery. Bloshenko, Shelinger [sic]. Ideia o sozdaniia zapovednika na beregu Kryma v 22 godu," list 4).

34. Ibid., list 25. These allegations were totally without evidence and have been denied by Adela Frantsevna Shillinger, the activist's daughter, who still lives in Moscow.

35. Ibid., list 3.

36. Ibid.

37. Ibid., listy 5 and 7 rev.

38. Ibid., list 5.

39. Ibid., list 27.

40. Ibid., list 26 rev.

41. Ibid., list 16 rev. Lepeshinskaia blames Gorbunov and Krylenko for recommending these politically suspect individuals. break

42. Ibid., list 28 rev.

43. Ibid., list 7 rev.

44. Ibid., list 8.

45. Ibid., listy 9, 37 rev., and 39. [BACK]

31. Shtil'mark, Istoriografiia , 80. See ARAN f. 445, op. 4, d. 19, listy 76-80.

32. Ibid., list 1 rev.

33. Ibid., listy 2 rev., 4 . She implied that in 1922 Shillinger planned the creation of the Crimean reserve to promote a White landing ("Snaipery. Bloshenko, Shelinger [sic]. Ideia o sozdaniia zapovednika na beregu Kryma v 22 godu," list 4).

34. Ibid., list 25. These allegations were totally without evidence and have been denied by Adela Frantsevna Shillinger, the activist's daughter, who still lives in Moscow.

35. Ibid., list 3.

36. Ibid.

37. Ibid., listy 5 and 7 rev.

38. Ibid., list 5.

39. Ibid., list 27.

40. Ibid., list 26 rev.

41. Ibid., list 16 rev. Lepeshinskaia blames Gorbunov and Krylenko for recommending these politically suspect individuals. break

42. Ibid., list 28 rev.

43. Ibid., list 7 rev.

44. Ibid., list 8.

45. Ibid., listy 9, 37 rev., and 39. [BACK]

31. Shtil'mark, Istoriografiia , 80. See ARAN f. 445, op. 4, d. 19, listy 76-80.

32. Ibid., list 1 rev.

33. Ibid., listy 2 rev., 4 . She implied that in 1922 Shillinger planned the creation of the Crimean reserve to promote a White landing ("Snaipery. Bloshenko, Shelinger [sic]. Ideia o sozdaniia zapovednika na beregu Kryma v 22 godu," list 4).

34. Ibid., list 25. These allegations were totally without evidence and have been denied by Adela Frantsevna Shillinger, the activist's daughter, who still lives in Moscow.

35. Ibid., list 3.

36. Ibid.

37. Ibid., listy 5 and 7 rev.

38. Ibid., list 5.

39. Ibid., list 27.

40. Ibid., list 26 rev.

41. Ibid., list 16 rev. Lepeshinskaia blames Gorbunov and Krylenko for recommending these politically suspect individuals. break

42. Ibid., list 28 rev.

43. Ibid., list 7 rev.

44. Ibid., list 8.

45. Ibid., listy 9, 37 rev., and 39. [BACK]

31. Shtil'mark, Istoriografiia , 80. See ARAN f. 445, op. 4, d. 19, listy 76-80.

32. Ibid., list 1 rev.

33. Ibid., listy 2 rev., 4 . She implied that in 1922 Shillinger planned the creation of the Crimean reserve to promote a White landing ("Snaipery. Bloshenko, Shelinger [sic]. Ideia o sozdaniia zapovednika na beregu Kryma v 22 godu," list 4).

34. Ibid., list 25. These allegations were totally without evidence and have been denied by Adela Frantsevna Shillinger, the activist's daughter, who still lives in Moscow.

35. Ibid., list 3.

36. Ibid.

37. Ibid., listy 5 and 7 rev.

38. Ibid., list 5.

39. Ibid., list 27.

40. Ibid., list 26 rev.

41. Ibid., list 16 rev. Lepeshinskaia blames Gorbunov and Krylenko for recommending these politically suspect individuals. break

42. Ibid., list 28 rev.

43. Ibid., list 7 rev.

44. Ibid., list 8.

45. Ibid., listy 9, 37 rev., and 39. [BACK]

31. Shtil'mark, Istoriografiia , 80. See ARAN f. 445, op. 4, d. 19, listy 76-80.

32. Ibid., list 1 rev.

33. Ibid., listy 2 rev., 4 . She implied that in 1922 Shillinger planned the creation of the Crimean reserve to promote a White landing ("Snaipery. Bloshenko, Shelinger [sic]. Ideia o sozdaniia zapovednika na beregu Kryma v 22 godu," list 4).

34. Ibid., list 25. These allegations were totally without evidence and have been denied by Adela Frantsevna Shillinger, the activist's daughter, who still lives in Moscow.

35. Ibid., list 3.

36. Ibid.

37. Ibid., listy 5 and 7 rev.

38. Ibid., list 5.

39. Ibid., list 27.

40. Ibid., list 26 rev.

41. Ibid., list 16 rev. Lepeshinskaia blames Gorbunov and Krylenko for recommending these politically suspect individuals. break

42. Ibid., list 28 rev.

43. Ibid., list 7 rev.

44. Ibid., list 8.

45. Ibid., listy 9, 37 rev., and 39. [BACK]

46. Shtil'mark, Istoriografiia , 80. [BACK]

47. Boreiko, "Frants Frantsevich Shillinger," 206. [BACK]

48. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d 54, list 37. [BACK]

49. TsGA f. 404 op. 1, d. 1, listy 3-4.

50. Ibid., listy 24 - 25 rev. "Protokol No. 1 zasedaniia Komissii VOOP po Kavkazu ot 26 fevralia 1937 g." [BACK]

49. TsGA f. 404 op. 1, d. 1, listy 3-4.

50. Ibid., listy 24 - 25 rev. "Protokol No. 1 zasedaniia Komissii VOOP po Kavkazu ot 26 fevralia 1937 g." [BACK]

51. TsGA, f. 404, op. 1 d. 56, list 85. [BACK]

52. TsGA, f. 404, op. 1, d. 54, list 9. [BACK]

53. TsGA, f. 404, op. 1 d. 56, list 12. [BACK]

54. TsGA, f. 404. op. 1, d. 53, listy 50, 13.

55. Ibid., listy 16-17.

56. Ibid., list 25.

57. Ibid., list 26-27. [BACK]

54. TsGA, f. 404. op. 1, d. 53, listy 50, 13.

55. Ibid., listy 16-17.

56. Ibid., list 25.

57. Ibid., list 26-27. [BACK]

54. TsGA, f. 404. op. 1, d. 53, listy 50, 13.

55. Ibid., listy 16-17.

56. Ibid., list 25.

57. Ibid., list 26-27. [BACK]

54. TsGA, f. 404. op. 1, d. 53, listy 50, 13.

55. Ibid., listy 16-17.

56. Ibid., list 25.

57. Ibid., list 26-27. [BACK]

58. TsGA, f. 44. Op. 1, d. 56, list 17.

59. Ibid., listy 28-32. [BACK]

58. TsGA, f. 44. Op. 1, d. 56, list 17.

59. Ibid., listy 28-32. [BACK]

60. TsGA 404, op. 1, d. 53, list 55.

61. Ibid., list 35 Eventually, VOOP's president Komarov wrote to Soviet premier V. M. Molotov, who then apparently remanded the Division of Nonresidential Housing of the Moscow Soviet to provide premises for the Society. When Molotov's injunction was ignored, Komarov wrote again to the premier. Although the letter is undated, we may surmise it was written in 1938 or 1939. TsGA, f. 404, op. 1, d. 1, list 2.

62. Ibid., list 39. [BACK]

60. TsGA 404, op. 1, d. 53, list 55.

61. Ibid., list 35 Eventually, VOOP's president Komarov wrote to Soviet premier V. M. Molotov, who then apparently remanded the Division of Nonresidential Housing of the Moscow Soviet to provide premises for the Society. When Molotov's injunction was ignored, Komarov wrote again to the premier. Although the letter is undated, we may surmise it was written in 1938 or 1939. TsGA, f. 404, op. 1, d. 1, list 2.

62. Ibid., list 39. [BACK]

60. TsGA 404, op. 1, d. 53, list 55.

61. Ibid., list 35 Eventually, VOOP's president Komarov wrote to Soviet premier V. M. Molotov, who then apparently remanded the Division of Nonresidential Housing of the Moscow Soviet to provide premises for the Society. When Molotov's injunction was ignored, Komarov wrote again to the premier. Although the letter is undated, we may surmise it was written in 1938 or 1939. TsGA, f. 404, op. 1, d. 1, list 2.

62. Ibid., list 39. [BACK]

63. A full financial report was presented by A. G. Giller, who traced the Society's funds from its inception in 1924. In that year, its subsidy from Narkompros amounted to 1,000 rubles, which was increased the following year to 4,000. Despite inflation as well as the growth of the Society, funding levels remained static until 1933, when they were doubled. VTsIK was more generous. In 1935 it contributed 15,000 rubles; in 1936, 20,000; in 1937, 25,000; and 40,000 was promised in 1938. Additionally, the Society received juridical members' dues and contracts worth 30,000 rubles in 1935; 11,000 in 1936; 12,000 in 1937 and 35,000 in 1938. On the outflow side, publications, staff, and operations each consumed about one-third of the budget. Ibid., listy 49-51. [BACK]

64. TsGA, f. 404, op. 1 d. 52, list 11, in pen, at bottom of typed page. [BACK]

65. TsGA, f. 404, op. 1 , d. 56, list 55.

66. Ibid., list 7.

67. Ibid., list 52. [BACK]

65. TsGA, f. 404, op. 1 , d. 56, list 55.

66. Ibid., list 7.

67. Ibid., list 52. [BACK]

65. TsGA, f. 404, op. 1 , d. 56, list 55.

66. Ibid., list 7.

67. Ibid., list 52. [BACK]

68. Barishpol and Larina, U prirody druzei milliony , 40.

69. Ibid., 44. [BACK]

68. Barishpol and Larina, U prirody druzei milliony , 40.

69. Ibid., 44. [BACK]

70. TsGA, f. 404, op. 1, d. 78, list 1. "Otchet TsS VOOP o rabote obshchestva za 1939 god." 27 listy. Typed. By Susanna N. Fridman.

71. Ibid.

72. Ibid., list 7. break [BACK]

70. TsGA, f. 404, op. 1, d. 78, list 1. "Otchet TsS VOOP o rabote obshchestva za 1939 god." 27 listy. Typed. By Susanna N. Fridman.

71. Ibid.

72. Ibid., list 7. break [BACK]

70. TsGA, f. 404, op. 1, d. 78, list 1. "Otchet TsS VOOP o rabote obshchestva za 1939 god." 27 listy. Typed. By Susanna N. Fridman.

71. Ibid.

72. Ibid., list 7. break [BACK]

73. See TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 1, listy 30-31. Dogovor, August 26, 1938. This agreement between VOOP and the Committee for Zapovedniki provided for 4,000 rubles of funding from the Committee and a contribution of 1,157 rubles by the Society. Field research included a desman census in September-October 1938 along the basin of the Tsna, Chelovaia, and Stanovaia Riasa rivers in Tambov and Voronezh provinces.

74. Ibid., list 9.

75. Ibid., listy 11-12. [BACK]

73. See TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 1, listy 30-31. Dogovor, August 26, 1938. This agreement between VOOP and the Committee for Zapovedniki provided for 4,000 rubles of funding from the Committee and a contribution of 1,157 rubles by the Society. Field research included a desman census in September-October 1938 along the basin of the Tsna, Chelovaia, and Stanovaia Riasa rivers in Tambov and Voronezh provinces.

74. Ibid., list 9.

75. Ibid., listy 11-12. [BACK]

73. See TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 1, listy 30-31. Dogovor, August 26, 1938. This agreement between VOOP and the Committee for Zapovedniki provided for 4,000 rubles of funding from the Committee and a contribution of 1,157 rubles by the Society. Field research included a desman census in September-October 1938 along the basin of the Tsna, Chelovaia, and Stanovaia Riasa rivers in Tambov and Voronezh provinces.

74. Ibid., list 9.

75. Ibid., listy 11-12. [BACK]

76. bid., listy 13-17.

77. Ibid., list 4 rev. [BACK]

76. bid., listy 13-17.

77. Ibid., list 4 rev. [BACK]

78. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 130a, list 3 rev. ''Otchet o rabote VOOP za 1938-1947 gg." 8 listy.

79. Ibid., list 7. [BACK]

78. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 130a, list 3 rev. ''Otchet o rabote VOOP za 1938-1947 gg." 8 listy.

79. Ibid., list 7. [BACK]

80. The environmental consequences of World War II are discussed in Noskov, "Environmental Devastation in the USSR." [BACK]

81. TsGA, f. 404, op. 1, d. 1, listy 27-28. "Novye zadachi zapovednikov i okhrany," n.d. [c. 1944], typed, carbon. [BACK]

82. Interview with Nikolai Sergeevich Dorovatovskii, Moscow, January 3, 1980.

83. Ibid.

84. Ibid.

85. Ibid. [BACK]

82. Interview with Nikolai Sergeevich Dorovatovskii, Moscow, January 3, 1980.

83. Ibid.

84. Ibid.

85. Ibid. [BACK]

82. Interview with Nikolai Sergeevich Dorovatovskii, Moscow, January 3, 1980.

83. Ibid.

84. Ibid.

85. Ibid. [BACK]

82. Interview with Nikolai Sergeevich Dorovatovskii, Moscow, January 3, 1980.

83. Ibid.

84. Ibid.

85. Ibid. [BACK]

86. TsGA RSFSR 404, op. 1, d. 115a, listy 6-7. [BACK]

87. Medvedev and Nechaeva, "Pamiati V. V. Stanchinskogo," 113. [BACK]

88. Ramensky, "Basic Regularities of Vegetation Cover," 12. [BACK]

89. Ramenskii, "Klassifikatsiia zemel' po rastitel'nomu pokrovu," 484. [BACK]

90. Interview with Iakov Mikhailovich Gall, Leningrad, May 20, 1986. Sukachëv's observation will appear in a new volume of his works now being prepared for publication. [BACK]

91. A similar argument is made by Robert Hunt Sprinkle in Profession of Conscience , who includes in this moral community doctors, molecular geneticists, and other life scientists. [BACK]

92. Quoted in Struchkov, "Nature Protection as Moral Duty," 428. [BACK]

93. Shtil'mark, "S drugogo berega," 379. [BACK]

94. RGAE f. 59, op. 1, d. 96, list 1. Letter ofV. N. Makarov to G. P. Dement'ev, August 19, 1934. [BACK]

Chapter Three— The Road to "Liquidation": Conservation in the Postwar Years

1. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 115, listy 1-3, from Protokoly zasedanii soveta i prezidiuima ob-va .

2. Ibid., listy 7, 14-15.

3. Ibid., listy 14-15.

4. Ibid., list 34. The Council took this decision on December 18, 1945. [BACK]

1. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 115, listy 1-3, from Protokoly zasedanii soveta i prezidiuima ob-va .

2. Ibid., listy 7, 14-15.

3. Ibid., listy 14-15.

4. Ibid., list 34. The Council took this decision on December 18, 1945. [BACK]

1. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 115, listy 1-3, from Protokoly zasedanii soveta i prezidiuima ob-va .

2. Ibid., listy 7, 14-15.

3. Ibid., listy 14-15.

4. Ibid., list 34. The Council took this decision on December 18, 1945. [BACK]

1. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 115, listy 1-3, from Protokoly zasedanii soveta i prezidiuima ob-va .

2. Ibid., listy 7, 14-15.

3. Ibid., listy 14-15.

4. Ibid., list 34. The Council took this decision on December 18, 1945. [BACK]

5. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 120, listy 8, 8 rev., 9. [BACK]

6. TsGA, f. 404, op. 1, d. 131, list 1. "Otchet o deiatel'nosti VOOP za 1945-1947 gg." break

7. Ibid., list 4.

8. Ibid., listy 1, 4. [BACK]

6. TsGA, f. 404, op. 1, d. 131, list 1. "Otchet o deiatel'nosti VOOP za 1945-1947 gg." break

7. Ibid., list 4.

8. Ibid., listy 1, 4. [BACK]

6. TsGA, f. 404, op. 1, d. 131, list 1. "Otchet o deiatel'nosti VOOP za 1945-1947 gg." break

7. Ibid., list 4.

8. Ibid., listy 1, 4. [BACK]

9. Interview with Mikhail Aleksandrovich Zablotskii, Prioksko-terrasnyi zapovednik , April 20, 1991. [BACK]

10. Browne, "European Bison," 2. [BACK]

11. Il'inskii, "Belovezhskaia pushcha." [BACK]

12. Interview with Mikhail Aleksandrovich Zablotskii, Prioksko-Terrasnyi zapovednik, April 20, 1991.

13. Ibid. [BACK]

12. Interview with Mikhail Aleksandrovich Zablotskii, Prioksko-Terrasnyi zapovednik, April 20, 1991.

13. Ibid. [BACK]

14. See Bailes, Technology and Society . [BACK]

15. Zablotskii, "Vosstanovlenie zubra v SSSR i za granitsei," 56. [BACK]

16. On Dubinin, see Soyfer, Lysenko . [BACK]

17. TsGA, f. 404, op. 1, d. 120, list 8. [BACK]

18. Interview with Mikhail Aleksandrovich Zablotskii, Prioksko-Terrasnyi zapovednik , April 20, 1991. [BACK]

19. Gosudarstvennaia , 1:8.

20. Ibid., 7. [BACK]

19. Gosudarstvennaia , 1:8.

20. Ibid., 7. [BACK]

21. Interview with Mikhail Aleksandrovich Zablotskii, Prioksko-Terrasnvi zapovednik , April 20, 1991. [BACK]

22. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 99, listy 35 rev., 36. [BACK]

23. TsGA, f. 259, op. 6, d. 3519, listy 1-6. Emphasis mine.

24. Ibid., listy 11-12. [BACK]

23. TsGA, f. 259, op. 6, d. 3519, listy 1-6. Emphasis mine.

24. Ibid., listy 11-12. [BACK]

25. TsGA, f. 259, op. 6, d. 3518, listy 63-66. [BACK]

26. TsGA, f. 44, op. 1, d. 122, list 23.

27. Ibid., listy 27-31. [BACK]

26. TsGA, f. 44, op. 1, d. 122, list 23.

27. Ibid., listy 27-31. [BACK]

28. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 1:31, list 5 rev. [BACK]

29. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 122, listy 24-26.

30. Ibid., listy 6-7. The decree was Postanovlenie SM RSFSR No. 642, "Ob okhrane prirody na territorii RSFSR". [BACK]

29. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 122, listy 24-26.

30. Ibid., listy 6-7. The decree was Postanovlenie SM RSFSR No. 642, "Ob okhrane prirody na territorii RSFSR". [BACK]

31. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 120, listy 17-18. [BACK]

32. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 5419.416-10, list 17.

33. Ibid. [BACK]

32. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 5419.416-10, list 17.

33. Ibid. [BACK]

34. TsGA 404, op. 1, d. 36, listy 6, 6 rev. "V otdel pechati Tsentral'nogo komiteta VKP/b/." No date [late 1946], carbon.

35. Ibid., list 5. [BACK]

34. TsGA 404, op. 1, d. 36, listy 6, 6 rev. "V otdel pechati Tsentral'nogo komiteta VKP/b/." No date [late 1946], carbon.

35. Ibid., list 5. [BACK]

36. Soyfer, Lysenko , 227. S. V. Zonn, in an interview conducted in Moscow, August 3, 1995, offered a rather generous and empathetic assessment of Tsitsin. "A very cultured, modest person," Tsitsin had previously worked at the Institute for Agriculture of the South-East (Institut zemledeliia iugo-vostoka) in Saratov in the field of selection and knew N. M. Tulaikov and N. I. Vavilov as colleagues. Accordingly, he took an anti-Lysenkoist position from the start and remained friendly with V. N. Sukachëv. On the other hand, as director of the Academy's main botanical garden, he tried to avoid public controversy, perhaps excessively so. "He found himself in a bind," concluded Zonn. "He was squeezed between his public position of authority and his inner beliefs." [BACK]

37. RTsKhIDNI f. 17, op. 138, d. 33, list 34. [BACK]

38. RTsKhIDNI f. 17, op. 138, d. 35, list 2. The report itself, entitled " K voprosu continue

o vetvistykh formakh pshenitsy " [On the Question of Branched Forms of Wheat], occupies listy 3-28. Malenkov came across this report and wrote a note to his aide, Kozlov: "I ask you to read this through and to report back to me" (list 39). However, further archival documents thus far give no clue as to the further or final disposition of this affair.

39. Ibid., list 18.

40. Ibid., list. 19.

41. Ibid., listy 20, 25.

42. Ibid., list 28. Tsitsin ridiculed Lysenko for claiming to be able to guide the "sculpting" ( on tak bukval ' no i vyrazhaetsia , " lepit "') of the organism, drawing attention to the nonscientific language of the barefoot selectionist. In Russian, the verb lepit ' is used in connection with pottery and working with clay.

43. Ibid., list 27.

44. Ibid., listy 26-29.

45. Ibid., listy 88-94.

46. Ibid., list 140.

47. Ibid., list 145.

48. Ibid., list 146.

49. Ibid., list 146.

50. Ibid., list 167.

51. Ibid. To the Central Executive Council of the Society were elected forty-one, including such notables as the academicians Vladimir Nikolaevich Sukachëv, L. D. Sheviakov, and Aleksandr Ivanovich Oparin; the head of the Moscow oblast' government, P. G. Burylychev; the head of the Crimean oblast' government, D. A. Krivoshein; and old-timers Susanna N. Fridman, Sergei N. Ognëv, V. G. Geptner, K. N. Blagosklonov, D. M. Viazhlinskii, R. F. Gekker, P. A. Manteifel', M. P. Rozanov, and A. N. Formozov. [BACK]

38. RTsKhIDNI f. 17, op. 138, d. 35, list 2. The report itself, entitled " K voprosu continue

o vetvistykh formakh pshenitsy " [On the Question of Branched Forms of Wheat], occupies listy 3-28. Malenkov came across this report and wrote a note to his aide, Kozlov: "I ask you to read this through and to report back to me" (list 39). However, further archival documents thus far give no clue as to the further or final disposition of this affair.

39. Ibid., list 18.

40. Ibid., list. 19.

41. Ibid., listy 20, 25.

42. Ibid., list 28. Tsitsin ridiculed Lysenko for claiming to be able to guide the "sculpting" ( on tak bukval ' no i vyrazhaetsia , " lepit "') of the organism, drawing attention to the nonscientific language of the barefoot selectionist. In Russian, the verb lepit ' is used in connection with pottery and working with clay.

43. Ibid., list 27.

44. Ibid., listy 26-29.

45. Ibid., listy 88-94.

46. Ibid., list 140.

47. Ibid., list 145.

48. Ibid., list 146.

49. Ibid., list 146.

50. Ibid., list 167.

51. Ibid. To the Central Executive Council of the Society were elected forty-one, including such notables as the academicians Vladimir Nikolaevich Sukachëv, L. D. Sheviakov, and Aleksandr Ivanovich Oparin; the head of the Moscow oblast' government, P. G. Burylychev; the head of the Crimean oblast' government, D. A. Krivoshein; and old-timers Susanna N. Fridman, Sergei N. Ognëv, V. G. Geptner, K. N. Blagosklonov, D. M. Viazhlinskii, R. F. Gekker, P. A. Manteifel', M. P. Rozanov, and A. N. Formozov. [BACK]

38. RTsKhIDNI f. 17, op. 138, d. 35, list 2. The report itself, entitled " K voprosu continue

o vetvistykh formakh pshenitsy " [On the Question of Branched Forms of Wheat], occupies listy 3-28. Malenkov came across this report and wrote a note to his aide, Kozlov: "I ask you to read this through and to report back to me" (list 39). However, further archival documents thus far give no clue as to the further or final disposition of this affair.

39. Ibid., list 18.

40. Ibid., list. 19.

41. Ibid., listy 20, 25.

42. Ibid., list 28. Tsitsin ridiculed Lysenko for claiming to be able to guide the "sculpting" ( on tak bukval ' no i vyrazhaetsia , " lepit "') of the organism, drawing attention to the nonscientific language of the barefoot selectionist. In Russian, the verb lepit ' is used in connection with pottery and working with clay.

43. Ibid., list 27.

44. Ibid., listy 26-29.

45. Ibid., listy 88-94.

46. Ibid., list 140.

47. Ibid., list 145.

48. Ibid., list 146.

49. Ibid., list 146.

50. Ibid., list 167.

51. Ibid. To the Central Executive Council of the Society were elected forty-one, including such notables as the academicians Vladimir Nikolaevich Sukachëv, L. D. Sheviakov, and Aleksandr Ivanovich Oparin; the head of the Moscow oblast' government, P. G. Burylychev; the head of the Crimean oblast' government, D. A. Krivoshein; and old-timers Susanna N. Fridman, Sergei N. Ognëv, V. G. Geptner, K. N. Blagosklonov, D. M. Viazhlinskii, R. F. Gekker, P. A. Manteifel', M. P. Rozanov, and A. N. Formozov. [BACK]

38. RTsKhIDNI f. 17, op. 138, d. 35, list 2. The report itself, entitled " K voprosu continue

o vetvistykh formakh pshenitsy " [On the Question of Branched Forms of Wheat], occupies listy 3-28. Malenkov came across this report and wrote a note to his aide, Kozlov: "I ask you to read this through and to report back to me" (list 39). However, further archival documents thus far give no clue as to the further or final disposition of this affair.

39. Ibid., list 18.

40. Ibid., list. 19.

41. Ibid., listy 20, 25.

42. Ibid., list 28. Tsitsin ridiculed Lysenko for claiming to be able to guide the "sculpting" ( on tak bukval ' no i vyrazhaetsia , " lepit "') of the organism, drawing attention to the nonscientific language of the barefoot selectionist. In Russian, the verb lepit ' is used in connection with pottery and working with clay.

43. Ibid., list 27.

44. Ibid., listy 26-29.

45. Ibid., listy 88-94.

46. Ibid., list 140.

47. Ibid., list 145.

48. Ibid., list 146.

49. Ibid., list 146.

50. Ibid., list 167.

51. Ibid. To the Central Executive Council of the Society were elected forty-one, including such notables as the academicians Vladimir Nikolaevich Sukachëv, L. D. Sheviakov, and Aleksandr Ivanovich Oparin; the head of the Moscow oblast' government, P. G. Burylychev; the head of the Crimean oblast' government, D. A. Krivoshein; and old-timers Susanna N. Fridman, Sergei N. Ognëv, V. G. Geptner, K. N. Blagosklonov, D. M. Viazhlinskii, R. F. Gekker, P. A. Manteifel', M. P. Rozanov, and A. N. Formozov. [BACK]

38. RTsKhIDNI f. 17, op. 138, d. 35, list 2. The report itself, entitled " K voprosu continue

o vetvistykh formakh pshenitsy " [On the Question of Branched Forms of Wheat], occupies listy 3-28. Malenkov came across this report and wrote a note to his aide, Kozlov: "I ask you to read this through and to report back to me" (list 39). However, further archival documents thus far give no clue as to the further or final disposition of this affair.

39. Ibid., list 18.

40. Ibid., list. 19.

41. Ibid., listy 20, 25.

42. Ibid., list 28. Tsitsin ridiculed Lysenko for claiming to be able to guide the "sculpting" ( on tak bukval ' no i vyrazhaetsia , " lepit "') of the organism, drawing attention to the nonscientific language of the barefoot selectionist. In Russian, the verb lepit ' is used in connection with pottery and working with clay.

43. Ibid., list 27.

44. Ibid., listy 26-29.

45. Ibid., listy 88-94.

46. Ibid., list 140.

47. Ibid., list 145.

48. Ibid., list 146.

49. Ibid., list 146.

50. Ibid., list 167.

51. Ibid. To the Central Executive Council of the Society were elected forty-one, including such notables as the academicians Vladimir Nikolaevich Sukachëv, L. D. Sheviakov, and Aleksandr Ivanovich Oparin; the head of the Moscow oblast' government, P. G. Burylychev; the head of the Crimean oblast' government, D. A. Krivoshein; and old-timers Susanna N. Fridman, Sergei N. Ognëv, V. G. Geptner, K. N. Blagosklonov, D. M. Viazhlinskii, R. F. Gekker, P. A. Manteifel', M. P. Rozanov, and A. N. Formozov. [BACK]

38. RTsKhIDNI f. 17, op. 138, d. 35, list 2. The report itself, entitled " K voprosu continue

o vetvistykh formakh pshenitsy " [On the Question of Branched Forms of Wheat], occupies listy 3-28. Malenkov came across this report and wrote a note to his aide, Kozlov: "I ask you to read this through and to report back to me" (list 39). However, further archival documents thus far give no clue as to the further or final disposition of this affair.

39. Ibid., list 18.

40. Ibid., list. 19.

41. Ibid., listy 20, 25.

42. Ibid., list 28. Tsitsin ridiculed Lysenko for claiming to be able to guide the "sculpting" ( on tak bukval ' no i vyrazhaetsia , " lepit "') of the organism, drawing attention to the nonscientific language of the barefoot selectionist. In Russian, the verb lepit ' is used in connection with pottery and working with clay.

43. Ibid., list 27.

44. Ibid., listy 26-29.

45. Ibid., listy 88-94.

46. Ibid., list 140.

47. Ibid., list 145.

48. Ibid., list 146.

49. Ibid., list 146.

50. Ibid., list 167.

51. Ibid. To the Central Executive Council of the Society were elected forty-one, including such notables as the academicians Vladimir Nikolaevich Sukachëv, L. D. Sheviakov, and Aleksandr Ivanovich Oparin; the head of the Moscow oblast' government, P. G. Burylychev; the head of the Crimean oblast' government, D. A. Krivoshein; and old-timers Susanna N. Fridman, Sergei N. Ognëv, V. G. Geptner, K. N. Blagosklonov, D. M. Viazhlinskii, R. F. Gekker, P. A. Manteifel', M. P. Rozanov, and A. N. Formozov. [BACK]

38. RTsKhIDNI f. 17, op. 138, d. 35, list 2. The report itself, entitled " K voprosu continue

o vetvistykh formakh pshenitsy " [On the Question of Branched Forms of Wheat], occupies listy 3-28. Malenkov came across this report and wrote a note to his aide, Kozlov: "I ask you to read this through and to report back to me" (list 39). However, further archival documents thus far give no clue as to the further or final disposition of this affair.

39. Ibid., list 18.

40. Ibid., list. 19.

41. Ibid., listy 20, 25.

42. Ibid., list 28. Tsitsin ridiculed Lysenko for claiming to be able to guide the "sculpting" ( on tak bukval ' no i vyrazhaetsia , " lepit "') of the organism, drawing attention to the nonscientific language of the barefoot selectionist. In Russian, the verb lepit ' is used in connection with pottery and working with clay.

43. Ibid., list 27.

44. Ibid., listy 26-29.

45. Ibid., listy 88-94.

46. Ibid., list 140.

47. Ibid., list 145.

48. Ibid., list 146.

49. Ibid., list 146.

50. Ibid., list 167.

51. Ibid. To the Central Executive Council of the Society were elected forty-one, including such notables as the academicians Vladimir Nikolaevich Sukachëv, L. D. Sheviakov, and Aleksandr Ivanovich Oparin; the head of the Moscow oblast' government, P. G. Burylychev; the head of the Crimean oblast' government, D. A. Krivoshein; and old-timers Susanna N. Fridman, Sergei N. Ognëv, V. G. Geptner, K. N. Blagosklonov, D. M. Viazhlinskii, R. F. Gekker, P. A. Manteifel', M. P. Rozanov, and A. N. Formozov. [BACK]

38. RTsKhIDNI f. 17, op. 138, d. 35, list 2. The report itself, entitled " K voprosu continue

o vetvistykh formakh pshenitsy " [On the Question of Branched Forms of Wheat], occupies listy 3-28. Malenkov came across this report and wrote a note to his aide, Kozlov: "I ask you to read this through and to report back to me" (list 39). However, further archival documents thus far give no clue as to the further or final disposition of this affair.

39. Ibid., list 18.

40. Ibid., list. 19.

41. Ibid., listy 20, 25.

42. Ibid., list 28. Tsitsin ridiculed Lysenko for claiming to be able to guide the "sculpting" ( on tak bukval ' no i vyrazhaetsia , " lepit "') of the organism, drawing attention to the nonscientific language of the barefoot selectionist. In Russian, the verb lepit ' is used in connection with pottery and working with clay.

43. Ibid., list 27.

44. Ibid., listy 26-29.

45. Ibid., listy 88-94.

46. Ibid., list 140.

47. Ibid., list 145.

48. Ibid., list 146.

49. Ibid., list 146.

50. Ibid., list 167.

51. Ibid. To the Central Executive Council of the Society were elected forty-one, including such notables as the academicians Vladimir Nikolaevich Sukachëv, L. D. Sheviakov, and Aleksandr Ivanovich Oparin; the head of the Moscow oblast' government, P. G. Burylychev; the head of the Crimean oblast' government, D. A. Krivoshein; and old-timers Susanna N. Fridman, Sergei N. Ognëv, V. G. Geptner, K. N. Blagosklonov, D. M. Viazhlinskii, R. F. Gekker, P. A. Manteifel', M. P. Rozanov, and A. N. Formozov. [BACK]

38. RTsKhIDNI f. 17, op. 138, d. 35, list 2. The report itself, entitled " K voprosu continue

o vetvistykh formakh pshenitsy " [On the Question of Branched Forms of Wheat], occupies listy 3-28. Malenkov came across this report and wrote a note to his aide, Kozlov: "I ask you to read this through and to report back to me" (list 39). However, further archival documents thus far give no clue as to the further or final disposition of this affair.

39. Ibid., list 18.

40. Ibid., list. 19.

41. Ibid., listy 20, 25.

42. Ibid., list 28. Tsitsin ridiculed Lysenko for claiming to be able to guide the "sculpting" ( on tak bukval ' no i vyrazhaetsia , " lepit "') of the organism, drawing attention to the nonscientific language of the barefoot selectionist. In Russian, the verb lepit ' is used in connection with pottery and working with clay.

43. Ibid., list 27.

44. Ibid., listy 26-29.

45. Ibid., listy 88-94.

46. Ibid., list 140.

47. Ibid., list 145.

48. Ibid., list 146.

49. Ibid., list 146.

50. Ibid., list 167.

51. Ibid. To the Central Executive Council of the Society were elected forty-one, including such notables as the academicians Vladimir Nikolaevich Sukachëv, L. D. Sheviakov, and Aleksandr Ivanovich Oparin; the head of the Moscow oblast' government, P. G. Burylychev; the head of the Crimean oblast' government, D. A. Krivoshein; and old-timers Susanna N. Fridman, Sergei N. Ognëv, V. G. Geptner, K. N. Blagosklonov, D. M. Viazhlinskii, R. F. Gekker, P. A. Manteifel', M. P. Rozanov, and A. N. Formozov. [BACK]

38. RTsKhIDNI f. 17, op. 138, d. 35, list 2. The report itself, entitled " K voprosu continue

o vetvistykh formakh pshenitsy " [On the Question of Branched Forms of Wheat], occupies listy 3-28. Malenkov came across this report and wrote a note to his aide, Kozlov: "I ask you to read this through and to report back to me" (list 39). However, further archival documents thus far give no clue as to the further or final disposition of this affair.

39. Ibid., list 18.

40. Ibid., list. 19.

41. Ibid., listy 20, 25.

42. Ibid., list 28. Tsitsin ridiculed Lysenko for claiming to be able to guide the "sculpting" ( on tak bukval ' no i vyrazhaetsia , " lepit "') of the organism, drawing attention to the nonscientific language of the barefoot selectionist. In Russian, the verb lepit ' is used in connection with pottery and working with clay.

43. Ibid., list 27.

44. Ibid., listy 26-29.

45. Ibid., listy 88-94.

46. Ibid., list 140.

47. Ibid., list 145.

48. Ibid., list 146.

49. Ibid., list 146.

50. Ibid., list 167.

51. Ibid. To the Central Executive Council of the Society were elected forty-one, including such notables as the academicians Vladimir Nikolaevich Sukachëv, L. D. Sheviakov, and Aleksandr Ivanovich Oparin; the head of the Moscow oblast' government, P. G. Burylychev; the head of the Crimean oblast' government, D. A. Krivoshein; and old-timers Susanna N. Fridman, Sergei N. Ognëv, V. G. Geptner, K. N. Blagosklonov, D. M. Viazhlinskii, R. F. Gekker, P. A. Manteifel', M. P. Rozanov, and A. N. Formozov. [BACK]

38. RTsKhIDNI f. 17, op. 138, d. 35, list 2. The report itself, entitled " K voprosu continue

o vetvistykh formakh pshenitsy " [On the Question of Branched Forms of Wheat], occupies listy 3-28. Malenkov came across this report and wrote a note to his aide, Kozlov: "I ask you to read this through and to report back to me" (list 39). However, further archival documents thus far give no clue as to the further or final disposition of this affair.

39. Ibid., list 18.

40. Ibid., list. 19.

41. Ibid., listy 20, 25.

42. Ibid., list 28. Tsitsin ridiculed Lysenko for claiming to be able to guide the "sculpting" ( on tak bukval ' no i vyrazhaetsia , " lepit "') of the organism, drawing attention to the nonscientific language of the barefoot selectionist. In Russian, the verb lepit ' is used in connection with pottery and working with clay.

43. Ibid., list 27.

44. Ibid., listy 26-29.

45. Ibid., listy 88-94.

46. Ibid., list 140.

47. Ibid., list 145.

48. Ibid., list 146.

49. Ibid., list 146.

50. Ibid., list 167.

51. Ibid. To the Central Executive Council of the Society were elected forty-one, including such notables as the academicians Vladimir Nikolaevich Sukachëv, L. D. Sheviakov, and Aleksandr Ivanovich Oparin; the head of the Moscow oblast' government, P. G. Burylychev; the head of the Crimean oblast' government, D. A. Krivoshein; and old-timers Susanna N. Fridman, Sergei N. Ognëv, V. G. Geptner, K. N. Blagosklonov, D. M. Viazhlinskii, R. F. Gekker, P. A. Manteifel', M. P. Rozanov, and A. N. Formozov. [BACK]

38. RTsKhIDNI f. 17, op. 138, d. 35, list 2. The report itself, entitled " K voprosu continue

o vetvistykh formakh pshenitsy " [On the Question of Branched Forms of Wheat], occupies listy 3-28. Malenkov came across this report and wrote a note to his aide, Kozlov: "I ask you to read this through and to report back to me" (list 39). However, further archival documents thus far give no clue as to the further or final disposition of this affair.

39. Ibid., list 18.

40. Ibid., list. 19.

41. Ibid., listy 20, 25.

42. Ibid., list 28. Tsitsin ridiculed Lysenko for claiming to be able to guide the "sculpting" ( on tak bukval ' no i vyrazhaetsia , " lepit "') of the organism, drawing attention to the nonscientific language of the barefoot selectionist. In Russian, the verb lepit ' is used in connection with pottery and working with clay.

43. Ibid., list 27.

44. Ibid., listy 26-29.

45. Ibid., listy 88-94.

46. Ibid., list 140.

47. Ibid., list 145.

48. Ibid., list 146.

49. Ibid., list 146.

50. Ibid., list 167.

51. Ibid. To the Central Executive Council of the Society were elected forty-one, including such notables as the academicians Vladimir Nikolaevich Sukachëv, L. D. Sheviakov, and Aleksandr Ivanovich Oparin; the head of the Moscow oblast' government, P. G. Burylychev; the head of the Crimean oblast' government, D. A. Krivoshein; and old-timers Susanna N. Fridman, Sergei N. Ognëv, V. G. Geptner, K. N. Blagosklonov, D. M. Viazhlinskii, R. F. Gekker, P. A. Manteifel', M. P. Rozanov, and A. N. Formozov. [BACK]

38. RTsKhIDNI f. 17, op. 138, d. 35, list 2. The report itself, entitled " K voprosu continue

o vetvistykh formakh pshenitsy " [On the Question of Branched Forms of Wheat], occupies listy 3-28. Malenkov came across this report and wrote a note to his aide, Kozlov: "I ask you to read this through and to report back to me" (list 39). However, further archival documents thus far give no clue as to the further or final disposition of this affair.

39. Ibid., list 18.

40. Ibid., list. 19.

41. Ibid., listy 20, 25.

42. Ibid., list 28. Tsitsin ridiculed Lysenko for claiming to be able to guide the "sculpting" ( on tak bukval ' no i vyrazhaetsia , " lepit "') of the organism, drawing attention to the nonscientific language of the barefoot selectionist. In Russian, the verb lepit ' is used in connection with pottery and working with clay.

43. Ibid., list 27.

44. Ibid., listy 26-29.

45. Ibid., listy 88-94.

46. Ibid., list 140.

47. Ibid., list 145.

48. Ibid., list 146.

49. Ibid., list 146.

50. Ibid., list 167.

51. Ibid. To the Central Executive Council of the Society were elected forty-one, including such notables as the academicians Vladimir Nikolaevich Sukachëv, L. D. Sheviakov, and Aleksandr Ivanovich Oparin; the head of the Moscow oblast' government, P. G. Burylychev; the head of the Crimean oblast' government, D. A. Krivoshein; and old-timers Susanna N. Fridman, Sergei N. Ognëv, V. G. Geptner, K. N. Blagosklonov, D. M. Viazhlinskii, R. F. Gekker, P. A. Manteifel', M. P. Rozanov, and A. N. Formozov. [BACK]

38. RTsKhIDNI f. 17, op. 138, d. 35, list 2. The report itself, entitled " K voprosu continue

o vetvistykh formakh pshenitsy " [On the Question of Branched Forms of Wheat], occupies listy 3-28. Malenkov came across this report and wrote a note to his aide, Kozlov: "I ask you to read this through and to report back to me" (list 39). However, further archival documents thus far give no clue as to the further or final disposition of this affair.

39. Ibid., list 18.

40. Ibid., list. 19.

41. Ibid., listy 20, 25.

42. Ibid., list 28. Tsitsin ridiculed Lysenko for claiming to be able to guide the "sculpting" ( on tak bukval ' no i vyrazhaetsia , " lepit "') of the organism, drawing attention to the nonscientific language of the barefoot selectionist. In Russian, the verb lepit ' is used in connection with pottery and working with clay.

43. Ibid., list 27.

44. Ibid., listy 26-29.

45. Ibid., listy 88-94.

46. Ibid., list 140.

47. Ibid., list 145.

48. Ibid., list 146.

49. Ibid., list 146.

50. Ibid., list 167.

51. Ibid. To the Central Executive Council of the Society were elected forty-one, including such notables as the academicians Vladimir Nikolaevich Sukachëv, L. D. Sheviakov, and Aleksandr Ivanovich Oparin; the head of the Moscow oblast' government, P. G. Burylychev; the head of the Crimean oblast' government, D. A. Krivoshein; and old-timers Susanna N. Fridman, Sergei N. Ognëv, V. G. Geptner, K. N. Blagosklonov, D. M. Viazhlinskii, R. F. Gekker, P. A. Manteifel', M. P. Rozanov, and A. N. Formozov. [BACK]

52. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 127, listy 24-25. [BACK]

53. Okhrana prirody , sbornik 1 (1948): 131. [BACK]

54. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 127, listy 146-47.

55. Ibid., listy, 144-45. [BACK]

54. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 127, listy 146-47.

55. Ibid., listy, 144-45. [BACK]

56. Makarov, Okhrana prirody v SSSR , 11. During the 1940s, beginning even before the war, the journal Nauka i zhizn' had begun an episodic series on the zapovedniki of the USSR, usually accompanied by photographs and occasionally maps. The geographer and VOOP activist S. M. Preobrazhenskii wrote many of these articles. See especially Nauka i zhizn ' 4 (1940) on the Pechoro-Ilychskii reserve; (1941) on "Buzulukskii bor"; 1 (1948) on the Voronezhskii reserve; and 3 (1947) for Preobrazhenskii's survey article. [BACK]

57. See Starr, "Visionary Town Planning"; and Stites, Revolutionary Dreams . [BACK]

58. Leonid Leonov, "V zashchitu Druga," Izvestiia , 28 December 1947, reprinted in Leonov, Sobraie sochinenii , 10:185-95. [BACK]

59. TsKhSD f. 17, op. 138, d. 35, list 2.

60. Ibid., list 4. [BACK]

59. TsKhSD f. 17, op. 138, d. 35, list 2.

60. Ibid., list 4. [BACK]

61. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 136a, listy 37-38.

62. Ibid., list 35.

63. Ibid., listy 63, 63 rev. [BACK]

61. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 136a, listy 37-38.

62. Ibid., list 35.

63. Ibid., listy 63, 63 rev. [BACK]

61. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 136a, listy 37-38.

62. Ibid., list 35.

63. Ibid., listy 63, 63 rev. [BACK]

64. TsKhSD, f. 5, op. 16, d. 40, listy 184, 184 rev., 185-86. break

65. Ibid., list 194.

66. Ibid., listy 183-86.

67. Ibid., listy 192-93 rev.

68. Ibid., listy 198-99.

69. Ibid., list 200-201. [BACK]

64. TsKhSD, f. 5, op. 16, d. 40, listy 184, 184 rev., 185-86. break

65. Ibid., list 194.

66. Ibid., listy 183-86.

67. Ibid., listy 192-93 rev.

68. Ibid., listy 198-99.

69. Ibid., list 200-201. [BACK]

64. TsKhSD, f. 5, op. 16, d. 40, listy 184, 184 rev., 185-86. break

65. Ibid., list 194.

66. Ibid., listy 183-86.

67. Ibid., listy 192-93 rev.

68. Ibid., listy 198-99.

69. Ibid., list 200-201. [BACK]

64. TsKhSD, f. 5, op. 16, d. 40, listy 184, 184 rev., 185-86. break

65. Ibid., list 194.

66. Ibid., listy 183-86.

67. Ibid., listy 192-93 rev.

68. Ibid., listy 198-99.

69. Ibid., list 200-201. [BACK]

64. TsKhSD, f. 5, op. 16, d. 40, listy 184, 184 rev., 185-86. break

65. Ibid., list 194.

66. Ibid., listy 183-86.

67. Ibid., listy 192-93 rev.

68. Ibid., listy 198-99.

69. Ibid., list 200-201. [BACK]

64. TsKhSD, f. 5, op. 16, d. 40, listy 184, 184 rev., 185-86. break

65. Ibid., list 194.

66. Ibid., listy 183-86.

67. Ibid., listy 192-93 rev.

68. Ibid., listy 198-99.

69. Ibid., list 200-201. [BACK]

70. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 136a, listy 136, 146.

71. Ibid., list 126. [BACK]

70. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 136a, listy 136, 146.

71. Ibid., list 126. [BACK]

72. Okhrana prirody , sbornik (1948): 128; 4 (1948): 120-25. [BACK]

73. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 159, list 14. [BACK]

Chapter Four—Zapovedniki in Peril, 1948–1950

1. See, for example, "Protokol no. 10 Nauchnogo soveta Voronezhskogo Goszapovednika ot 29 sentiabria 1948 g.," TsGA f. 358, op. 2, d. 612, listy 37-41, at which classical genetics was condemned as "imported science" and all-out assistance pledged to the newly announced Stalin Plan for the Great Transformation of Nature. See also "Vypiska iz protokola zasedaniia uchenogo soveta Darvinskogo Goszapovednika ot 15.IX. 1948 g.," ibid., listy 45-46. [BACK]

2. This is expanded upon in my new work in progress, " Curiosity for Its Own Sake : " Boris Evgen'vich Raikov and Natural Sience Education in the Soviet Union . [BACK]

3. See his report, "Itogi raboty attestatsionnoi kommissii Biofaka MGU" [Report of the Certification Commission of the Biological Faculty of Moscow State University], prepared and signed by him as dean not long after the August 1 948 session of VASKhNIL. ARAN f. 1593, op. 1, d. 106, listy 1-19. Prezent remarked, apropos of the department of vertebrate zoology, that "to date a reorganization [ perestroika ] of work in accordance with the decisions of the August session . . . is proceeding totally unsatisfactorily. Professors Matveev, Formozov, and Geptner, who suffer from a whole series of the most serious methodological errors, have not subjected those errors to critical reexamination." Formozov was quickly fired. [BACK]

4. Vorontsov, Afterword to Stranitsy zhizni , 325. See also Medvedev, Rise and Fall of T. D. Lysenko , 121-30. A third highly readable and personal memoir is that of the late Vladimir lakovlevich Aleksandrov, Trudnye gody sovetskoi biologii . [BACK]

5. See TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 5418, list 30. Shvedchikov was so frequently ill that from late 1947 to December 28, 1949, V. N. Makarov ran the Main Administration as acting director.

6. Ibid.

7. Ibid., listy 33-35.

8. Ibid., listy 31-32. Evidence, including a previous note from Motovilov to Gritsenko, makes it almost certain that this note to Malenkov was written after July 3.

9. Ibid., listy 25-28, especially 27-28. Memo from A. Suchkov, August 13, 1947.

10. Ibid., listy 23-24. Suchkov signed the bottom of Gritsenko's memo and dated it September 6, indicating that Suchkov reported to Gritsenko rather than to Rodionov directly.

11. Ibid., listy 21-22. Note of September 18, 1947 of Rodionov to Malenkov, initialed by Suchkov at the bottom.

12. Ibid., listy 18-20.

13. Ibid., listy 16-17. Dated only October 1947. break

14. Ibid., list 17.

15. Ibid., listy 3-4. [BACK]

5. See TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 5418, list 30. Shvedchikov was so frequently ill that from late 1947 to December 28, 1949, V. N. Makarov ran the Main Administration as acting director.

6. Ibid.

7. Ibid., listy 33-35.

8. Ibid., listy 31-32. Evidence, including a previous note from Motovilov to Gritsenko, makes it almost certain that this note to Malenkov was written after July 3.

9. Ibid., listy 25-28, especially 27-28. Memo from A. Suchkov, August 13, 1947.

10. Ibid., listy 23-24. Suchkov signed the bottom of Gritsenko's memo and dated it September 6, indicating that Suchkov reported to Gritsenko rather than to Rodionov directly.

11. Ibid., listy 21-22. Note of September 18, 1947 of Rodionov to Malenkov, initialed by Suchkov at the bottom.

12. Ibid., listy 18-20.

13. Ibid., listy 16-17. Dated only October 1947. break

14. Ibid., list 17.

15. Ibid., listy 3-4. [BACK]

5. See TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 5418, list 30. Shvedchikov was so frequently ill that from late 1947 to December 28, 1949, V. N. Makarov ran the Main Administration as acting director.

6. Ibid.

7. Ibid., listy 33-35.

8. Ibid., listy 31-32. Evidence, including a previous note from Motovilov to Gritsenko, makes it almost certain that this note to Malenkov was written after July 3.

9. Ibid., listy 25-28, especially 27-28. Memo from A. Suchkov, August 13, 1947.

10. Ibid., listy 23-24. Suchkov signed the bottom of Gritsenko's memo and dated it September 6, indicating that Suchkov reported to Gritsenko rather than to Rodionov directly.

11. Ibid., listy 21-22. Note of September 18, 1947 of Rodionov to Malenkov, initialed by Suchkov at the bottom.

12. Ibid., listy 18-20.

13. Ibid., listy 16-17. Dated only October 1947. break

14. Ibid., list 17.

15. Ibid., listy 3-4. [BACK]

5. See TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 5418, list 30. Shvedchikov was so frequently ill that from late 1947 to December 28, 1949, V. N. Makarov ran the Main Administration as acting director.

6. Ibid.

7. Ibid., listy 33-35.

8. Ibid., listy 31-32. Evidence, including a previous note from Motovilov to Gritsenko, makes it almost certain that this note to Malenkov was written after July 3.

9. Ibid., listy 25-28, especially 27-28. Memo from A. Suchkov, August 13, 1947.

10. Ibid., listy 23-24. Suchkov signed the bottom of Gritsenko's memo and dated it September 6, indicating that Suchkov reported to Gritsenko rather than to Rodionov directly.

11. Ibid., listy 21-22. Note of September 18, 1947 of Rodionov to Malenkov, initialed by Suchkov at the bottom.

12. Ibid., listy 18-20.

13. Ibid., listy 16-17. Dated only October 1947. break

14. Ibid., list 17.

15. Ibid., listy 3-4. [BACK]

5. See TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 5418, list 30. Shvedchikov was so frequently ill that from late 1947 to December 28, 1949, V. N. Makarov ran the Main Administration as acting director.

6. Ibid.

7. Ibid., listy 33-35.

8. Ibid., listy 31-32. Evidence, including a previous note from Motovilov to Gritsenko, makes it almost certain that this note to Malenkov was written after July 3.

9. Ibid., listy 25-28, especially 27-28. Memo from A. Suchkov, August 13, 1947.

10. Ibid., listy 23-24. Suchkov signed the bottom of Gritsenko's memo and dated it September 6, indicating that Suchkov reported to Gritsenko rather than to Rodionov directly.

11. Ibid., listy 21-22. Note of September 18, 1947 of Rodionov to Malenkov, initialed by Suchkov at the bottom.

12. Ibid., listy 18-20.

13. Ibid., listy 16-17. Dated only October 1947. break

14. Ibid., list 17.

15. Ibid., listy 3-4. [BACK]

5. See TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 5418, list 30. Shvedchikov was so frequently ill that from late 1947 to December 28, 1949, V. N. Makarov ran the Main Administration as acting director.

6. Ibid.

7. Ibid., listy 33-35.

8. Ibid., listy 31-32. Evidence, including a previous note from Motovilov to Gritsenko, makes it almost certain that this note to Malenkov was written after July 3.

9. Ibid., listy 25-28, especially 27-28. Memo from A. Suchkov, August 13, 1947.

10. Ibid., listy 23-24. Suchkov signed the bottom of Gritsenko's memo and dated it September 6, indicating that Suchkov reported to Gritsenko rather than to Rodionov directly.

11. Ibid., listy 21-22. Note of September 18, 1947 of Rodionov to Malenkov, initialed by Suchkov at the bottom.

12. Ibid., listy 18-20.

13. Ibid., listy 16-17. Dated only October 1947. break

14. Ibid., list 17.

15. Ibid., listy 3-4. [BACK]

5. See TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 5418, list 30. Shvedchikov was so frequently ill that from late 1947 to December 28, 1949, V. N. Makarov ran the Main Administration as acting director.

6. Ibid.

7. Ibid., listy 33-35.

8. Ibid., listy 31-32. Evidence, including a previous note from Motovilov to Gritsenko, makes it almost certain that this note to Malenkov was written after July 3.

9. Ibid., listy 25-28, especially 27-28. Memo from A. Suchkov, August 13, 1947.

10. Ibid., listy 23-24. Suchkov signed the bottom of Gritsenko's memo and dated it September 6, indicating that Suchkov reported to Gritsenko rather than to Rodionov directly.

11. Ibid., listy 21-22. Note of September 18, 1947 of Rodionov to Malenkov, initialed by Suchkov at the bottom.

12. Ibid., listy 18-20.

13. Ibid., listy 16-17. Dated only October 1947. break

14. Ibid., list 17.

15. Ibid., listy 3-4. [BACK]

5. See TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 5418, list 30. Shvedchikov was so frequently ill that from late 1947 to December 28, 1949, V. N. Makarov ran the Main Administration as acting director.

6. Ibid.

7. Ibid., listy 33-35.

8. Ibid., listy 31-32. Evidence, including a previous note from Motovilov to Gritsenko, makes it almost certain that this note to Malenkov was written after July 3.

9. Ibid., listy 25-28, especially 27-28. Memo from A. Suchkov, August 13, 1947.

10. Ibid., listy 23-24. Suchkov signed the bottom of Gritsenko's memo and dated it September 6, indicating that Suchkov reported to Gritsenko rather than to Rodionov directly.

11. Ibid., listy 21-22. Note of September 18, 1947 of Rodionov to Malenkov, initialed by Suchkov at the bottom.

12. Ibid., listy 18-20.

13. Ibid., listy 16-17. Dated only October 1947. break

14. Ibid., list 17.

15. Ibid., listy 3-4. [BACK]

5. See TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 5418, list 30. Shvedchikov was so frequently ill that from late 1947 to December 28, 1949, V. N. Makarov ran the Main Administration as acting director.

6. Ibid.

7. Ibid., listy 33-35.

8. Ibid., listy 31-32. Evidence, including a previous note from Motovilov to Gritsenko, makes it almost certain that this note to Malenkov was written after July 3.

9. Ibid., listy 25-28, especially 27-28. Memo from A. Suchkov, August 13, 1947.

10. Ibid., listy 23-24. Suchkov signed the bottom of Gritsenko's memo and dated it September 6, indicating that Suchkov reported to Gritsenko rather than to Rodionov directly.

11. Ibid., listy 21-22. Note of September 18, 1947 of Rodionov to Malenkov, initialed by Suchkov at the bottom.

12. Ibid., listy 18-20.

13. Ibid., listy 16-17. Dated only October 1947. break

14. Ibid., list 17.

15. Ibid., listy 3-4. [BACK]

5. See TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 5418, list 30. Shvedchikov was so frequently ill that from late 1947 to December 28, 1949, V. N. Makarov ran the Main Administration as acting director.

6. Ibid.

7. Ibid., listy 33-35.

8. Ibid., listy 31-32. Evidence, including a previous note from Motovilov to Gritsenko, makes it almost certain that this note to Malenkov was written after July 3.

9. Ibid., listy 25-28, especially 27-28. Memo from A. Suchkov, August 13, 1947.

10. Ibid., listy 23-24. Suchkov signed the bottom of Gritsenko's memo and dated it September 6, indicating that Suchkov reported to Gritsenko rather than to Rodionov directly.

11. Ibid., listy 21-22. Note of September 18, 1947 of Rodionov to Malenkov, initialed by Suchkov at the bottom.

12. Ibid., listy 18-20.

13. Ibid., listy 16-17. Dated only October 1947. break

14. Ibid., list 17.

15. Ibid., listy 3-4. [BACK]

5. See TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 5418, list 30. Shvedchikov was so frequently ill that from late 1947 to December 28, 1949, V. N. Makarov ran the Main Administration as acting director.

6. Ibid.

7. Ibid., listy 33-35.

8. Ibid., listy 31-32. Evidence, including a previous note from Motovilov to Gritsenko, makes it almost certain that this note to Malenkov was written after July 3.

9. Ibid., listy 25-28, especially 27-28. Memo from A. Suchkov, August 13, 1947.

10. Ibid., listy 23-24. Suchkov signed the bottom of Gritsenko's memo and dated it September 6, indicating that Suchkov reported to Gritsenko rather than to Rodionov directly.

11. Ibid., listy 21-22. Note of September 18, 1947 of Rodionov to Malenkov, initialed by Suchkov at the bottom.

12. Ibid., listy 18-20.

13. Ibid., listy 16-17. Dated only October 1947. break

14. Ibid., list 17.

15. Ibid., listy 3-4. [BACK]

16. TsGA f. 358, op. 2, d. 827, listy 35-201.

17. Ibid., list. 189.

18. Ibid., list 189 rev.

19. Ibid., list 182.

20. Ibid. [BACK]

16. TsGA f. 358, op. 2, d. 827, listy 35-201.

17. Ibid., list. 189.

18. Ibid., list 189 rev.

19. Ibid., list 182.

20. Ibid. [BACK]

16. TsGA f. 358, op. 2, d. 827, listy 35-201.

17. Ibid., list. 189.

18. Ibid., list 189 rev.

19. Ibid., list 182.

20. Ibid. [BACK]

16. TsGA f. 358, op. 2, d. 827, listy 35-201.

17. Ibid., list. 189.

18. Ibid., list 189 rev.

19. Ibid., list 182.

20. Ibid. [BACK]

16. TsGA f. 358, op. 2, d. 827, listy 35-201.

17. Ibid., list. 189.

18. Ibid., list 189 rev.

19. Ibid., list 182.

20. Ibid. [BACK]

21. TsGA f. 358, op. 6, d. 5416, listy. 3-5. Cited in Shtil'mark and Geptner, "Tragediia sovetskikh zapovednikov," 100.

22. Ibid. [BACK]

21. TsGA f. 358, op. 6, d. 5416, listy. 3-5. Cited in Shtil'mark and Geptner, "Tragediia sovetskikh zapovednikov," 100.

22. Ibid. [BACK]

23. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 5418, list 1. [BACK]

24. Makarov, "Gosudarstvennye zapovedniki RSFSR," 6. [BACK]

25. Postanovlenie SM SSSR and TsK KPSS no. 3960 ot 20 oktiabria 1948 g. "O plane polezashchitnykh lesonasazhdenii, vnedreniia pravopol'nykh sevooborotov, stroitel'stva prudov i vodoemov dlia obespecheniia vysokykh i ustoichivykh urozhaev v stepnykh i lesostepnykh raionakh Evropeiskoi chasti SSSR." This had been preceded on May 17, 1948 by a decree of the USSR Council of Ministers, "Ob uporiadochenii pol'zovaniia kolkhoznymi lesami i uluchshenii vedeniia khoziaistva v nikh." [BACK]

26. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 5411, listy 41-48, which is the report of the chairman of the Bashkir ASSR Council of Ministers to the SM RSFSR, dated December 20, 1948. The report describes the various ASSR-and raion-wide meetings of Party, government, farm, and scientific organizations to develop concrete plans for afforestation in Bashkiria. Pressure from the center must have been immense; in a comment on the Bashkir leader's report written eight days later, the RSFSR deputy premier V. Makarov described that republic's fulfillment of the plan as "extremely unsatisfactory" despite the evident flurry of activity. [BACK]

27. Medvedev, Rise and Fall of T. D. Lysenko , 130. [BACK]

28. Prezent, "Peredelka zhivoi prirody," 8. [BACK]

29. They were: 1. Saratov-Astrakhan on both sides of the Volga (width, 100 meters; length, 900 kilometers); 2. Penza-Northern Donets (three belts, each sixty meters wide; 300-meter separation from each other; 600 kilometers in length for the parallel belts); 3. Kamyshin-Stalingrad (same as above; length, 170 kilometers); 4. Stalingrad-Cherkessk; 5. Ural River-Caspian Sea; 6. Voronezh-Rostov-na-Donu; 7. Belgorod (Northern Donets)-Don River. See Postanovlenie SM SSSR and TsK KPSS no. 3960 ot 20 oktiabria 1948 g. "O plane polezashchitnykh." [BACK]

30. Sergei Vladimirovich Zonn, Leonid Fëdorovich Pravdin, and Nikolai Vladimirovich Dylis—all close Sukachëv associates—were fired from their positions as adjunct professors at the Moscow Forestry Institute, while the great soil scientist Aleksei Andreevich Rode lost his job in Briansk. All were labeled "Weismannist-Morganists," or upholders of classical genetics. Interview with Sergei Vladimirovich Zonn, Moscow, August 3, 1995.

31. Ibid.

32. Ibid. [BACK]

30. Sergei Vladimirovich Zonn, Leonid Fëdorovich Pravdin, and Nikolai Vladimirovich Dylis—all close Sukachëv associates—were fired from their positions as adjunct professors at the Moscow Forestry Institute, while the great soil scientist Aleksei Andreevich Rode lost his job in Briansk. All were labeled "Weismannist-Morganists," or upholders of classical genetics. Interview with Sergei Vladimirovich Zonn, Moscow, August 3, 1995.

31. Ibid.

32. Ibid. [BACK]

30. Sergei Vladimirovich Zonn, Leonid Fëdorovich Pravdin, and Nikolai Vladimirovich Dylis—all close Sukachëv associates—were fired from their positions as adjunct professors at the Moscow Forestry Institute, while the great soil scientist Aleksei Andreevich Rode lost his job in Briansk. All were labeled "Weismannist-Morganists," or upholders of classical genetics. Interview with Sergei Vladimirovich Zonn, Moscow, August 3, 1995.

31. Ibid.

32. Ibid. [BACK]

33. Soyfer, Lysenko , 168 [BACK]

34. Interview with Sergei Vladimirovich Zonn, Moscow, August 3, 1995. [BACK]

35. T. D. Lysenko, "Estestvennyi otbor i vnutrividovaia konkurentsiia," 370, continue

quoted in Shelkovnikov, "K voprosu o 'mal'tuzianstve' v biologii." This was a response to Lysenko from the Sukachëv camp. [BACK]

36. Anuchin, "Stepnoe lesorazvedenie ne nuzhdaetsia v naukoobraznom uchenii i bigeotsenoze." [BACK]

37. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 6185, list 4.

38. Ibid., list 1. Appended were a list of talks.

39. Ibid., list 5.

40. Ibid., listy 25 rev. and 26. [BACK]

37. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 6185, list 4.

38. Ibid., list 1. Appended were a list of talks.

39. Ibid., list 5.

40. Ibid., listy 25 rev. and 26. [BACK]

37. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 6185, list 4.

38. Ibid., list 1. Appended were a list of talks.

39. Ibid., list 5.

40. Ibid., listy 25 rev. and 26. [BACK]

37. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 6185, list 4.

38. Ibid., list 1. Appended were a list of talks.

39. Ibid., list 5.

40. Ibid., listy 25 rev. and 26. [BACK]

41. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 6188, listy 5-9.

42. Ibid., list 5.

43. Ibid.

44. Ibid., list 6.

45. Ibid., list 7. [BACK]

41. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 6188, listy 5-9.

42. Ibid., list 5.

43. Ibid.

44. Ibid., list 6.

45. Ibid., list 7. [BACK]

41. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 6188, listy 5-9.

42. Ibid., list 5.

43. Ibid.

44. Ibid., list 6.

45. Ibid., list 7. [BACK]

41. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 6188, listy 5-9.

42. Ibid., list 5.

43. Ibid.

44. Ibid., list 6.

45. Ibid., list 7. [BACK]

41. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 6188, listy 5-9.

42. Ibid., list 5.

43. Ibid.

44. Ibid., list 6.

45. Ibid., list 7. [BACK]

46. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 7150, list 58. See TsGA f. 358, op. 2, d. 827, list 193. [BACK]

47. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 7150.415-6, papka 2, list 60. "Spravka o rabote Glavnogo Upravleniia po zapovednikam pri SM RSFSR," Po porucheniiu Sel'khozotdela TsK VKP(b) i SM RSFSR, conducted by G. S. Svetlakov, starshii pomoshchnik zaveduiushchego sekreteriatom SM RSFSR, December 28, 1949.

48. Ibid., list 61.

49. Ibid., list 62. [BACK]

47. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 7150.415-6, papka 2, list 60. "Spravka o rabote Glavnogo Upravleniia po zapovednikam pri SM RSFSR," Po porucheniiu Sel'khozotdela TsK VKP(b) i SM RSFSR, conducted by G. S. Svetlakov, starshii pomoshchnik zaveduiushchego sekreteriatom SM RSFSR, December 28, 1949.

48. Ibid., list 61.

49. Ibid., list 62. [BACK]

47. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 7150.415-6, papka 2, list 60. "Spravka o rabote Glavnogo Upravleniia po zapovednikam pri SM RSFSR," Po porucheniiu Sel'khozotdela TsK VKP(b) i SM RSFSR, conducted by G. S. Svetlakov, starshii pomoshchnik zaveduiushchego sekreteriatom SM RSFSR, December 28, 1949.

48. Ibid., list 61.

49. Ibid., list 62. [BACK]

50. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 7150, listy 63-100. [BACK]

51. Postanovlenie SM RSFSR no. 1093 ot 28.XII. 1949. [BACK]

52. On Malinovskii, see Grigor'ev, "Aleksandr Vasil'evich Malinovskii," 29; and "A. V. Malinovskii" [obituary], 28. His most complete biography was compiled in January 1951 for V. N. Merkulov, USSR Minister of State Control. See GARF, f. 8300, op. 24, d. 1786, list 32. [BACK]

53. GARF, f. 8300, op. 24, d. 1786, list 32.

54. Ibid. [BACK]

53. GARF, f. 8300, op. 24, d. 1786, list 32.

54. Ibid. [BACK]

55. See TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 7148, list 23. Chaired by M. N. Shcherbakov of the RSFSR Ministry of State Control, its other members were A. I. Korshunov of the RSFSR Ministry of Finances and I. A. Grigor'ev from the RSFSR Ministry of Forestry. [BACK]

56. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 7147, list 55.

57. Ibid. The subtext was that the RSFSR should not enact any future budgets or plans for the reserve system or the Main Administration until the Party's intentions became clear. [BACK]

56. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 7147, list 55.

57. Ibid. The subtext was that the RSFSR should not enact any future budgets or plans for the reserve system or the Main Administration until the Party's intentions became clear. [BACK]

58. Conversation with Andrei Aleksandrovich Nasimovich, Moscow, April 18, 1980. [BACK]

59. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 7148, listy 21-23 rev., and f. 259, op. 6, d. 7147, list 22. The latter document is the "Protokol sobraniia aktiva sotrudnikov Glavnogo Upravleniia po zapovednikam pri SM RSFSR, 10-ogo ianvaria 1950 g. po voprosu oznakomleniia s priemo-sdatochnym aktom, v sviazi s naznacheniem novogo Nachal'nika . . . i s vyvodami i predlozheniiami Pravitel'stvennoi Komissii." Twenty-one persons attended the meeting, which was addressed by M. N. Shcherbakov, chair of the Government Commission, and by Malinovskii himself. [BACK]

60. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 7147, 22 rev. They sought inclusion in the provisions of the Decree of the USSR Council of Ministers of March 6, 1946 no. 514, which continue

only applied to scientific institutes, from which category the zapovedniki were technically excluded. [BACK]

61. TsGA f. 358, op. 2, d. 836, list 17, cited in Shtil'mark and Geptner, "Tragediia sovetskikh zapovednikov," 102. [BACK]

62. Shtil'mark and Geptner, "Tragediia sovetskikh zapovednikov," 102. [BACK]

63. TsGA f. 358, op. 2, d. 838, list 55. Dated December 8, 1949.

64. Ibid., list 54.

65. Ibid. listy 53-52. [BACK]

63. TsGA f. 358, op. 2, d. 838, list 55. Dated December 8, 1949.

64. Ibid., list 54.

65. Ibid. listy 53-52. [BACK]

63. TsGA f. 358, op. 2, d. 838, list 55. Dated December 8, 1949.

64. Ibid., list 54.

65. Ibid. listy 53-52. [BACK]

66. TsGA f. 358, op. 2, d. 838, listy 76 rev., 76, 75 rev., 75. The territory represented about 10 percent of the total of the southern island of Novaia Zemlia. [BACK]

67. RGAE f. 8512, op. 1, d. 411. A note of July 25, 1950 from G. Orlov, minister of the paper and woodworking industry of the USSR to Georgii M. Malenkov complained that the ministry was experiencing a severe shortage of specialists despite a decree of September 3, 1948 obligating Gosplan USSR and the Ministry of Higher Education to make 75 percent of all graduating students of forestry academies and institutes available to the ministry. [BACK]

68. For the draft, with marginal notes that may be Stalin's own, see RGAE f. 8512, op. , d. 438. [BACK]

69. RGAE f. 8512, op. 1 d. 438, listy 130-39.

70. Ibid., esp. list 137. [BACK]

69. RGAE f. 8512, op. 1 d. 438, listy 130-39.

70. Ibid., esp. list 137. [BACK]

71. TsGA f. 358, op. 2, d. 838, listy 238-45. The typewriter used to produce an appendix (listy 243-45), signed by Malinovskii, seems to be the same used to type the draft of the proposed All-Union Decree. Additionally, they were found in the same set of documents.

72. Ibid., list 242. [BACK]

71. TsGA f. 358, op. 2, d. 838, listy 238-45. The typewriter used to produce an appendix (listy 243-45), signed by Malinovskii, seems to be the same used to type the draft of the proposed All-Union Decree. Additionally, they were found in the same set of documents.

72. Ibid., list 242. [BACK]

73. TsGA f. 358, op. 2, d. 836, listy 3-4, quoted in Shtil'mark and Geptner, "Tragediia sovetskikh zapovednikov." [BACK]

74. TsGA f. 358, op. 2, d. 836, listy 242-41.

75. Ibid., list 241. [BACK]

74. TsGA f. 358, op. 2, d. 836, listy 242-41.

75. Ibid., list 241. [BACK]

76. Decrees of SNK SSSR of March 6, 1946, no. 514, and SM SSSR of August 28, 1947, no. 3020. [BACK]

77. TsGA f. 358, op. 2, d. 836, list 240. [BACK]

78. It is possible that the so-called Presidential Archives, containing much sensitive material from the former Central Committee archives, may hold the key to this question, if Stalin or his Politburo or Secretariat colleagues became involved in this issue personally at this stage. [BACK]

79. The materials are from February 20, 1950. [BACK]

80. TsGA f. 358, op. 2, d. 836, list 239.

81. Ibid., listy 238-39. [BACK]

80. TsGA f. 358, op. 2, d. 836, list 239.

81. Ibid., listy 238-39. [BACK]

Chapter Five— Liquidation: The Second Phase, 1950

1. TsGA f. 358, op. 2, d. 838, list 133. Makarov was asked to prepare a review and revision of the statute on the Main Administration and on zapovedniki by February 15, 1950, which presupposes that he was at least given guidelines if not shown the whole texts of the draft law and reorganization plan. break [BACK]

2. TsGA f. 358, op. 2, d. 827, listy 73, 129. [BACK]

3. TsGA f. 358, op. 2, d. 838, listy 133-37. The last page is dated and signed by Malinovskii. The date appears to be February 20, 1950, but the figure for the day is not completely clear. [BACK]

4. TsGA f. 358, op. 2, d. 838, listy 134, 135, 137. We have no documentation of Malinovskii's appearance at the ministry, but we do know that on May 24 he was present at a session of the Bureau of the RSFSR Council of Ministers chaired by Chernousov. [BACK]

5. The reserve was founded by decree of the SM RSFSR no. 489 of May 18, 1948. The USSR Rasporiazhenie no. 7611-r was dated June 16, 1948. Cited TsGA f. 2259, op. 6, d. 7 15.415-9, list 1. The April 28, 1950 decree was no. 1789. [BACK]

6. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 7152.415-9, list 2.

7. Ibid., list 1.

8. Ibid. In pen at the bottom of his letter it was noted that the question was revisited by the USSR Council of Ministers on June 29, 1950 in decree no. 14 194-r. [BACK]

6. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 7152.415-9, list 2.

7. Ibid., list 1.

8. Ibid. In pen at the bottom of his letter it was noted that the question was revisited by the USSR Council of Ministers on June 29, 1950 in decree no. 14 194-r. [BACK]

6. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 7152.415-9, list 2.

7. Ibid., list 1.

8. Ibid. In pen at the bottom of his letter it was noted that the question was revisited by the USSR Council of Ministers on June 29, 1950 in decree no. 14 194-r. [BACK]

9. TsGA f. 358, op. 2, d. 838, listy 283 and 283 rev. [BACK]

10. TsGA f. 358, op. 2, d. 838, listy 229-30. [BACK]

11. "Proekt. Tovarishchu Saburovu, zam. preds. SM SSSR, preds. Gosplanu SSSR. Iul' 1950," 2-3. Five pages, carbon. From the personal papers of A. N. Formozov, courtesy F. R. Shtil'mark.

12. Ibid., 4-5. [BACK]

11. "Proekt. Tovarishchu Saburovu, zam. preds. SM SSSR, preds. Gosplanu SSSR. Iul' 1950," 2-3. Five pages, carbon. From the personal papers of A. N. Formozov, courtesy F. R. Shtil'mark.

12. Ibid., 4-5. [BACK]

13. GARF f. 8300, op. 24, d. 1704, listy 18-19, cited in Boreiko, "Eto ne dolzhno," 8.

14. Ibid. He has found such a request in the Ukrainian republican archives, TsGAVO Ukrainy f. 2, op. 2, d. 4516, list 16. [BACK]

13. GARF f. 8300, op. 24, d. 1704, listy 18-19, cited in Boreiko, "Eto ne dolzhno," 8.

14. Ibid. He has found such a request in the Ukrainian republican archives, TsGAVO Ukrainy f. 2, op. 2, d. 4516, list 16. [BACK]

15. As per "Poruchenie Prezidiuma SM SSSR ot 30-ogo iulia 1950 g." See RGAE f. 4372, op. 50, d. 17(2), list 103. [BACK]

16. The RSFSR Ministry of State Control was a Union-republic ministry. In light of its importance in matters of state security-it was a major investigative organ-it seems likely that the republican-level ministries were at least partially controlled by the Union ministry, which was represented by "its" people on the local level. [BACK]

17. TsGA f. 358, op. 2, d. 838, list 305. [BACK]

18. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 182a, list 104.

19. Ibid., listy 87-90.

20. Ibid.

21. Ibid., list 102.

22. Ibid., list 100. Apparently, Makarov was ailing during this time and these letters were signed by Dement'ev and Kuznetsov. [BACK]

18. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 182a, list 104.

19. Ibid., listy 87-90.

20. Ibid.

21. Ibid., list 102.

22. Ibid., list 100. Apparently, Makarov was ailing during this time and these letters were signed by Dement'ev and Kuznetsov. [BACK]

18. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 182a, list 104.

19. Ibid., listy 87-90.

20. Ibid.

21. Ibid., list 102.

22. Ibid., list 100. Apparently, Makarov was ailing during this time and these letters were signed by Dement'ev and Kuznetsov. [BACK]

18. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 182a, list 104.

19. Ibid., listy 87-90.

20. Ibid.

21. Ibid., list 102.

22. Ibid., list 100. Apparently, Makarov was ailing during this time and these letters were signed by Dement'ev and Kuznetsov. [BACK]

18. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 182a, list 104.

19. Ibid., listy 87-90.

20. Ibid.

21. Ibid., list 102.

22. Ibid., list 100. Apparently, Makarov was ailing during this time and these letters were signed by Dement'ev and Kuznetsov. [BACK]

23. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 7148, list 20. [BACK]

24. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 7152, list 7. [BACK]

25. TsGA f. 358, op. 2, d. 838, list 266.

26. Ibid., listy 339, 339 rev.

27. Ibid., list 340. [BACK]

25. TsGA f. 358, op. 2, d. 838, list 266.

26. Ibid., listy 339, 339 rev.

27. Ibid., list 340. [BACK]

25. TsGA f. 358, op. 2, d. 838, list 266.

26. Ibid., listy 339, 339 rev.

27. Ibid., list 340. [BACK]

28. Boreiko, "Eto ne dolzhno," 9. [BACK]

29. RGAE f. 4372, op. 50, d. 17(2), listy 103, 111. Evidently another copy of Saburov's report exists in the archives; Boreiko, "Eto ne dolzhno," 9, provides the following location as well: GARF f. 8300, op. 24, d. 1786, listy 90-99. break [BACK]

30. The figure of 1,864 is from RGAE f. 4372, op. 50, d. 17(2), list 114.

31. Ibid. Saburov officially presented his findings to the USSR Council of Ministers in the draft decree "Ob uluchshenii raboty zapovednikov SSSR" on November 18, 1950, no. 10024 of Gosplan USSR. Three days later the academician Ivan P. Bardin, a leader of technology development and a vice president of the Academy of Sciences, sought to take advantage of the shaky position of the reserve system to claim the Il'menskii zapovednik for the Academy of Sciences. Under Bardin's patronage, the reserve would presumably have focused exclusively on mineralogical studies. Tellingly, Saburov wrote to Bardin on December 4 rejecting his proposal and arguing that the Main Administration was better suited to protect all of the components of the reserve, including the fauna and flora. See RGAE 4372/50/17(2) 1. 170. We do know that Saburov and Kaganovich opposed Khrushchëv's Virgin Lands program and, in the words of T. A. lurkin, who accused them at the December 1958 Central Committee Plenum, "tried to call science to their aid." See Conquest, Power and Policy in the U.S.S.R ., 237. This raises the intriguing question of Saburov's ties to the scientific intelligentsia. [BACK]

30. The figure of 1,864 is from RGAE f. 4372, op. 50, d. 17(2), list 114.

31. Ibid. Saburov officially presented his findings to the USSR Council of Ministers in the draft decree "Ob uluchshenii raboty zapovednikov SSSR" on November 18, 1950, no. 10024 of Gosplan USSR. Three days later the academician Ivan P. Bardin, a leader of technology development and a vice president of the Academy of Sciences, sought to take advantage of the shaky position of the reserve system to claim the Il'menskii zapovednik for the Academy of Sciences. Under Bardin's patronage, the reserve would presumably have focused exclusively on mineralogical studies. Tellingly, Saburov wrote to Bardin on December 4 rejecting his proposal and arguing that the Main Administration was better suited to protect all of the components of the reserve, including the fauna and flora. See RGAE 4372/50/17(2) 1. 170. We do know that Saburov and Kaganovich opposed Khrushchëv's Virgin Lands program and, in the words of T. A. lurkin, who accused them at the December 1958 Central Committee Plenum, "tried to call science to their aid." See Conquest, Power and Policy in the U.S.S.R ., 237. This raises the intriguing question of Saburov's ties to the scientific intelligentsia. [BACK]

32. Boreiko was able to find some of the paper trail in the state archives of Ukraine. See TsGAVO Ukrainy f. 2, op. 2, d. 4516, list 16, cited in Boreiko, "Eto ne dolzhno," 9. [BACK]

33. Boreiko, "Eto ne dolzhno," 9.

34. Ibid. [BACK]

33. Boreiko, "Eto ne dolzhno," 9.

34. Ibid. [BACK]

35. TsGA f. 358, op. 2, d. 838, list 389. [BACK]

36. Boreiko, "Eto ne dolzhno," 9. The order to the RSFSR Ministry of State Control came down a day or two later, as it was only on November 27 that this ministry in turn issued instructions to its operatives in order no. 307. See TsGA f. 339, op. i, d. 4987, list 4.

37. Ibid., listy 2-3.

38. Ibid. [BACK]

36. Boreiko, "Eto ne dolzhno," 9. The order to the RSFSR Ministry of State Control came down a day or two later, as it was only on November 27 that this ministry in turn issued instructions to its operatives in order no. 307. See TsGA f. 339, op. i, d. 4987, list 4.

37. Ibid., listy 2-3.

38. Ibid. [BACK]

36. Boreiko, "Eto ne dolzhno," 9. The order to the RSFSR Ministry of State Control came down a day or two later, as it was only on November 27 that this ministry in turn issued instructions to its operatives in order no. 307. See TsGA f. 339, op. i, d. 4987, list 4.

37. Ibid., listy 2-3.

38. Ibid. [BACK]

39. RSFSR minister of state control N. Vasil'ev's order no. 307 of November 27, 1950, a response to decree no. 1161 of the USSR Ministry of State Control of November 24, 1950, is found in TsGA f. 339, op. 1, d. 4987, list 1 Vasil'ev gave a deadline of December 2 for the completion of the investigation of the Main zapovednik Administration and of December 12 for that of the individual reserves. [BACK]

40. TsGA f. 339, op. 1, d. 4987, list 4.

41. Ibid., list 6. [BACK]

40. TsGA f. 339, op. 1, d. 4987, list 4.

41. Ibid., list 6. [BACK]

42. TsGA f. 339, op. , d. 4987, list 12. Kornilov's article appeared in the May 20, 1950 number of Moskovskaia pravda . [BACK]

43. TsGA f. 358, op. 2, d. 991, listy 5-8. [BACK]

44. Ironically, both Nasimovich and Dul'keit were supporters of the "Mendelist-Morganist-Weismannist" position, as classical genetics was derogatively characterized by the Lysenkoist camp. However, Nasimovich did not actively lie in his assessment of Dul'keit's work. There was no evident allusion to Mendelian genetics in Dul'keit's zoological studies. [BACK]

45. Boreiko, "Eto ne dolzhno," 9. Boreiko also includes Trofim D. Lysenko among those present at the meeting, but in the archival document "Spisok uchastnikov soveshchaniia u Ministra Gos. Kontrolia SSSR tov. Merkulova V. N. po voprosu o rabote gos. zapovednikov," GARF f. 8300, op. 24, d. 1786, list 9, Lysenko's name is crossed out in pencil. break [BACK]

46. MOIP Archives, d. 54, list 63. Cited in Shtil'mark and Geptner, "Tragediia sovetskikh zapovednikov," 109-10. [BACK]

47. TsGA f. 358, op. 2 , d. 882, listy 3-4. "Stenogramma zasedaniia Nauchnogo soveta pri Glavnom Upravlenii po zapovednikam pri Sovete Ministrov RSFSR ot 25-ogo dekabria 1950 g."

48. Ibid., list 4.

49. Ibid., list 8.

50. Ibid., list 6.

51. Ibid., list 7.

52. Ibid., list 10. [BACK]

47. TsGA f. 358, op. 2 , d. 882, listy 3-4. "Stenogramma zasedaniia Nauchnogo soveta pri Glavnom Upravlenii po zapovednikam pri Sovete Ministrov RSFSR ot 25-ogo dekabria 1950 g."

48. Ibid., list 4.

49. Ibid., list 8.

50. Ibid., list 6.

51. Ibid., list 7.

52. Ibid., list 10. [BACK]

47. TsGA f. 358, op. 2 , d. 882, listy 3-4. "Stenogramma zasedaniia Nauchnogo soveta pri Glavnom Upravlenii po zapovednikam pri Sovete Ministrov RSFSR ot 25-ogo dekabria 1950 g."

48. Ibid., list 4.

49. Ibid., list 8.

50. Ibid., list 6.

51. Ibid., list 7.

52. Ibid., list 10. [BACK]

47. TsGA f. 358, op. 2 , d. 882, listy 3-4. "Stenogramma zasedaniia Nauchnogo soveta pri Glavnom Upravlenii po zapovednikam pri Sovete Ministrov RSFSR ot 25-ogo dekabria 1950 g."

48. Ibid., list 4.

49. Ibid., list 8.

50. Ibid., list 6.

51. Ibid., list 7.

52. Ibid., list 10. [BACK]

47. TsGA f. 358, op. 2 , d. 882, listy 3-4. "Stenogramma zasedaniia Nauchnogo soveta pri Glavnom Upravlenii po zapovednikam pri Sovete Ministrov RSFSR ot 25-ogo dekabria 1950 g."

48. Ibid., list 4.

49. Ibid., list 8.

50. Ibid., list 6.

51. Ibid., list 7.

52. Ibid., list 10. [BACK]

47. TsGA f. 358, op. 2 , d. 882, listy 3-4. "Stenogramma zasedaniia Nauchnogo soveta pri Glavnom Upravlenii po zapovednikam pri Sovete Ministrov RSFSR ot 25-ogo dekabria 1950 g."

48. Ibid., list 4.

49. Ibid., list 8.

50. Ibid., list 6.

51. Ibid., list 7.

52. Ibid., list 10. [BACK]

53. Conversation with Mikhail Aleksandrovich Zablotskii, to whom the remark was made. Prioksko-Terrasnyi zapovednik , April 20, 1991. ("Malinovskii—eto zloi genii zapovednikov.") [BACK]

54. TsGA f. 358, op. 2, d. 882, list 43.

55. Ibid., listy 43-44.

56. Ibid., list 44.

57. Ibid., list 45.

58. Ibid., list 46. [BACK]

54. TsGA f. 358, op. 2, d. 882, list 43.

55. Ibid., listy 43-44.

56. Ibid., list 44.

57. Ibid., list 45.

58. Ibid., list 46. [BACK]

54. TsGA f. 358, op. 2, d. 882, list 43.

55. Ibid., listy 43-44.

56. Ibid., list 44.

57. Ibid., list 45.

58. Ibid., list 46. [BACK]

54. TsGA f. 358, op. 2, d. 882, list 43.

55. Ibid., listy 43-44.

56. Ibid., list 44.

57. Ibid., list 45.

58. Ibid., list 46. [BACK]

54. TsGA f. 358, op. 2, d. 882, list 43.

55. Ibid., listy 43-44.

56. Ibid., list 44.

57. Ibid., list 45.

58. Ibid., list 46. [BACK]

Chapter Six— The Deluge, 1951

1. Boreiko, "Eto ne dolzhno," 9. He cites TsGAVO Ukrainy f. 539, op. 1, d. 2401, list 10.

2. Ibid. [BACK]

1. Boreiko, "Eto ne dolzhno," 9. He cites TsGAVO Ukrainy f. 539, op. 1, d. 2401, list 10.

2. Ibid. [BACK]

3. GARF f. 8300, op. 24, d. 1786, listy 1-8. A note in pen on the archival copy, dated January 4, reads: "One copy of these notes has been used for further processing and was [then] destroyed." [BACK]

4. RTsKhIDNI f. 17, op. 138, d. 329, list 159. [BACK]

5. GARF f. 8300, op. 24, d. 1786, list 2.

6. Ibid., list 1.

7. Ibid., list 2.

8. Ibid.

9. Ibid., list 4.

10. Ibid., listy 4-6.

11. Ibid., list 7.

12. Ibid., list 8.

13. Ibid., list 19.

14. Ibid., listy 19-20. [BACK]

5. GARF f. 8300, op. 24, d. 1786, list 2.

6. Ibid., list 1.

7. Ibid., list 2.

8. Ibid.

9. Ibid., list 4.

10. Ibid., listy 4-6.

11. Ibid., list 7.

12. Ibid., list 8.

13. Ibid., list 19.

14. Ibid., listy 19-20. [BACK]

5. GARF f. 8300, op. 24, d. 1786, list 2.

6. Ibid., list 1.

7. Ibid., list 2.

8. Ibid.

9. Ibid., list 4.

10. Ibid., listy 4-6.

11. Ibid., list 7.

12. Ibid., list 8.

13. Ibid., list 19.

14. Ibid., listy 19-20. [BACK]

5. GARF f. 8300, op. 24, d. 1786, list 2.

6. Ibid., list 1.

7. Ibid., list 2.

8. Ibid.

9. Ibid., list 4.

10. Ibid., listy 4-6.

11. Ibid., list 7.

12. Ibid., list 8.

13. Ibid., list 19.

14. Ibid., listy 19-20. [BACK]

5. GARF f. 8300, op. 24, d. 1786, list 2.

6. Ibid., list 1.

7. Ibid., list 2.

8. Ibid.

9. Ibid., list 4.

10. Ibid., listy 4-6.

11. Ibid., list 7.

12. Ibid., list 8.

13. Ibid., list 19.

14. Ibid., listy 19-20. [BACK]

5. GARF f. 8300, op. 24, d. 1786, list 2.

6. Ibid., list 1.

7. Ibid., list 2.

8. Ibid.

9. Ibid., list 4.

10. Ibid., listy 4-6.

11. Ibid., list 7.

12. Ibid., list 8.

13. Ibid., list 19.

14. Ibid., listy 19-20. [BACK]

5. GARF f. 8300, op. 24, d. 1786, list 2.

6. Ibid., list 1.

7. Ibid., list 2.

8. Ibid.

9. Ibid., list 4.

10. Ibid., listy 4-6.

11. Ibid., list 7.

12. Ibid., list 8.

13. Ibid., list 19.

14. Ibid., listy 19-20. [BACK]

5. GARF f. 8300, op. 24, d. 1786, list 2.

6. Ibid., list 1.

7. Ibid., list 2.

8. Ibid.

9. Ibid., list 4.

10. Ibid., listy 4-6.

11. Ibid., list 7.

12. Ibid., list 8.

13. Ibid., list 19.

14. Ibid., listy 19-20. [BACK]

5. GARF f. 8300, op. 24, d. 1786, list 2.

6. Ibid., list 1.

7. Ibid., list 2.

8. Ibid.

9. Ibid., list 4.

10. Ibid., listy 4-6.

11. Ibid., list 7.

12. Ibid., list 8.

13. Ibid., list 19.

14. Ibid., listy 19-20. [BACK]

5. GARF f. 8300, op. 24, d. 1786, list 2.

6. Ibid., list 1.

7. Ibid., list 2.

8. Ibid.

9. Ibid., list 4.

10. Ibid., listy 4-6.

11. Ibid., list 7.

12. Ibid., list 8.

13. Ibid., list 19.

14. Ibid., listy 19-20. [BACK]

15. RTsKhIDNI f. 17, op. 138, d. 329, listy 157-58. [BACK]

16. Boreiko, Istoriia zapovednogo dela v Ukraine , 123-25. [BACK]

17. RTsKhIDNI f. 17, op. 138, d. 329, list 159. [BACK]

18. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8666, listy 11-13. My own handwritten notes list the edinitsa khraneniia (delo) as d. 8664, which makes sense in light of the related document cited in note 19 and that delo 8664 concerns the period of May 1951, whereas delo 8666 contains materials from August and September; however, my official xeroxed copy of the document, ordered later, was identified by the archival staff as d. 8666. break [BACK]

19. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8664.415-1, listy 2-3. [BACK]

20. Boreiko, Istoriia zapovednogo dela v Ukraine , 125. Boreiko (132n. 26) provides the following archival citation: GARF f. 544ss, op. 59, d. 7878, listy 1-229.

21. Ibid., list 3. [BACK]

20. Boreiko, Istoriia zapovednogo dela v Ukraine , 125. Boreiko (132n. 26) provides the following archival citation: GARF f. 544ss, op. 59, d. 7878, listy 1-229.

21. Ibid., list 3. [BACK]

22. TsGA f. 358, op. 2, d. 1036, list 3.

23. Ibid., list 6.

24. Ibid., list 7.

25. Ibid., listy 106-7. [BACK]

22. TsGA f. 358, op. 2, d. 1036, list 3.

23. Ibid., list 6.

24. Ibid., list 7.

25. Ibid., listy 106-7. [BACK]

22. TsGA f. 358, op. 2, d. 1036, list 3.

23. Ibid., list 6.

24. Ibid., list 7.

25. Ibid., listy 106-7. [BACK]

22. TsGA f. 358, op. 2, d. 1036, list 3.

23. Ibid., list 6.

24. Ibid., list 7.

25. Ibid., listy 106-7. [BACK]

26. TsGA f. 358, op. 2, d. 991, list 1. [BACK]

27. Letter to M. M. Bessonov, February 14, 1951. TsGA f. 358, op. 2, d. 991, list 4. [BACK]

28. The letter-writer put ''Tianshanskii" in quotes, presumably to call attention to the origin of the second part of Semënov's family name: his grandfather, the explorer and legislator Pëtr Petrovich Semënov, was granted this second name by Tsar Nikolai II in recognition of his exploration of the Tien Shan Mountains and his service to the empire. [BACK]

29. TsGA f. 358, op. 2, d. 991, list 48.

30. Ibid.

31. Ibid., list 55. Oleg Izmailovich Semënov-tian-shanskii on August 25 had sent Bykov, the bookkeeper and auditor of the Main Administration, a detailed letter refuting the charges. Only five birds (one black cock, one capercaille, two willow ptarmigans, and one duck, all males) were taken in May and June and 277 fish, all previously studied in the lab before being cooked, for the entire first six months of 1951. Ibid., listy 49-50. Reserve director Chernenko sent an even more forceful response, asking for the identification of those who claim to have "gone hungry," those allegedly fired without cause, etc. Ibid., listy 51-51 rev. [BACK]

29. TsGA f. 358, op. 2, d. 991, list 48.

30. Ibid.

31. Ibid., list 55. Oleg Izmailovich Semënov-tian-shanskii on August 25 had sent Bykov, the bookkeeper and auditor of the Main Administration, a detailed letter refuting the charges. Only five birds (one black cock, one capercaille, two willow ptarmigans, and one duck, all males) were taken in May and June and 277 fish, all previously studied in the lab before being cooked, for the entire first six months of 1951. Ibid., listy 49-50. Reserve director Chernenko sent an even more forceful response, asking for the identification of those who claim to have "gone hungry," those allegedly fired without cause, etc. Ibid., listy 51-51 rev. [BACK]

29. TsGA f. 358, op. 2, d. 991, list 48.

30. Ibid.

31. Ibid., list 55. Oleg Izmailovich Semënov-tian-shanskii on August 25 had sent Bykov, the bookkeeper and auditor of the Main Administration, a detailed letter refuting the charges. Only five birds (one black cock, one capercaille, two willow ptarmigans, and one duck, all males) were taken in May and June and 277 fish, all previously studied in the lab before being cooked, for the entire first six months of 1951. Ibid., listy 49-50. Reserve director Chernenko sent an even more forceful response, asking for the identification of those who claim to have "gone hungry," those allegedly fired without cause, etc. Ibid., listy 51-51 rev. [BACK]

32. MOIP Archive, d. 1858, list 13. Dated June 1, 1951. [BACK]

33. It is difficult to say whether the senders were aware that their protest was technically misdirected, as Merkulov and the Kremlin high command were wielding the hatchet, not Chernousov. [BACK]

34. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8666, listy 40-41.

35. Ibid., list 47. [BACK]

34. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8666, listy 40-41.

35. Ibid., list 47. [BACK]

36. GARF f. 8300, op. 24, d. 1786, listy 156-57.

37. Ibid. [BACK]

36. GARF f. 8300, op. 24, d. 1786, listy 156-57.

37. Ibid. [BACK]

38. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8666, list 46. Dated August 18, 1951 no. 0303/441.

39. Ibid.

40. Ibid., listy 70-72. Entitled "Spravka o predlozheniiakh krai(obl)ispolkomov i Sovetov Ministrov avtonomnykh respublik RSFSR po voprosu ispol'zovaniia zemel' uprazniaemykh zapovednikov." There is no date but it was initialed on August 29, 1951, so it was circulating prior to that date. A second document, "Spravka o dopolnitel'nykh predlozheniiakh po zapovednikam," was dated August 20, 1951 to Merkulov from N. Fetisov and is located in GARF f. 8300, op. 24, d. 7486, listy 33-34. This second document records the responses of the Union republics.

41. Ibid. For a fascinating look at the subtle correspondence between Merkulov and the Ukrainian Party leader Mel'nikov on this, see Boreiko, Istoriia zapovednogo dela v Ukraine , 124-25. [BACK]

38. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8666, list 46. Dated August 18, 1951 no. 0303/441.

39. Ibid.

40. Ibid., listy 70-72. Entitled "Spravka o predlozheniiakh krai(obl)ispolkomov i Sovetov Ministrov avtonomnykh respublik RSFSR po voprosu ispol'zovaniia zemel' uprazniaemykh zapovednikov." There is no date but it was initialed on August 29, 1951, so it was circulating prior to that date. A second document, "Spravka o dopolnitel'nykh predlozheniiakh po zapovednikam," was dated August 20, 1951 to Merkulov from N. Fetisov and is located in GARF f. 8300, op. 24, d. 7486, listy 33-34. This second document records the responses of the Union republics.

41. Ibid. For a fascinating look at the subtle correspondence between Merkulov and the Ukrainian Party leader Mel'nikov on this, see Boreiko, Istoriia zapovednogo dela v Ukraine , 124-25. [BACK]

38. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8666, list 46. Dated August 18, 1951 no. 0303/441.

39. Ibid.

40. Ibid., listy 70-72. Entitled "Spravka o predlozheniiakh krai(obl)ispolkomov i Sovetov Ministrov avtonomnykh respublik RSFSR po voprosu ispol'zovaniia zemel' uprazniaemykh zapovednikov." There is no date but it was initialed on August 29, 1951, so it was circulating prior to that date. A second document, "Spravka o dopolnitel'nykh predlozheniiakh po zapovednikam," was dated August 20, 1951 to Merkulov from N. Fetisov and is located in GARF f. 8300, op. 24, d. 7486, listy 33-34. This second document records the responses of the Union republics.

41. Ibid. For a fascinating look at the subtle correspondence between Merkulov and the Ukrainian Party leader Mel'nikov on this, see Boreiko, Istoriia zapovednogo dela v Ukraine , 124-25. [BACK]

38. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8666, list 46. Dated August 18, 1951 no. 0303/441.

39. Ibid.

40. Ibid., listy 70-72. Entitled "Spravka o predlozheniiakh krai(obl)ispolkomov i Sovetov Ministrov avtonomnykh respublik RSFSR po voprosu ispol'zovaniia zemel' uprazniaemykh zapovednikov." There is no date but it was initialed on August 29, 1951, so it was circulating prior to that date. A second document, "Spravka o dopolnitel'nykh predlozheniiakh po zapovednikam," was dated August 20, 1951 to Merkulov from N. Fetisov and is located in GARF f. 8300, op. 24, d. 7486, listy 33-34. This second document records the responses of the Union republics.

41. Ibid. For a fascinating look at the subtle correspondence between Merkulov and the Ukrainian Party leader Mel'nikov on this, see Boreiko, Istoriia zapovednogo dela v Ukraine , 124-25. [BACK]

42. TsGA f. 358, op. 3, d. 581, listy 121-23. break [BACK]

43. Boreiko, Istoriia zapovednogo dela v Ukraine , 125-26. He cites GARF f. 544ss, op. 59, d.7878, listy 1-229. [BACK]

44. Conversation between Vladimir Boreiko and Oleg Kirillovich Gusev, per Vladimir Boreiko, April 20, 199 . Gusev was a close friend of Malinovskii's and is editor in chief of Okhota i okhtnich 'e khoziaistvo . [BACK]

45. For the complete text of the decree see Boreiko, "Eto ne dolzhno," 9-11. [BACK]

46. Boreiko, Istoriia zapovednogo dela v Ukraine , 128, makes this point. [BACK]

47. RTsKhIDNI f. 17, op. 138, d. 329, listy 107-8. Titov had apparently been approached by the acting head of the Krymskoe Upravlenie lesnym khoziaistvom, Potapenko, who had begun making complaints against the zapovednik in June.

48. Ibid., list 113.

49. Ibid., listy 21 1-14. Malenkov had asked the Central Committee Agricultural Department to keep current on this matter, and Malinovskii had to send copies of all correspondence connected with it. Hence its present location in the Party archives. [BACK]

47. RTsKhIDNI f. 17, op. 138, d. 329, listy 107-8. Titov had apparently been approached by the acting head of the Krymskoe Upravlenie lesnym khoziaistvom, Potapenko, who had begun making complaints against the zapovednik in June.

48. Ibid., list 113.

49. Ibid., listy 21 1-14. Malenkov had asked the Central Committee Agricultural Department to keep current on this matter, and Malinovskii had to send copies of all correspondence connected with it. Hence its present location in the Party archives. [BACK]

47. RTsKhIDNI f. 17, op. 138, d. 329, listy 107-8. Titov had apparently been approached by the acting head of the Krymskoe Upravlenie lesnym khoziaistvom, Potapenko, who had begun making complaints against the zapovednik in June.

48. Ibid., list 113.

49. Ibid., listy 21 1-14. Malenkov had asked the Central Committee Agricultural Department to keep current on this matter, and Malinovskii had to send copies of all correspondence connected with it. Hence its present location in the Party archives. [BACK]

50. TsGA f. 358, op. 2 , d. 991, list 115. Letter of October 31, 1951. The firings were to take effect November i. [BACK]

51. See Boreiko, Istoriia zapovednogo dela v Ukraine , 128. [BACK]

52. "O raspredelenii zemel' zapovednikov, vydelennykh kolkhozam i sovkhozam," Postanovl. no. 4164 of the USSR Council of Ministers, October 29, 1951. [BACK]

53. Boreiko, Istoriia zapovednogo dela v Ukraine , 128. [BACK]

54. Boreiko, "Eto ne dolzhno," 11. [BACK]

55. ARAN f. 1674, op. 1, d. 240, listy 23 and 23 rev. Dated November 11, 1951, Moscow, in response to a telegram sent to Protopopov from Puzanov.

56. Ibid., list 23 rev. [BACK]

55. ARAN f. 1674, op. 1, d. 240, listy 23 and 23 rev. Dated November 11, 1951, Moscow, in response to a telegram sent to Protopopov from Puzanov.

56. Ibid., list 23 rev. [BACK]

57. Postanovlenie SM SSSR no. 4139, Polozhenie o Glavnom upravlenii po zapovednikam pri SM SSSR and Polozhenie o gosudarstvennykh zapovednikakh. For the text, see Glavnoe upravlenie po zapovednikam pri SM SSSR, Polozhenie o Glavnom upravlenii po zapovednikam pri SM SSSR ; Polozhenie o gosudarstvennykh zapovednikakh SSSR ; Polozhenie ob okhrane gosudarstvennykh zapovednikakh SSSR .. [BACK]

58. My xerox is of copy no. 800. [BACK]

59. RGAE f. 9466, op. 5, d. 376, listy, 1-9. [BACK]

60. GARF f. 8300, op. 24, d. 1847, listy 1-8. Beria's instructions are on listy 1-2.

61. Ibid., listy 2-8.

62. Ibid., listy 6-7.

63. Ibid., list 19.

64. Ibid. [BACK]

60. GARF f. 8300, op. 24, d. 1847, listy 1-8. Beria's instructions are on listy 1-2.

61. Ibid., listy 2-8.

62. Ibid., listy 6-7.

63. Ibid., list 19.

64. Ibid. [BACK]

60. GARF f. 8300, op. 24, d. 1847, listy 1-8. Beria's instructions are on listy 1-2.

61. Ibid., listy 2-8.

62. Ibid., listy 6-7.

63. Ibid., list 19.

64. Ibid. [BACK]

60. GARF f. 8300, op. 24, d. 1847, listy 1-8. Beria's instructions are on listy 1-2.

61. Ibid., listy 2-8.

62. Ibid., listy 6-7.

63. Ibid., list 19.

64. Ibid. [BACK]

60. GARF f. 8300, op. 24, d. 1847, listy 1-8. Beria's instructions are on listy 1-2.

61. Ibid., listy 2-8.

62. Ibid., listy 6-7.

63. Ibid., list 19.

64. Ibid. [BACK]

65. Interview with Aleksandr Leonidovich Ianshin, Moscow, July 24, 1992. [BACK]

66. Interviews with Andrei Aleksandrovich Nasimovich, Moscow, April 16 and 18, 1980. [BACK]

67. When I published Models of Nature this was the only "insider" explanation I had, and I was unable to assess it critically. [BACK]

68. Shtil'mark and Geptner [Heptner], "Tragediia sovetskikh zapovednikov," 101.

69. Ibid., 112. [BACK]

68. Shtil'mark and Geptner [Heptner], "Tragediia sovetskikh zapovednikov," 101.

69. Ibid., 112. [BACK]

70. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8666, list 69. Handwritten note from Malinovskii to continue

RSFSR deputy premier Arsenii Mikhailovich Safronov. Marked "Soglasen, A.S." by Safronov, signaling the RSFSR's concurrence with the ultimate disposition of the territory formerly held by its reserves. [BACK]

71. RTsKhIDNI, f. 17, op. 138, d. 466, listy 114, 115. Malenkov's note is dated December 6, 1952.

72. Ibid., listy 123-24.

73. Ibid., listy 131-34.

74. Ibid., list 148.

75. Ibid., list 149.

76. Ibid., listy 168-72. [BACK]

71. RTsKhIDNI, f. 17, op. 138, d. 466, listy 114, 115. Malenkov's note is dated December 6, 1952.

72. Ibid., listy 123-24.

73. Ibid., listy 131-34.

74. Ibid., list 148.

75. Ibid., list 149.

76. Ibid., listy 168-72. [BACK]

71. RTsKhIDNI, f. 17, op. 138, d. 466, listy 114, 115. Malenkov's note is dated December 6, 1952.

72. Ibid., listy 123-24.

73. Ibid., listy 131-34.

74. Ibid., list 148.

75. Ibid., list 149.

76. Ibid., listy 168-72. [BACK]

71. RTsKhIDNI, f. 17, op. 138, d. 466, listy 114, 115. Malenkov's note is dated December 6, 1952.

72. Ibid., listy 123-24.

73. Ibid., listy 131-34.

74. Ibid., list 148.

75. Ibid., list 149.

76. Ibid., listy 168-72. [BACK]

71. RTsKhIDNI, f. 17, op. 138, d. 466, listy 114, 115. Malenkov's note is dated December 6, 1952.

72. Ibid., listy 123-24.

73. Ibid., listy 131-34.

74. Ibid., list 148.

75. Ibid., list 149.

76. Ibid., listy 168-72. [BACK]

71. RTsKhIDNI, f. 17, op. 138, d. 466, listy 114, 115. Malenkov's note is dated December 6, 1952.

72. Ibid., listy 123-24.

73. Ibid., listy 131-34.

74. Ibid., list 148.

75. Ibid., list 149.

76. Ibid., listy 168-72. [BACK]

77. Boreiko, "Eto ne dolzhno," 9, provides these examples in support of the kind of reassessment of Malinovskii that I am attempting here. [BACK]

78. Conversation with Andrei Aleksandrovich Nasimovich, Moscow, April 18, 1980. [BACK]

79. Shtil'mark and Geptner [Heptner], "Tragediia sovetskikh zapovednikov," 111. [BACK]

Chapter Seven— In the Throes of Crisis: VOOP in Stalin 's Last Years

1. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 136a, list 51. Dated July 24, 1948. This was a first draft and had hand-written corrections by Zaretskii, who signed it at the bottom. [BACK]

2. Interview with Konstantin Mikhailovich Efron, August 2, 1995.

3. Ibid. [BACK]

2. Interview with Konstantin Mikhailovich Efron, August 2, 1995.

3. Ibid. [BACK]

4. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 5419.416-10. "Vypiska iz protokolov no. 16 zasedaniia Biuro SM RSFSR ot 2 aprelia 1948 g.," list 34; "no. 17 ot 9 aprelia 1948 g.," list 32. [BACK]

5. TsGA f. 339, op. 1, d. 4734, list a. This was an order issued by N. Vasil'ev, the minister, to the Group for Cultural and Educational Institutions. The investigation was to be completed in twelve days; a senior controller and a controller were assigned to this. [BACK]

6. TsGA f. 339, op. 1, d. 4737, list 7.

7. Ibid., see listy 8-12.

8. Ibid., list 12.

9. Ibid., list 13. The text of the report to N. M. Vasil'ev, minister of state control of the RSFSR, is contained on listy 1-6.

10. Ibid., list 14.

11. Ibid., list 15.

12. Ibid., listy 15-16.

13. Ibid., list 19. [BACK]

6. TsGA f. 339, op. 1, d. 4737, list 7.

7. Ibid., see listy 8-12.

8. Ibid., list 12.

9. Ibid., list 13. The text of the report to N. M. Vasil'ev, minister of state control of the RSFSR, is contained on listy 1-6.

10. Ibid., list 14.

11. Ibid., list 15.

12. Ibid., listy 15-16.

13. Ibid., list 19. [BACK]

6. TsGA f. 339, op. 1, d. 4737, list 7.

7. Ibid., see listy 8-12.

8. Ibid., list 12.

9. Ibid., list 13. The text of the report to N. M. Vasil'ev, minister of state control of the RSFSR, is contained on listy 1-6.

10. Ibid., list 14.

11. Ibid., list 15.

12. Ibid., listy 15-16.

13. Ibid., list 19. [BACK]

6. TsGA f. 339, op. 1, d. 4737, list 7.

7. Ibid., see listy 8-12.

8. Ibid., list 12.

9. Ibid., list 13. The text of the report to N. M. Vasil'ev, minister of state control of the RSFSR, is contained on listy 1-6.

10. Ibid., list 14.

11. Ibid., list 15.

12. Ibid., listy 15-16.

13. Ibid., list 19. [BACK]

6. TsGA f. 339, op. 1, d. 4737, list 7.

7. Ibid., see listy 8-12.

8. Ibid., list 12.

9. Ibid., list 13. The text of the report to N. M. Vasil'ev, minister of state control of the RSFSR, is contained on listy 1-6.

10. Ibid., list 14.

11. Ibid., list 15.

12. Ibid., listy 15-16.

13. Ibid., list 19. [BACK]

6. TsGA f. 339, op. 1, d. 4737, list 7.

7. Ibid., see listy 8-12.

8. Ibid., list 12.

9. Ibid., list 13. The text of the report to N. M. Vasil'ev, minister of state control of the RSFSR, is contained on listy 1-6.

10. Ibid., list 14.

11. Ibid., list 15.

12. Ibid., listy 15-16.

13. Ibid., list 19. [BACK]

6. TsGA f. 339, op. 1, d. 4737, list 7.

7. Ibid., see listy 8-12.

8. Ibid., list 12.

9. Ibid., list 13. The text of the report to N. M. Vasil'ev, minister of state control of the RSFSR, is contained on listy 1-6.

10. Ibid., list 14.

11. Ibid., list 15.

12. Ibid., listy 15-16.

13. Ibid., list 19. [BACK]

6. TsGA f. 339, op. 1, d. 4737, list 7.

7. Ibid., see listy 8-12.

8. Ibid., list 12.

9. Ibid., list 13. The text of the report to N. M. Vasil'ev, minister of state control of the RSFSR, is contained on listy 1-6.

10. Ibid., list 14.

11. Ibid., list 15.

12. Ibid., listy 15-16.

13. Ibid., list 19. [BACK]

14. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 175, listy 42-43. "Protokol zasedaniia Prezidiuma TsS VOOP no. 9 za 2 avgusta 1950 g." Ibid., list 51. "Protokol zasedaniia Prezidiuma TsS VOOP no. 13." [BACK]

15. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8667, listy 148-49. [BACK]

16. Figures for VOOP's membership are found in TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8667, list 168. [BACK]

17. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 182a, listy 33-77. [BACK]

18. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 174, list 4. "Stenograma zasedaniia plenuma TsS VOOP ot 20-ogo aprelia 1950 g." break

19. Ibid., list 5.

20. Ibid., listy 71-72.

21. Ibid., list 73.

22. Ibid. [BACK]

18. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 174, list 4. "Stenograma zasedaniia plenuma TsS VOOP ot 20-ogo aprelia 1950 g." break

19. Ibid., list 5.

20. Ibid., listy 71-72.

21. Ibid., list 73.

22. Ibid. [BACK]

18. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 174, list 4. "Stenograma zasedaniia plenuma TsS VOOP ot 20-ogo aprelia 1950 g." break

19. Ibid., list 5.

20. Ibid., listy 71-72.

21. Ibid., list 73.

22. Ibid. [BACK]

18. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 174, list 4. "Stenograma zasedaniia plenuma TsS VOOP ot 20-ogo aprelia 1950 g." break

19. Ibid., list 5.

20. Ibid., listy 71-72.

21. Ibid., list 73.

22. Ibid. [BACK]

18. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 174, list 4. "Stenograma zasedaniia plenuma TsS VOOP ot 20-ogo aprelia 1950 g." break

19. Ibid., list 5.

20. Ibid., listy 71-72.

21. Ibid., list 73.

22. Ibid. [BACK]

23. Those two governments then appealed to the RSFSR Council of Ministers to help in their appeal to the State Staffing Commission, but those appeals had not yet been acted upon. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 182a, list 73.

24. Ibid., listy 73-74. [BACK]

23. Those two governments then appealed to the RSFSR Council of Ministers to help in their appeal to the State Staffing Commission, but those appeals had not yet been acted upon. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 182a, list 73.

24. Ibid., listy 73-74. [BACK]

25. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 183a, list 2.

26. Ibid., list 1.

27. Ibid., list 17.

28. Ibid., list 13.

29. See ibid., list 19.

30. Ibid., list 18.

31. Ibid., list 31. The IUPN was created in July 1947 and was based in Switzerland. Gams was active in the 1949 Lake Success technical conference of the IUPN. See Boardman, International Organization and the Conservation of Nature , 51. [BACK]

25. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 183a, list 2.

26. Ibid., list 1.

27. Ibid., list 17.

28. Ibid., list 13.

29. See ibid., list 19.

30. Ibid., list 18.

31. Ibid., list 31. The IUPN was created in July 1947 and was based in Switzerland. Gams was active in the 1949 Lake Success technical conference of the IUPN. See Boardman, International Organization and the Conservation of Nature , 51. [BACK]

25. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 183a, list 2.

26. Ibid., list 1.

27. Ibid., list 17.

28. Ibid., list 13.

29. See ibid., list 19.

30. Ibid., list 18.

31. Ibid., list 31. The IUPN was created in July 1947 and was based in Switzerland. Gams was active in the 1949 Lake Success technical conference of the IUPN. See Boardman, International Organization and the Conservation of Nature , 51. [BACK]

25. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 183a, list 2.

26. Ibid., list 1.

27. Ibid., list 17.

28. Ibid., list 13.

29. See ibid., list 19.

30. Ibid., list 18.

31. Ibid., list 31. The IUPN was created in July 1947 and was based in Switzerland. Gams was active in the 1949 Lake Success technical conference of the IUPN. See Boardman, International Organization and the Conservation of Nature , 51. [BACK]

25. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 183a, list 2.

26. Ibid., list 1.

27. Ibid., list 17.

28. Ibid., list 13.

29. See ibid., list 19.

30. Ibid., list 18.

31. Ibid., list 31. The IUPN was created in July 1947 and was based in Switzerland. Gams was active in the 1949 Lake Success technical conference of the IUPN. See Boardman, International Organization and the Conservation of Nature , 51. [BACK]

25. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 183a, list 2.

26. Ibid., list 1.

27. Ibid., list 17.

28. Ibid., list 13.

29. See ibid., list 19.

30. Ibid., list 18.

31. Ibid., list 31. The IUPN was created in July 1947 and was based in Switzerland. Gams was active in the 1949 Lake Success technical conference of the IUPN. See Boardman, International Organization and the Conservation of Nature , 51. [BACK]

25. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 183a, list 2.

26. Ibid., list 1.

27. Ibid., list 17.

28. Ibid., list 13.

29. See ibid., list 19.

30. Ibid., list 18.

31. Ibid., list 31. The IUPN was created in July 1947 and was based in Switzerland. Gams was active in the 1949 Lake Success technical conference of the IUPN. See Boardman, International Organization and the Conservation of Nature , 51. [BACK]

32. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 183a, list 31. A copy of the completed application may be found in TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 205, listy 2-3. Significantly, at the place where the questionnaire from the International Union for the Protection of Nature asked whether the applying organization was of a governmental, semi-governmental, or private ( chastnyi ) character, the VOOP respondents typed and underlined chastnyi and added: "a voluntary association of citizens" ( dobrovol'noe ob"edinenie grazhdan) , list 3. [BACK]

33. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 175, listy 47-50. [BACK]

34. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 194, list 7. Undated. Dated in pen February 12, 1951, probably by aides in the RSFSR Council of Ministers. [BACK]

35. See TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 182a, list 2.Joint letter of Makarov and the academician N. A. Maksimov, president of the orgburo of VOSSOGZN, of Januay 13, 1950 to Georgii Maksimilianovich Malenkov, proposing a merger of the two societies. [BACK]

36. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8667.4 18-12, papka 1, list 105. [BACK]

37. The draft letter to the Central Committee is in ibid., list 106, and the followup note is on listy 111-112. [BACK]

38. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8667, list 145.

39. Ibid.

40. Ibid.

41. Ibid., list 146.

42. Ibid.

43. Ibid. [BACK]

38. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8667, list 145.

39. Ibid.

40. Ibid.

41. Ibid., list 146.

42. Ibid.

43. Ibid. [BACK]

38. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8667, list 145.

39. Ibid.

40. Ibid.

41. Ibid., list 146.

42. Ibid.

43. Ibid. [BACK]

38. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8667, list 145.

39. Ibid.

40. Ibid.

41. Ibid., list 146.

42. Ibid.

43. Ibid. [BACK]

38. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8667, list 145.

39. Ibid.

40. Ibid.

41. Ibid., list 146.

42. Ibid.

43. Ibid. [BACK]

38. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8667, list 145.

39. Ibid.

40. Ibid.

41. Ibid., list 146.

42. Ibid.

43. Ibid. [BACK]

44. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8668, list 138. Dated August 27, 195 1.

45. Ibid., listy 138-39.

46. Ibid.

47. Ibid.

48. Ibid., list 140.

49. Ibid., list 101.

50. Ibid.

51. Ibid., list 102. break

52. Ibid., list 103. "Protokol no. 7 ot 21-ogo marta 1951 g."

53. Ibid., list 105.

54. Ibid., list 134.

55. Ibid.

56. Ibid. [BACK]

44. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8668, list 138. Dated August 27, 195 1.

45. Ibid., listy 138-39.

46. Ibid.

47. Ibid.

48. Ibid., list 140.

49. Ibid., list 101.

50. Ibid.

51. Ibid., list 102. break

52. Ibid., list 103. "Protokol no. 7 ot 21-ogo marta 1951 g."

53. Ibid., list 105.

54. Ibid., list 134.

55. Ibid.

56. Ibid. [BACK]

44. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8668, list 138. Dated August 27, 195 1.

45. Ibid., listy 138-39.

46. Ibid.

47. Ibid.

48. Ibid., list 140.

49. Ibid., list 101.

50. Ibid.

51. Ibid., list 102. break

52. Ibid., list 103. "Protokol no. 7 ot 21-ogo marta 1951 g."

53. Ibid., list 105.

54. Ibid., list 134.

55. Ibid.

56. Ibid. [BACK]

44. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8668, list 138. Dated August 27, 195 1.

45. Ibid., listy 138-39.

46. Ibid.

47. Ibid.

48. Ibid., list 140.

49. Ibid., list 101.

50. Ibid.

51. Ibid., list 102. break

52. Ibid., list 103. "Protokol no. 7 ot 21-ogo marta 1951 g."

53. Ibid., list 105.

54. Ibid., list 134.

55. Ibid.

56. Ibid. [BACK]

44. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8668, list 138. Dated August 27, 195 1.

45. Ibid., listy 138-39.

46. Ibid.

47. Ibid.

48. Ibid., list 140.

49. Ibid., list 101.

50. Ibid.

51. Ibid., list 102. break

52. Ibid., list 103. "Protokol no. 7 ot 21-ogo marta 1951 g."

53. Ibid., list 105.

54. Ibid., list 134.

55. Ibid.

56. Ibid. [BACK]

44. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8668, list 138. Dated August 27, 195 1.

45. Ibid., listy 138-39.

46. Ibid.

47. Ibid.

48. Ibid., list 140.

49. Ibid., list 101.

50. Ibid.

51. Ibid., list 102. break

52. Ibid., list 103. "Protokol no. 7 ot 21-ogo marta 1951 g."

53. Ibid., list 105.

54. Ibid., list 134.

55. Ibid.

56. Ibid. [BACK]

44. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8668, list 138. Dated August 27, 195 1.

45. Ibid., listy 138-39.

46. Ibid.

47. Ibid.

48. Ibid., list 140.

49. Ibid., list 101.

50. Ibid.

51. Ibid., list 102. break

52. Ibid., list 103. "Protokol no. 7 ot 21-ogo marta 1951 g."

53. Ibid., list 105.

54. Ibid., list 134.

55. Ibid.

56. Ibid. [BACK]

44. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8668, list 138. Dated August 27, 195 1.

45. Ibid., listy 138-39.

46. Ibid.

47. Ibid.

48. Ibid., list 140.

49. Ibid., list 101.

50. Ibid.

51. Ibid., list 102. break

52. Ibid., list 103. "Protokol no. 7 ot 21-ogo marta 1951 g."

53. Ibid., list 105.

54. Ibid., list 134.

55. Ibid.

56. Ibid. [BACK]

44. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8668, list 138. Dated August 27, 195 1.

45. Ibid., listy 138-39.

46. Ibid.

47. Ibid.

48. Ibid., list 140.

49. Ibid., list 101.

50. Ibid.

51. Ibid., list 102. break

52. Ibid., list 103. "Protokol no. 7 ot 21-ogo marta 1951 g."

53. Ibid., list 105.

54. Ibid., list 134.

55. Ibid.

56. Ibid. [BACK]

44. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8668, list 138. Dated August 27, 195 1.

45. Ibid., listy 138-39.

46. Ibid.

47. Ibid.

48. Ibid., list 140.

49. Ibid., list 101.

50. Ibid.

51. Ibid., list 102. break

52. Ibid., list 103. "Protokol no. 7 ot 21-ogo marta 1951 g."

53. Ibid., list 105.

54. Ibid., list 134.

55. Ibid.

56. Ibid. [BACK]

44. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8668, list 138. Dated August 27, 195 1.

45. Ibid., listy 138-39.

46. Ibid.

47. Ibid.

48. Ibid., list 140.

49. Ibid., list 101.

50. Ibid.

51. Ibid., list 102. break

52. Ibid., list 103. "Protokol no. 7 ot 21-ogo marta 1951 g."

53. Ibid., list 105.

54. Ibid., list 134.

55. Ibid.

56. Ibid. [BACK]

44. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8668, list 138. Dated August 27, 195 1.

45. Ibid., listy 138-39.

46. Ibid.

47. Ibid.

48. Ibid., list 140.

49. Ibid., list 101.

50. Ibid.

51. Ibid., list 102. break

52. Ibid., list 103. "Protokol no. 7 ot 21-ogo marta 1951 g."

53. Ibid., list 105.

54. Ibid., list 134.

55. Ibid.

56. Ibid. [BACK]

44. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8668, list 138. Dated August 27, 195 1.

45. Ibid., listy 138-39.

46. Ibid.

47. Ibid.

48. Ibid., list 140.

49. Ibid., list 101.

50. Ibid.

51. Ibid., list 102. break

52. Ibid., list 103. "Protokol no. 7 ot 21-ogo marta 1951 g."

53. Ibid., list 105.

54. Ibid., list 134.

55. Ibid.

56. Ibid. [BACK]

57. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8667.418-12, papka 1, list 90. Letter of S. V. Kuznetsov, secretary of the Party cell of the central staff of VOOP, and P. V. Ostashevskii, deputy secretary, to Arsenii Mikhailovich Safronov, June 14, 1951.

58. Ibid. "Apolitical" meant unwilling to endorse or promote the regime's political campaigns.

59. Ibid., listy 90-91.

60. Ibid.

61. Ibid., list 92.

62. Ibid., list 93.

63. Ibid., list 94. [BACK]

57. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8667.418-12, papka 1, list 90. Letter of S. V. Kuznetsov, secretary of the Party cell of the central staff of VOOP, and P. V. Ostashevskii, deputy secretary, to Arsenii Mikhailovich Safronov, June 14, 1951.

58. Ibid. "Apolitical" meant unwilling to endorse or promote the regime's political campaigns.

59. Ibid., listy 90-91.

60. Ibid.

61. Ibid., list 92.

62. Ibid., list 93.

63. Ibid., list 94. [BACK]

57. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8667.418-12, papka 1, list 90. Letter of S. V. Kuznetsov, secretary of the Party cell of the central staff of VOOP, and P. V. Ostashevskii, deputy secretary, to Arsenii Mikhailovich Safronov, June 14, 1951.

58. Ibid. "Apolitical" meant unwilling to endorse or promote the regime's political campaigns.

59. Ibid., listy 90-91.

60. Ibid.

61. Ibid., list 92.

62. Ibid., list 93.

63. Ibid., list 94. [BACK]

57. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8667.418-12, papka 1, list 90. Letter of S. V. Kuznetsov, secretary of the Party cell of the central staff of VOOP, and P. V. Ostashevskii, deputy secretary, to Arsenii Mikhailovich Safronov, June 14, 1951.

58. Ibid. "Apolitical" meant unwilling to endorse or promote the regime's political campaigns.

59. Ibid., listy 90-91.

60. Ibid.

61. Ibid., list 92.

62. Ibid., list 93.

63. Ibid., list 94. [BACK]

57. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8667.418-12, papka 1, list 90. Letter of S. V. Kuznetsov, secretary of the Party cell of the central staff of VOOP, and P. V. Ostashevskii, deputy secretary, to Arsenii Mikhailovich Safronov, June 14, 1951.

58. Ibid. "Apolitical" meant unwilling to endorse or promote the regime's political campaigns.

59. Ibid., listy 90-91.

60. Ibid.

61. Ibid., list 92.

62. Ibid., list 93.

63. Ibid., list 94. [BACK]

57. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8667.418-12, papka 1, list 90. Letter of S. V. Kuznetsov, secretary of the Party cell of the central staff of VOOP, and P. V. Ostashevskii, deputy secretary, to Arsenii Mikhailovich Safronov, June 14, 1951.

58. Ibid. "Apolitical" meant unwilling to endorse or promote the regime's political campaigns.

59. Ibid., listy 90-91.

60. Ibid.

61. Ibid., list 92.

62. Ibid., list 93.

63. Ibid., list 94. [BACK]

57. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8667.418-12, papka 1, list 90. Letter of S. V. Kuznetsov, secretary of the Party cell of the central staff of VOOP, and P. V. Ostashevskii, deputy secretary, to Arsenii Mikhailovich Safronov, June 14, 1951.

58. Ibid. "Apolitical" meant unwilling to endorse or promote the regime's political campaigns.

59. Ibid., listy 90-91.

60. Ibid.

61. Ibid., list 92.

62. Ibid., list 93.

63. Ibid., list 94. [BACK]

64. Makarov Papers, courtesy of F. R. Shtil'mark. "Rezolutsiia," dated 1951. "The resolution of a closed meeting of the Party organization of the Main Administration . . . on the question of criticism of the article by comrade V. N. Makarov 'Zapovedniki Sovetskogo Soiuza' in the book Zapovedniki SSSR , vol. 1." [BACK]

65. Makarov Papers, courtesy of F. R. Shtil'mark. On Main Administration letterhead. Copy. Dated September 29, 1951, letter no. 74. Signed as correct by the head of the Secretariat, L. Surina. [BACK]

66. Makarov Papers, "Rezolutsiia." [BACK]

67. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8667, listy 10-28. "Spravka o rabote VOOP."June 11, 1951.

68. Ibid., list 19.

69. Ibid., listy 19-20.

70. Ibid., listy 21-22.

71. Ibid., listy 25, 28. [BACK]

67. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8667, listy 10-28. "Spravka o rabote VOOP."June 11, 1951.

68. Ibid., list 19.

69. Ibid., listy 19-20.

70. Ibid., listy 21-22.

71. Ibid., listy 25, 28. [BACK]

67. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8667, listy 10-28. "Spravka o rabote VOOP."June 11, 1951.

68. Ibid., list 19.

69. Ibid., listy 19-20.

70. Ibid., listy 21-22.

71. Ibid., listy 25, 28. [BACK]

67. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8667, listy 10-28. "Spravka o rabote VOOP."June 11, 1951.

68. Ibid., list 19.

69. Ibid., listy 19-20.

70. Ibid., listy 21-22.

71. Ibid., listy 25, 28. [BACK]

67. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8667, listy 10-28. "Spravka o rabote VOOP."June 11, 1951.

68. Ibid., list 19.

69. Ibid., listy 19-20.

70. Ibid., listy 21-22.

71. Ibid., listy 25, 28. [BACK]

72. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 192, list 167. "Vypiska Protokola no. 14 zasedaniia Prezidiuma TsS VOOP ot 28-ogo iulia 1951 g."

73. Ibid.

74. Ibid. [BACK]

72. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 192, list 167. "Vypiska Protokola no. 14 zasedaniia Prezidiuma TsS VOOP ot 28-ogo iulia 1951 g."

73. Ibid.

74. Ibid. [BACK]

72. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 192, list 167. "Vypiska Protokola no. 14 zasedaniia Prezidiuma TsS VOOP ot 28-ogo iulia 1951 g."

73. Ibid.

74. Ibid. [BACK]

75. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8667, list 4.

76. Ibid., listy 167-72. "Protokol zasedaniia no. 14 ot 28-ogo iulia 1951 g."

77. Ibid., list 68. "Vypiska iz Protokola no. 33 Biuro SM RSFSR ot 27-ogo iulia 1951 g." [BACK]

75. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8667, list 4.

76. Ibid., listy 167-72. "Protokol zasedaniia no. 14 ot 28-ogo iulia 1951 g."

77. Ibid., list 68. "Vypiska iz Protokola no. 33 Biuro SM RSFSR ot 27-ogo iulia 1951 g." [BACK]

75. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8667, list 4.

76. Ibid., listy 167-72. "Protokol zasedaniia no. 14 ot 28-ogo iulia 1951 g."

77. Ibid., list 68. "Vypiska iz Protokola no. 33 Biuro SM RSFSR ot 27-ogo iulia 1951 g." [BACK]

78. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8668.418-12, papka 2, list 71.

79. Ibid., list 75.

80. Ibid., list 76.

81. Ibid., list 77.

82. Ibid., listy 77-82.

83. Ibid., list 92.

84. Ibid., listy 93-94.

85. Ibid., list 95.

86. Ibid., listy 95-96. break

87. Ibid., list 96.

88. Ibid., list 97.

89. Ibid., listy 105-6.

90. Ibid., list 106.

91. Ibid., list 108.

92. Ibid., list 69.

93. Ibid., list 280. [BACK]

78. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8668.418-12, papka 2, list 71.

79. Ibid., list 75.

80. Ibid., list 76.

81. Ibid., list 77.

82. Ibid., listy 77-82.

83. Ibid., list 92.

84. Ibid., listy 93-94.

85. Ibid., list 95.

86. Ibid., listy 95-96. break

87. Ibid., list 96.

88. Ibid., list 97.

89. Ibid., listy 105-6.

90. Ibid., list 106.

91. Ibid., list 108.

92. Ibid., list 69.

93. Ibid., list 280. [BACK]

78. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8668.418-12, papka 2, list 71.

79. Ibid., list 75.

80. Ibid., list 76.

81. Ibid., list 77.

82. Ibid., listy 77-82.

83. Ibid., list 92.

84. Ibid., listy 93-94.

85. Ibid., list 95.

86. Ibid., listy 95-96. break

87. Ibid., list 96.

88. Ibid., list 97.

89. Ibid., listy 105-6.

90. Ibid., list 106.

91. Ibid., list 108.

92. Ibid., list 69.

93. Ibid., list 280. [BACK]

78. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8668.418-12, papka 2, list 71.

79. Ibid., list 75.

80. Ibid., list 76.

81. Ibid., list 77.

82. Ibid., listy 77-82.

83. Ibid., list 92.

84. Ibid., listy 93-94.

85. Ibid., list 95.

86. Ibid., listy 95-96. break

87. Ibid., list 96.

88. Ibid., list 97.

89. Ibid., listy 105-6.

90. Ibid., list 106.

91. Ibid., list 108.

92. Ibid., list 69.

93. Ibid., list 280. [BACK]

78. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8668.418-12, papka 2, list 71.

79. Ibid., list 75.

80. Ibid., list 76.

81. Ibid., list 77.

82. Ibid., listy 77-82.

83. Ibid., list 92.

84. Ibid., listy 93-94.

85. Ibid., list 95.

86. Ibid., listy 95-96. break

87. Ibid., list 96.

88. Ibid., list 97.

89. Ibid., listy 105-6.

90. Ibid., list 106.

91. Ibid., list 108.

92. Ibid., list 69.

93. Ibid., list 280. [BACK]

78. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8668.418-12, papka 2, list 71.

79. Ibid., list 75.

80. Ibid., list 76.

81. Ibid., list 77.

82. Ibid., listy 77-82.

83. Ibid., list 92.

84. Ibid., listy 93-94.

85. Ibid., list 95.

86. Ibid., listy 95-96. break

87. Ibid., list 96.

88. Ibid., list 97.

89. Ibid., listy 105-6.

90. Ibid., list 106.

91. Ibid., list 108.

92. Ibid., list 69.

93. Ibid., list 280. [BACK]

78. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8668.418-12, papka 2, list 71.

79. Ibid., list 75.

80. Ibid., list 76.

81. Ibid., list 77.

82. Ibid., listy 77-82.

83. Ibid., list 92.

84. Ibid., listy 93-94.

85. Ibid., list 95.

86. Ibid., listy 95-96. break

87. Ibid., list 96.

88. Ibid., list 97.

89. Ibid., listy 105-6.

90. Ibid., list 106.

91. Ibid., list 108.

92. Ibid., list 69.

93. Ibid., list 280. [BACK]

78. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8668.418-12, papka 2, list 71.

79. Ibid., list 75.

80. Ibid., list 76.

81. Ibid., list 77.

82. Ibid., listy 77-82.

83. Ibid., list 92.

84. Ibid., listy 93-94.

85. Ibid., list 95.

86. Ibid., listy 95-96. break

87. Ibid., list 96.

88. Ibid., list 97.

89. Ibid., listy 105-6.

90. Ibid., list 106.

91. Ibid., list 108.

92. Ibid., list 69.

93. Ibid., list 280. [BACK]

78. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8668.418-12, papka 2, list 71.

79. Ibid., list 75.

80. Ibid., list 76.

81. Ibid., list 77.

82. Ibid., listy 77-82.

83. Ibid., list 92.

84. Ibid., listy 93-94.

85. Ibid., list 95.

86. Ibid., listy 95-96. break

87. Ibid., list 96.

88. Ibid., list 97.

89. Ibid., listy 105-6.

90. Ibid., list 106.

91. Ibid., list 108.

92. Ibid., list 69.

93. Ibid., list 280. [BACK]

78. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8668.418-12, papka 2, list 71.

79. Ibid., list 75.

80. Ibid., list 76.

81. Ibid., list 77.

82. Ibid., listy 77-82.

83. Ibid., list 92.

84. Ibid., listy 93-94.

85. Ibid., list 95.

86. Ibid., listy 95-96. break

87. Ibid., list 96.

88. Ibid., list 97.

89. Ibid., listy 105-6.

90. Ibid., list 106.

91. Ibid., list 108.

92. Ibid., list 69.

93. Ibid., list 280. [BACK]

78. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8668.418-12, papka 2, list 71.

79. Ibid., list 75.

80. Ibid., list 76.

81. Ibid., list 77.

82. Ibid., listy 77-82.

83. Ibid., list 92.

84. Ibid., listy 93-94.

85. Ibid., list 95.

86. Ibid., listy 95-96. break

87. Ibid., list 96.

88. Ibid., list 97.

89. Ibid., listy 105-6.

90. Ibid., list 106.

91. Ibid., list 108.

92. Ibid., list 69.

93. Ibid., list 280. [BACK]

78. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8668.418-12, papka 2, list 71.

79. Ibid., list 75.

80. Ibid., list 76.

81. Ibid., list 77.

82. Ibid., listy 77-82.

83. Ibid., list 92.

84. Ibid., listy 93-94.

85. Ibid., list 95.

86. Ibid., listy 95-96. break

87. Ibid., list 96.

88. Ibid., list 97.

89. Ibid., listy 105-6.

90. Ibid., list 106.

91. Ibid., list 108.

92. Ibid., list 69.

93. Ibid., list 280. [BACK]

78. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8668.418-12, papka 2, list 71.

79. Ibid., list 75.

80. Ibid., list 76.

81. Ibid., list 77.

82. Ibid., listy 77-82.

83. Ibid., list 92.

84. Ibid., listy 93-94.

85. Ibid., list 95.

86. Ibid., listy 95-96. break

87. Ibid., list 96.

88. Ibid., list 97.

89. Ibid., listy 105-6.

90. Ibid., list 106.

91. Ibid., list 108.

92. Ibid., list 69.

93. Ibid., list 280. [BACK]

78. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8668.418-12, papka 2, list 71.

79. Ibid., list 75.

80. Ibid., list 76.

81. Ibid., list 77.

82. Ibid., listy 77-82.

83. Ibid., list 92.

84. Ibid., listy 93-94.

85. Ibid., list 95.

86. Ibid., listy 95-96. break

87. Ibid., list 96.

88. Ibid., list 97.

89. Ibid., listy 105-6.

90. Ibid., list 106.

91. Ibid., list 108.

92. Ibid., list 69.

93. Ibid., list 280. [BACK]

78. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8668.418-12, papka 2, list 71.

79. Ibid., list 75.

80. Ibid., list 76.

81. Ibid., list 77.

82. Ibid., listy 77-82.

83. Ibid., list 92.

84. Ibid., listy 93-94.

85. Ibid., list 95.

86. Ibid., listy 95-96. break

87. Ibid., list 96.

88. Ibid., list 97.

89. Ibid., listy 105-6.

90. Ibid., list 106.

91. Ibid., list 108.

92. Ibid., list 69.

93. Ibid., list 280. [BACK]

78. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8668.418-12, papka 2, list 71.

79. Ibid., list 75.

80. Ibid., list 76.

81. Ibid., list 77.

82. Ibid., listy 77-82.

83. Ibid., list 92.

84. Ibid., listy 93-94.

85. Ibid., list 95.

86. Ibid., listy 95-96. break

87. Ibid., list 96.

88. Ibid., list 97.

89. Ibid., listy 105-6.

90. Ibid., list 106.

91. Ibid., list 108.

92. Ibid., list 69.

93. Ibid., list 280. [BACK]

94. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 192, listy 271-73. S. Kuznetsov, "O sostoianii izdatel'skogo portfelia." Report to the Presidium of VOOP, from "Protokol no. 18 zasedaniia prezidiuma TsS VOOP ot 3-ego oktiabria 1951 g."

95. Ibid., listy 280-82.

96. Ibid., listy 282-84.

97. Ibid., list 65. "Vypiska iz Protokola no. 45 Biuro SM RSFSR ot 5-ogo sentiabria 1951 g." VOOP was the fifth item on the agenda for that day.

98. Ibid., list 66. TsK VKP(b) Malenkovu, G. M. ot Chernousova. No date. Carbon. It is not known whether this was sent, judging from the preserved document.

99. Ibid., listy 66-67.

100. Ibid., list 53. "Vypiska iz protokola no. 54 Biuro SM RSFSR."

101. Ibid., listy 54, 48. Memorandum of Kostoglodov to Safronov of October 18, 1951.

102. Ibid., list 46. "Vypiska iz protokola no. 58 ot 26-ogo oktiabria 1951 g." [BACK]

94. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 192, listy 271-73. S. Kuznetsov, "O sostoianii izdatel'skogo portfelia." Report to the Presidium of VOOP, from "Protokol no. 18 zasedaniia prezidiuma TsS VOOP ot 3-ego oktiabria 1951 g."

95. Ibid., listy 280-82.

96. Ibid., listy 282-84.

97. Ibid., list 65. "Vypiska iz Protokola no. 45 Biuro SM RSFSR ot 5-ogo sentiabria 1951 g." VOOP was the fifth item on the agenda for that day.

98. Ibid., list 66. TsK VKP(b) Malenkovu, G. M. ot Chernousova. No date. Carbon. It is not known whether this was sent, judging from the preserved document.

99. Ibid., listy 66-67.

100. Ibid., list 53. "Vypiska iz protokola no. 54 Biuro SM RSFSR."

101. Ibid., listy 54, 48. Memorandum of Kostoglodov to Safronov of October 18, 1951.

102. Ibid., list 46. "Vypiska iz protokola no. 58 ot 26-ogo oktiabria 1951 g." [BACK]

94. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 192, listy 271-73. S. Kuznetsov, "O sostoianii izdatel'skogo portfelia." Report to the Presidium of VOOP, from "Protokol no. 18 zasedaniia prezidiuma TsS VOOP ot 3-ego oktiabria 1951 g."

95. Ibid., listy 280-82.

96. Ibid., listy 282-84.

97. Ibid., list 65. "Vypiska iz Protokola no. 45 Biuro SM RSFSR ot 5-ogo sentiabria 1951 g." VOOP was the fifth item on the agenda for that day.

98. Ibid., list 66. TsK VKP(b) Malenkovu, G. M. ot Chernousova. No date. Carbon. It is not known whether this was sent, judging from the preserved document.

99. Ibid., listy 66-67.

100. Ibid., list 53. "Vypiska iz protokola no. 54 Biuro SM RSFSR."

101. Ibid., listy 54, 48. Memorandum of Kostoglodov to Safronov of October 18, 1951.

102. Ibid., list 46. "Vypiska iz protokola no. 58 ot 26-ogo oktiabria 1951 g." [BACK]

94. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 192, listy 271-73. S. Kuznetsov, "O sostoianii izdatel'skogo portfelia." Report to the Presidium of VOOP, from "Protokol no. 18 zasedaniia prezidiuma TsS VOOP ot 3-ego oktiabria 1951 g."

95. Ibid., listy 280-82.

96. Ibid., listy 282-84.

97. Ibid., list 65. "Vypiska iz Protokola no. 45 Biuro SM RSFSR ot 5-ogo sentiabria 1951 g." VOOP was the fifth item on the agenda for that day.

98. Ibid., list 66. TsK VKP(b) Malenkovu, G. M. ot Chernousova. No date. Carbon. It is not known whether this was sent, judging from the preserved document.

99. Ibid., listy 66-67.

100. Ibid., list 53. "Vypiska iz protokola no. 54 Biuro SM RSFSR."

101. Ibid., listy 54, 48. Memorandum of Kostoglodov to Safronov of October 18, 1951.

102. Ibid., list 46. "Vypiska iz protokola no. 58 ot 26-ogo oktiabria 1951 g." [BACK]

94. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 192, listy 271-73. S. Kuznetsov, "O sostoianii izdatel'skogo portfelia." Report to the Presidium of VOOP, from "Protokol no. 18 zasedaniia prezidiuma TsS VOOP ot 3-ego oktiabria 1951 g."

95. Ibid., listy 280-82.

96. Ibid., listy 282-84.

97. Ibid., list 65. "Vypiska iz Protokola no. 45 Biuro SM RSFSR ot 5-ogo sentiabria 1951 g." VOOP was the fifth item on the agenda for that day.

98. Ibid., list 66. TsK VKP(b) Malenkovu, G. M. ot Chernousova. No date. Carbon. It is not known whether this was sent, judging from the preserved document.

99. Ibid., listy 66-67.

100. Ibid., list 53. "Vypiska iz protokola no. 54 Biuro SM RSFSR."

101. Ibid., listy 54, 48. Memorandum of Kostoglodov to Safronov of October 18, 1951.

102. Ibid., list 46. "Vypiska iz protokola no. 58 ot 26-ogo oktiabria 1951 g." [BACK]

94. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 192, listy 271-73. S. Kuznetsov, "O sostoianii izdatel'skogo portfelia." Report to the Presidium of VOOP, from "Protokol no. 18 zasedaniia prezidiuma TsS VOOP ot 3-ego oktiabria 1951 g."

95. Ibid., listy 280-82.

96. Ibid., listy 282-84.

97. Ibid., list 65. "Vypiska iz Protokola no. 45 Biuro SM RSFSR ot 5-ogo sentiabria 1951 g." VOOP was the fifth item on the agenda for that day.

98. Ibid., list 66. TsK VKP(b) Malenkovu, G. M. ot Chernousova. No date. Carbon. It is not known whether this was sent, judging from the preserved document.

99. Ibid., listy 66-67.

100. Ibid., list 53. "Vypiska iz protokola no. 54 Biuro SM RSFSR."

101. Ibid., listy 54, 48. Memorandum of Kostoglodov to Safronov of October 18, 1951.

102. Ibid., list 46. "Vypiska iz protokola no. 58 ot 26-ogo oktiabria 1951 g." [BACK]

94. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 192, listy 271-73. S. Kuznetsov, "O sostoianii izdatel'skogo portfelia." Report to the Presidium of VOOP, from "Protokol no. 18 zasedaniia prezidiuma TsS VOOP ot 3-ego oktiabria 1951 g."

95. Ibid., listy 280-82.

96. Ibid., listy 282-84.

97. Ibid., list 65. "Vypiska iz Protokola no. 45 Biuro SM RSFSR ot 5-ogo sentiabria 1951 g." VOOP was the fifth item on the agenda for that day.

98. Ibid., list 66. TsK VKP(b) Malenkovu, G. M. ot Chernousova. No date. Carbon. It is not known whether this was sent, judging from the preserved document.

99. Ibid., listy 66-67.

100. Ibid., list 53. "Vypiska iz protokola no. 54 Biuro SM RSFSR."

101. Ibid., listy 54, 48. Memorandum of Kostoglodov to Safronov of October 18, 1951.

102. Ibid., list 46. "Vypiska iz protokola no. 58 ot 26-ogo oktiabria 1951 g." [BACK]

94. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 192, listy 271-73. S. Kuznetsov, "O sostoianii izdatel'skogo portfelia." Report to the Presidium of VOOP, from "Protokol no. 18 zasedaniia prezidiuma TsS VOOP ot 3-ego oktiabria 1951 g."

95. Ibid., listy 280-82.

96. Ibid., listy 282-84.

97. Ibid., list 65. "Vypiska iz Protokola no. 45 Biuro SM RSFSR ot 5-ogo sentiabria 1951 g." VOOP was the fifth item on the agenda for that day.

98. Ibid., list 66. TsK VKP(b) Malenkovu, G. M. ot Chernousova. No date. Carbon. It is not known whether this was sent, judging from the preserved document.

99. Ibid., listy 66-67.

100. Ibid., list 53. "Vypiska iz protokola no. 54 Biuro SM RSFSR."

101. Ibid., listy 54, 48. Memorandum of Kostoglodov to Safronov of October 18, 1951.

102. Ibid., list 46. "Vypiska iz protokola no. 58 ot 26-ogo oktiabria 1951 g." [BACK]

94. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 192, listy 271-73. S. Kuznetsov, "O sostoianii izdatel'skogo portfelia." Report to the Presidium of VOOP, from "Protokol no. 18 zasedaniia prezidiuma TsS VOOP ot 3-ego oktiabria 1951 g."

95. Ibid., listy 280-82.

96. Ibid., listy 282-84.

97. Ibid., list 65. "Vypiska iz Protokola no. 45 Biuro SM RSFSR ot 5-ogo sentiabria 1951 g." VOOP was the fifth item on the agenda for that day.

98. Ibid., list 66. TsK VKP(b) Malenkovu, G. M. ot Chernousova. No date. Carbon. It is not known whether this was sent, judging from the preserved document.

99. Ibid., listy 66-67.

100. Ibid., list 53. "Vypiska iz protokola no. 54 Biuro SM RSFSR."

101. Ibid., listy 54, 48. Memorandum of Kostoglodov to Safronov of October 18, 1951.

102. Ibid., list 46. "Vypiska iz protokola no. 58 ot 26-ogo oktiabria 1951 g." [BACK]

103. Postanovlenie no. 1359 SM RSFSR, October 31, 1951. "O nezakonnom i bezkhoziaistvennom raskhodovanii denezhnykh sredstv Vserossiiskim Obshchestvom Okhrany Prirody." [BACK]

104. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 192, list 292.

105. Ibid., listy 306-11.

106. Ibid.

107. Ibid.

108. Ibid., list 9.

109. Ibid., list 10.

110. Ibid.

111. Ibid.

112. Ibid., list 11.

113. Ibid.

114. Ibid., list 12.

115. Ibid., list 13. [BACK]

104. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 192, list 292.

105. Ibid., listy 306-11.

106. Ibid.

107. Ibid.

108. Ibid., list 9.

109. Ibid., list 10.

110. Ibid.

111. Ibid.

112. Ibid., list 11.

113. Ibid.

114. Ibid., list 12.

115. Ibid., list 13. [BACK]

104. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 192, list 292.

105. Ibid., listy 306-11.

106. Ibid.

107. Ibid.

108. Ibid., list 9.

109. Ibid., list 10.

110. Ibid.

111. Ibid.

112. Ibid., list 11.

113. Ibid.

114. Ibid., list 12.

115. Ibid., list 13. [BACK]

104. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 192, list 292.

105. Ibid., listy 306-11.

106. Ibid.

107. Ibid.

108. Ibid., list 9.

109. Ibid., list 10.

110. Ibid.

111. Ibid.

112. Ibid., list 11.

113. Ibid.

114. Ibid., list 12.

115. Ibid., list 13. [BACK]

104. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 192, list 292.

105. Ibid., listy 306-11.

106. Ibid.

107. Ibid.

108. Ibid., list 9.

109. Ibid., list 10.

110. Ibid.

111. Ibid.

112. Ibid., list 11.

113. Ibid.

114. Ibid., list 12.

115. Ibid., list 13. [BACK]

104. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 192, list 292.

105. Ibid., listy 306-11.

106. Ibid.

107. Ibid.

108. Ibid., list 9.

109. Ibid., list 10.

110. Ibid.

111. Ibid.

112. Ibid., list 11.

113. Ibid.

114. Ibid., list 12.

115. Ibid., list 13. [BACK]

104. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 192, list 292.

105. Ibid., listy 306-11.

106. Ibid.

107. Ibid.

108. Ibid., list 9.

109. Ibid., list 10.

110. Ibid.

111. Ibid.

112. Ibid., list 11.

113. Ibid.

114. Ibid., list 12.

115. Ibid., list 13. [BACK]

104. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 192, list 292.

105. Ibid., listy 306-11.

106. Ibid.

107. Ibid.

108. Ibid., list 9.

109. Ibid., list 10.

110. Ibid.

111. Ibid.

112. Ibid., list 11.

113. Ibid.

114. Ibid., list 12.

115. Ibid., list 13. [BACK]

104. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 192, list 292.

105. Ibid., listy 306-11.

106. Ibid.

107. Ibid.

108. Ibid., list 9.

109. Ibid., list 10.

110. Ibid.

111. Ibid.

112. Ibid., list 11.

113. Ibid.

114. Ibid., list 12.

115. Ibid., list 13. [BACK]

104. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 192, list 292.

105. Ibid., listy 306-11.

106. Ibid.

107. Ibid.

108. Ibid., list 9.

109. Ibid., list 10.

110. Ibid.

111. Ibid.

112. Ibid., list 11.

113. Ibid.

114. Ibid., list 12.

115. Ibid., list 13. [BACK]

104. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 192, list 292.

105. Ibid., listy 306-11.

106. Ibid.

107. Ibid.

108. Ibid., list 9.

109. Ibid., list 10.

110. Ibid.

111. Ibid.

112. Ibid., list 11.

113. Ibid.

114. Ibid., list 12.

115. Ibid., list 13. [BACK]

104. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 192, list 292.

105. Ibid., listy 306-11.

106. Ibid.

107. Ibid.

108. Ibid., list 9.

109. Ibid., list 10.

110. Ibid.

111. Ibid.

112. Ibid., list 11.

113. Ibid.

114. Ibid., list 12.

115. Ibid., list 13. [BACK]

Chapter Eight— Death and Purgatory

1. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 201a, listy 15-16. "Protokol no. 1 Tsentral'nogo soveta VOOP ot 24-ogo ianvaria 1952 g."

2. Ibid., list 18.

3. Ibid., list 20.

4. Ibid.

5. Ibid., listy 20-21.

6. Ibid., list 23. break

7. Ibid., list 24.

8. Ibid., list 25.

9. Ibid.

10. Ibid., listy 34-35. [BACK]

1. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 201a, listy 15-16. "Protokol no. 1 Tsentral'nogo soveta VOOP ot 24-ogo ianvaria 1952 g."

2. Ibid., list 18.

3. Ibid., list 20.

4. Ibid.

5. Ibid., listy 20-21.

6. Ibid., list 23. break

7. Ibid., list 24.

8. Ibid., list 25.

9. Ibid.

10. Ibid., listy 34-35. [BACK]

1. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 201a, listy 15-16. "Protokol no. 1 Tsentral'nogo soveta VOOP ot 24-ogo ianvaria 1952 g."

2. Ibid., list 18.

3. Ibid., list 20.

4. Ibid.

5. Ibid., listy 20-21.

6. Ibid., list 23. break

7. Ibid., list 24.

8. Ibid., list 25.

9. Ibid.

10. Ibid., listy 34-35. [BACK]

1. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 201a, listy 15-16. "Protokol no. 1 Tsentral'nogo soveta VOOP ot 24-ogo ianvaria 1952 g."

2. Ibid., list 18.

3. Ibid., list 20.

4. Ibid.

5. Ibid., listy 20-21.

6. Ibid., list 23. break

7. Ibid., list 24.

8. Ibid., list 25.

9. Ibid.

10. Ibid., listy 34-35. [BACK]

1. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 201a, listy 15-16. "Protokol no. 1 Tsentral'nogo soveta VOOP ot 24-ogo ianvaria 1952 g."

2. Ibid., list 18.

3. Ibid., list 20.

4. Ibid.

5. Ibid., listy 20-21.

6. Ibid., list 23. break

7. Ibid., list 24.

8. Ibid., list 25.

9. Ibid.

10. Ibid., listy 34-35. [BACK]

1. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 201a, listy 15-16. "Protokol no. 1 Tsentral'nogo soveta VOOP ot 24-ogo ianvaria 1952 g."

2. Ibid., list 18.

3. Ibid., list 20.

4. Ibid.

5. Ibid., listy 20-21.

6. Ibid., list 23. break

7. Ibid., list 24.

8. Ibid., list 25.

9. Ibid.

10. Ibid., listy 34-35. [BACK]

1. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 201a, listy 15-16. "Protokol no. 1 Tsentral'nogo soveta VOOP ot 24-ogo ianvaria 1952 g."

2. Ibid., list 18.

3. Ibid., list 20.

4. Ibid.

5. Ibid., listy 20-21.

6. Ibid., list 23. break

7. Ibid., list 24.

8. Ibid., list 25.

9. Ibid.

10. Ibid., listy 34-35. [BACK]

1. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 201a, listy 15-16. "Protokol no. 1 Tsentral'nogo soveta VOOP ot 24-ogo ianvaria 1952 g."

2. Ibid., list 18.

3. Ibid., list 20.

4. Ibid.

5. Ibid., listy 20-21.

6. Ibid., list 23. break

7. Ibid., list 24.

8. Ibid., list 25.

9. Ibid.

10. Ibid., listy 34-35. [BACK]

1. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 201a, listy 15-16. "Protokol no. 1 Tsentral'nogo soveta VOOP ot 24-ogo ianvaria 1952 g."

2. Ibid., list 18.

3. Ibid., list 20.

4. Ibid.

5. Ibid., listy 20-21.

6. Ibid., list 23. break

7. Ibid., list 24.

8. Ibid., list 25.

9. Ibid.

10. Ibid., listy 34-35. [BACK]

1. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 201a, listy 15-16. "Protokol no. 1 Tsentral'nogo soveta VOOP ot 24-ogo ianvaria 1952 g."

2. Ibid., list 18.

3. Ibid., list 20.

4. Ibid.

5. Ibid., listy 20-21.

6. Ibid., list 23. break

7. Ibid., list 24.

8. Ibid., list 25.

9. Ibid.

10. Ibid., listy 34-35. [BACK]

11. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 203, listy 23-24. [BACK]

12. TsGAf. 259, op. 6, d. 8668.418-12, papka 2, listy 3-6. Report of Koz'iakov to Bessonov, January 29, 1952. Quotation is from list 6. Koz'iakov relied for his figures on the resolution and accompanying report sent by VOOP following its Central Council meeting on January 24. See TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 203, listy 25-27. [BACK]

13. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8668.418-12, papka 2, list 6. [BACK]

14. RTsKhIDNI, f. 17, op. 138, d. 466, listy 1-3.

15. Ibid.

16. Ibid., list 4.

17. Ibid., list 8.

18. Ibid.

19. Ibid., listy 8-9.

20. Ibid., list 10.

21. Ibid., listy 11-19.

22. Ibid., listy 20. [BACK]

14. RTsKhIDNI, f. 17, op. 138, d. 466, listy 1-3.

15. Ibid.

16. Ibid., list 4.

17. Ibid., list 8.

18. Ibid.

19. Ibid., listy 8-9.

20. Ibid., list 10.

21. Ibid., listy 11-19.

22. Ibid., listy 20. [BACK]

14. RTsKhIDNI, f. 17, op. 138, d. 466, listy 1-3.

15. Ibid.

16. Ibid., list 4.

17. Ibid., list 8.

18. Ibid.

19. Ibid., listy 8-9.

20. Ibid., list 10.

21. Ibid., listy 11-19.

22. Ibid., listy 20. [BACK]

14. RTsKhIDNI, f. 17, op. 138, d. 466, listy 1-3.

15. Ibid.

16. Ibid., list 4.

17. Ibid., list 8.

18. Ibid.

19. Ibid., listy 8-9.

20. Ibid., list 10.

21. Ibid., listy 11-19.

22. Ibid., listy 20. [BACK]

14. RTsKhIDNI, f. 17, op. 138, d. 466, listy 1-3.

15. Ibid.

16. Ibid., list 4.

17. Ibid., list 8.

18. Ibid.

19. Ibid., listy 8-9.

20. Ibid., list 10.

21. Ibid., listy 11-19.

22. Ibid., listy 20. [BACK]

14. RTsKhIDNI, f. 17, op. 138, d. 466, listy 1-3.

15. Ibid.

16. Ibid., list 4.

17. Ibid., list 8.

18. Ibid.

19. Ibid., listy 8-9.

20. Ibid., list 10.

21. Ibid., listy 11-19.

22. Ibid., listy 20. [BACK]

14. RTsKhIDNI, f. 17, op. 138, d. 466, listy 1-3.

15. Ibid.

16. Ibid., list 4.

17. Ibid., list 8.

18. Ibid.

19. Ibid., listy 8-9.

20. Ibid., list 10.

21. Ibid., listy 11-19.

22. Ibid., listy 20. [BACK]

14. RTsKhIDNI, f. 17, op. 138, d. 466, listy 1-3.

15. Ibid.

16. Ibid., list 4.

17. Ibid., list 8.

18. Ibid.

19. Ibid., listy 8-9.

20. Ibid., list 10.

21. Ibid., listy 11-19.

22. Ibid., listy 20. [BACK]

14. RTsKhIDNI, f. 17, op. 138, d. 466, listy 1-3.

15. Ibid.

16. Ibid., list 4.

17. Ibid., list 8.

18. Ibid.

19. Ibid., listy 8-9.

20. Ibid., list 10.

21. Ibid., listy 11-19.

22. Ibid., listy 20. [BACK]

23. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 201, list 91.

24. Ibid., list 83.

25. Ibid.

26. Ibid., list 96. "Vypiska iz protokola no. 10 ot 1-ogo iulia 1952 g. [BACK]

23. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 201, list 91.

24. Ibid., list 83.

25. Ibid.

26. Ibid., list 96. "Vypiska iz protokola no. 10 ot 1-ogo iulia 1952 g. [BACK]

23. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 201, list 91.

24. Ibid., list 83.

25. Ibid.

26. Ibid., list 96. "Vypiska iz protokola no. 10 ot 1-ogo iulia 1952 g. [BACK]

23. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 201, list 91.

24. Ibid., list 83.

25. Ibid.

26. Ibid., list 96. "Vypiska iz protokola no. 10 ot 1-ogo iulia 1952 g. [BACK]

27. TsGAf. 259, op. 6, d. 8668.418-12, papka 2, listy 106-7. Memo of Koz'iakov to A. M. Safronov of June 20, 1952.

28. Ibid., list 106.

29. Ibid., list 107. [BACK]

27. TsGAf. 259, op. 6, d. 8668.418-12, papka 2, listy 106-7. Memo of Koz'iakov to A. M. Safronov of June 20, 1952.

28. Ibid., list 106.

29. Ibid., list 107. [BACK]

27. TsGAf. 259, op. 6, d. 8668.418-12, papka 2, listy 106-7. Memo of Koz'iakov to A. M. Safronov of June 20, 1952.

28. Ibid., list 106.

29. Ibid., list 107. [BACK]

30. TsGA f. 259, op. 7, d. 1894, list 7. [BACK]

31. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 204, list 67.

32. Ibid., list 62. For detailed branch-by-branch assessments, see RGAE f. 3, op. 1, d. 147, listy 91-111 "Spravka o rezul'tatakh obsledovaniia Vserossiiskogo Obshchestva okhrany prirody."

33. Ibid., list 63. See also TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 204, listy 26-45. "Spravka o rezul'tatakh obsledovaniia VOOP." This is the full report.

34. Ibid., listy 63-66.

35. Ibid., listy 47-50.

36. Ibid., list 50. [BACK]

31. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 204, list 67.

32. Ibid., list 62. For detailed branch-by-branch assessments, see RGAE f. 3, op. 1, d. 147, listy 91-111 "Spravka o rezul'tatakh obsledovaniia Vserossiiskogo Obshchestva okhrany prirody."

33. Ibid., list 63. See also TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 204, listy 26-45. "Spravka o rezul'tatakh obsledovaniia VOOP." This is the full report.

34. Ibid., listy 63-66.

35. Ibid., listy 47-50.

36. Ibid., list 50. [BACK]

31. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 204, list 67.

32. Ibid., list 62. For detailed branch-by-branch assessments, see RGAE f. 3, op. 1, d. 147, listy 91-111 "Spravka o rezul'tatakh obsledovaniia Vserossiiskogo Obshchestva okhrany prirody."

33. Ibid., list 63. See also TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 204, listy 26-45. "Spravka o rezul'tatakh obsledovaniia VOOP." This is the full report.

34. Ibid., listy 63-66.

35. Ibid., listy 47-50.

36. Ibid., list 50. [BACK]

31. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 204, list 67.

32. Ibid., list 62. For detailed branch-by-branch assessments, see RGAE f. 3, op. 1, d. 147, listy 91-111 "Spravka o rezul'tatakh obsledovaniia Vserossiiskogo Obshchestva okhrany prirody."

33. Ibid., list 63. See also TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 204, listy 26-45. "Spravka o rezul'tatakh obsledovaniia VOOP." This is the full report.

34. Ibid., listy 63-66.

35. Ibid., listy 47-50.

36. Ibid., list 50. [BACK]

31. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 204, list 67.

32. Ibid., list 62. For detailed branch-by-branch assessments, see RGAE f. 3, op. 1, d. 147, listy 91-111 "Spravka o rezul'tatakh obsledovaniia Vserossiiskogo Obshchestva okhrany prirody."

33. Ibid., list 63. See also TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 204, listy 26-45. "Spravka o rezul'tatakh obsledovaniia VOOP." This is the full report.

34. Ibid., listy 63-66.

35. Ibid., listy 47-50.

36. Ibid., list 50. [BACK]

31. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 204, list 67.

32. Ibid., list 62. For detailed branch-by-branch assessments, see RGAE f. 3, op. 1, d. 147, listy 91-111 "Spravka o rezul'tatakh obsledovaniia Vserossiiskogo Obshchestva okhrany prirody."

33. Ibid., list 63. See also TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 204, listy 26-45. "Spravka o rezul'tatakh obsledovaniia VOOP." This is the full report.

34. Ibid., listy 63-66.

35. Ibid., listy 47-50.

36. Ibid., list 50. [BACK]

37. TsGA f. 259, op. 42, d. 8530, list 17. Letter of D. Korolëv, deputy minister of trade of the RSFSR, to the RSFSR Council of Ministers, September 17, 1952. [BACK]

38. TsGA f. 259, op. 7, d. 1894.074-63, papka 1, list 30.

39. Ibid., and TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 201, listy 108-9. [BACK]

38. TsGA f. 259, op. 7, d. 1894.074-63, papka 1, list 30.

39. Ibid., and TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 201, listy 108-9. [BACK]

40. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 201, list 110.

41. Ibid.

42. Ibid., list 112.

43. Ibid., list 114. See remarks of Krivoshapov.

44. Ibid., list 111. break

45. Ibid., list 115.

46. Ibid.

47. Ibid., list 17.

48. Ibid., list 119. In her speech she apparently used the word unichtozhena (destroyed). However, the stenogram was later corrected to read sokrashchena (reduced in size, truncated).

49. Ibid.

50. Ibid., list 121. [BACK]

40. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 201, list 110.

41. Ibid.

42. Ibid., list 112.

43. Ibid., list 114. See remarks of Krivoshapov.

44. Ibid., list 111. break

45. Ibid., list 115.

46. Ibid.

47. Ibid., list 17.

48. Ibid., list 119. In her speech she apparently used the word unichtozhena (destroyed). However, the stenogram was later corrected to read sokrashchena (reduced in size, truncated).

49. Ibid.

50. Ibid., list 121. [BACK]

40. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 201, list 110.

41. Ibid.

42. Ibid., list 112.

43. Ibid., list 114. See remarks of Krivoshapov.

44. Ibid., list 111. break

45. Ibid., list 115.

46. Ibid.

47. Ibid., list 17.

48. Ibid., list 119. In her speech she apparently used the word unichtozhena (destroyed). However, the stenogram was later corrected to read sokrashchena (reduced in size, truncated).

49. Ibid.

50. Ibid., list 121. [BACK]

40. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 201, list 110.

41. Ibid.

42. Ibid., list 112.

43. Ibid., list 114. See remarks of Krivoshapov.

44. Ibid., list 111. break

45. Ibid., list 115.

46. Ibid.

47. Ibid., list 17.

48. Ibid., list 119. In her speech she apparently used the word unichtozhena (destroyed). However, the stenogram was later corrected to read sokrashchena (reduced in size, truncated).

49. Ibid.

50. Ibid., list 121. [BACK]

40. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 201, list 110.

41. Ibid.

42. Ibid., list 112.

43. Ibid., list 114. See remarks of Krivoshapov.

44. Ibid., list 111. break

45. Ibid., list 115.

46. Ibid.

47. Ibid., list 17.

48. Ibid., list 119. In her speech she apparently used the word unichtozhena (destroyed). However, the stenogram was later corrected to read sokrashchena (reduced in size, truncated).

49. Ibid.

50. Ibid., list 121. [BACK]

40. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 201, list 110.

41. Ibid.

42. Ibid., list 112.

43. Ibid., list 114. See remarks of Krivoshapov.

44. Ibid., list 111. break

45. Ibid., list 115.

46. Ibid.

47. Ibid., list 17.

48. Ibid., list 119. In her speech she apparently used the word unichtozhena (destroyed). However, the stenogram was later corrected to read sokrashchena (reduced in size, truncated).

49. Ibid.

50. Ibid., list 121. [BACK]

40. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 201, list 110.

41. Ibid.

42. Ibid., list 112.

43. Ibid., list 114. See remarks of Krivoshapov.

44. Ibid., list 111. break

45. Ibid., list 115.

46. Ibid.

47. Ibid., list 17.

48. Ibid., list 119. In her speech she apparently used the word unichtozhena (destroyed). However, the stenogram was later corrected to read sokrashchena (reduced in size, truncated).

49. Ibid.

50. Ibid., list 121. [BACK]

40. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 201, list 110.

41. Ibid.

42. Ibid., list 112.

43. Ibid., list 114. See remarks of Krivoshapov.

44. Ibid., list 111. break

45. Ibid., list 115.

46. Ibid.

47. Ibid., list 17.

48. Ibid., list 119. In her speech she apparently used the word unichtozhena (destroyed). However, the stenogram was later corrected to read sokrashchena (reduced in size, truncated).

49. Ibid.

50. Ibid., list 121. [BACK]

40. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 201, list 110.

41. Ibid.

42. Ibid., list 112.

43. Ibid., list 114. See remarks of Krivoshapov.

44. Ibid., list 111. break

45. Ibid., list 115.

46. Ibid.

47. Ibid., list 17.

48. Ibid., list 119. In her speech she apparently used the word unichtozhena (destroyed). However, the stenogram was later corrected to read sokrashchena (reduced in size, truncated).

49. Ibid.

50. Ibid., list 121. [BACK]

40. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 201, list 110.

41. Ibid.

42. Ibid., list 112.

43. Ibid., list 114. See remarks of Krivoshapov.

44. Ibid., list 111. break

45. Ibid., list 115.

46. Ibid.

47. Ibid., list 17.

48. Ibid., list 119. In her speech she apparently used the word unichtozhena (destroyed). However, the stenogram was later corrected to read sokrashchena (reduced in size, truncated).

49. Ibid.

50. Ibid., list 121. [BACK]

40. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 201, list 110.

41. Ibid.

42. Ibid., list 112.

43. Ibid., list 114. See remarks of Krivoshapov.

44. Ibid., list 111. break

45. Ibid., list 115.

46. Ibid.

47. Ibid., list 17.

48. Ibid., list 119. In her speech she apparently used the word unichtozhena (destroyed). However, the stenogram was later corrected to read sokrashchena (reduced in size, truncated).

49. Ibid.

50. Ibid., list 121. [BACK]

51. TsGA f. 259, op. 7, d. 1894, listy 22-25. "Spravka G. A. Avetisiana po povodu zaiavleniia S. V. Kuznetsova," (to RSFSR Council of Ministers), January 5, 1953. [BACK]

52. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 201, list 121. [BACK]

53. Chernousov's daughter, Galina Borisovna Chernousova, kindly spoke with me about her father in Moscow onJune 4, 1996. After his abrupt dismissal, she related, he was clearly worried that he would be arrested. He remained uncomfortably without an alternative appointment until February 8, 1953. [BACK]

54. TsGA f. 259, op. 7 , d. 1894.074-63, papka 1, listy 28-29. Memo of Koz'iakov to Maslov, December 20, 1952. A letter of Lebedev to Koz'iakov, c. November 1952, also contains a good deal of information about the history of the Green Plantings Society. His evaluation was that the death of its first chair, academician N. A. Maksimovich, was fatal to the organization. See also list 130. [BACK]

55. TsGA f. 259, op. 7, d. 1895, listy 98-100. Memo of V. Maslov to A. M. Puzanov, January 29, 1953. [BACK]

56. TsGA f. 259, op. 7, d. 1894.074-63, papka 11, listy 28-29. [BACK]

57. TsGA f. 259, op. 7, d. 1895, listy 98-100. Memo of V. Maslov to A. M. Puzanov, January 29, 1953.

58. Ibid., list 64. "Vypiska iz Protokola no. 23 zasedaniia Biuro SM RSFSR ot 4-ogo marta 1953 g." [BACK]

57. TsGA f. 259, op. 7, d. 1895, listy 98-100. Memo of V. Maslov to A. M. Puzanov, January 29, 1953.

58. Ibid., list 64. "Vypiska iz Protokola no. 23 zasedaniia Biuro SM RSFSR ot 4-ogo marta 1953 g." [BACK]

59. TsGA f. 259, op. 7, d. 1894, listy 16-17. His list included Iosif Ivanovich Chadroshvili, deputy head of the Main Administration for Shelter Belts of the USSR Council of Ministers and head of the Forest Protection Section of VOOP; Pëtr Aleksandrovich Manteifel'; Pavel Stepanovich Melekhov, head of the USSR Ministry of Forestry's Section of Forests of Special Importance; Vasilii Vasil'evich Gusev, deputy minister of municipal services of the RSFSR; Aleksandr Vasil'evich Mel'nikov, deputy minister of forestry of the RSFSR; Ivan Fëdorovich Lotsmanov, deputy chair of the Moscow Soviet; and Aleksandr Nikolaevich Volkov, head of the Oblast' Station for the Protection of Green Plantings. [BACK]

60. See the letter to A. M. Puzanov from Avetisian, Varsonof'eva, Geptner, Protopopov, Krivoshapov, Chernenko, and Chaianov of November 13, 1952. TsGA f. 259, op. 7, d. 1894, papka 1, listy 13-14. See also "Dokladnaia zapiska tovarishchu A. M. Puzanovu" of November 12, 1952, TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 204, listy 85-87. [BACK]

61. TsGA f. 259, op. 7, d. 1895, list 61. Note from Maslov to the Sel'sko-khoziaistvennyi otdel, TsK KPSS (Agricultural Department of the Central Committee), of April 30, 1953. [BACK]

62. TsGA f. 259, op. 7, d. 1894, listy 31-36. See esp. listy 31-32.

63. Ibid. listy 35-36. [BACK]

62. TsGA f. 259, op. 7, d. 1894, listy 31-36. See esp. listy 31-32.

63. Ibid. listy 35-36. [BACK]

64. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 212, listy 13-14. "Tov. V. A. Maslovu ot G. Avetisiana, July 17, 1953." break [BACK]

65. TsGA f. 259, op. 7, d. 1894, listy 74-75. Memorandum of March 27, 1953 from V. Gusev, deputy minister of municipal services of the RSFSR to V. A. Maslov. Maslov asked Gusev to canvass a set of oblasts about the merger of the two societies. Of fifteen oblast' leaderships surveyed, all but one thought the merger should be approved. However, the oblast' leaders were split on the question of allowing the new voluntary society to maintain a permanent staff. [BACK]

66. TsGA f. 259, op. 7, d. 1895, listy 96-97. [BACK]

67. TsGA f. 259, op. 7, d. 1894.074-63, papka 1, list 103. [BACK]

68. TsGA f. 259, op. 7, d. 1895, listy 43-44. "V. Galitskii Vasiliiu Maksimovichu Shakhanovu, nachal'niku sel'sko-khoziaistvennogo otdela pri SM RSFSR, August 25, 1953." The Krokodil piece, titled "O pchëlakh i osakh," was by K. Eliseev. How best to rebut the claims of this piece was the chief subject of VOOP presidium meeting of February 20, 1953. See TsGA 404, op. 1, d. 211, listy 7-17. The denunciation of Avetisian as an anti-Lysenkoist appeared in Za sotsialisticheskoe zemledelie for October 1948. [BACK]

69. TsGA f. 259, op. 7, d. 1895, list 11. "Vypiska iz Protokola no. 68 Biuro SM RSFSR ot 15-ogo iulia 1953 g." [BACK]

70. TsGA f. 259, op. 7, d. 1895.074-63, papka 2, list 1. "Ob ob"edinenii VOOP i Vserossiiskogo obshchestva sodeistviia stroitel'stvu i okhrane gorodskikh zelenykh nasazhdenii bo Vserossiiskoe obshchestvo sodeistviia okhrane prirody i ozeleneniia naselennykh punktov." The organizational bureau of the new society was given two months to devise a charter and was permitted to call a congress for December 1953 to elect permanent officers. Avetisian's note of September 4, 1953 may be found at TsGA f. 44, op. 1, d. 212, list 16. [BACK]

71. TsGA f. 44, op. 1, d. 211, listy 8-10.

72. Ibid., list 39. "Vypiska iz Protokola no. 6 zasedaniia prezidiuma VOOP ot 2-ogo iunia 1953 g."

73. Ibid., list 49. "Vypiska iz Protokola no. 8 ot 15-ogo sentiabria 1953 g." [BACK]

71. TsGA f. 44, op. 1, d. 211, listy 8-10.

72. Ibid., list 39. "Vypiska iz Protokola no. 6 zasedaniia prezidiuma VOOP ot 2-ogo iunia 1953 g."

73. Ibid., list 49. "Vypiska iz Protokola no. 8 ot 15-ogo sentiabria 1953 g." [BACK]

71. TsGA f. 44, op. 1, d. 211, listy 8-10.

72. Ibid., list 39. "Vypiska iz Protokola no. 6 zasedaniia prezidiuma VOOP ot 2-ogo iunia 1953 g."

73. Ibid., list 49. "Vypiska iz Protokola no. 8 ot 15-ogo sentiabria 1953 g." [BACK]

74. RGAE f. 3, op. 1, d. 335, listy 40-43. Letter of June 30, 1953 from Susanna N. Fridman to Vera A. Varsonof'eva. (list 40 rev.)

75. Ibid., listy 41 rev., 42. [BACK]

74. RGAE f. 3, op. 1, d. 335, listy 40-43. Letter of June 30, 1953 from Susanna N. Fridman to Vera A. Varsonof'eva. (list 40 rev.)

75. Ibid., listy 41 rev., 42. [BACK]

76. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 212, listy 17-18. Letter from Avetisian to Maslov of October 12, 1953. The other members were: V. A. Varsonof'eva, V. I. Ivanov, I. S. Krivoshapov, G. P. Motovilov, F. N. Petrov, V. V. Prokof'ev, A. P. Protopopov, and I. O. Chernenko.

77. Ibid., listy 19-19 rev. Letter of G. I. Lebedev to the Presidium of the Organizing Committee of the All-Russian Society for the Promotion of the Protection of Nature and the Greening of Population Centers, November 19, 1953. [BACK]

76. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 212, listy 17-18. Letter from Avetisian to Maslov of October 12, 1953. The other members were: V. A. Varsonof'eva, V. I. Ivanov, I. S. Krivoshapov, G. P. Motovilov, F. N. Petrov, V. V. Prokof'ev, A. P. Protopopov, and I. O. Chernenko.

77. Ibid., listy 19-19 rev. Letter of G. I. Lebedev to the Presidium of the Organizing Committee of the All-Russian Society for the Promotion of the Protection of Nature and the Greening of Population Centers, November 19, 1953. [BACK]

78. On the official lawsuit brought against Galitskii by the new Presidium, see TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 215, listy 22-40. [BACK]

Chapter Nine— VOOP after Stalin: Survival and Decay

1. See RGAE f. 3, op. 1, d. 148, list) 43-44. "Poiasnenie k prikazu t. Avetisiana no. 34 ot 16.X.54 g.," a letter by I. Chernenko of October 21, 1954 to the Organizing Committee of VOOP announcing his resignation as scholarly secretary in protest continue

against Avetisian's overly authoritarian governance of the Society. In a letter of August 5, 1954 from Susanna N. Fridman to Vera A. Varsonof'eva, Fridman described Avetisian as a "typical speculator using science to make his career" ( tipichnyi spekuliant ot nauki ). See RGAE f. 3, op. 1, d. 335, list 53 rev. [BACK]

2. See TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 226, list 9. "Protokol no. 1 zasedaniia Orgkomiteta ot 20-ogo iunia 1955 g."

3. Ibid., list 11. [BACK]

2. See TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 226, list 9. "Protokol no. 1 zasedaniia Orgkomiteta ot 20-ogo iunia 1955 g."

3. Ibid., list 11. [BACK]

4. RGAE f. 3, op. 1, d. 148, listy 82-83.

5. Ibid., list 83. I have been unable to locate the personal papers of Susanna Fridman or any trace of the history that she had been working on. [BACK]

4. RGAE f. 3, op. 1, d. 148, listy 82-83.

5. Ibid., list 83. I have been unable to locate the personal papers of Susanna Fridman or any trace of the history that she had been working on. [BACK]

6. Materialy Pervogo , 5-6.

7. Ibid., 82.

8. Ibid., 82-83. [BACK]

6. Materialy Pervogo , 5-6.

7. Ibid., 82.

8. Ibid., 82-83. [BACK]

6. Materialy Pervogo , 5-6.

7. Ibid., 82.

8. Ibid., 82-83. [BACK]

9. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 253, list 88. [BACK]

10. See Matenialy Pervogo , 89-91, for a list of those elected to the Central Council. [BACK]

11. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 229, listy 1-5. "Protokol no. 1 zasedaniia Ts. Soveta ot 19 avgusta 1955 g." [BACK]

12. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 253, listy 281-96. Letter of Lakoshchënkov to V. M. Molotov, February 6, 1957. [BACK]

13. Profiting from official or state-chartered positions, although technically illegal, was tolerated as a bureaucratic perquisite. [BACK]

14. Iukhno, of course, asked all the foresters of the reserve to keep silent. The Moscow oblast' prokuror (prosecutor) was ready to jail Iukhno, but he was saved by Eliseev, who named him director of the Astrakhanskii zapovednik , far outside the jurisdiction of the Moscow oblast' justice machinery. Iukhno then proceeded to cause a scandal in Astrakhan', and Eliseev named him acting director of the Barguzinskii zapovednik on Lake Baikal, where he was supposed to wage a war against poaching. However, he was stashing the confiscated pelts in a trunk and was ultimately caught at it. Eliseev then appointed him the main hunting inspector of Ul'ianovskaia oblast' . There, Iukhno made a poster showing animals that could be hunted in season. Unfortunately, he included the marmot, which was protected. This blunder motivated A. N. Formozov to write a satirical piece in the Litmerturnaia gazeta "Gosokhotinspektor—brakoner" (The State Hunting Inspector Is a—Poacher!). Per interview with M. A. Zablotskii, Prioksko-Terrasnyi zapovednik , April 20, 1991. [BACK]

15. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 253, listy 289, 292 .

16. Ibid., list 278.

17. Ibid., list 292.

18. Ibid., list 281.

19. Ibid., list 259.

20. Ibid., listy 274-78. F. K. Alëkhin also added his signature to the letter, although it was written by Lakoshchënkov.

21. Ibid., list 274-75.

22. Ibid., list 276.

23. Ibid., list 133. [BACK]

15. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 253, listy 289, 292 .

16. Ibid., list 278.

17. Ibid., list 292.

18. Ibid., list 281.

19. Ibid., list 259.

20. Ibid., listy 274-78. F. K. Alëkhin also added his signature to the letter, although it was written by Lakoshchënkov.

21. Ibid., list 274-75.

22. Ibid., list 276.

23. Ibid., list 133. [BACK]

15. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 253, listy 289, 292 .

16. Ibid., list 278.

17. Ibid., list 292.

18. Ibid., list 281.

19. Ibid., list 259.

20. Ibid., listy 274-78. F. K. Alëkhin also added his signature to the letter, although it was written by Lakoshchënkov.

21. Ibid., list 274-75.

22. Ibid., list 276.

23. Ibid., list 133. [BACK]

15. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 253, listy 289, 292 .

16. Ibid., list 278.

17. Ibid., list 292.

18. Ibid., list 281.

19. Ibid., list 259.

20. Ibid., listy 274-78. F. K. Alëkhin also added his signature to the letter, although it was written by Lakoshchënkov.

21. Ibid., list 274-75.

22. Ibid., list 276.

23. Ibid., list 133. [BACK]

15. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 253, listy 289, 292 .

16. Ibid., list 278.

17. Ibid., list 292.

18. Ibid., list 281.

19. Ibid., list 259.

20. Ibid., listy 274-78. F. K. Alëkhin also added his signature to the letter, although it was written by Lakoshchënkov.

21. Ibid., list 274-75.

22. Ibid., list 276.

23. Ibid., list 133. [BACK]

15. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 253, listy 289, 292 .

16. Ibid., list 278.

17. Ibid., list 292.

18. Ibid., list 281.

19. Ibid., list 259.

20. Ibid., listy 274-78. F. K. Alëkhin also added his signature to the letter, although it was written by Lakoshchënkov.

21. Ibid., list 274-75.

22. Ibid., list 276.

23. Ibid., list 133. [BACK]

15. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 253, listy 289, 292 .

16. Ibid., list 278.

17. Ibid., list 292.

18. Ibid., list 281.

19. Ibid., list 259.

20. Ibid., listy 274-78. F. K. Alëkhin also added his signature to the letter, although it was written by Lakoshchënkov.

21. Ibid., list 274-75.

22. Ibid., list 276.

23. Ibid., list 133. [BACK]

15. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 253, listy 289, 292 .

16. Ibid., list 278.

17. Ibid., list 292.

18. Ibid., list 281.

19. Ibid., list 259.

20. Ibid., listy 274-78. F. K. Alëkhin also added his signature to the letter, although it was written by Lakoshchënkov.

21. Ibid., list 274-75.

22. Ibid., list 276.

23. Ibid., list 133. [BACK]

15. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 253, listy 289, 292 .

16. Ibid., list 278.

17. Ibid., list 292.

18. Ibid., list 281.

19. Ibid., list 259.

20. Ibid., listy 274-78. F. K. Alëkhin also added his signature to the letter, although it was written by Lakoshchënkov.

21. Ibid., list 274-75.

22. Ibid., list 276.

23. Ibid., list 133. [BACK]

24. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 237, list 208. break [BACK]

25. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 227, list 15. [BACK]

26. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 252, list 112. [BACK]

27. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 253, list 135. [BACK]

28. RGAE f. 3, op. 1, d. 335, list 80. Letter from Fridman to Varsonof'eva, no date (late 1958).

29. Ibid., listy 80 rev., 81. [BACK]

28. RGAE f. 3, op. 1, d. 335, list 80. Letter from Fridman to Varsonof'eva, no date (late 1958).

29. Ibid., listy 80 rev., 81. [BACK]

30. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 277, listy 27-28. [BACK]

31. TsGA 404, op. 1, d. 281, listy 1-4. A similar request was repeated on August 4, 1959, in a letter from Vice President V. Nikitin to chairman of the RSFSR Supreme Soviet N. N. Organov. Organov asked Ageev of the RSFSR Council of Ministers staff to discuss the matter with a representative of the Central Committee's Bureau for the RSFSR, Semënov, who finally responded that the Central Committee would not support the request because the Academy of Sciences' Commission on Nature Protection was already representing the Soviet Union in the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Although the Central Committee may have been reluctant to pay out an additional $250 in membership dues for VOOP, another important reason is that the Party was probably wary of having more than one institution represent the Soviet Union's position, which was supposed to be unitary, in the international organization. See TsGA f. 259, op. 42, d. 3823, listy 11-15. (Two documents entitled ''Spravka.") [BACK]

32. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 274, list 26.

33. Ibid., list 13. [BACK]

32. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 274, list 26.

33. Ibid., list 13. [BACK]

34. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 252, listy 245-48, for example. [BACK]

35. VOOP, Materialy vtorogo , 11-12. Outgoing president Motovilov admitted that the Presidium was tardy in preparing for the Congress, which should have taken place in 1958. As of December 1, 1959, membership within the sixty-seven branches consisted of 355,000 adults and 561,000 members in youth sections. There were 4,362 organizations that had joined as "juridical members," thereby committing all their employees to VOOP membership.

36. Ibid., 30.

37. Ibid., 32.

38. Ibid., 38-39.

39. Ibid., 49.

40. Ibid., 59. The original draft of her talk is in RGAE f. 3, op. 1, d. 24, listy 74-82. [BACK]

35. VOOP, Materialy vtorogo , 11-12. Outgoing president Motovilov admitted that the Presidium was tardy in preparing for the Congress, which should have taken place in 1958. As of December 1, 1959, membership within the sixty-seven branches consisted of 355,000 adults and 561,000 members in youth sections. There were 4,362 organizations that had joined as "juridical members," thereby committing all their employees to VOOP membership.

36. Ibid., 30.

37. Ibid., 32.

38. Ibid., 38-39.

39. Ibid., 49.

40. Ibid., 59. The original draft of her talk is in RGAE f. 3, op. 1, d. 24, listy 74-82. [BACK]

35. VOOP, Materialy vtorogo , 11-12. Outgoing president Motovilov admitted that the Presidium was tardy in preparing for the Congress, which should have taken place in 1958. As of December 1, 1959, membership within the sixty-seven branches consisted of 355,000 adults and 561,000 members in youth sections. There were 4,362 organizations that had joined as "juridical members," thereby committing all their employees to VOOP membership.

36. Ibid., 30.

37. Ibid., 32.

38. Ibid., 38-39.

39. Ibid., 49.

40. Ibid., 59. The original draft of her talk is in RGAE f. 3, op. 1, d. 24, listy 74-82. [BACK]

35. VOOP, Materialy vtorogo , 11-12. Outgoing president Motovilov admitted that the Presidium was tardy in preparing for the Congress, which should have taken place in 1958. As of December 1, 1959, membership within the sixty-seven branches consisted of 355,000 adults and 561,000 members in youth sections. There were 4,362 organizations that had joined as "juridical members," thereby committing all their employees to VOOP membership.

36. Ibid., 30.

37. Ibid., 32.

38. Ibid., 38-39.

39. Ibid., 49.

40. Ibid., 59. The original draft of her talk is in RGAE f. 3, op. 1, d. 24, listy 74-82. [BACK]

35. VOOP, Materialy vtorogo , 11-12. Outgoing president Motovilov admitted that the Presidium was tardy in preparing for the Congress, which should have taken place in 1958. As of December 1, 1959, membership within the sixty-seven branches consisted of 355,000 adults and 561,000 members in youth sections. There were 4,362 organizations that had joined as "juridical members," thereby committing all their employees to VOOP membership.

36. Ibid., 30.

37. Ibid., 32.

38. Ibid., 38-39.

39. Ibid., 49.

40. Ibid., 59. The original draft of her talk is in RGAE f. 3, op. 1, d. 24, listy 74-82. [BACK]

35. VOOP, Materialy vtorogo , 11-12. Outgoing president Motovilov admitted that the Presidium was tardy in preparing for the Congress, which should have taken place in 1958. As of December 1, 1959, membership within the sixty-seven branches consisted of 355,000 adults and 561,000 members in youth sections. There were 4,362 organizations that had joined as "juridical members," thereby committing all their employees to VOOP membership.

36. Ibid., 30.

37. Ibid., 32.

38. Ibid., 38-39.

39. Ibid., 49.

40. Ibid., 59. The original draft of her talk is in RGAE f. 3, op. 1, d. 24, listy 74-82. [BACK]

41. VOOP, Materialy vtorogo , 60.

42. Ibid.

43. Ibid., 71

44. Ibid., 82.

45. Ibid., 82-83.

46. Ibid., 63-66, 78-79, 85. [BACK]

41. VOOP, Materialy vtorogo , 60.

42. Ibid.

43. Ibid., 71

44. Ibid., 82.

45. Ibid., 82-83.

46. Ibid., 63-66, 78-79, 85. [BACK]

41. VOOP, Materialy vtorogo , 60.

42. Ibid.

43. Ibid., 71

44. Ibid., 82.

45. Ibid., 82-83.

46. Ibid., 63-66, 78-79, 85. [BACK]

41. VOOP, Materialy vtorogo , 60.

42. Ibid.

43. Ibid., 71

44. Ibid., 82.

45. Ibid., 82-83.

46. Ibid., 63-66, 78-79, 85. [BACK]

41. VOOP, Materialy vtorogo , 60.

42. Ibid.

43. Ibid., 71

44. Ibid., 82.

45. Ibid., 82-83.

46. Ibid., 63-66, 78-79, 85. [BACK]

41. VOOP, Materialy vtorogo , 60.

42. Ibid.

43. Ibid., 71

44. Ibid., 82.

45. Ibid., 82-83.

46. Ibid., 63-66, 78-79, 85. [BACK]

47. RGAE f. 3, op. 1, d. 148, list 54. It is not known how this ballot remained in her hands. Either she ultimately did not vote or she obtained a duplicate for her records. [BACK]

48. F. N. Mikhailov, "Okhrana vodoëmov ot zagriazneniia," 3-6. [BACK]

49. Bosse and Iablokov, Okhrana prirody i eë znacheie dlia nashei strany. break [BACK]

1. Malinovskii, "Zapovedniki sovetskogo soiuza." [BACK]

2. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 216 , list 8. These were the remarks of the system's deputy director, Korol'kov, at the May 1954 conference on zapovedniki .

3. Ibid., list 9.

4. Ibid. [BACK]

2. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 216 , list 8. These were the remarks of the system's deputy director, Korol'kov, at the May 1954 conference on zapovedniki .

3. Ibid., list 9.

4. Ibid. [BACK]

2. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 216 , list 8. These were the remarks of the system's deputy director, Korol'kov, at the May 1954 conference on zapovedniki .

3. Ibid., list 9.

4. Ibid. [BACK]

5. See my discussion of Veitsman in Models , 225-26. For the ideas of Arkhipov and Boitsov, see Arkhipov, "Instruktsii dlia organizatsii zapovednogo khoziaistva"; and Boitsov, "O sostoianii i perspektivnom plane." [BACK]

6. Filonov, "Dinamika chislennosti," 158-59.

7. Ibid., 162-63.

8. Ibid., 163. [BACK]

6. Filonov, "Dinamika chislennosti," 158-59.

7. Ibid., 162-63.

8. Ibid., 163. [BACK]

6. Filonov, "Dinamika chislennosti," 158-59.

7. Ibid., 162-63.

8. Ibid., 163. [BACK]

9. See the two-volume Akklimatizatsiia okhotnich'e-promyslovykh zverei i ptits v SSSR ; and Akklimatizatsiia zhivotnykh v SSSR . [BACK]

10. Filonov, "Dinamika chislennosti," 161.

11. Ibid., 167. [BACK]

10. Filonov, "Dinamika chislennosti," 161.

11. Ibid., 167. [BACK]

12. Oborin, "Troitskoe uchebno-opytnoe lesnoe khoziaistvo Permskogo," esp. 120-21. [BACK]

13. K. P. Filonov, in his major study of the consequences of nature transformation in the zapovedniki , "Dinamika chislennosti," does not make such a categorical distinction between the Makarov and Malinovskii eras. See his table 37, p. 183, for example. [BACK]

14. Postanovlenie AN SSSR no. 169 ot 28-ogo marta 1952 g. [BACK]

15. Interview with academician Aleksandr Leonidovich lanshin, Moscow, July 24, 1992.

16. Ibid.

17. Ibid. [BACK]

15. Interview with academician Aleksandr Leonidovich lanshin, Moscow, July 24, 1992.

16. Ibid.

17. Ibid. [BACK]

15. Interview with academician Aleksandr Leonidovich lanshin, Moscow, July 24, 1992.

16. Ibid.

17. Ibid. [BACK]

18. Makarov Papers, "Prilozhenie k Postanovleniiu Prezidiuma AN SSSR No. 169 ot 28 marta 1952 g." [BACK]

19. Interview with Sergei Vladimirovich Zonn, Moscow, August 3, 1995. [BACK]

20. RGAE f. 544, op. 1, d. 2, list 1.

21. Ibid., list 15. "Protokol rasshirennogo zasedaniia Biuro ot 9-ogo iulia 1952 g." [BACK]

20. RGAE f. 544, op. 1, d. 2, list 1.

21. Ibid., list 15. "Protokol rasshirennogo zasedaniia Biuro ot 9-ogo iulia 1952 g." [BACK]

22. RGAE f. 544, op. 1, d. 3, list 43-44.

23. Ibid., list 44. [BACK]

22. RGAE f. 544, op. 1, d. 3, list 43-44.

23. Ibid., list 44. [BACK]

24. RGAE f. 544, op. 1, d. 7, list 1. "Zakliuchenie po utochënnomu proektu plana nauchno-issledovatel'skikh rabot, nauchnykh, i nauchno-tekhnicheskikh meropriiatii i planu vnedreniia zakliuchënnykh rabot po gosudarstvennym zapovednikam na 1953 god." This document is not dated, but it probably was generated in the last week of February or in early March 1953. It is a response to the Proekt plana . . . Glavnogo upravleniia po zapovednikam pri SM SSSR No. 40/315 of February 16, 1953.

25. Ibid., list 6. [BACK]

24. RGAE f. 544, op. 1, d. 7, list 1. "Zakliuchenie po utochënnomu proektu plana nauchno-issledovatel'skikh rabot, nauchnykh, i nauchno-tekhnicheskikh meropriiatii i planu vnedreniia zakliuchënnykh rabot po gosudarstvennym zapovednikam na 1953 god." This document is not dated, but it probably was generated in the last week of February or in early March 1953. It is a response to the Proekt plana . . . Glavnogo upravleniia po zapovednikam pri SM SSSR No. 40/315 of February 16, 1953.

25. Ibid., list 6. [BACK]

26. RGAE f. 544, op. 1, d. 6, list 11. From "Stenogramma zasedaniia Komissii po zapovednikam AN SSSR ot 4-ogo marta 1953 g."

27. Ibid. [BACK]

26. RGAE f. 544, op. 1, d. 6, list 11. From "Stenogramma zasedaniia Komissii po zapovednikam AN SSSR ot 4-ogo marta 1953 g."

27. Ibid. [BACK]

28. These were divided as follows: Academy of Sciences of the USSR: Il'menskii, continue

Suputinskii, Kedrovaia Pad', and Kivach; Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR: Streletskaia steppe, Khomutovskaia steppe, Mikhailovskaia tselina, Veselye Bokoben'ki, Dendropark Trostianets, Ustinovskii dendropark, and Kamennye mogily; Academy of Sciences of the Tadzhik SSR: Tigrovaia balka; Academy of Sciences of the Turkmen SSR: Repetekskii; Academy of Sciences of the Lithuanian SSR: Zhivuntas. [BACK]

29. RTsKhIDNI f. 17, op. 138, d. 466, list 64. May 17, 1952.

30. Ibid.

31. Ibid., list 66. [BACK]

29. RTsKhIDNI f. 17, op. 138, d. 466, list 64. May 17, 1952.

30. Ibid.

31. Ibid., list 66. [BACK]

29. RTsKhIDNI f. 17, op. 138, d. 466, list 64. May 17, 1952.

30. Ibid.

31. Ibid., list 66. [BACK]

32. Makarov Papers. V. N. Makarov, "Doklad," 6. Undated (written after March 15, 1953). Presented at the conference of representatives of the Academy's zapovedniki in Moscow, April 20-22, 1953.

33. Ibid., 15.

34. Ibid., 19.

35. Ibid., 26. [BACK]

32. Makarov Papers. V. N. Makarov, "Doklad," 6. Undated (written after March 15, 1953). Presented at the conference of representatives of the Academy's zapovedniki in Moscow, April 20-22, 1953.

33. Ibid., 15.

34. Ibid., 19.

35. Ibid., 26. [BACK]

32. Makarov Papers. V. N. Makarov, "Doklad," 6. Undated (written after March 15, 1953). Presented at the conference of representatives of the Academy's zapovedniki in Moscow, April 20-22, 1953.

33. Ibid., 15.

34. Ibid., 19.

35. Ibid., 26. [BACK]

32. Makarov Papers. V. N. Makarov, "Doklad," 6. Undated (written after March 15, 1953). Presented at the conference of representatives of the Academy's zapovedniki in Moscow, April 20-22, 1953.

33. Ibid., 15.

34. Ibid., 19.

35. Ibid., 26. [BACK]

36. "Proekt Polozheniia o zapovednikakh Akademii nauk SSSR i akademii nauk soiuznykh respublik," 2 pp. Carbon, typed. Courtesy of F. R. Shtil'mark. [BACK]

37. On MOIP, see especially Varsonof'eva, Moskovskoe obshchestvo ; and Lipshits, Moskovskoe obshchestvo ispytatelie prirody . [BACK]

38. Its membership, however, rose noticeably in the postwar period, from 717 in 1948 to 974 full and 87 corresponding members on January 1, 1951. A surprisingly large number (189) were women. The membership was overwhelmingly non-Party (825). The membership was particularly distinguished, and included 80 members or corresponding members of the USSR Academy of Sciences or its republican affiliates and 100 laureates of the Stalin Prize. The Society's staff also increased from 7 in 1945 to 29 in 1950, caring for a library of more than 100,000 volumes and an active publication schedule, among other things. See MOIP Archives, d. 1792, listy 17-18. [BACK]

39. Interview with Aleksandr Leonidovich Ianshin, Moscow, July 24, 1992. [BACK]

40. See Vorontsov, "Nature Protection." [BACK]

41. Yanitsky [Ianitskii], Russian Environmentalism , 19.

42. Ibid. [BACK]

41. Yanitsky [Ianitskii], Russian Environmentalism , 19.

42. Ibid. [BACK]

43. MOIP Archives, d. 1792, list 13. "Protokol zasedaniia [Prezidiuma] no. 2, 12 aprelia 1950 g." Originally the Society had received its space on the old campus in exchange for an urban mansion, willed to it in the early nineteenth century, which it passed on to the university, which built an astronomical observatory at the site. The official address of MOIP in 1950 was 9 Mokhovaia Street.

44. Ibid., list 19. [BACK]

43. MOIP Archives, d. 1792, list 13. "Protokol zasedaniia [Prezidiuma] no. 2, 12 aprelia 1950 g." Originally the Society had received its space on the old campus in exchange for an urban mansion, willed to it in the early nineteenth century, which it passed on to the university, which built an astronomical observatory at the site. The official address of MOIP in 1950 was 9 Mokhovaia Street.

44. Ibid., list 19. [BACK]

45. The literature on the Lysenko affair is vast. See the bibliography in Sovfer, Lysenko . [BACK]

46. Vorontsov, afterword to Stranitsy zhizni , 325.

47. Ibid.

48. Ibid.

49. Ibid. [BACK]

46. Vorontsov, afterword to Stranitsy zhizni , 325.

47. Ibid.

48. Ibid.

49. Ibid. [BACK]

46. Vorontsov, afterword to Stranitsy zhizni , 325.

47. Ibid.

48. Ibid.

49. Ibid. [BACK]

46. Vorontsov, afterword to Stranitsy zhizni , 325.

47. Ibid.

48. Ibid.

49. Ibid. [BACK]

50. MOIP Archives, d. 1790, list 5. [BACK]

51. MOIP Archives, d. 1792, list 56. A later meeting of the new Council settled the contest for the vice president slots by secret ballot as well. Varsonof'eva was in first place with twenty-nine ayes and only two nays. break [BACK]

52. See Soyfer, Lysenko , chapter 13. On Sukachëv's role, see especially V. Ia. Aleksandrov, Trudnye gody sovetskoi biologii . [BACK]

53. On this see Soyfer, Lysenko , 225-42; and Joravsky, Lysenko Affair , 157-59. [BACK]

54. ARAN f. 1557, op. 2, d. 141, list 1. Letter of N. N. Vorontsov to V. N. Sukachëv, June 5, 1955. [BACK]

55. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 216, listy 1-2. Stenogramma soveshchaniia "O sostoianii i perspektivakh razvitiia zapovednogo dela v SSSR, ot 12-ogo maia 1954 g.," vol. 1 (of 2).

56. Ibid., list 3.

57. Ibid., list 4.

58. Ibid.

59. Ibid., listy 4-5.

60. Ibid., list 5.

61. Ibid., list 6.

62. Ibid., listy 6, 10.

63. Ibid., listy 27-28.

64. Ibid., list 35.

65. Ibid., list 38.

66. Ibid., list 52.

67. Ibid., listy 52-55.

68. Ibid., list 54.

69. Ibid.

70. Ibid., list 38.

71. Ibid., list 56.

72. Ibid., listy 57-58. [BACK]

55. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 216, listy 1-2. Stenogramma soveshchaniia "O sostoianii i perspektivakh razvitiia zapovednogo dela v SSSR, ot 12-ogo maia 1954 g.," vol. 1 (of 2).

56. Ibid., list 3.

57. Ibid., list 4.

58. Ibid.

59. Ibid., listy 4-5.

60. Ibid., list 5.

61. Ibid., list 6.

62. Ibid., listy 6, 10.

63. Ibid., listy 27-28.

64. Ibid., list 35.

65. Ibid., list 38.

66. Ibid., list 52.

67. Ibid., listy 52-55.

68. Ibid., list 54.

69. Ibid.

70. Ibid., list 38.

71. Ibid., list 56.

72. Ibid., listy 57-58. [BACK]

55. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 216, listy 1-2. Stenogramma soveshchaniia "O sostoianii i perspektivakh razvitiia zapovednogo dela v SSSR, ot 12-ogo maia 1954 g.," vol. 1 (of 2).

56. Ibid., list 3.

57. Ibid., list 4.

58. Ibid.

59. Ibid., listy 4-5.

60. Ibid., list 5.

61. Ibid., list 6.

62. Ibid., listy 6, 10.

63. Ibid., listy 27-28.

64. Ibid., list 35.

65. Ibid., list 38.

66. Ibid., list 52.

67. Ibid., listy 52-55.

68. Ibid., list 54.

69. Ibid.

70. Ibid., list 38.

71. Ibid., list 56.

72. Ibid., listy 57-58. [BACK]

55. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 216, listy 1-2. Stenogramma soveshchaniia "O sostoianii i perspektivakh razvitiia zapovednogo dela v SSSR, ot 12-ogo maia 1954 g.," vol. 1 (of 2).

56. Ibid., list 3.

57. Ibid., list 4.

58. Ibid.

59. Ibid., listy 4-5.

60. Ibid., list 5.

61. Ibid., list 6.

62. Ibid., listy 6, 10.

63. Ibid., listy 27-28.

64. Ibid., list 35.

65. Ibid., list 38.

66. Ibid., list 52.

67. Ibid., listy 52-55.

68. Ibid., list 54.

69. Ibid.

70. Ibid., list 38.

71. Ibid., list 56.

72. Ibid., listy 57-58. [BACK]

55. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 216, listy 1-2. Stenogramma soveshchaniia "O sostoianii i perspektivakh razvitiia zapovednogo dela v SSSR, ot 12-ogo maia 1954 g.," vol. 1 (of 2).

56. Ibid., list 3.

57. Ibid., list 4.

58. Ibid.

59. Ibid., listy 4-5.

60. Ibid., list 5.

61. Ibid., list 6.

62. Ibid., listy 6, 10.

63. Ibid., listy 27-28.

64. Ibid., list 35.

65. Ibid., list 38.

66. Ibid., list 52.

67. Ibid., listy 52-55.

68. Ibid., list 54.

69. Ibid.

70. Ibid., list 38.

71. Ibid., list 56.

72. Ibid., listy 57-58. [BACK]

55. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 216, listy 1-2. Stenogramma soveshchaniia "O sostoianii i perspektivakh razvitiia zapovednogo dela v SSSR, ot 12-ogo maia 1954 g.," vol. 1 (of 2).

56. Ibid., list 3.

57. Ibid., list 4.

58. Ibid.

59. Ibid., listy 4-5.

60. Ibid., list 5.

61. Ibid., list 6.

62. Ibid., listy 6, 10.

63. Ibid., listy 27-28.

64. Ibid., list 35.

65. Ibid., list 38.

66. Ibid., list 52.

67. Ibid., listy 52-55.

68. Ibid., list 54.

69. Ibid.

70. Ibid., list 38.

71. Ibid., list 56.

72. Ibid., listy 57-58. [BACK]

55. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 216, listy 1-2. Stenogramma soveshchaniia "O sostoianii i perspektivakh razvitiia zapovednogo dela v SSSR, ot 12-ogo maia 1954 g.," vol. 1 (of 2).

56. Ibid., list 3.

57. Ibid., list 4.

58. Ibid.

59. Ibid., listy 4-5.

60. Ibid., list 5.

61. Ibid., list 6.

62. Ibid., listy 6, 10.

63. Ibid., listy 27-28.

64. Ibid., list 35.

65. Ibid., list 38.

66. Ibid., list 52.

67. Ibid., listy 52-55.

68. Ibid., list 54.

69. Ibid.

70. Ibid., list 38.

71. Ibid., list 56.

72. Ibid., listy 57-58. [BACK]

55. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 216, listy 1-2. Stenogramma soveshchaniia "O sostoianii i perspektivakh razvitiia zapovednogo dela v SSSR, ot 12-ogo maia 1954 g.," vol. 1 (of 2).

56. Ibid., list 3.

57. Ibid., list 4.

58. Ibid.

59. Ibid., listy 4-5.

60. Ibid., list 5.

61. Ibid., list 6.

62. Ibid., listy 6, 10.

63. Ibid., listy 27-28.

64. Ibid., list 35.

65. Ibid., list 38.

66. Ibid., list 52.

67. Ibid., listy 52-55.

68. Ibid., list 54.

69. Ibid.

70. Ibid., list 38.

71. Ibid., list 56.

72. Ibid., listy 57-58. [BACK]

55. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 216, listy 1-2. Stenogramma soveshchaniia "O sostoianii i perspektivakh razvitiia zapovednogo dela v SSSR, ot 12-ogo maia 1954 g.," vol. 1 (of 2).

56. Ibid., list 3.

57. Ibid., list 4.

58. Ibid.

59. Ibid., listy 4-5.

60. Ibid., list 5.

61. Ibid., list 6.

62. Ibid., listy 6, 10.

63. Ibid., listy 27-28.

64. Ibid., list 35.

65. Ibid., list 38.

66. Ibid., list 52.

67. Ibid., listy 52-55.

68. Ibid., list 54.

69. Ibid.

70. Ibid., list 38.

71. Ibid., list 56.

72. Ibid., listy 57-58. [BACK]

55. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 216, listy 1-2. Stenogramma soveshchaniia "O sostoianii i perspektivakh razvitiia zapovednogo dela v SSSR, ot 12-ogo maia 1954 g.," vol. 1 (of 2).

56. Ibid., list 3.

57. Ibid., list 4.

58. Ibid.

59. Ibid., listy 4-5.

60. Ibid., list 5.

61. Ibid., list 6.

62. Ibid., listy 6, 10.

63. Ibid., listy 27-28.

64. Ibid., list 35.

65. Ibid., list 38.

66. Ibid., list 52.

67. Ibid., listy 52-55.

68. Ibid., list 54.

69. Ibid.

70. Ibid., list 38.

71. Ibid., list 56.

72. Ibid., listy 57-58. [BACK]

55. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 216, listy 1-2. Stenogramma soveshchaniia "O sostoianii i perspektivakh razvitiia zapovednogo dela v SSSR, ot 12-ogo maia 1954 g.," vol. 1 (of 2).

56. Ibid., list 3.

57. Ibid., list 4.

58. Ibid.

59. Ibid., listy 4-5.

60. Ibid., list 5.

61. Ibid., list 6.

62. Ibid., listy 6, 10.

63. Ibid., listy 27-28.

64. Ibid., list 35.

65. Ibid., list 38.

66. Ibid., list 52.

67. Ibid., listy 52-55.

68. Ibid., list 54.

69. Ibid.

70. Ibid., list 38.

71. Ibid., list 56.

72. Ibid., listy 57-58. [BACK]

55. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 216, listy 1-2. Stenogramma soveshchaniia "O sostoianii i perspektivakh razvitiia zapovednogo dela v SSSR, ot 12-ogo maia 1954 g.," vol. 1 (of 2).

56. Ibid., list 3.

57. Ibid., list 4.

58. Ibid.

59. Ibid., listy 4-5.

60. Ibid., list 5.

61. Ibid., list 6.

62. Ibid., listy 6, 10.

63. Ibid., listy 27-28.

64. Ibid., list 35.

65. Ibid., list 38.

66. Ibid., list 52.

67. Ibid., listy 52-55.

68. Ibid., list 54.

69. Ibid.

70. Ibid., list 38.

71. Ibid., list 56.

72. Ibid., listy 57-58. [BACK]

55. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 216, listy 1-2. Stenogramma soveshchaniia "O sostoianii i perspektivakh razvitiia zapovednogo dela v SSSR, ot 12-ogo maia 1954 g.," vol. 1 (of 2).

56. Ibid., list 3.

57. Ibid., list 4.

58. Ibid.

59. Ibid., listy 4-5.

60. Ibid., list 5.

61. Ibid., list 6.

62. Ibid., listy 6, 10.

63. Ibid., listy 27-28.

64. Ibid., list 35.

65. Ibid., list 38.

66. Ibid., list 52.

67. Ibid., listy 52-55.

68. Ibid., list 54.

69. Ibid.

70. Ibid., list 38.

71. Ibid., list 56.

72. Ibid., listy 57-58. [BACK]

55. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 216, listy 1-2. Stenogramma soveshchaniia "O sostoianii i perspektivakh razvitiia zapovednogo dela v SSSR, ot 12-ogo maia 1954 g.," vol. 1 (of 2).

56. Ibid., list 3.

57. Ibid., list 4.

58. Ibid.

59. Ibid., listy 4-5.

60. Ibid., list 5.

61. Ibid., list 6.

62. Ibid., listy 6, 10.

63. Ibid., listy 27-28.

64. Ibid., list 35.

65. Ibid., list 38.

66. Ibid., list 52.

67. Ibid., listy 52-55.

68. Ibid., list 54.

69. Ibid.

70. Ibid., list 38.

71. Ibid., list 56.

72. Ibid., listy 57-58. [BACK]

55. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 216, listy 1-2. Stenogramma soveshchaniia "O sostoianii i perspektivakh razvitiia zapovednogo dela v SSSR, ot 12-ogo maia 1954 g.," vol. 1 (of 2).

56. Ibid., list 3.

57. Ibid., list 4.

58. Ibid.

59. Ibid., listy 4-5.

60. Ibid., list 5.

61. Ibid., list 6.

62. Ibid., listy 6, 10.

63. Ibid., listy 27-28.

64. Ibid., list 35.

65. Ibid., list 38.

66. Ibid., list 52.

67. Ibid., listy 52-55.

68. Ibid., list 54.

69. Ibid.

70. Ibid., list 38.

71. Ibid., list 56.

72. Ibid., listy 57-58. [BACK]

55. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 216, listy 1-2. Stenogramma soveshchaniia "O sostoianii i perspektivakh razvitiia zapovednogo dela v SSSR, ot 12-ogo maia 1954 g.," vol. 1 (of 2).

56. Ibid., list 3.

57. Ibid., list 4.

58. Ibid.

59. Ibid., listy 4-5.

60. Ibid., list 5.

61. Ibid., list 6.

62. Ibid., listy 6, 10.

63. Ibid., listy 27-28.

64. Ibid., list 35.

65. Ibid., list 38.

66. Ibid., list 52.

67. Ibid., listy 52-55.

68. Ibid., list 54.

69. Ibid.

70. Ibid., list 38.

71. Ibid., list 56.

72. Ibid., listy 57-58. [BACK]

55. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 216, listy 1-2. Stenogramma soveshchaniia "O sostoianii i perspektivakh razvitiia zapovednogo dela v SSSR, ot 12-ogo maia 1954 g.," vol. 1 (of 2).

56. Ibid., list 3.

57. Ibid., list 4.

58. Ibid.

59. Ibid., listy 4-5.

60. Ibid., list 5.

61. Ibid., list 6.

62. Ibid., listy 6, 10.

63. Ibid., listy 27-28.

64. Ibid., list 35.

65. Ibid., list 38.

66. Ibid., list 52.

67. Ibid., listy 52-55.

68. Ibid., list 54.

69. Ibid.

70. Ibid., list 38.

71. Ibid., list 56.

72. Ibid., listy 57-58. [BACK]

55. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 216, listy 1-2. Stenogramma soveshchaniia "O sostoianii i perspektivakh razvitiia zapovednogo dela v SSSR, ot 12-ogo maia 1954 g.," vol. 1 (of 2).

56. Ibid., list 3.

57. Ibid., list 4.

58. Ibid.

59. Ibid., listy 4-5.

60. Ibid., list 5.

61. Ibid., list 6.

62. Ibid., listy 6, 10.

63. Ibid., listy 27-28.

64. Ibid., list 35.

65. Ibid., list 38.

66. Ibid., list 52.

67. Ibid., listy 52-55.

68. Ibid., list 54.

69. Ibid.

70. Ibid., list 38.

71. Ibid., list 56.

72. Ibid., listy 57-58. [BACK]

73. Much of this information is from Formozov, Aleksandr Nikolaevich Formozov , esp. 111-31.

74. Ibid., 116.

75. Ibid., 116-17. [BACK]

73. Much of this information is from Formozov, Aleksandr Nikolaevich Formozov , esp. 111-31.

74. Ibid., 116.

75. Ibid., 116-17. [BACK]

73. Much of this information is from Formozov, Aleksandr Nikolaevich Formozov , esp. 111-31.

74. Ibid., 116.

75. Ibid., 116-17. [BACK]

76. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 2 16, listy 64-65.

77. Ibid., list 65.

78. Ibid.

79. Ibid., list 66.

80. Ibid., listy 66-67.

81. Ibid.

82. Ibid., list 68.

83. Ibid., list 69.

84. Ibid.

85. Ibid., list 70.

86. Ibid., listy 70-71.

87. Ibid., list 71.

88. Ibid., list 72.

89. Ibid.

90. Ibid., list 73.

91. Ibid., list 74.

92. Ibid., listy 74-75. break

93. Ibid., list 76.

94. Ibid.

95. Ibid., list 80.

96. Ibid., list 82.

97. Ibid.

98. Ibid., listy 82-83.

99. Ibid., list 83.

100. Ibid., list 84. A note in the text stated: "V zale shum i smekh."

101. Ibid. [BACK]

76. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 2 16, listy 64-65.

77. Ibid., list 65.

78. Ibid.

79. Ibid., list 66.

80. Ibid., listy 66-67.

81. Ibid.

82. Ibid., list 68.

83. Ibid., list 69.

84. Ibid.

85. Ibid., list 70.

86. Ibid., listy 70-71.

87. Ibid., list 71.

88. Ibid., list 72.

89. Ibid.

90. Ibid., list 73.

91. Ibid., list 74.

92. Ibid., listy 74-75. break

93. Ibid., list 76.

94. Ibid.

95. Ibid., list 80.

96. Ibid., list 82.

97. Ibid.

98. Ibid., listy 82-83.

99. Ibid., list 83.

100. Ibid., list 84. A note in the text stated: "V zale shum i smekh."

101. Ibid. [BACK]

76. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 2 16, listy 64-65.

77. Ibid., list 65.

78. Ibid.

79. Ibid., list 66.

80. Ibid., listy 66-67.

81. Ibid.

82. Ibid., list 68.

83. Ibid., list 69.

84. Ibid.

85. Ibid., list 70.

86. Ibid., listy 70-71.

87. Ibid., list 71.

88. Ibid., list 72.

89. Ibid.

90. Ibid., list 73.

91. Ibid., list 74.

92. Ibid., listy 74-75. break

93. Ibid., list 76.

94. Ibid.

95. Ibid., list 80.

96. Ibid., list 82.

97. Ibid.

98. Ibid., listy 82-83.

99. Ibid., list 83.

100. Ibid., list 84. A note in the text stated: "V zale shum i smekh."

101. Ibid. [BACK]

76. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 2 16, listy 64-65.

77. Ibid., list 65.

78. Ibid.

79. Ibid., list 66.

80. Ibid., listy 66-67.

81. Ibid.

82. Ibid., list 68.

83. Ibid., list 69.

84. Ibid.

85. Ibid., list 70.

86. Ibid., listy 70-71.

87. Ibid., list 71.

88. Ibid., list 72.

89. Ibid.

90. Ibid., list 73.

91. Ibid., list 74.

92. Ibid., listy 74-75. break

93. Ibid., list 76.

94. Ibid.

95. Ibid., list 80.

96. Ibid., list 82.

97. Ibid.

98. Ibid., listy 82-83.

99. Ibid., list 83.

100. Ibid., list 84. A note in the text stated: "V zale shum i smekh."

101. Ibid. [BACK]

76. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 2 16, listy 64-65.

77. Ibid., list 65.

78. Ibid.

79. Ibid., list 66.

80. Ibid., listy 66-67.

81. Ibid.

82. Ibid., list 68.

83. Ibid., list 69.

84. Ibid.

85. Ibid., list 70.

86. Ibid., listy 70-71.

87. Ibid., list 71.

88. Ibid., list 72.

89. Ibid.

90. Ibid., list 73.

91. Ibid., list 74.

92. Ibid., listy 74-75. break

93. Ibid., list 76.

94. Ibid.

95. Ibid., list 80.

96. Ibid., list 82.

97. Ibid.

98. Ibid., listy 82-83.

99. Ibid., list 83.

100. Ibid., list 84. A note in the text stated: "V zale shum i smekh."

101. Ibid. [BACK]

76. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 2 16, listy 64-65.

77. Ibid., list 65.

78. Ibid.

79. Ibid., list 66.

80. Ibid., listy 66-67.

81. Ibid.

82. Ibid., list 68.

83. Ibid., list 69.

84. Ibid.

85. Ibid., list 70.

86. Ibid., listy 70-71.

87. Ibid., list 71.

88. Ibid., list 72.

89. Ibid.

90. Ibid., list 73.

91. Ibid., list 74.

92. Ibid., listy 74-75. break

93. Ibid., list 76.

94. Ibid.

95. Ibid., list 80.

96. Ibid., list 82.

97. Ibid.

98. Ibid., listy 82-83.

99. Ibid., list 83.

100. Ibid., list 84. A note in the text stated: "V zale shum i smekh."

101. Ibid. [BACK]

76. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 2 16, listy 64-65.

77. Ibid., list 65.

78. Ibid.

79. Ibid., list 66.

80. Ibid., listy 66-67.

81. Ibid.

82. Ibid., list 68.

83. Ibid., list 69.

84. Ibid.

85. Ibid., list 70.

86. Ibid., listy 70-71.

87. Ibid., list 71.

88. Ibid., list 72.

89. Ibid.

90. Ibid., list 73.

91. Ibid., list 74.

92. Ibid., listy 74-75. break

93. Ibid., list 76.

94. Ibid.

95. Ibid., list 80.

96. Ibid., list 82.

97. Ibid.

98. Ibid., listy 82-83.

99. Ibid., list 83.

100. Ibid., list 84. A note in the text stated: "V zale shum i smekh."

101. Ibid. [BACK]

76. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 2 16, listy 64-65.

77. Ibid., list 65.

78. Ibid.

79. Ibid., list 66.

80. Ibid., listy 66-67.

81. Ibid.

82. Ibid., list 68.

83. Ibid., list 69.

84. Ibid.

85. Ibid., list 70.

86. Ibid., listy 70-71.

87. Ibid., list 71.

88. Ibid., list 72.

89. Ibid.

90. Ibid., list 73.

91. Ibid., list 74.

92. Ibid., listy 74-75. break

93. Ibid., list 76.

94. Ibid.

95. Ibid., list 80.

96. Ibid., list 82.

97. Ibid.

98. Ibid., listy 82-83.

99. Ibid., list 83.

100. Ibid., list 84. A note in the text stated: "V zale shum i smekh."

101. Ibid. [BACK]

76. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 2 16, listy 64-65.

77. Ibid., list 65.

78. Ibid.

79. Ibid., list 66.

80. Ibid., listy 66-67.

81. Ibid.

82. Ibid., list 68.

83. Ibid., list 69.

84. Ibid.

85. Ibid., list 70.

86. Ibid., listy 70-71.

87. Ibid., list 71.

88. Ibid., list 72.

89. Ibid.

90. Ibid., list 73.

91. Ibid., list 74.

92. Ibid., listy 74-75. break

93. Ibid., list 76.

94. Ibid.

95. Ibid., list 80.

96. Ibid., list 82.

97. Ibid.

98. Ibid., listy 82-83.

99. Ibid., list 83.

100. Ibid., list 84. A note in the text stated: "V zale shum i smekh."

101. Ibid. [BACK]

76. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 2 16, listy 64-65.

77. Ibid., list 65.

78. Ibid.

79. Ibid., list 66.

80. Ibid., listy 66-67.

81. Ibid.

82. Ibid., list 68.

83. Ibid., list 69.

84. Ibid.

85. Ibid., list 70.

86. Ibid., listy 70-71.

87. Ibid., list 71.

88. Ibid., list 72.

89. Ibid.

90. Ibid., list 73.

91. Ibid., list 74.

92. Ibid., listy 74-75. break

93. Ibid., list 76.

94. Ibid.

95. Ibid., list 80.

96. Ibid., list 82.

97. Ibid.

98. Ibid., listy 82-83.

99. Ibid., list 83.

100. Ibid., list 84. A note in the text stated: "V zale shum i smekh."

101. Ibid. [BACK]

76. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 2 16, listy 64-65.

77. Ibid., list 65.

78. Ibid.

79. Ibid., list 66.

80. Ibid., listy 66-67.

81. Ibid.

82. Ibid., list 68.

83. Ibid., list 69.

84. Ibid.

85. Ibid., list 70.

86. Ibid., listy 70-71.

87. Ibid., list 71.

88. Ibid., list 72.

89. Ibid.

90. Ibid., list 73.

91. Ibid., list 74.

92. Ibid., listy 74-75. break

93. Ibid., list 76.

94. Ibid.

95. Ibid., list 80.

96. Ibid., list 82.

97. Ibid.

98. Ibid., listy 82-83.

99. Ibid., list 83.

100. Ibid., list 84. A note in the text stated: "V zale shum i smekh."

101. Ibid. [BACK]

76. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 2 16, listy 64-65.

77. Ibid., list 65.

78. Ibid.

79. Ibid., list 66.

80. Ibid., listy 66-67.

81. Ibid.

82. Ibid., list 68.

83. Ibid., list 69.

84. Ibid.

85. Ibid., list 70.

86. Ibid., listy 70-71.

87. Ibid., list 71.

88. Ibid., list 72.

89. Ibid.

90. Ibid., list 73.

91. Ibid., list 74.

92. Ibid., listy 74-75. break

93. Ibid., list 76.

94. Ibid.

95. Ibid., list 80.

96. Ibid., list 82.

97. Ibid.

98. Ibid., listy 82-83.

99. Ibid., list 83.

100. Ibid., list 84. A note in the text stated: "V zale shum i smekh."

101. Ibid. [BACK]

76. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 2 16, listy 64-65.

77. Ibid., list 65.

78. Ibid.

79. Ibid., list 66.

80. Ibid., listy 66-67.

81. Ibid.

82. Ibid., list 68.

83. Ibid., list 69.

84. Ibid.

85. Ibid., list 70.

86. Ibid., listy 70-71.

87. Ibid., list 71.

88. Ibid., list 72.

89. Ibid.

90. Ibid., list 73.

91. Ibid., list 74.

92. Ibid., listy 74-75. break

93. Ibid., list 76.

94. Ibid.

95. Ibid., list 80.

96. Ibid., list 82.

97. Ibid.

98. Ibid., listy 82-83.

99. Ibid., list 83.

100. Ibid., list 84. A note in the text stated: "V zale shum i smekh."

101. Ibid. [BACK]

76. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 2 16, listy 64-65.

77. Ibid., list 65.

78. Ibid.

79. Ibid., list 66.

80. Ibid., listy 66-67.

81. Ibid.

82. Ibid., list 68.

83. Ibid., list 69.

84. Ibid.

85. Ibid., list 70.

86. Ibid., listy 70-71.

87. Ibid., list 71.

88. Ibid., list 72.

89. Ibid.

90. Ibid., list 73.

91. Ibid., list 74.

92. Ibid., listy 74-75. break

93. Ibid., list 76.

94. Ibid.

95. Ibid., list 80.

96. Ibid., list 82.

97. Ibid.

98. Ibid., listy 82-83.

99. Ibid., list 83.

100. Ibid., list 84. A note in the text stated: "V zale shum i smekh."

101. Ibid. [BACK]

76. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 2 16, listy 64-65.

77. Ibid., list 65.

78. Ibid.

79. Ibid., list 66.

80. Ibid., listy 66-67.

81. Ibid.

82. Ibid., list 68.

83. Ibid., list 69.

84. Ibid.

85. Ibid., list 70.

86. Ibid., listy 70-71.

87. Ibid., list 71.

88. Ibid., list 72.

89. Ibid.

90. Ibid., list 73.

91. Ibid., list 74.

92. Ibid., listy 74-75. break

93. Ibid., list 76.

94. Ibid.

95. Ibid., list 80.

96. Ibid., list 82.

97. Ibid.

98. Ibid., listy 82-83.

99. Ibid., list 83.

100. Ibid., list 84. A note in the text stated: "V zale shum i smekh."

101. Ibid. [BACK]

76. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 2 16, listy 64-65.

77. Ibid., list 65.

78. Ibid.

79. Ibid., list 66.

80. Ibid., listy 66-67.

81. Ibid.

82. Ibid., list 68.

83. Ibid., list 69.

84. Ibid.

85. Ibid., list 70.

86. Ibid., listy 70-71.

87. Ibid., list 71.

88. Ibid., list 72.

89. Ibid.

90. Ibid., list 73.

91. Ibid., list 74.

92. Ibid., listy 74-75. break

93. Ibid., list 76.

94. Ibid.

95. Ibid., list 80.

96. Ibid., list 82.

97. Ibid.

98. Ibid., listy 82-83.

99. Ibid., list 83.

100. Ibid., list 84. A note in the text stated: "V zale shum i smekh."

101. Ibid. [BACK]

76. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 2 16, listy 64-65.

77. Ibid., list 65.

78. Ibid.

79. Ibid., list 66.

80. Ibid., listy 66-67.

81. Ibid.

82. Ibid., list 68.

83. Ibid., list 69.

84. Ibid.

85. Ibid., list 70.

86. Ibid., listy 70-71.

87. Ibid., list 71.

88. Ibid., list 72.

89. Ibid.

90. Ibid., list 73.

91. Ibid., list 74.

92. Ibid., listy 74-75. break

93. Ibid., list 76.

94. Ibid.

95. Ibid., list 80.

96. Ibid., list 82.

97. Ibid.

98. Ibid., listy 82-83.

99. Ibid., list 83.

100. Ibid., list 84. A note in the text stated: "V zale shum i smekh."

101. Ibid. [BACK]

76. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 2 16, listy 64-65.

77. Ibid., list 65.

78. Ibid.

79. Ibid., list 66.

80. Ibid., listy 66-67.

81. Ibid.

82. Ibid., list 68.

83. Ibid., list 69.

84. Ibid.

85. Ibid., list 70.

86. Ibid., listy 70-71.

87. Ibid., list 71.

88. Ibid., list 72.

89. Ibid.

90. Ibid., list 73.

91. Ibid., list 74.

92. Ibid., listy 74-75. break

93. Ibid., list 76.

94. Ibid.

95. Ibid., list 80.

96. Ibid., list 82.

97. Ibid.

98. Ibid., listy 82-83.

99. Ibid., list 83.

100. Ibid., list 84. A note in the text stated: "V zale shum i smekh."

101. Ibid. [BACK]

76. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 2 16, listy 64-65.

77. Ibid., list 65.

78. Ibid.

79. Ibid., list 66.

80. Ibid., listy 66-67.

81. Ibid.

82. Ibid., list 68.

83. Ibid., list 69.

84. Ibid.

85. Ibid., list 70.

86. Ibid., listy 70-71.

87. Ibid., list 71.

88. Ibid., list 72.

89. Ibid.

90. Ibid., list 73.

91. Ibid., list 74.

92. Ibid., listy 74-75. break

93. Ibid., list 76.

94. Ibid.

95. Ibid., list 80.

96. Ibid., list 82.

97. Ibid.

98. Ibid., listy 82-83.

99. Ibid., list 83.

100. Ibid., list 84. A note in the text stated: "V zale shum i smekh."

101. Ibid. [BACK]

76. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 2 16, listy 64-65.

77. Ibid., list 65.

78. Ibid.

79. Ibid., list 66.

80. Ibid., listy 66-67.

81. Ibid.

82. Ibid., list 68.

83. Ibid., list 69.

84. Ibid.

85. Ibid., list 70.

86. Ibid., listy 70-71.

87. Ibid., list 71.

88. Ibid., list 72.

89. Ibid.

90. Ibid., list 73.

91. Ibid., list 74.

92. Ibid., listy 74-75. break

93. Ibid., list 76.

94. Ibid.

95. Ibid., list 80.

96. Ibid., list 82.

97. Ibid.

98. Ibid., listy 82-83.

99. Ibid., list 83.

100. Ibid., list 84. A note in the text stated: "V zale shum i smekh."

101. Ibid. [BACK]

76. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 2 16, listy 64-65.

77. Ibid., list 65.

78. Ibid.

79. Ibid., list 66.

80. Ibid., listy 66-67.

81. Ibid.

82. Ibid., list 68.

83. Ibid., list 69.

84. Ibid.

85. Ibid., list 70.

86. Ibid., listy 70-71.

87. Ibid., list 71.

88. Ibid., list 72.

89. Ibid.

90. Ibid., list 73.

91. Ibid., list 74.

92. Ibid., listy 74-75. break

93. Ibid., list 76.

94. Ibid.

95. Ibid., list 80.

96. Ibid., list 82.

97. Ibid.

98. Ibid., listy 82-83.

99. Ibid., list 83.

100. Ibid., list 84. A note in the text stated: "V zale shum i smekh."

101. Ibid. [BACK]

76. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 2 16, listy 64-65.

77. Ibid., list 65.

78. Ibid.

79. Ibid., list 66.

80. Ibid., listy 66-67.

81. Ibid.

82. Ibid., list 68.

83. Ibid., list 69.

84. Ibid.

85. Ibid., list 70.

86. Ibid., listy 70-71.

87. Ibid., list 71.

88. Ibid., list 72.

89. Ibid.

90. Ibid., list 73.

91. Ibid., list 74.

92. Ibid., listy 74-75. break

93. Ibid., list 76.

94. Ibid.

95. Ibid., list 80.

96. Ibid., list 82.

97. Ibid.

98. Ibid., listy 82-83.

99. Ibid., list 83.

100. Ibid., list 84. A note in the text stated: "V zale shum i smekh."

101. Ibid. [BACK]

76. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 2 16, listy 64-65.

77. Ibid., list 65.

78. Ibid.

79. Ibid., list 66.

80. Ibid., listy 66-67.

81. Ibid.

82. Ibid., list 68.

83. Ibid., list 69.

84. Ibid.

85. Ibid., list 70.

86. Ibid., listy 70-71.

87. Ibid., list 71.

88. Ibid., list 72.

89. Ibid.

90. Ibid., list 73.

91. Ibid., list 74.

92. Ibid., listy 74-75. break

93. Ibid., list 76.

94. Ibid.

95. Ibid., list 80.

96. Ibid., list 82.

97. Ibid.

98. Ibid., listy 82-83.

99. Ibid., list 83.

100. Ibid., list 84. A note in the text stated: "V zale shum i smekh."

101. Ibid. [BACK]

76. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 2 16, listy 64-65.

77. Ibid., list 65.

78. Ibid.

79. Ibid., list 66.

80. Ibid., listy 66-67.

81. Ibid.

82. Ibid., list 68.

83. Ibid., list 69.

84. Ibid.

85. Ibid., list 70.

86. Ibid., listy 70-71.

87. Ibid., list 71.

88. Ibid., list 72.

89. Ibid.

90. Ibid., list 73.

91. Ibid., list 74.

92. Ibid., listy 74-75. break

93. Ibid., list 76.

94. Ibid.

95. Ibid., list 80.

96. Ibid., list 82.

97. Ibid.

98. Ibid., listy 82-83.

99. Ibid., list 83.

100. Ibid., list 84. A note in the text stated: "V zale shum i smekh."

101. Ibid. [BACK]

76. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 2 16, listy 64-65.

77. Ibid., list 65.

78. Ibid.

79. Ibid., list 66.

80. Ibid., listy 66-67.

81. Ibid.

82. Ibid., list 68.

83. Ibid., list 69.

84. Ibid.

85. Ibid., list 70.

86. Ibid., listy 70-71.

87. Ibid., list 71.

88. Ibid., list 72.

89. Ibid.

90. Ibid., list 73.

91. Ibid., list 74.

92. Ibid., listy 74-75. break

93. Ibid., list 76.

94. Ibid.

95. Ibid., list 80.

96. Ibid., list 82.

97. Ibid.

98. Ibid., listy 82-83.

99. Ibid., list 83.

100. Ibid., list 84. A note in the text stated: "V zale shum i smekh."

101. Ibid. [BACK]

76. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 2 16, listy 64-65.

77. Ibid., list 65.

78. Ibid.

79. Ibid., list 66.

80. Ibid., listy 66-67.

81. Ibid.

82. Ibid., list 68.

83. Ibid., list 69.

84. Ibid.

85. Ibid., list 70.

86. Ibid., listy 70-71.

87. Ibid., list 71.

88. Ibid., list 72.

89. Ibid.

90. Ibid., list 73.

91. Ibid., list 74.

92. Ibid., listy 74-75. break

93. Ibid., list 76.

94. Ibid.

95. Ibid., list 80.

96. Ibid., list 82.

97. Ibid.

98. Ibid., listy 82-83.

99. Ibid., list 83.

100. Ibid., list 84. A note in the text stated: "V zale shum i smekh."

101. Ibid. [BACK]

102. MOIP Archives, d. 55, list 1. Another stenogram of the session, separately typed and differing in some minor details and locutions, is located in TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 217, listy 1-48. [BACK]

103. MOIP Archives, d. 55, list 2.

104. Ibid., listy 8-8a; TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 217, listy 7-8. [BACK]

103. MOIP Archives, d. 55, list 2.

104. Ibid., listy 8-8a; TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 217, listy 7-8. [BACK]

105. MOIP Archives, d. 55, list 9.

106. Ibid., listy 10-11.

107. Ibid., list 11.

108. Ibid.

109. Ibid., list 12, and TsGA f. 404, op. , d. 217, list 11. [BACK]

105. MOIP Archives, d. 55, list 9.

106. Ibid., listy 10-11.

107. Ibid., list 11.

108. Ibid.

109. Ibid., list 12, and TsGA f. 404, op. , d. 217, list 11. [BACK]

105. MOIP Archives, d. 55, list 9.

106. Ibid., listy 10-11.

107. Ibid., list 11.

108. Ibid.

109. Ibid., list 12, and TsGA f. 404, op. , d. 217, list 11. [BACK]

105. MOIP Archives, d. 55, list 9.

106. Ibid., listy 10-11.

107. Ibid., list 11.

108. Ibid.

109. Ibid., list 12, and TsGA f. 404, op. , d. 217, list 11. [BACK]

105. MOIP Archives, d. 55, list 9.

106. Ibid., listy 10-11.

107. Ibid., list 11.

108. Ibid.

109. Ibid., list 12, and TsGA f. 404, op. , d. 217, list 11. [BACK]

110. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 217, list 11.

111. Ibid.; MOIP Archives, d. 55, listy 12-13. [BACK]

110. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 217, list 11.

111. Ibid.; MOIP Archives, d. 55, listy 12-13. [BACK]

112. See Malinovskii, "Zapovedniki sovetskogo soiuza." Cited on TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 217, list 14. [BACK]

113. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 217, listy 17-18.

114. Ibid., list 30.

115. Ibid., listy 30-31.

116. Ibid., list 33.

117. Ibid., list 34.

118. Ibid., list 35. Evidence for his pessimism was based not only on his observations but on personal experience. For example, his Commission for the Protection and Restoration of the European Bison of the Academy of Science's Biological Division had identified a number of zapovedniki where bison could be introduced or reintroduced, noted Zablotskii, but their findings were completely ignored by Malinovskii in 1951, and none of the areas identified were spared.

119. Ibid.

120. Ibid.

121. Ibid., list 36.

122. Ibid., listy 41-42.

123. Ibid., list 43.

124. Ibid., listy 45-46.

125. Ibid., list 46.

126. Ibid., list 48. [BACK]

113. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 217, listy 17-18.

114. Ibid., list 30.

115. Ibid., listy 30-31.

116. Ibid., list 33.

117. Ibid., list 34.

118. Ibid., list 35. Evidence for his pessimism was based not only on his observations but on personal experience. For example, his Commission for the Protection and Restoration of the European Bison of the Academy of Science's Biological Division had identified a number of zapovedniki where bison could be introduced or reintroduced, noted Zablotskii, but their findings were completely ignored by Malinovskii in 1951, and none of the areas identified were spared.

119. Ibid.

120. Ibid.

121. Ibid., list 36.

122. Ibid., listy 41-42.

123. Ibid., list 43.

124. Ibid., listy 45-46.

125. Ibid., list 46.

126. Ibid., list 48. [BACK]

113. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 217, listy 17-18.

114. Ibid., list 30.

115. Ibid., listy 30-31.

116. Ibid., list 33.

117. Ibid., list 34.

118. Ibid., list 35. Evidence for his pessimism was based not only on his observations but on personal experience. For example, his Commission for the Protection and Restoration of the European Bison of the Academy of Science's Biological Division had identified a number of zapovedniki where bison could be introduced or reintroduced, noted Zablotskii, but their findings were completely ignored by Malinovskii in 1951, and none of the areas identified were spared.

119. Ibid.

120. Ibid.

121. Ibid., list 36.

122. Ibid., listy 41-42.

123. Ibid., list 43.

124. Ibid., listy 45-46.

125. Ibid., list 46.

126. Ibid., list 48. [BACK]

113. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 217, listy 17-18.

114. Ibid., list 30.

115. Ibid., listy 30-31.

116. Ibid., list 33.

117. Ibid., list 34.

118. Ibid., list 35. Evidence for his pessimism was based not only on his observations but on personal experience. For example, his Commission for the Protection and Restoration of the European Bison of the Academy of Science's Biological Division had identified a number of zapovedniki where bison could be introduced or reintroduced, noted Zablotskii, but their findings were completely ignored by Malinovskii in 1951, and none of the areas identified were spared.

119. Ibid.

120. Ibid.

121. Ibid., list 36.

122. Ibid., listy 41-42.

123. Ibid., list 43.

124. Ibid., listy 45-46.

125. Ibid., list 46.

126. Ibid., list 48. [BACK]

113. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 217, listy 17-18.

114. Ibid., list 30.

115. Ibid., listy 30-31.

116. Ibid., list 33.

117. Ibid., list 34.

118. Ibid., list 35. Evidence for his pessimism was based not only on his observations but on personal experience. For example, his Commission for the Protection and Restoration of the European Bison of the Academy of Science's Biological Division had identified a number of zapovedniki where bison could be introduced or reintroduced, noted Zablotskii, but their findings were completely ignored by Malinovskii in 1951, and none of the areas identified were spared.

119. Ibid.

120. Ibid.

121. Ibid., list 36.

122. Ibid., listy 41-42.

123. Ibid., list 43.

124. Ibid., listy 45-46.

125. Ibid., list 46.

126. Ibid., list 48. [BACK]

113. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 217, listy 17-18.

114. Ibid., list 30.

115. Ibid., listy 30-31.

116. Ibid., list 33.

117. Ibid., list 34.

118. Ibid., list 35. Evidence for his pessimism was based not only on his observations but on personal experience. For example, his Commission for the Protection and Restoration of the European Bison of the Academy of Science's Biological Division had identified a number of zapovedniki where bison could be introduced or reintroduced, noted Zablotskii, but their findings were completely ignored by Malinovskii in 1951, and none of the areas identified were spared.

119. Ibid.

120. Ibid.

121. Ibid., list 36.

122. Ibid., listy 41-42.

123. Ibid., list 43.

124. Ibid., listy 45-46.

125. Ibid., list 46.

126. Ibid., list 48. [BACK]

113. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 217, listy 17-18.

114. Ibid., list 30.

115. Ibid., listy 30-31.

116. Ibid., list 33.

117. Ibid., list 34.

118. Ibid., list 35. Evidence for his pessimism was based not only on his observations but on personal experience. For example, his Commission for the Protection and Restoration of the European Bison of the Academy of Science's Biological Division had identified a number of zapovedniki where bison could be introduced or reintroduced, noted Zablotskii, but their findings were completely ignored by Malinovskii in 1951, and none of the areas identified were spared.

119. Ibid.

120. Ibid.

121. Ibid., list 36.

122. Ibid., listy 41-42.

123. Ibid., list 43.

124. Ibid., listy 45-46.

125. Ibid., list 46.

126. Ibid., list 48. [BACK]

113. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 217, listy 17-18.

114. Ibid., list 30.

115. Ibid., listy 30-31.

116. Ibid., list 33.

117. Ibid., list 34.

118. Ibid., list 35. Evidence for his pessimism was based not only on his observations but on personal experience. For example, his Commission for the Protection and Restoration of the European Bison of the Academy of Science's Biological Division had identified a number of zapovedniki where bison could be introduced or reintroduced, noted Zablotskii, but their findings were completely ignored by Malinovskii in 1951, and none of the areas identified were spared.

119. Ibid.

120. Ibid.

121. Ibid., list 36.

122. Ibid., listy 41-42.

123. Ibid., list 43.

124. Ibid., listy 45-46.

125. Ibid., list 46.

126. Ibid., list 48. [BACK]

113. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 217, listy 17-18.

114. Ibid., list 30.

115. Ibid., listy 30-31.

116. Ibid., list 33.

117. Ibid., list 34.

118. Ibid., list 35. Evidence for his pessimism was based not only on his observations but on personal experience. For example, his Commission for the Protection and Restoration of the European Bison of the Academy of Science's Biological Division had identified a number of zapovedniki where bison could be introduced or reintroduced, noted Zablotskii, but their findings were completely ignored by Malinovskii in 1951, and none of the areas identified were spared.

119. Ibid.

120. Ibid.

121. Ibid., list 36.

122. Ibid., listy 41-42.

123. Ibid., list 43.

124. Ibid., listy 45-46.

125. Ibid., list 46.

126. Ibid., list 48. [BACK]

113. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 217, listy 17-18.

114. Ibid., list 30.

115. Ibid., listy 30-31.

116. Ibid., list 33.

117. Ibid., list 34.

118. Ibid., list 35. Evidence for his pessimism was based not only on his observations but on personal experience. For example, his Commission for the Protection and Restoration of the European Bison of the Academy of Science's Biological Division had identified a number of zapovedniki where bison could be introduced or reintroduced, noted Zablotskii, but their findings were completely ignored by Malinovskii in 1951, and none of the areas identified were spared.

119. Ibid.

120. Ibid.

121. Ibid., list 36.

122. Ibid., listy 41-42.

123. Ibid., list 43.

124. Ibid., listy 45-46.

125. Ibid., list 46.

126. Ibid., list 48. [BACK]

113. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 217, listy 17-18.

114. Ibid., list 30.

115. Ibid., listy 30-31.

116. Ibid., list 33.

117. Ibid., list 34.

118. Ibid., list 35. Evidence for his pessimism was based not only on his observations but on personal experience. For example, his Commission for the Protection and Restoration of the European Bison of the Academy of Science's Biological Division had identified a number of zapovedniki where bison could be introduced or reintroduced, noted Zablotskii, but their findings were completely ignored by Malinovskii in 1951, and none of the areas identified were spared.

119. Ibid.

120. Ibid.

121. Ibid., list 36.

122. Ibid., listy 41-42.

123. Ibid., list 43.

124. Ibid., listy 45-46.

125. Ibid., list 46.

126. Ibid., list 48. [BACK]

113. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 217, listy 17-18.

114. Ibid., list 30.

115. Ibid., listy 30-31.

116. Ibid., list 33.

117. Ibid., list 34.

118. Ibid., list 35. Evidence for his pessimism was based not only on his observations but on personal experience. For example, his Commission for the Protection and Restoration of the European Bison of the Academy of Science's Biological Division had identified a number of zapovedniki where bison could be introduced or reintroduced, noted Zablotskii, but their findings were completely ignored by Malinovskii in 1951, and none of the areas identified were spared.

119. Ibid.

120. Ibid.

121. Ibid., list 36.

122. Ibid., listy 41-42.

123. Ibid., list 43.

124. Ibid., listy 45-46.

125. Ibid., list 46.

126. Ibid., list 48. [BACK]

113. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 217, listy 17-18.

114. Ibid., list 30.

115. Ibid., listy 30-31.

116. Ibid., list 33.

117. Ibid., list 34.

118. Ibid., list 35. Evidence for his pessimism was based not only on his observations but on personal experience. For example, his Commission for the Protection and Restoration of the European Bison of the Academy of Science's Biological Division had identified a number of zapovedniki where bison could be introduced or reintroduced, noted Zablotskii, but their findings were completely ignored by Malinovskii in 1951, and none of the areas identified were spared.

119. Ibid.

120. Ibid.

121. Ibid., list 36.

122. Ibid., listy 41-42.

123. Ibid., list 43.

124. Ibid., listy 45-46.

125. Ibid., list 46.

126. Ibid., list 48. [BACK]

113. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 217, listy 17-18.

114. Ibid., list 30.

115. Ibid., listy 30-31.

116. Ibid., list 33.

117. Ibid., list 34.

118. Ibid., list 35. Evidence for his pessimism was based not only on his observations but on personal experience. For example, his Commission for the Protection and Restoration of the European Bison of the Academy of Science's Biological Division had identified a number of zapovedniki where bison could be introduced or reintroduced, noted Zablotskii, but their findings were completely ignored by Malinovskii in 1951, and none of the areas identified were spared.

119. Ibid.

120. Ibid.

121. Ibid., list 36.

122. Ibid., listy 41-42.

123. Ibid., list 43.

124. Ibid., listy 45-46.

125. Ibid., list 46.

126. Ibid., list 48. [BACK]

127. MOIP Archives, d. 55, list 67.

128. Ibid., list 68.

129. Ibid., list 69.

130. Ibid., list 73. break

131. Ibid., list 74.

132. Ibid., list 75. [BACK]

127. MOIP Archives, d. 55, list 67.

128. Ibid., list 68.

129. Ibid., list 69.

130. Ibid., list 73. break

131. Ibid., list 74.

132. Ibid., list 75. [BACK]

127. MOIP Archives, d. 55, list 67.

128. Ibid., list 68.

129. Ibid., list 69.

130. Ibid., list 73. break

131. Ibid., list 74.

132. Ibid., list 75. [BACK]

127. MOIP Archives, d. 55, list 67.

128. Ibid., list 68.

129. Ibid., list 69.

130. Ibid., list 73. break

131. Ibid., list 74.

132. Ibid., list 75. [BACK]

127. MOIP Archives, d. 55, list 67.

128. Ibid., list 68.

129. Ibid., list 69.

130. Ibid., list 73. break

131. Ibid., list 74.

132. Ibid., list 75. [BACK]

127. MOIP Archives, d. 55, list 67.

128. Ibid., list 68.

129. Ibid., list 69.

130. Ibid., list 73. break

131. Ibid., list 74.

132. Ibid., list 75. [BACK]

Chapter Eleven— A Time to Build

1. TsGA f. 259, op. 7, d. 5736, listy 61-62.

2. Ibid., listy 58-60.

3. Ibid., list 57. "Vypiska iz Protokola no. 103 zasedaniia Biuro SM RSFSR ot 18-ogo dekabria 1954 g."

4. Ibid., list 40.

5. Ibid., listy 39, 18, 27, and 37.

6. Ibid., listy 1-8. Postanovlenie SM RSFSR No. 1004 ot 9-ogo avgusta 1955 g. "Ob obrazovanii Glavnogo Upravleniia okhotnich'ego khoziaistva i zapovednikov pri SM RSFSR." [BACK]

1. TsGA f. 259, op. 7, d. 5736, listy 61-62.

2. Ibid., listy 58-60.

3. Ibid., list 57. "Vypiska iz Protokola no. 103 zasedaniia Biuro SM RSFSR ot 18-ogo dekabria 1954 g."

4. Ibid., list 40.

5. Ibid., listy 39, 18, 27, and 37.

6. Ibid., listy 1-8. Postanovlenie SM RSFSR No. 1004 ot 9-ogo avgusta 1955 g. "Ob obrazovanii Glavnogo Upravleniia okhotnich'ego khoziaistva i zapovednikov pri SM RSFSR." [BACK]

1. TsGA f. 259, op. 7, d. 5736, listy 61-62.

2. Ibid., listy 58-60.

3. Ibid., list 57. "Vypiska iz Protokola no. 103 zasedaniia Biuro SM RSFSR ot 18-ogo dekabria 1954 g."

4. Ibid., list 40.

5. Ibid., listy 39, 18, 27, and 37.

6. Ibid., listy 1-8. Postanovlenie SM RSFSR No. 1004 ot 9-ogo avgusta 1955 g. "Ob obrazovanii Glavnogo Upravleniia okhotnich'ego khoziaistva i zapovednikov pri SM RSFSR." [BACK]

1. TsGA f. 259, op. 7, d. 5736, listy 61-62.

2. Ibid., listy 58-60.

3. Ibid., list 57. "Vypiska iz Protokola no. 103 zasedaniia Biuro SM RSFSR ot 18-ogo dekabria 1954 g."

4. Ibid., list 40.

5. Ibid., listy 39, 18, 27, and 37.

6. Ibid., listy 1-8. Postanovlenie SM RSFSR No. 1004 ot 9-ogo avgusta 1955 g. "Ob obrazovanii Glavnogo Upravleniia okhotnich'ego khoziaistva i zapovednikov pri SM RSFSR." [BACK]

1. TsGA f. 259, op. 7, d. 5736, listy 61-62.

2. Ibid., listy 58-60.

3. Ibid., list 57. "Vypiska iz Protokola no. 103 zasedaniia Biuro SM RSFSR ot 18-ogo dekabria 1954 g."

4. Ibid., list 40.

5. Ibid., listy 39, 18, 27, and 37.

6. Ibid., listy 1-8. Postanovlenie SM RSFSR No. 1004 ot 9-ogo avgusta 1955 g. "Ob obrazovanii Glavnogo Upravleniia okhotnich'ego khoziaistva i zapovednikov pri SM RSFSR." [BACK]

1. TsGA f. 259, op. 7, d. 5736, listy 61-62.

2. Ibid., listy 58-60.

3. Ibid., list 57. "Vypiska iz Protokola no. 103 zasedaniia Biuro SM RSFSR ot 18-ogo dekabria 1954 g."

4. Ibid., list 40.

5. Ibid., listy 39, 18, 27, and 37.

6. Ibid., listy 1-8. Postanovlenie SM RSFSR No. 1004 ot 9-ogo avgusta 1955 g. "Ob obrazovanii Glavnogo Upravleniia okhotnich'ego khoziaistva i zapovednikov pri SM RSFSR." [BACK]

7. TsGA f. 259, op. 7, d 8335, list 75. From Glavnoe upravlenie okhotnich'ego khoziaistva i zapovednikov pri Sovete ministrov RSFSR, Otchet o deiatel' nosti za 1955 god , listy 74-101.

8. Ibid., listy 82, 84.

9. Ibid. Citizens' inspectors were among Khrushchëv's innovations designed to transfer part of the burden of administration from the Party-state to carefully controlled citizens' groups. Eventually, the legal right to become credentialed citizens' inspectors for game and nature protection was restricted to members of VOOP. [BACK]

7. TsGA f. 259, op. 7, d 8335, list 75. From Glavnoe upravlenie okhotnich'ego khoziaistva i zapovednikov pri Sovete ministrov RSFSR, Otchet o deiatel' nosti za 1955 god , listy 74-101.

8. Ibid., listy 82, 84.

9. Ibid. Citizens' inspectors were among Khrushchëv's innovations designed to transfer part of the burden of administration from the Party-state to carefully controlled citizens' groups. Eventually, the legal right to become credentialed citizens' inspectors for game and nature protection was restricted to members of VOOP. [BACK]

7. TsGA f. 259, op. 7, d 8335, list 75. From Glavnoe upravlenie okhotnich'ego khoziaistva i zapovednikov pri Sovete ministrov RSFSR, Otchet o deiatel' nosti za 1955 god , listy 74-101.

8. Ibid., listy 82, 84.

9. Ibid. Citizens' inspectors were among Khrushchëv's innovations designed to transfer part of the burden of administration from the Party-state to carefully controlled citizens' groups. Eventually, the legal right to become credentialed citizens' inspectors for game and nature protection was restricted to members of VOOP. [BACK]

10. "Stenogramma Vsesoiuznogo soveshchaniia direktorov zapovednikov i okhotovedcheskikh khoziaistv," 27-28 ianvaria 1956 g. TsGA f. 358, op. 3, d. 160, list 1.

11. Ibid., list 7.

12. Ibid., listy 8-9.

13. Ibid., listy 9-10.

14. Ibid., listy 19-22.

15. Ibid., list 23.

16. Ibid., list 25. [BACK]

10. "Stenogramma Vsesoiuznogo soveshchaniia direktorov zapovednikov i okhotovedcheskikh khoziaistv," 27-28 ianvaria 1956 g. TsGA f. 358, op. 3, d. 160, list 1.

11. Ibid., list 7.

12. Ibid., listy 8-9.

13. Ibid., listy 9-10.

14. Ibid., listy 19-22.

15. Ibid., list 23.

16. Ibid., list 25. [BACK]

10. "Stenogramma Vsesoiuznogo soveshchaniia direktorov zapovednikov i okhotovedcheskikh khoziaistv," 27-28 ianvaria 1956 g. TsGA f. 358, op. 3, d. 160, list 1.

11. Ibid., list 7.

12. Ibid., listy 8-9.

13. Ibid., listy 9-10.

14. Ibid., listy 19-22.

15. Ibid., list 23.

16. Ibid., list 25. [BACK]

10. "Stenogramma Vsesoiuznogo soveshchaniia direktorov zapovednikov i okhotovedcheskikh khoziaistv," 27-28 ianvaria 1956 g. TsGA f. 358, op. 3, d. 160, list 1.

11. Ibid., list 7.

12. Ibid., listy 8-9.

13. Ibid., listy 9-10.

14. Ibid., listy 19-22.

15. Ibid., list 23.

16. Ibid., list 25. [BACK]

10. "Stenogramma Vsesoiuznogo soveshchaniia direktorov zapovednikov i okhotovedcheskikh khoziaistv," 27-28 ianvaria 1956 g. TsGA f. 358, op. 3, d. 160, list 1.

11. Ibid., list 7.

12. Ibid., listy 8-9.

13. Ibid., listy 9-10.

14. Ibid., listy 19-22.

15. Ibid., list 23.

16. Ibid., list 25. [BACK]

10. "Stenogramma Vsesoiuznogo soveshchaniia direktorov zapovednikov i okhotovedcheskikh khoziaistv," 27-28 ianvaria 1956 g. TsGA f. 358, op. 3, d. 160, list 1.

11. Ibid., list 7.

12. Ibid., listy 8-9.

13. Ibid., listy 9-10.

14. Ibid., listy 19-22.

15. Ibid., list 23.

16. Ibid., list 25. [BACK]

10. "Stenogramma Vsesoiuznogo soveshchaniia direktorov zapovednikov i okhotovedcheskikh khoziaistv," 27-28 ianvaria 1956 g. TsGA f. 358, op. 3, d. 160, list 1.

11. Ibid., list 7.

12. Ibid., listy 8-9.

13. Ibid., listy 9-10.

14. Ibid., listy 19-22.

15. Ibid., list 23.

16. Ibid., list 25. [BACK]

17. TsGA 358, op. 3, d. 58 , list 181.

18. Ibid., listy 181-82.

19. Ibid., list 183.

20. Ibid., list 189.

21. Ibid., listy 37-39.

22. Ibid., list 121.

23. Ibid., list 198. This use of zubr is almost identical to D. Granin's use of the term in his biography of N. V Timofeev-Resovskii, Zubr On zubry see especially Gusev, "V zashchitu zubra i zubrov."

24. Ibid. [BACK]

17. TsGA 358, op. 3, d. 58 , list 181.

18. Ibid., listy 181-82.

19. Ibid., list 183.

20. Ibid., list 189.

21. Ibid., listy 37-39.

22. Ibid., list 121.

23. Ibid., list 198. This use of zubr is almost identical to D. Granin's use of the term in his biography of N. V Timofeev-Resovskii, Zubr On zubry see especially Gusev, "V zashchitu zubra i zubrov."

24. Ibid. [BACK]

17. TsGA 358, op. 3, d. 58 , list 181.

18. Ibid., listy 181-82.

19. Ibid., list 183.

20. Ibid., list 189.

21. Ibid., listy 37-39.

22. Ibid., list 121.

23. Ibid., list 198. This use of zubr is almost identical to D. Granin's use of the term in his biography of N. V Timofeev-Resovskii, Zubr On zubry see especially Gusev, "V zashchitu zubra i zubrov."

24. Ibid. [BACK]

17. TsGA 358, op. 3, d. 58 , list 181.

18. Ibid., listy 181-82.

19. Ibid., list 183.

20. Ibid., list 189.

21. Ibid., listy 37-39.

22. Ibid., list 121.

23. Ibid., list 198. This use of zubr is almost identical to D. Granin's use of the term in his biography of N. V Timofeev-Resovskii, Zubr On zubry see especially Gusev, "V zashchitu zubra i zubrov."

24. Ibid. [BACK]

17. TsGA 358, op. 3, d. 58 , list 181.

18. Ibid., listy 181-82.

19. Ibid., list 183.

20. Ibid., list 189.

21. Ibid., listy 37-39.

22. Ibid., list 121.

23. Ibid., list 198. This use of zubr is almost identical to D. Granin's use of the term in his biography of N. V Timofeev-Resovskii, Zubr On zubry see especially Gusev, "V zashchitu zubra i zubrov."

24. Ibid. [BACK]

17. TsGA 358, op. 3, d. 58 , list 181.

18. Ibid., listy 181-82.

19. Ibid., list 183.

20. Ibid., list 189.

21. Ibid., listy 37-39.

22. Ibid., list 121.

23. Ibid., list 198. This use of zubr is almost identical to D. Granin's use of the term in his biography of N. V Timofeev-Resovskii, Zubr On zubry see especially Gusev, "V zashchitu zubra i zubrov."

24. Ibid. [BACK]

17. TsGA 358, op. 3, d. 58 , list 181.

18. Ibid., listy 181-82.

19. Ibid., list 183.

20. Ibid., list 189.

21. Ibid., listy 37-39.

22. Ibid., list 121.

23. Ibid., list 198. This use of zubr is almost identical to D. Granin's use of the term in his biography of N. V Timofeev-Resovskii, Zubr On zubry see especially Gusev, "V zashchitu zubra i zubrov."

24. Ibid. [BACK]

17. TsGA 358, op. 3, d. 58 , list 181.

18. Ibid., listy 181-82.

19. Ibid., list 183.

20. Ibid., list 189.

21. Ibid., listy 37-39.

22. Ibid., list 121.

23. Ibid., list 198. This use of zubr is almost identical to D. Granin's use of the term in his biography of N. V Timofeev-Resovskii, Zubr On zubry see especially Gusev, "V zashchitu zubra i zubrov."

24. Ibid. [BACK]

25. TsGA f. 358, op. 3, d. 581, listy 145-57. Many examples were drawn from the United States.

26. Ibid., listy 199-200.

27. Ibid., list 202.

28. Ibid., listy 94-95. [BACK]

25. TsGA f. 358, op. 3, d. 581, listy 145-57. Many examples were drawn from the United States.

26. Ibid., listy 199-200.

27. Ibid., list 202.

28. Ibid., listy 94-95. [BACK]

25. TsGA f. 358, op. 3, d. 581, listy 145-57. Many examples were drawn from the United States.

26. Ibid., listy 199-200.

27. Ibid., list 202.

28. Ibid., listy 94-95. [BACK]

25. TsGA f. 358, op. 3, d. 581, listy 145-57. Many examples were drawn from the United States.

26. Ibid., listy 199-200.

27. Ibid., list 202.

28. Ibid., listy 94-95. [BACK]

29. TsGA f. 259, op. 7 , d. 702 1, listy 39-44. See especially listy 41-42. Report ( spravka ) of N. Krutorogov to the RSFSR Council of Ministers, April 4, 1956. break

30. Ibid., list 42.

31. Ibid.

32. Ibid. [BACK]

29. TsGA f. 259, op. 7 , d. 702 1, listy 39-44. See especially listy 41-42. Report ( spravka ) of N. Krutorogov to the RSFSR Council of Ministers, April 4, 1956. break

30. Ibid., list 42.

31. Ibid.

32. Ibid. [BACK]

29. TsGA f. 259, op. 7 , d. 702 1, listy 39-44. See especially listy 41-42. Report ( spravka ) of N. Krutorogov to the RSFSR Council of Ministers, April 4, 1956. break

30. Ibid., list 42.

31. Ibid.

32. Ibid. [BACK]

29. TsGA f. 259, op. 7 , d. 702 1, listy 39-44. See especially listy 41-42. Report ( spravka ) of N. Krutorogov to the RSFSR Council of Ministers, April 4, 1956. break

30. Ibid., list 42.

31. Ibid.

32. Ibid. [BACK]

33. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 237, listy 139-40. [BACK]

34. The 1956 figure is in TsGA 259, op. 7, d. 7021, list 41. The 1960 figure is in TsGA f. 259, op. 42, d. 5807, list 39. Otchet o deiatel'nosti Glavnogo upravleniia okhotnich 'ego khoziaistva i zapovednikov pri SM RSFSR za 1959 god . [BACK]

35. TsGA f. 259, op. 42, d. 5807, list 39. [BACK]

36. In 1959 two academicians, thirty-two doctors of science, and eighty-five candidates of science as well as twenty-seven foreign scientists visited the reserves, chiefly to conduct research. Ibid., list 42. The report also informs us that in 1959 alone ten fascicles of scientific proceedings of the zapovedniki were published, which included 113 separate articles by seventy-nine authors. Additionally, 125 other articles resulting from research conducted in the reserves were published in such journals as Priroda , Okhota i okhotnich'e khoziaistvo , Botanicheskii zhurnal , Zoologicheskii zhurnal , and other publications. [BACK]

37. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 247, listy 13-14 rev. [BACK]

38. TsGA f. 259, op. 6, d. 8330, listy 15-31. See especially list 25. Letter of N. Masterov to V. A. Karlov, May 18, 1957. [BACK]

39. Okhota i okhotnich'e khoziaistvo 4 (1957): 63. [BACK]

40. Bel'skii, "Zapovedniki i okhotnich'e khoziaistvo." [BACK]

41. Interview with Iurii Konstantinovich Efremov, Moscow, August 4, 1995. Postanovlenie Prezidiuma Akademii nauk SSSR ot 11 marta 1955 g. no. 106, "O reorganizatsii Komissii po zapovednikam v Komissiiu po okhrane prirody." See "Khronika."

42. Ibid., 129. The only contradictory note sounded by the decree was the transfer of the reorganized committee from a direct attachment to the Presidium to affiliation with the Academy's Division of Biology.

43. Ibid.

44. Ibid., 129-31. [BACK]

41. Interview with Iurii Konstantinovich Efremov, Moscow, August 4, 1995. Postanovlenie Prezidiuma Akademii nauk SSSR ot 11 marta 1955 g. no. 106, "O reorganizatsii Komissii po zapovednikam v Komissiiu po okhrane prirody." See "Khronika."

42. Ibid., 129. The only contradictory note sounded by the decree was the transfer of the reorganized committee from a direct attachment to the Presidium to affiliation with the Academy's Division of Biology.

43. Ibid.

44. Ibid., 129-31. [BACK]

41. Interview with Iurii Konstantinovich Efremov, Moscow, August 4, 1995. Postanovlenie Prezidiuma Akademii nauk SSSR ot 11 marta 1955 g. no. 106, "O reorganizatsii Komissii po zapovednikam v Komissiiu po okhrane prirody." See "Khronika."

42. Ibid., 129. The only contradictory note sounded by the decree was the transfer of the reorganized committee from a direct attachment to the Presidium to affiliation with the Academy's Division of Biology.

43. Ibid.

44. Ibid., 129-31. [BACK]

41. Interview with Iurii Konstantinovich Efremov, Moscow, August 4, 1995. Postanovlenie Prezidiuma Akademii nauk SSSR ot 11 marta 1955 g. no. 106, "O reorganizatsii Komissii po zapovednikam v Komissiiu po okhrane prirody." See "Khronika."

42. Ibid., 129. The only contradictory note sounded by the decree was the transfer of the reorganized committee from a direct attachment to the Presidium to affiliation with the Academy's Division of Biology.

43. Ibid.

44. Ibid., 129-31. [BACK]

45. RGAE f. 544, op. 1, d. 141, listy 6-8. [BACK]

46. See Dement'ev, "Deiatel'nost'"; and the transcript of his remarks in Protokol koordinirovannogo soveshchaniia Komissii po okhrane prirody AN SSSR s predstavilteliami komissii po okhrane prirody AN soiuznykh respublik, ministerstv, i vedomstv v Moskve, 6 aprelia 1956 g. RGAE, f. 544, op. 1, d. 30, listy 26-27. [BACK]

47. Dement'ev, "Deiatel'nost'," 4.

48. Ibid.

49. Ibid., 5.

50. Ibid., 11.

51. Ibid., 6-7.

52. Ibid., 7. [BACK]

47. Dement'ev, "Deiatel'nost'," 4.

48. Ibid.

49. Ibid., 5.

50. Ibid., 11.

51. Ibid., 6-7.

52. Ibid., 7. [BACK]

47. Dement'ev, "Deiatel'nost'," 4.

48. Ibid.

49. Ibid., 5.

50. Ibid., 11.

51. Ibid., 6-7.

52. Ibid., 7. [BACK]

47. Dement'ev, "Deiatel'nost'," 4.

48. Ibid.

49. Ibid., 5.

50. Ibid., 11.

51. Ibid., 6-7.

52. Ibid., 7. [BACK]

47. Dement'ev, "Deiatel'nost'," 4.

48. Ibid.

49. Ibid., 5.

50. Ibid., 11.

51. Ibid., 6-7.

52. Ibid., 7. [BACK]

47. Dement'ev, "Deiatel'nost'," 4.

48. Ibid.

49. Ibid., 5.

50. Ibid., 11.

51. Ibid., 6-7.

52. Ibid., 7. [BACK]

53. Nauchnye s " ezdy, konferentsii i soveshchaniia v SSSR , 2: 118. [BACK]

54. Dement'ev, "Deiatel'nost'," 9.

55. Ibid., 9-10. [BACK]

54. Dement'ev, "Deiatel'nost'," 9.

55. Ibid., 9-10. [BACK]

56. RGAE f. 544, op. 1, d. 30, list 26. [BACK]

57. These included the Institute for Nature Protection of the Polish Academy of Sciences, the Commission for Nature Protection of the Romanian Academy of Sciences, the Society for Nature Protection of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, the continue

Yugoslav Institute for Nature Protection, the Hungarian Nature Protection Council, the Administration for the Protection of Nature of the Czechoslovakian Ministry of Culture, and even the Scientific Institute of Albania. [BACK]

58. Dement'ev, "Deiatel'nost'," 10. The visit was that of a delegation of the Académie Française, of which IUPN's president, Roger Heym, was a member.

59. Ibid., 12-13.

60. Ibid., 14-15. [BACK]

58. Dement'ev, "Deiatel'nost'," 10. The visit was that of a delegation of the Académie Française, of which IUPN's president, Roger Heym, was a member.

59. Ibid., 12-13.

60. Ibid., 14-15. [BACK]

58. Dement'ev, "Deiatel'nost'," 10. The visit was that of a delegation of the Académie Française, of which IUPN's president, Roger Heym, was a member.

59. Ibid., 12-13.

60. Ibid., 14-15. [BACK]

61. Dubinin, "Soveshchanie po okhrane prirody SSSR," 1436-38. It was almost certainly Dubinin who raised the issue, since it occupies a full third of his overall report on the conference. [BACK]

62. Borisov, "V Komissii po okhrane prirody Akademii nauk SSSR," 145-48.

63. Ibid., 147.

64. Ibid. [BACK]

62. Borisov, "V Komissii po okhrane prirody Akademii nauk SSSR," 145-48.

63. Ibid., 147.

64. Ibid. [BACK]

62. Borisov, "V Komissii po okhrane prirody Akademii nauk SSSR," 145-48.

63. Ibid., 147.

64. Ibid. [BACK]

65. Shaposhnikov, "Deiatel'nost' Komissii," 106-7.

66. Ibid., 108.

67. Ibid., 109.

68. Ibid., 113-14. [BACK]

65. Shaposhnikov, "Deiatel'nost' Komissii," 106-7.

66. Ibid., 108.

67. Ibid., 109.

68. Ibid., 113-14. [BACK]

65. Shaposhnikov, "Deiatel'nost' Komissii," 106-7.

66. Ibid., 108.

67. Ibid., 109.

68. Ibid., 113-14. [BACK]

65. Shaposhnikov, "Deiatel'nost' Komissii," 106-7.

66. Ibid., 108.

67. Ibid., 109.

68. Ibid., 113-14. [BACK]

69. It is reproduced in Kabachnik, Aleksandr Nikolaevich Nesmeinov , 238-42. [BACK]

70. TsGA f. 259, op. 42, d. 1513, listy 64-65. [BACK]

71. RGAE f. 544, op. 1, d. 141, list 22-24.

72. Ibid., list 25 .

73. Ibid., list 27.

74. Ibid., list 28.

75. Ibid., listy 32-37. [BACK]

71. RGAE f. 544, op. 1, d. 141, list 22-24.

72. Ibid., list 25 .

73. Ibid., list 27.

74. Ibid., list 28.

75. Ibid., listy 32-37. [BACK]

71. RGAE f. 544, op. 1, d. 141, list 22-24.

72. Ibid., list 25 .

73. Ibid., list 27.

74. Ibid., list 28.

75. Ibid., listy 32-37. [BACK]

71. RGAE f. 544, op. 1, d. 141, list 22-24.

72. Ibid., list 25 .

73. Ibid., list 27.

74. Ibid., list 28.

75. Ibid., listy 32-37. [BACK]

71. RGAE f. 544, op. 1, d. 141, list 22-24.

72. Ibid., list 25 .

73. Ibid., list 27.

74. Ibid., list 28.

75. Ibid., listy 32-37. [BACK]

Chapter Twelve— A Time to Meet

1. Interview with Konstantin Mikhailovich Efron, Moscow, August 2, 1995. [BACK]

2. I have taken many ideas here from Iurii Konstantinovich Efremov, whom I interviewed in Moscow on August 4, 1995. [BACK]

3. Interview with Iurii Konstantinovich Efremov, Moscow, August 4, 1995.

4. Ibid. [BACK]

3. Interview with Iurii Konstantinovich Efremov, Moscow, August 4, 1995.

4. Ibid. [BACK]

5. Letter of Iurii Andreevich Zhdanov to the author, July 28, 1995. [BACK]

6. Efremov, Nauchno - obshchestvennoe , 12.

7. Ibid. [BACK]

6. Efremov, Nauchno - obshchestvennoe , 12.

7. Ibid. [BACK]

8. Personal papers of lu. K. Efremov, Vystuplenie Iu. K. Efremova, Soveshchanie u Glavnogo redaktora "Pravdy" P. A. Satiukova, June 5, 1957, list 2.

9. Ibid.

10. Ibid., list 3.

11. Ibid., listy 3-4.

12. Ibid., list 5.

13. Ibid., list 6.

14. Ibid.

15. Ibid., list 7.

16. Ibid., list 9.

17. Ibid. break [BACK]

8. Personal papers of lu. K. Efremov, Vystuplenie Iu. K. Efremova, Soveshchanie u Glavnogo redaktora "Pravdy" P. A. Satiukova, June 5, 1957, list 2.

9. Ibid.

10. Ibid., list 3.

11. Ibid., listy 3-4.

12. Ibid., list 5.

13. Ibid., list 6.

14. Ibid.

15. Ibid., list 7.

16. Ibid., list 9.

17. Ibid. break [BACK]

8. Personal papers of lu. K. Efremov, Vystuplenie Iu. K. Efremova, Soveshchanie u Glavnogo redaktora "Pravdy" P. A. Satiukova, June 5, 1957, list 2.

9. Ibid.

10. Ibid., list 3.

11. Ibid., listy 3-4.

12. Ibid., list 5.

13. Ibid., list 6.

14. Ibid.

15. Ibid., list 7.

16. Ibid., list 9.

17. Ibid. break [BACK]

8. Personal papers of lu. K. Efremov, Vystuplenie Iu. K. Efremova, Soveshchanie u Glavnogo redaktora "Pravdy" P. A. Satiukova, June 5, 1957, list 2.

9. Ibid.

10. Ibid., list 3.

11. Ibid., listy 3-4.

12. Ibid., list 5.

13. Ibid., list 6.

14. Ibid.

15. Ibid., list 7.

16. Ibid., list 9.

17. Ibid. break [BACK]

8. Personal papers of lu. K. Efremov, Vystuplenie Iu. K. Efremova, Soveshchanie u Glavnogo redaktora "Pravdy" P. A. Satiukova, June 5, 1957, list 2.

9. Ibid.

10. Ibid., list 3.

11. Ibid., listy 3-4.

12. Ibid., list 5.

13. Ibid., list 6.

14. Ibid.

15. Ibid., list 7.

16. Ibid., list 9.

17. Ibid. break [BACK]

8. Personal papers of lu. K. Efremov, Vystuplenie Iu. K. Efremova, Soveshchanie u Glavnogo redaktora "Pravdy" P. A. Satiukova, June 5, 1957, list 2.

9. Ibid.

10. Ibid., list 3.

11. Ibid., listy 3-4.

12. Ibid., list 5.

13. Ibid., list 6.

14. Ibid.

15. Ibid., list 7.

16. Ibid., list 9.

17. Ibid. break [BACK]

8. Personal papers of lu. K. Efremov, Vystuplenie Iu. K. Efremova, Soveshchanie u Glavnogo redaktora "Pravdy" P. A. Satiukova, June 5, 1957, list 2.

9. Ibid.

10. Ibid., list 3.

11. Ibid., listy 3-4.

12. Ibid., list 5.

13. Ibid., list 6.

14. Ibid.

15. Ibid., list 7.

16. Ibid., list 9.

17. Ibid. break [BACK]

8. Personal papers of lu. K. Efremov, Vystuplenie Iu. K. Efremova, Soveshchanie u Glavnogo redaktora "Pravdy" P. A. Satiukova, June 5, 1957, list 2.

9. Ibid.

10. Ibid., list 3.

11. Ibid., listy 3-4.

12. Ibid., list 5.

13. Ibid., list 6.

14. Ibid.

15. Ibid., list 7.

16. Ibid., list 9.

17. Ibid. break [BACK]

8. Personal papers of lu. K. Efremov, Vystuplenie Iu. K. Efremova, Soveshchanie u Glavnogo redaktora "Pravdy" P. A. Satiukova, June 5, 1957, list 2.

9. Ibid.

10. Ibid., list 3.

11. Ibid., listy 3-4.

12. Ibid., list 5.

13. Ibid., list 6.

14. Ibid.

15. Ibid., list 7.

16. Ibid., list 9.

17. Ibid. break [BACK]

8. Personal papers of lu. K. Efremov, Vystuplenie Iu. K. Efremova, Soveshchanie u Glavnogo redaktora "Pravdy" P. A. Satiukova, June 5, 1957, list 2.

9. Ibid.

10. Ibid., list 3.

11. Ibid., listy 3-4.

12. Ibid., list 5.

13. Ibid., list 6.

14. Ibid.

15. Ibid., list 7.

16. Ibid., list 9.

17. Ibid. break [BACK]

18. Interview with Iurii Konstantinovich Efremov, Moscow, August 4, 1995. [BACK]

19. The text of the law was published in Pravda on October 28, 1960. I have drawn largely from Philip R. Pryde's translation, contained in appendix 3 of his Conservation in the Soviet Union , 180-83. [BACK]

20. See Geograficheskoe obshchestvo . The figure is for 1967. [BACK]

21. Sobolev and Syroechkovskii, "Voprosy okhrany prirodnykh resursov strany," 142-43. For a list of twelve of those talks, see Voprosy geografii 48 (1960): 303-4. [BACK]

22. Geograficheskoe obshchestvo , 52-66.

23. Ibid., 61.

24. Ibid., 77. [BACK]

22. Geograficheskoe obshchestvo , 52-66.

23. Ibid., 61.

24. Ibid., 77. [BACK]

22. Geograficheskoe obshchestvo , 52-66.

23. Ibid., 61.

24. Ibid., 77. [BACK]

25. See MOIP Archives, d. 63, "Stenogramma sovmestnogo zasedaniia Komissii po okhrane prirody MOIP i Mammalogicheskoi sektsii Vserossiiskogo obshchestva sodeistviia okhrany prirody i ozeleneniia naselennykh punktov, 15 fevralia 1955 g. Geptner noted at the meeting, "Naturally, nature protection is of concern to very broad circles of public opinion. That is one of the reasons why the Society of Naturalists created a Commission for Nature Protection and so that the society, which has always held issues of nature protection close to its heart, could have some sort of organizational means to facilitate public discussion and to bring its influence to bear on the problem" (listy 1-2). The section was created in 1954 under the chairmanship of F. N. Petrov. [BACK]

26. ARAN St. Pbg., f. 996, op. 5, d. 372, listy 1-2. In this letter of December 29, 1956, for example, Protopopov wrote to corresponding member Evgenii Mikhailovich Lavrenko, head of the Academy Commission's group for developing a prospective plan for new zapovedniki , asking him to serve as the keynote speaker. [BACK]

27. MOIP: Otchet o rabote obshchestva , 34. [BACK]

28. Trudy soveshchaniia po voprosam okhrany redkikh i ischezaiushchikh vidov rasteniii izhivotnykh i unikal'nykh geologicheskikh ob"ektov ( 25 - 30 marta 1957 g .) (Moscow, 1959), 14. Unpublished, hand-bound proof, located in the MOIP Archives. There is also a Stenogramma soveshchaniia po redkim, tsennym i ischezaiushchim vidam rastenii i zhivotnykh, po unikal'nym geologicheskim ob"ektam in the MOIP Archives as well, d. 110 (the title of the conference varies with the editor, stenographer, etc.). [BACK]

29. Trudy soveshchaniia , 18.

30. Ibid., 19.

31. Ibid.

32. Ibid., 26.

33. Ibid.

34. Ibid., 26-27.

35. Ibid., 27-28.

36. Ibid., 28-29. In an article Peredel'skii coauthored with A. M. Kuzin, "Okhrana prirody i nekotorye voprosy radioaktivno-ekologicheskikh sviazei," there is a copious bibliography of both Soviet and foreign works. However, N. V. TimofeevResovskii, the premier population geneticist, is not mentioned. That is thoroughly understandable, however, because Timofeev-Resovskii was still in bad political odor and was also working in a secret nuclear-related facility in the southern Urals. [BACK]

29. Trudy soveshchaniia , 18.

30. Ibid., 19.

31. Ibid.

32. Ibid., 26.

33. Ibid.

34. Ibid., 26-27.

35. Ibid., 27-28.

36. Ibid., 28-29. In an article Peredel'skii coauthored with A. M. Kuzin, "Okhrana prirody i nekotorye voprosy radioaktivno-ekologicheskikh sviazei," there is a copious bibliography of both Soviet and foreign works. However, N. V. TimofeevResovskii, the premier population geneticist, is not mentioned. That is thoroughly understandable, however, because Timofeev-Resovskii was still in bad political odor and was also working in a secret nuclear-related facility in the southern Urals. [BACK]

29. Trudy soveshchaniia , 18.

30. Ibid., 19.

31. Ibid.

32. Ibid., 26.

33. Ibid.

34. Ibid., 26-27.

35. Ibid., 27-28.

36. Ibid., 28-29. In an article Peredel'skii coauthored with A. M. Kuzin, "Okhrana prirody i nekotorye voprosy radioaktivno-ekologicheskikh sviazei," there is a copious bibliography of both Soviet and foreign works. However, N. V. TimofeevResovskii, the premier population geneticist, is not mentioned. That is thoroughly understandable, however, because Timofeev-Resovskii was still in bad political odor and was also working in a secret nuclear-related facility in the southern Urals. [BACK]

29. Trudy soveshchaniia , 18.

30. Ibid., 19.

31. Ibid.

32. Ibid., 26.

33. Ibid.

34. Ibid., 26-27.

35. Ibid., 27-28.

36. Ibid., 28-29. In an article Peredel'skii coauthored with A. M. Kuzin, "Okhrana prirody i nekotorye voprosy radioaktivno-ekologicheskikh sviazei," there is a copious bibliography of both Soviet and foreign works. However, N. V. TimofeevResovskii, the premier population geneticist, is not mentioned. That is thoroughly understandable, however, because Timofeev-Resovskii was still in bad political odor and was also working in a secret nuclear-related facility in the southern Urals. [BACK]

29. Trudy soveshchaniia , 18.

30. Ibid., 19.

31. Ibid.

32. Ibid., 26.

33. Ibid.

34. Ibid., 26-27.

35. Ibid., 27-28.

36. Ibid., 28-29. In an article Peredel'skii coauthored with A. M. Kuzin, "Okhrana prirody i nekotorye voprosy radioaktivno-ekologicheskikh sviazei," there is a copious bibliography of both Soviet and foreign works. However, N. V. TimofeevResovskii, the premier population geneticist, is not mentioned. That is thoroughly understandable, however, because Timofeev-Resovskii was still in bad political odor and was also working in a secret nuclear-related facility in the southern Urals. [BACK]

29. Trudy soveshchaniia , 18.

30. Ibid., 19.

31. Ibid.

32. Ibid., 26.

33. Ibid.

34. Ibid., 26-27.

35. Ibid., 27-28.

36. Ibid., 28-29. In an article Peredel'skii coauthored with A. M. Kuzin, "Okhrana prirody i nekotorye voprosy radioaktivno-ekologicheskikh sviazei," there is a copious bibliography of both Soviet and foreign works. However, N. V. TimofeevResovskii, the premier population geneticist, is not mentioned. That is thoroughly understandable, however, because Timofeev-Resovskii was still in bad political odor and was also working in a secret nuclear-related facility in the southern Urals. [BACK]

29. Trudy soveshchaniia , 18.

30. Ibid., 19.

31. Ibid.

32. Ibid., 26.

33. Ibid.

34. Ibid., 26-27.

35. Ibid., 27-28.

36. Ibid., 28-29. In an article Peredel'skii coauthored with A. M. Kuzin, "Okhrana prirody i nekotorye voprosy radioaktivno-ekologicheskikh sviazei," there is a copious bibliography of both Soviet and foreign works. However, N. V. TimofeevResovskii, the premier population geneticist, is not mentioned. That is thoroughly understandable, however, because Timofeev-Resovskii was still in bad political odor and was also working in a secret nuclear-related facility in the southern Urals. [BACK]

29. Trudy soveshchaniia , 18.

30. Ibid., 19.

31. Ibid.

32. Ibid., 26.

33. Ibid.

34. Ibid., 26-27.

35. Ibid., 27-28.

36. Ibid., 28-29. In an article Peredel'skii coauthored with A. M. Kuzin, "Okhrana prirody i nekotorye voprosy radioaktivno-ekologicheskikh sviazei," there is a copious bibliography of both Soviet and foreign works. However, N. V. TimofeevResovskii, the premier population geneticist, is not mentioned. That is thoroughly understandable, however, because Timofeev-Resovskii was still in bad political odor and was also working in a secret nuclear-related facility in the southern Urals. [BACK]

37. MOIP Archives, d. 110. Stenogramma soveshchaniia po redkim, tsennym i ischezaiushchim vidam rastenii i zhivotnykh, po unikal'nym geologicheskim ob"ektam, zasedanie ob"edinennoi sessii, 29 marta 1957 g., vecher, list 14. break

38. Ibid., list 19 .

39. Ibid.

40. Ibid., list 20.

41. Ibid., list 21.

42. Ibid., list 26.

43. Ibid., list 27.

44. Ibid., list 34.

45. Ibid., list 35. [BACK]

37. MOIP Archives, d. 110. Stenogramma soveshchaniia po redkim, tsennym i ischezaiushchim vidam rastenii i zhivotnykh, po unikal'nym geologicheskim ob"ektam, zasedanie ob"edinennoi sessii, 29 marta 1957 g., vecher, list 14. break

38. Ibid., list 19 .

39. Ibid.

40. Ibid., list 20.

41. Ibid., list 21.

42. Ibid., list 26.

43. Ibid., list 27.

44. Ibid., list 34.

45. Ibid., list 35. [BACK]

37. MOIP Archives, d. 110. Stenogramma soveshchaniia po redkim, tsennym i ischezaiushchim vidam rastenii i zhivotnykh, po unikal'nym geologicheskim ob"ektam, zasedanie ob"edinennoi sessii, 29 marta 1957 g., vecher, list 14. break

38. Ibid., list 19 .

39. Ibid.

40. Ibid., list 20.

41. Ibid., list 21.

42. Ibid., list 26.

43. Ibid., list 27.

44. Ibid., list 34.

45. Ibid., list 35. [BACK]

37. MOIP Archives, d. 110. Stenogramma soveshchaniia po redkim, tsennym i ischezaiushchim vidam rastenii i zhivotnykh, po unikal'nym geologicheskim ob"ektam, zasedanie ob"edinennoi sessii, 29 marta 1957 g., vecher, list 14. break

38. Ibid., list 19 .

39. Ibid.

40. Ibid., list 20.

41. Ibid., list 21.

42. Ibid., list 26.

43. Ibid., list 27.

44. Ibid., list 34.

45. Ibid., list 35. [BACK]

37. MOIP Archives, d. 110. Stenogramma soveshchaniia po redkim, tsennym i ischezaiushchim vidam rastenii i zhivotnykh, po unikal'nym geologicheskim ob"ektam, zasedanie ob"edinennoi sessii, 29 marta 1957 g., vecher, list 14. break

38. Ibid., list 19 .

39. Ibid.

40. Ibid., list 20.

41. Ibid., list 21.

42. Ibid., list 26.

43. Ibid., list 27.

44. Ibid., list 34.

45. Ibid., list 35. [BACK]

37. MOIP Archives, d. 110. Stenogramma soveshchaniia po redkim, tsennym i ischezaiushchim vidam rastenii i zhivotnykh, po unikal'nym geologicheskim ob"ektam, zasedanie ob"edinennoi sessii, 29 marta 1957 g., vecher, list 14. break

38. Ibid., list 19 .

39. Ibid.

40. Ibid., list 20.

41. Ibid., list 21.

42. Ibid., list 26.

43. Ibid., list 27.

44. Ibid., list 34.

45. Ibid., list 35. [BACK]

37. MOIP Archives, d. 110. Stenogramma soveshchaniia po redkim, tsennym i ischezaiushchim vidam rastenii i zhivotnykh, po unikal'nym geologicheskim ob"ektam, zasedanie ob"edinennoi sessii, 29 marta 1957 g., vecher, list 14. break

38. Ibid., list 19 .

39. Ibid.

40. Ibid., list 20.

41. Ibid., list 21.

42. Ibid., list 26.

43. Ibid., list 27.

44. Ibid., list 34.

45. Ibid., list 35. [BACK]

37. MOIP Archives, d. 110. Stenogramma soveshchaniia po redkim, tsennym i ischezaiushchim vidam rastenii i zhivotnykh, po unikal'nym geologicheskim ob"ektam, zasedanie ob"edinennoi sessii, 29 marta 1957 g., vecher, list 14. break

38. Ibid., list 19 .

39. Ibid.

40. Ibid., list 20.

41. Ibid., list 21.

42. Ibid., list 26.

43. Ibid., list 27.

44. Ibid., list 34.

45. Ibid., list 35. [BACK]

37. MOIP Archives, d. 110. Stenogramma soveshchaniia po redkim, tsennym i ischezaiushchim vidam rastenii i zhivotnykh, po unikal'nym geologicheskim ob"ektam, zasedanie ob"edinennoi sessii, 29 marta 1957 g., vecher, list 14. break

38. Ibid., list 19 .

39. Ibid.

40. Ibid., list 20.

41. Ibid., list 21.

42. Ibid., list 26.

43. Ibid., list 27.

44. Ibid., list 34.

45. Ibid., list 35. [BACK]

46. In the archive of V. A. Varsonof'eva there is an earlier typed draft of the resolutions with the editing that significantly softened that text. For instance, the sentence beginning "Nepopravimoe zlo prinosit blizorukoe planirovanie" (Nearsighted planning causes irreparable harm) was edited to "Nepopravimoe zlo prinosit v otdel'nykh sluchaiakh blizorukoe" (Nearsighted planning in some instances causes irreparable harm). See RGAE f. 3, op. 1, d. 148, listy 59-70. The actual resolutions were published in Voprosy geografii 48 (1960): 294-97. [BACK]

47. Interview with Konstantin Mikhailovich Efron, Moscow, August 2, 1995.

48. Ibid. Today the pages are too brittle to reproduce by xerox, raising the possibility that, without conservation, the censor may yet win in the end. Nevertheless, the story of the conference and of the fate of its proceedings both continue to live as inspirational stories among the scientific intelligentsia. [BACK]

47. Interview with Konstantin Mikhailovich Efron, Moscow, August 2, 1995.

48. Ibid. Today the pages are too brittle to reproduce by xerox, raising the possibility that, without conservation, the censor may yet win in the end. Nevertheless, the story of the conference and of the fate of its proceedings both continue to live as inspirational stories among the scientific intelligentsia. [BACK]

49. Bosse, Gekker, Geptner, Kabanov, Nasimovich, Nikol'skii, Formozov, and Chernenko, "V zashchitu zapovednikov." [BACK]

50. This is the figure given in MOIP: Otchet o rabote obshchestva , 34 . [BACK]

51. TsGA f. 358, op. 5, d. 39, listy 3-4. "Stenogramma Vsesoiuznogo soveshchaniia po zapovednikam, 1 7-20 marta 1958 goda." The proceedings of the conference are divided between two archival dela , d. 39 and d. 45. Sadly, some of the proceedings were apparently lost or never saved.

52. Ibid., listy 4-5.

53. Ibid., list 84.

54. Ibid., listy 90-91.

55. Ibid., list 91. [BACK]

51. TsGA f. 358, op. 5, d. 39, listy 3-4. "Stenogramma Vsesoiuznogo soveshchaniia po zapovednikam, 1 7-20 marta 1958 goda." The proceedings of the conference are divided between two archival dela , d. 39 and d. 45. Sadly, some of the proceedings were apparently lost or never saved.

52. Ibid., listy 4-5.

53. Ibid., list 84.

54. Ibid., listy 90-91.

55. Ibid., list 91. [BACK]

51. TsGA f. 358, op. 5, d. 39, listy 3-4. "Stenogramma Vsesoiuznogo soveshchaniia po zapovednikam, 1 7-20 marta 1958 goda." The proceedings of the conference are divided between two archival dela , d. 39 and d. 45. Sadly, some of the proceedings were apparently lost or never saved.

52. Ibid., listy 4-5.

53. Ibid., list 84.

54. Ibid., listy 90-91.

55. Ibid., list 91. [BACK]

51. TsGA f. 358, op. 5, d. 39, listy 3-4. "Stenogramma Vsesoiuznogo soveshchaniia po zapovednikam, 1 7-20 marta 1958 goda." The proceedings of the conference are divided between two archival dela , d. 39 and d. 45. Sadly, some of the proceedings were apparently lost or never saved.

52. Ibid., listy 4-5.

53. Ibid., list 84.

54. Ibid., listy 90-91.

55. Ibid., list 91. [BACK]

51. TsGA f. 358, op. 5, d. 39, listy 3-4. "Stenogramma Vsesoiuznogo soveshchaniia po zapovednikam, 1 7-20 marta 1958 goda." The proceedings of the conference are divided between two archival dela , d. 39 and d. 45. Sadly, some of the proceedings were apparently lost or never saved.

52. Ibid., listy 4-5.

53. Ibid., list 84.

54. Ibid., listy 90-91.

55. Ibid., list 91. [BACK]

56. Voprosy geografii 48 (1960): 297-301. [BACK]

57. TsGA f. 259, op. 42, d. 3813, listy 16-18. [BACK]

58. Nauchnye s"ezdy, konferentsii, i soveshchaniia , 1866-88. The year of sputnik was also the year of the All-Union Botanical Congress, the Far Eastern Inter-Provincial Conference on Problems of Nature Protection, and the First Transcaucasus Conference on the Protection of Nature. In the following year in June the First All-Union Conference of Commissions for the Protection of Nature of the Academies of Sciences of the USSR and of the Union Republics was held in Tbilisi, Georgia, and there were regional conferences in the Urals and in Siberia. Nor did the pace slacken in 1959, with a regional conference on the Lower Volga and Northern Caspian, a discussion on Baikal organized by MGO, an All-Union Conference on Waterfowl Protection, the Second All-Union Conference of Academy of Sciences Commissions for the Protection of Nature in Vilnius, Lithuania, and a second conference in the Urals. In 1960 there was a regional conference in Bashkiria, one on the Crimea, and the Third All-Union Conference of Academy of Sciences Commissions in Dushanbe, continue

Tadzhikistan. Additionally, there were botanical, zoological, and geographical congresses where these issues were front and center. [BACK]

59. MOIP: Otchet o rabote obshchestva , 9 . [BACK]

60. Varsonof'eva, Moskovskoe obshchestvo , 11, 40, 41. They were called ''les élèves de la société."

61. Ibid., 41.

62. Ibid., 42. [BACK]

60. Varsonof'eva, Moskovskoe obshchestvo , 11, 40, 41. They were called ''les élèves de la société."

61. Ibid., 41.

62. Ibid., 42. [BACK]

60. Varsonof'eva, Moskovskoe obshchestvo , 11, 40, 41. They were called ''les élèves de la société."

61. Ibid., 41.

62. Ibid., 42. [BACK]

63. Gershkovich, Razorënova, and Maksimov, "Pëtr Petrovich Smolin." [BACK]

64. Conversation with Elena Alekseevna Liapunova, Moscow, August 12, 1995. [BACK]

65. Letter of Varvara Ivanovna Osmolovskaia to author, n.d. ( 1992). [BACK]

66. Manteifel', "Vospominaniia," 34-35. [BACK]

67. Interview with Elena Alekseevna Liapunova, Moscow, August 12, 1995. [BACK]

68. Il'ina, "Poslednye gody," 39.

69. Ibid. [BACK]

68. Il'ina, "Poslednye gody," 39.

69. Ibid. [BACK]

70. Smolin, "Organizatsiia i rabota ," 151-52. [BACK]

71. Interview with Elena Alekseevna Liapunova, Moscow, August 12, 1995. In their memoir of those years, "Da skroetsia t'ma," Pavel V. Florenskii and T. A. Shutova confirmed this experience, with the following description of KIuBZ: "In the children's kruzhok a collective of like-minded souls came together on the basis of democratic structures, self-government, and continuity between the generations. Here were forged principles of morality, traditions of friendship, consciousness of a unity with nature and of the need for an eternal dialogue with nature. The free young naturalist's life was a living alternative to the dry, bureaucratized school and the withered Pioneer and Komsomol organizations. Having been ourselves in our childhood and youth members of that outspoken young community, we feel to this day the freshness of the oaths we then took of eternal loyalty to our friendships and to nature" (731). [BACK]

72. Interview with Elena Alekseevna Liapunova, Moscow, August 12, 1995.

73. Ibid.

74. Ibid. [BACK]

72. Interview with Elena Alekseevna Liapunova, Moscow, August 12, 1995.

73. Ibid.

74. Ibid. [BACK]

72. Interview with Elena Alekseevna Liapunova, Moscow, August 12, 1995.

73. Ibid.

74. Ibid. [BACK]

75. Tikhomirov, "Istoriia i deiatel'nost'," 12. [BACK]

76. Interview with Konstantin Mikhailovich Efron, Moscow, July 5, 1991. [BACK]

Chapter Thirteen— More Trouble in Paradise: Crises of the Zapovedniki in the Khrushchëv Era

1. Most of those executed for "economic crimes" were Jewish. Khrushchëv cynically sought to deflect public anger against corruption from the Party-state elite as a whole to a particular ethnic group. See Juviler, Revolutionary Law , 84. [BACK]

2. Boreiko, "Tsarskie okhoty ," 21.

3. Quoted ibid., 21-22.

4. Ibid., 22.

5. Ibid. The decree "Ob assignovanii sredstv na vosstanovlenie sluzhebnykh i podsobnykh pomeshchenii v gosudarstvennykh zakaznikakh U(kr)SSR" may be found in TsGAVO Ukrainy f. 2, op. 7, d. 2099, listy 140-42. [BACK]

2. Boreiko, "Tsarskie okhoty ," 21.

3. Quoted ibid., 21-22.

4. Ibid., 22.

5. Ibid. The decree "Ob assignovanii sredstv na vosstanovlenie sluzhebnykh i podsobnykh pomeshchenii v gosudarstvennykh zakaznikakh U(kr)SSR" may be found in TsGAVO Ukrainy f. 2, op. 7, d. 2099, listy 140-42. [BACK]

2. Boreiko, "Tsarskie okhoty ," 21.

3. Quoted ibid., 21-22.

4. Ibid., 22.

5. Ibid. The decree "Ob assignovanii sredstv na vosstanovlenie sluzhebnykh i podsobnykh pomeshchenii v gosudarstvennykh zakaznikakh U(kr)SSR" may be found in TsGAVO Ukrainy f. 2, op. 7, d. 2099, listy 140-42. [BACK]

2. Boreiko, "Tsarskie okhoty ," 21.

3. Quoted ibid., 21-22.

4. Ibid., 22.

5. Ibid. The decree "Ob assignovanii sredstv na vosstanovlenie sluzhebnykh i podsobnykh pomeshchenii v gosudarstvennykh zakaznikakh U(kr)SSR" may be found in TsGAVO Ukrainy f. 2, op. 7, d. 2099, listy 140-42. [BACK]

6. Boreiko, " Tsarskie okhoty , " 23-24. [BACK]

7. [Khrushchëv], Khrushchev Remembers , 600. break

8. Ibid., 384. [BACK]

7. [Khrushchëv], Khrushchev Remembers , 600. break

8. Ibid., 384. [BACK]

9. Boreiko, Istoriia zapovednogo dela , 140.

10. Ibid., 141. Boreiko here cites TsGAVO Ukrainy f. 2, op. 9, d. 2898, listy 76-79. [BACK]

9. Boreiko, Istoriia zapovednogo dela , 140.

10. Ibid., 141. Boreiko here cites TsGAVO Ukrainy f. 2, op. 9, d. 2898, listy 76-79. [BACK]

11. TsKhSD f. 5, op. 45, d. 85, listy 24-28.

12. Ibid. [BACK]

11. TsKhSD f. 5, op. 45, d. 85, listy 24-28.

12. Ibid. [BACK]

13. TsKhSD f. 5, op. 45, d. 140, listy 151-52. Letter of October 10, 1956. This was the letter Burdin described to the 1957 conference on rare and endangered species.

14. Ibid., list 153.

15. Ibid., list 154. [BACK]

13. TsKhSD f. 5, op. 45, d. 140, listy 151-52. Letter of October 10, 1956. This was the letter Burdin described to the 1957 conference on rare and endangered species.

14. Ibid., list 153.

15. Ibid., list 154. [BACK]

13. TsKhSD f. 5, op. 45, d. 140, listy 151-52. Letter of October 10, 1956. This was the letter Burdin described to the 1957 conference on rare and endangered species.

14. Ibid., list 153.

15. Ibid., list 154. [BACK]

16. TsKhSD, f. 5, op. 45, d. 161, listy 34-37. "Dokladnaia zapiska Pervomu sekretariu Khrushchëvu, 24 aprelia 1957 g." Signed by F. N. Petrov as chairman of the conference. [BACK]

17. V. E. Boreiko and I attempted to interview V. Matskevich, then USSR minister of agriculture, but he refused to be interviewed. [BACK]

18. TsGA f. 259, op. 42, d. 8527, listy 28-29. [BACK]

19. In 1958 the uniquely beautiful Church of the Odigitriia in Pskov was saved, barely, by the strong intervention of the RSFSR Ministry of Culture. See TsGA f. 259, op. 42, d. 688, listy 28-29. [BACK]

20. Plenum Tsentral'nogo komiteta Kommunisticheskoi , 602.

21. Ibid., 602-3. [BACK]

20. Plenum Tsentral'nogo komiteta Kommunisticheskoi , 602.

21. Ibid., 602-3. [BACK]

22. Boreiko, Istoriia zapovednogo dela , 150.

23. Ibid., 151. See also Boreiko, "Vtoroi razgrom zapovednikov," 12-15. See also TsGA f. 259, op. 42, d. 7532, listy 25.

24. Ibid. [BACK]

22. Boreiko, Istoriia zapovednogo dela , 150.

23. Ibid., 151. See also Boreiko, "Vtoroi razgrom zapovednikov," 12-15. See also TsGA f. 259, op. 42, d. 7532, listy 25.

24. Ibid. [BACK]

22. Boreiko, Istoriia zapovednogo dela , 150.

23. Ibid., 151. See also Boreiko, "Vtoroi razgrom zapovednikov," 12-15. See also TsGA f. 259, op. 42, d. 7532, listy 25.

24. Ibid. [BACK]

25. TsGA f. 259, op. 42, d. 7528, listy 44-45. "Reshenie rasshirennogo zasedaniia biuro Komissii po okhrane prirody Akademii nauk SSSR ot 30-ogo ianvaria 1961 g." Copy. Places for signatures by Dement'ev and L. K. Shaposhnikov. Copy verified by K. L. Segal'.

26. Ibid., listy 44-45.

27. Ibid., list 49. [BACK]

25. TsGA f. 259, op. 42, d. 7528, listy 44-45. "Reshenie rasshirennogo zasedaniia biuro Komissii po okhrane prirody Akademii nauk SSSR ot 30-ogo ianvaria 1961 g." Copy. Places for signatures by Dement'ev and L. K. Shaposhnikov. Copy verified by K. L. Segal'.

26. Ibid., listy 44-45.

27. Ibid., list 49. [BACK]

25. TsGA f. 259, op. 42, d. 7528, listy 44-45. "Reshenie rasshirennogo zasedaniia biuro Komissii po okhrane prirody Akademii nauk SSSR ot 30-ogo ianvaria 1961 g." Copy. Places for signatures by Dement'ev and L. K. Shaposhnikov. Copy verified by K. L. Segal'.

26. Ibid., listy 44-45.

27. Ibid., list 49. [BACK]

28. TsGA f. 259, op. 42, d. 7532, list 51-55. Letter ofT. A. Aleksandrova et al. of February 9, 1961 to V. P. Zotov and to the RSFSR Council of Ministers. See also list 56 of this archival dossier for the minutes of the Kuibyshev Pedagogical Institute's Agrobiology Faculty, which resolved on February 7, 1961 to protest the proposed elimination of the Zhiguli (Kuibyshevskii, Tsentral'no-Volzhskii) zapovednik , which resolution was attached to the letter. [BACK]

29. RGAE f. 544, op.1, d. 99, listy 36-37. Letter of V. V. Krinitskii to G. P. Dement'ev, February 13, 1961. [BACK]

30. TsGA f. 259, op. 42, d. 7531, list 9-10. A letter from the of the Altai kraiispolkom to the RSFSR Council of Ministers of February 6, 1961 urged liquidation of the Altaiskii zapovednik and its conversion to a revived Teletskii leskhoz (forest plantation) under the control of Glavleskhoz RSFSR with provision for logging up to 300,000 cubic meters of wood per year. Some tourism could also be accommodated, the letter suggested. Another interesting case revolved around the Tsentral'noLesnoi zapovednik , which the RSFSR Council of Ministers restored on February 23, continue

1960 with the direct support of Glavokhota and of Nesmeianov in the Academy over the opposition of the Kalininskaia oblast' sovnarkhoz . After Khrushchëv's January Plenum speech, however, the sovnarkhoz tried to block the transfer of some woodlands from local leskhozy to the zapovednik by referring to the premier's talk. Premier Dmitrii Polianskii of the RSFSR apparently held firm and apparently was supported by Zotov in Gosplan of the USSR; the reserve survived the Khrushchëv "liquidation." See TsGA f. 358, op. 3, d. 1911, listy 1-79, esp. 4-5, 30, 33-34, 78-79. [BACK]

31. TsGA f. 259, op. 42, d. 7528, list 42. See also RGAE f. 544, op. 1, d. 99, list 45. [BACK]

32. MOIP Archives, d. 2045, list 50, 53. [BACK]

33. MOIP Archives, d. 2044, list 4. [BACK]

34. MOIP Archives, d. 2041, listy 2-5. [BACK]

35. TsGA f. 259, op. 42, d. 7528, listy 47-49. Letter of V. F. Riabov et al. of January 31, 1961 to V. P. Zotov and A. S. Bukharov. [BACK]

36. MOIP Archives, d. 2041, list 3.

37. Ibid., listy 3-4.

38. Ibid., list 5. [BACK]

36. MOIP Archives, d. 2041, list 3.

37. Ibid., listy 3-4.

38. Ibid., list 5. [BACK]

36. MOIP Archives, d. 2041, list 3.

37. Ibid., listy 3-4.

38. Ibid., list 5. [BACK]

39. TsGA f. 259, op. 42, d. 7528, list 42. Spravka (summary report) of aide A. Ageev, n.d. but reviewed and returned to him on February 28 with the instruction to contact those who had written letters of protest and assure them that "the question of putting the zapovednik system in order and the elimination of superfluous elements connected with [that system] will be reviewed, taking into account the necessity to preserve the most valuable monuments of nature, rare animals, birds, and plants, as well as to create the essential conditions for study of natural phenomena using the zapovedniki as bases." [BACK]

40. TsGA f. 259, op. 42, d. 7531, listy 2, 3, and 28-35. These are a summary report ( spravka ) by RSFSR Council of Ministers aide A. Ageev of January 25, 1961 to that body's Presidium to guide discussion at the February 11 meeting (listy 2-3). A letter from deputy premier of the RSFSR A. S. Bukharov (listy 28-29), followed by an addendum (listy 30-35) prepared and signed by N. Eliseev, details the specific reserves to be eliminated or reduced in size with their areas in hectares before and after. [BACK]

41. Interview with Konstantin Mikhailovich Efron, Moscow, August 2, 1995. [BACK]

42. Interview with Iurii Konstantinovich Efremov, Moscow, August 4, 1995.

43. Ibid.

44. Ibid. [BACK]

42. Interview with Iurii Konstantinovich Efremov, Moscow, August 4, 1995.

43. Ibid.

44. Ibid. [BACK]

42. Interview with Iurii Konstantinovich Efremov, Moscow, August 4, 1995.

43. Ibid.

44. Ibid. [BACK]

45. See Pryde, Conservation in the Soviet Union , appendix 7, part 2, 206-8, for a list of reserves abolished or merged in 1961 (although he errs in his inclusion of the Crimean, which had already been transformed in 1957). See also TsGA f. 259, op. 42, d. 7532, list 21 for Zotov's preliminary list of cuts versus those already set by Eliseev. That list was further amended in the spring, however. The final decree, signed by Kosygin, was issued by the USSR Council of Ministers on June 10, 1961, no. 521, "Ob uporiadochenii seti gosudarstvennykh zapovednikov i okhotnich'ikh khoziaistv." Each republic then subsequently issued its own decree. For the RSFSR, see Postanovlenie SM RSFSR no. 841 ot 28-ogo iunia 1961 g., TsGA f. 259, op. 42, d. 7532, listy 1, 1 rev., 2, 2 rev., and 3 for the reserves eliminated or transformed in that republic. The Ukraine's Postanovlenie no. 118 was issued on July 22, 1961. [BACK]

46. TsGA f. 259, op. 42, d. 7532, list 26. From letter of V. Zotov of April 20, 1961 , continue

no. 1035 of Gosplan USSR (listy 25-29). At the top, dated April 25, 1961, there is a note from Aleksei Kosygin that reads: "Examine this at the Presidium of the Council of Ministers." This letter was also routed to D. S. Polianskii, whose name is stamped at the very top.

47. Ibid., list 26. Zotov even named E. M. Lavrenko's Geografiia rastenii ( Plant Geography ), V. V. Alëkhin's Rastitel'nyi pokrov SSSR ( Vegetational Cover of the USSR ), N. V. Pavlov's Botanicheskaia geografiia SSSR ( Botanical Geography of the USSR ), A. A. Rode's Pochvennaia vlaga (Soil Moisture), and the three-volume Ptitsy Sovetskogo soiuza ( Birds of the Soviet Union ). These were solid studies, and some had even become classics. [BACK]

46. TsGA f. 259, op. 42, d. 7532, list 26. From letter of V. Zotov of April 20, 1961 , continue

no. 1035 of Gosplan USSR (listy 25-29). At the top, dated April 25, 1961, there is a note from Aleksei Kosygin that reads: "Examine this at the Presidium of the Council of Ministers." This letter was also routed to D. S. Polianskii, whose name is stamped at the very top.

47. Ibid., list 26. Zotov even named E. M. Lavrenko's Geografiia rastenii ( Plant Geography ), V. V. Alëkhin's Rastitel'nyi pokrov SSSR ( Vegetational Cover of the USSR ), N. V. Pavlov's Botanicheskaia geografiia SSSR ( Botanical Geography of the USSR ), A. A. Rode's Pochvennaia vlaga (Soil Moisture), and the three-volume Ptitsy Sovetskogo soiuza ( Birds of the Soviet Union ). These were solid studies, and some had even become classics. [BACK]

48. Boreiko, Istonriia zapovednogo dela , 151. On Pidoplichko and Pogrebniak, see Boreiko, Populiarnyi biografo-bibliograficheskii , 2:27-34. For the actual transcript of the meeting see TsGAVO Ukrainy f. 2, op. 9, d. 9121, list 12-19. [BACK]

49. Boreiko, Istoriia zapovednogo dela , 152.

50. Ibid., 152-53.

51. Ibid., 153. [BACK]

49. Boreiko, Istoriia zapovednogo dela , 152.

50. Ibid., 152-53.

51. Ibid., 153. [BACK]

49. Boreiko, Istoriia zapovednogo dela , 152.

50. Ibid., 152-53.

51. Ibid., 153. [BACK]

52. MOIP Archives, d. 2042, list 96. Copy, dated May 16, 1961.

53. Ibid.

54. Ibid., list 97.

55. Ibid.

56. Ibid., listy 97-98. [BACK]

52. MOIP Archives, d. 2042, list 96. Copy, dated May 16, 1961.

53. Ibid.

54. Ibid., list 97.

55. Ibid.

56. Ibid., listy 97-98. [BACK]

52. MOIP Archives, d. 2042, list 96. Copy, dated May 16, 1961.

53. Ibid.

54. Ibid., list 97.

55. Ibid.

56. Ibid., listy 97-98. [BACK]

52. MOIP Archives, d. 2042, list 96. Copy, dated May 16, 1961.

53. Ibid.

54. Ibid., list 97.

55. Ibid.

56. Ibid., listy 97-98. [BACK]

52. MOIP Archives, d. 2042, list 96. Copy, dated May 16, 1961.

53. Ibid.

54. Ibid., list 97.

55. Ibid.

56. Ibid., listy 97-98. [BACK]

57. MOIP Archives, d. 2042, listy 93-94. Letter of A. N. Formozov to the Presidium of MOIP and to N. V. Eliseev, head of Glavokhota RSFSR, copy, n.d., list 93-95.

58. Ibid., list 95. [BACK]

57. MOIP Archives, d. 2042, listy 93-94. Letter of A. N. Formozov to the Presidium of MOIP and to N. V. Eliseev, head of Glavokhota RSFSR, copy, n.d., list 93-95.

58. Ibid., list 95. [BACK]

59. MOIP Archives, d. 2042, listy 17-20. Letter of F. N. Petrov and V. A. Varsonof'eva to the Otdel nauki (Science Department) and Otdel Pechati (Press Department) of the Central Committee of the CPSU, May 16, 1961. Copy. The quotation is from list 19.

60. Ibid., list 20. [BACK]

59. MOIP Archives, d. 2042, listy 17-20. Letter of F. N. Petrov and V. A. Varsonof'eva to the Otdel nauki (Science Department) and Otdel Pechati (Press Department) of the Central Committee of the CPSU, May 16, 1961. Copy. The quotation is from list 19.

60. Ibid., list 20. [BACK]

61. For the letter of Sukachëv et al., see MOIP Archives, d. 2042 , list 23. For that of Lavrent'ev, see RGAE f. 544, p. 1, d. 99, listy 54-55. [BACK]

62. RGAE f. 533, op. 1, d. 141, list 76. Letter of G. Orlov, deputy chairman of Gosplan SSSR, to the USSR Council of Ministers of December 2 1, 1961. Kosygin reviewed it on December 29 and sent it on to the Council's Komissiia po tekushchim delam (Commission on Current Business), per note at top.

63. Ibid., listy 91-97. "Prilozhenie k prikazu po Gosplanu SSSR ot 19-ogo noiabria 1962 g. no. 266."

64. Ibid., listy 104-5. Letter of L. K. Shaposhnikov to Gosplan USSR Chairman V.È. Dymshits, November 10, 1962. [BACK]

62. RGAE f. 533, op. 1, d. 141, list 76. Letter of G. Orlov, deputy chairman of Gosplan SSSR, to the USSR Council of Ministers of December 2 1, 1961. Kosygin reviewed it on December 29 and sent it on to the Council's Komissiia po tekushchim delam (Commission on Current Business), per note at top.

63. Ibid., listy 91-97. "Prilozhenie k prikazu po Gosplanu SSSR ot 19-ogo noiabria 1962 g. no. 266."

64. Ibid., listy 104-5. Letter of L. K. Shaposhnikov to Gosplan USSR Chairman V.È. Dymshits, November 10, 1962. [BACK]

62. RGAE f. 533, op. 1, d. 141, list 76. Letter of G. Orlov, deputy chairman of Gosplan SSSR, to the USSR Council of Ministers of December 2 1, 1961. Kosygin reviewed it on December 29 and sent it on to the Council's Komissiia po tekushchim delam (Commission on Current Business), per note at top.

63. Ibid., listy 91-97. "Prilozhenie k prikazu po Gosplanu SSSR ot 19-ogo noiabria 1962 g. no. 266."

64. Ibid., listy 104-5. Letter of L. K. Shaposhnikov to Gosplan USSR Chairman V.È. Dymshits, November 10, 1962. [BACK]

65. ARAN St. Pbg. f. 996, op. 4, d. 35, listy 271, 271 rev., 272. Letter of L. K. Shaposhnikov to E. M. Lavrenko, December 24, 1961.

66. Ibid., list 284. Note of Lavrenko to the Gosplan Commission of April 17, 1962. [BACK]

65. ARAN St. Pbg. f. 996, op. 4, d. 35, listy 271, 271 rev., 272. Letter of L. K. Shaposhnikov to E. M. Lavrenko, December 24, 1961.

66. Ibid., list 284. Note of Lavrenko to the Gosplan Commission of April 17, 1962. [BACK]

67. RGAE f. 544, op. 1, d. 141, listy 125-28, with attached diagrams and organizational flow charts (listy 130-31).

68. Ibid., listy 160-64. Letter of V. S. Prokrovskii, deputy scholarly secretary of continue

the Commission for Nature Protection and head of its laboratory, to the Presidium of the USSR Council of Ministers and to Foreign Minister Andrei A. Gromyko. Dated September 16, 1963. [BACK]

67. RGAE f. 544, op. 1, d. 141, listy 125-28, with attached diagrams and organizational flow charts (listy 130-31).

68. Ibid., listy 160-64. Letter of V. S. Prokrovskii, deputy scholarly secretary of continue

the Commission for Nature Protection and head of its laboratory, to the Presidium of the USSR Council of Ministers and to Foreign Minister Andrei A. Gromyko. Dated September 16, 1963. [BACK]

69. The Council of Mutual Economic Assistance, headquartered in Moscow, had been established in 1949 to unite the Communist-run nations' economies. [BACK]

70. RGAE f. 544, op. 1, d. 141, list 164.

71. Ibid., listy 165-66. The letter is dated September 18, 1963. Next to Petrov's name is a note that he had been a Party member since 1896. The quotation is from list 165. He is probably referring to the A. Starker Leopold Commission, which published its findings as Future Environments of North America , following a conference it organized.

72. Ibid., list 166.

73. Ibid., list 167. [BACK]

70. RGAE f. 544, op. 1, d. 141, list 164.

71. Ibid., listy 165-66. The letter is dated September 18, 1963. Next to Petrov's name is a note that he had been a Party member since 1896. The quotation is from list 165. He is probably referring to the A. Starker Leopold Commission, which published its findings as Future Environments of North America , following a conference it organized.

72. Ibid., list 166.

73. Ibid., list 167. [BACK]

70. RGAE f. 544, op. 1, d. 141, list 164.

71. Ibid., listy 165-66. The letter is dated September 18, 1963. Next to Petrov's name is a note that he had been a Party member since 1896. The quotation is from list 165. He is probably referring to the A. Starker Leopold Commission, which published its findings as Future Environments of North America , following a conference it organized.

72. Ibid., list 166.

73. Ibid., list 167. [BACK]

70. RGAE f. 544, op. 1, d. 141, list 164.

71. Ibid., listy 165-66. The letter is dated September 18, 1963. Next to Petrov's name is a note that he had been a Party member since 1896. The quotation is from list 165. He is probably referring to the A. Starker Leopold Commission, which published its findings as Future Environments of North America , following a conference it organized.

72. Ibid., list 166.

73. Ibid., list 167. [BACK]

74. RGAE f. 3, op. 1, d. 261, listy 46-47.

75. Ibid., listy 49-51. [BACK]

74. RGAE f. 3, op. 1, d. 261, listy 46-47.

75. Ibid., listy 49-51. [BACK]

Chapter Fourteen— Student Movements: Catalysts for a New Activism

1. Moskovskii gosudarstvennyi universitet, Molodëzhnyi sovet po okhrane prirody, Organizatsiia molodezhnogo , 7. [BACK]

2. Ksenia V. Avilova, Memoir-history of the Moscow University Biofak druzhina po okhrane prirody , [5-6]. Untitled, typed (xeroxed), unpaginated. Courtesy of the author. [BACK]

3. Tikhomirov, "Istoriia i deiatel'nost'," 14. [BACK]

4. Hough and Fainsod, How the Soviet Union Is Governed , 226-27, 302. On the volunteer auxiliary police, see also Juviler, Revolutionary Law , chapter 4. [BACK]

5. Decree "On the Participation of the Working People in the Maintenance of Public Order." SeeJuviler, Revolutionary Law , 78-79. [BACK]

6. I am grateful to Loren R. Graham for urging me to explore this connection. [BACK]

7. Tikhomirov, "Istoriia i deiatel'nost'," 12. [BACK]

8. Avilova, Memoir-history, [8].

9. Ibid., [12-13]. [BACK]

8. Avilova, Memoir-history, [8].

9. Ibid., [12-13]. [BACK]

10. E. Smantser mentioned these antecedents to the MGU druzhina in a speech commemorating the latter's tenth anniversary. See Sotsio-Ekologicheskii Soiuz, Tridts at' let dvizheniia , 5. [BACK]

11. Tikhomirov, "Istoriia i deiatel'nost'," 13-14. Kharitonov and Avilova, in "Okhrana prirody," 107-8, mention that, of the early generation of druzhinniki , Smantser, V. Maksimov, A. Agadzhanian, and V. Tsvetkov had been in KIuBZ; M. Gribov, Sergei Ivanov, M. Cherniakhovskii, and N. Chernyshev had been in the VOOP youth group; and A. Giliarov, B. Goncharov, A. Tishkov, and P. Tomkovich had been in the MOIP one. The authors note that this list could have been extended considerably. [BACK]

12. Avilova, Memoir-history, [6]. [BACK]

13. Sotsio-Ekologicheskii Soiuz, Tridtsat' let dvizheniia , 1960 - 1987 , 4. The textbook they coauthored is Blagosklonov, Inozemtsev, and Tikhomirov, Okhrana prirody . [BACK]

14. Avilova, Memoir-history, [6]. break [BACK]

15. For violating the rules of conduct on raids members could incur suspension from the antipoaching raids, revocation of their civilian inspector certificates, or, in the worst cases, expulsion from the druzhina . [BACK]

16. Sotsio-Ekologicheskii Soiuz, Tridtsat' let Druzhiny , 1960 - 1987 , 5.

17. Ibid. [BACK]

16. Sotsio-Ekologicheskii Soiuz, Tridtsat' let Druzhiny , 1960 - 1987 , 5.

17. Ibid. [BACK]

18. Tikhomirov, "Istoriia i deiatel'nost'," 14.

19. Ibid., 15.

20. Ibid. [BACK]

18. Tikhomirov, "Istoriia i deiatel'nost'," 14.

19. Ibid., 15.

20. Ibid. [BACK]

18. Tikhomirov, "Istoriia i deiatel'nost'," 14.

19. Ibid., 15.

20. Ibid. [BACK]

21. Sotsio-Ekologicheskii Soiuz, Tridtsat' let Druzhiny , 1960 - 1987 , 6.

22. Ibid., 6-7. [BACK]

21. Sotsio-Ekologicheskii Soiuz, Tridtsat' let Druzhiny , 1960 - 1987 , 6.

22. Ibid., 6-7. [BACK]

23. Tikhomirov, "Istoriia i deiatel'nost'," 15. As a gesture of gratitude, the druzhina elected Naumnov to honorary membership. [BACK]

24. Yanitsky [Ianitskii], Russian Environmentalism , 20.

25. Ibid., 66. The Komsomol also feared the druzhina's potential to attract students to its banner; by stepping in as its official sponsor, the Komsomol created an aura of liberalism for itself and thereby became more attractive, or at least less unattractive, to those more independent-minded students. [BACK]

24. Yanitsky [Ianitskii], Russian Environmentalism , 20.

25. Ibid., 66. The Komsomol also feared the druzhina's potential to attract students to its banner; by stepping in as its official sponsor, the Komsomol created an aura of liberalism for itself and thereby became more attractive, or at least less unattractive, to those more independent-minded students. [BACK]

26. Fitzpatrick, Education and Social Mobility in the Soviet Union . [BACK]

27. Chivilikhin, "Shumi," 8-9.

28. Ibid., 9.

29. Ibid., 10.

30. Ibid., 11.

31. Ibid., 17-20. [BACK]

27. Chivilikhin, "Shumi," 8-9.

28. Ibid., 9.

29. Ibid., 10.

30. Ibid., 11.

31. Ibid., 17-20. [BACK]

27. Chivilikhin, "Shumi," 8-9.

28. Ibid., 9.

29. Ibid., 10.

30. Ibid., 11.

31. Ibid., 17-20. [BACK]

27. Chivilikhin, "Shumi," 8-9.

28. Ibid., 9.

29. Ibid., 10.

30. Ibid., 11.

31. Ibid., 17-20. [BACK]

27. Chivilikhin, "Shumi," 8-9.

28. Ibid., 9.

29. Ibid., 10.

30. Ibid., 11.

31. Ibid., 17-20. [BACK]

32. Krylov, "Slovo o sibirskom kedre." Krylov, a biologist, was chairman of the Siberian Branch of the Academy of Sciences' Commission on the Protection of Nature.

33. Ibid., 155-56. [BACK]

32. Krylov, "Slovo o sibirskom kedre." Krylov, a biologist, was chairman of the Siberian Branch of the Academy of Sciences' Commission on the Protection of Nature.

33. Ibid., 155-56. [BACK]

34. See Weiner, Models of Nature , passim . [BACK]

35. Parfënov, "Kedrovye lesa."

36. Ibid. [BACK]

35. Parfënov, "Kedrovye lesa."

36. Ibid. [BACK]

37. Kiriasov, "Skazanie o Kedrograde," 2-3. [BACK]

38. Interview with Vitalii Feodos'evich Parfënov, Moscow, August 21, 1995. [BACK]

39. Chivilikhin, "Shumi," 20. [BACK]

40. Interview with Vitalii Feodos'evich Parfënov, Moscow, August 21, 1995.

41. Ibid. Chivilikhin, "Shumi," 21, had another take on the episode: "The students did not really grasp the essence of the matter and childishly raised a hue and cry. Sergei convened a meeting of the Komsomol in the professor's defense and, like the other youths, spouted all sorts of nonsense out of his sense of outrage." [BACK]

40. Interview with Vitalii Feodos'evich Parfënov, Moscow, August 21, 1995.

41. Ibid. Chivilikhin, "Shumi," 21, had another take on the episode: "The students did not really grasp the essence of the matter and childishly raised a hue and cry. Sergei convened a meeting of the Komsomol in the professor's defense and, like the other youths, spouted all sorts of nonsense out of his sense of outrage." [BACK]

42. Chivilikhin, "Shumi," 22.

43. Ibid., 23. [BACK]

42. Chivilikhin, "Shumi," 22.

43. Ibid., 23. [BACK]

44. Interview with Vitalii Feodos'evich Parfënov, Moscow, August 21, 1995.

45. Ibid.

46. Ibid. [BACK]

44. Interview with Vitalii Feodos'evich Parfënov, Moscow, August 21, 1995.

45. Ibid.

46. Ibid. [BACK]

44. Interview with Vitalii Feodos'evich Parfënov, Moscow, August 21, 1995.

45. Ibid.

46. Ibid. [BACK]

47. TsKhDMO f. 1, op. 9, d. 458, "Predlozhenii Altaiskogo kraikoma VLKSM ob organizatsii v Gorno-Altaisoi oblasti komsomolskogo kompleksnogo leskhoza," listy 1-9. break [BACK]

48. Kovalevskii, "Bol'she molchat' nel'zia!" Parfënov feels that "he was put up to this, without a doubt." Interview, Moscow, August 21, 1995. [BACK]

49. Parfënov, "Nash otvet." That was followed in the same issue by a rebuttal by Kovalevskii. [BACK]

50. Chivilikhin, "Shumi," 49. Of the forested area of the krai (4,497,000 ha.), cedars occupied 23 percent, or 1,025,000 hectares. Annual logging per 1,000 hectares was 280,000-300,000 cubic meters of wood, 88 percent of which was allegedly mature or overmature (140-250 years old). The forestry academy graduates asked for 85,000 hectares, of which 71,000 were forested, as well as for financial coverage of the first year's expenses.

51. Ibid., 33. [BACK]

50. Chivilikhin, "Shumi," 49. Of the forested area of the krai (4,497,000 ha.), cedars occupied 23 percent, or 1,025,000 hectares. Annual logging per 1,000 hectares was 280,000-300,000 cubic meters of wood, 88 percent of which was allegedly mature or overmature (140-250 years old). The forestry academy graduates asked for 85,000 hectares, of which 71,000 were forested, as well as for financial coverage of the first year's expenses.

51. Ibid., 33. [BACK]

52. Yanitsky [Ianitskii], Russian Environmentalism , 177.

53. Ibid. Cherkasova mistakenly places Armand's book in the period of the "thaw." In reality, his book appeared at the end of Khrushchëv's rule, in 1964. [BACK]

52. Yanitsky [Ianitskii], Russian Environmentalism , 177.

53. Ibid. Cherkasova mistakenly places Armand's book in the period of the "thaw." In reality, his book appeared at the end of Khrushchëv's rule, in 1964. [BACK]

54. Chivilikhin, "Shumi," 51-52. [BACK]

55. Chivilikhin, "Mesiats v Kedrograde," 67.

56. Ibid., 57. [BACK]

55. Chivilikhin, "Mesiats v Kedrograde," 67.

56. Ibid., 57. [BACK]

57. Sotsio-Ekologicheskii Soiuz. Tridtsat' let dvizheniia , 1960 - 1987 , 15. [BACK]

58. Interview with Vitalii Feodos'evich Parfënov, Moscow, August 21, 1995.

59. Ibid.

60. Ibid. [BACK]

58. Interview with Vitalii Feodos'evich Parfënov, Moscow, August 21, 1995.

59. Ibid.

60. Ibid. [BACK]

58. Interview with Vitalii Feodos'evich Parfënov, Moscow, August 21, 1995.

59. Ibid.

60. Ibid. [BACK]

61. Parfënov, "Kedrovye lesa," 3-4.

62. Ibid., 3. [BACK]

61. Parfënov, "Kedrovye lesa," 3-4.

62. Ibid., 3. [BACK]

63. Chivilikhin, "Taiga shumit," 78. [BACK]

64. Parfënov, "Kedrovye lesa," 3.

65. Ibid., 4.

66. Ibid.

67. Ibid.

68. Ibid. [BACK]

64. Parfënov, "Kedrovye lesa," 3.

65. Ibid., 4.

66. Ibid.

67. Ibid.

68. Ibid. [BACK]

64. Parfënov, "Kedrovye lesa," 3.

65. Ibid., 4.

66. Ibid.

67. Ibid.

68. Ibid. [BACK]

64. Parfënov, "Kedrovye lesa," 3.

65. Ibid., 4.

66. Ibid.

67. Ibid.

68. Ibid. [BACK]

64. Parfënov, "Kedrovye lesa," 3.

65. Ibid., 4.

66. Ibid.

67. Ibid.

68. Ibid. [BACK]

69. Chivilikhin, "Taiga shumit," 74-82.

70. Ibid. [BACK]

69. Chivilikhin, "Taiga shumit," 74-82.

70. Ibid. [BACK]

71. Chivilikhin, "Piatiletie Kedrograda," 1, 3.

72. Ibid.

73. Ibid.

74. Ibid.

75. Ibid. [BACK]

71. Chivilikhin, "Piatiletie Kedrograda," 1, 3.

72. Ibid.

73. Ibid.

74. Ibid.

75. Ibid. [BACK]

71. Chivilikhin, "Piatiletie Kedrograda," 1, 3.

72. Ibid.

73. Ibid.

74. Ibid.

75. Ibid. [BACK]

71. Chivilikhin, "Piatiletie Kedrograda," 1, 3.

72. Ibid.

73. Ibid.

74. Ibid.

75. Ibid. [BACK]

71. Chivilikhin, "Piatiletie Kedrograda," 1, 3.

72. Ibid.

73. Ibid.

74. Ibid.

75. Ibid. [BACK]

76. Parfënov, "Kedrogradu byt'!" 2.

77. Ibid.

78. Ibid. [BACK]

76. Parfënov, "Kedrogradu byt'!" 2.

77. Ibid.

78. Ibid. [BACK]

76. Parfënov, "Kedrogradu byt'!" 2.

77. Ibid.

78. Ibid. [BACK]

79. Chivilikhin, "Piatiletie Kedrograda."

80. Ibid.

81. Ibid.

82. Ibid. [BACK]

79. Chivilikhin, "Piatiletie Kedrograda."

80. Ibid.

81. Ibid.

82. Ibid. [BACK]

79. Chivilikhin, "Piatiletie Kedrograda."

80. Ibid.

81. Ibid.

82. Ibid. [BACK]

79. Chivilikhin, "Piatiletie Kedrograda."

80. Ibid.

81. Ibid.

82. Ibid. [BACK]

83. Interview with Vitalii Feodos'evich Parfënov, Moscow, August 25, 1995.

84. Ibid. Years later, in 1984, the journal Priroda i chelovek , later Svet , was founded continue

with his participation. Bochkarëv took up the pen in 1965 to defend his policies. Bochkarëv, "Problemy kedrovoi taigi," 2. [BACK]

83. Interview with Vitalii Feodos'evich Parfënov, Moscow, August 25, 1995.

84. Ibid. Years later, in 1984, the journal Priroda i chelovek , later Svet , was founded continue

with his participation. Bochkarëv took up the pen in 1965 to defend his policies. Bochkarëv, "Problemy kedrovoi taigi," 2. [BACK]

85. Chivilikhin, "Piatiletie Kedrograda." [BACK]

86. Chivilikhin, "V mire," 102-9. [BACK]

87. Kazarkin, "Pamiat'," 156-57.

88. Quoted, ibid. [BACK]

87. Kazarkin, "Pamiat'," 156-57.

88. Quoted, ibid. [BACK]

89. Literary influences on Chivilikhin are discussed in "Beseda v Nashem souremeninike ," 401. [BACK]

90. Chivilikhin, "Uroki Leonova," 256. [BACK]

91. Chivilikhin, "Mesiats v Kedrograde," 70. [BACK]

92. Quoted, Kazarkin, "Pamiat'," 158.

93. Ibid., 157.

94. Ibid., 158.

95. Ibid., 162.

96. Ibid., 159-62. Of course, this is not the first time in Russian social thought that the ancestors of the Slavs (or Europeans) were sought for in Siberia; Nikolai Rërikh, the artist and seeker, did so in the 1920s and Gumiilëv's entire opus was dedicated to this very set of problems. Forest versus steppe was an eternal, epic cultural conflict played out on the vast Eurasian stage. [BACK]

92. Quoted, Kazarkin, "Pamiat'," 158.

93. Ibid., 157.

94. Ibid., 158.

95. Ibid., 162.

96. Ibid., 159-62. Of course, this is not the first time in Russian social thought that the ancestors of the Slavs (or Europeans) were sought for in Siberia; Nikolai Rërikh, the artist and seeker, did so in the 1920s and Gumiilëv's entire opus was dedicated to this very set of problems. Forest versus steppe was an eternal, epic cultural conflict played out on the vast Eurasian stage. [BACK]

92. Quoted, Kazarkin, "Pamiat'," 158.

93. Ibid., 157.

94. Ibid., 158.

95. Ibid., 162.

96. Ibid., 159-62. Of course, this is not the first time in Russian social thought that the ancestors of the Slavs (or Europeans) were sought for in Siberia; Nikolai Rërikh, the artist and seeker, did so in the 1920s and Gumiilëv's entire opus was dedicated to this very set of problems. Forest versus steppe was an eternal, epic cultural conflict played out on the vast Eurasian stage. [BACK]

92. Quoted, Kazarkin, "Pamiat'," 158.

93. Ibid., 157.

94. Ibid., 158.

95. Ibid., 162.

96. Ibid., 159-62. Of course, this is not the first time in Russian social thought that the ancestors of the Slavs (or Europeans) were sought for in Siberia; Nikolai Rërikh, the artist and seeker, did so in the 1920s and Gumiilëv's entire opus was dedicated to this very set of problems. Forest versus steppe was an eternal, epic cultural conflict played out on the vast Eurasian stage. [BACK]

92. Quoted, Kazarkin, "Pamiat'," 158.

93. Ibid., 157.

94. Ibid., 158.

95. Ibid., 162.

96. Ibid., 159-62. Of course, this is not the first time in Russian social thought that the ancestors of the Slavs (or Europeans) were sought for in Siberia; Nikolai Rërikh, the artist and seeker, did so in the 1920s and Gumiilëv's entire opus was dedicated to this very set of problems. Forest versus steppe was an eternal, epic cultural conflict played out on the vast Eurasian stage. [BACK]

97. Chivilikhin, "V mire," 108-9.

98. Ibid.

99. Ibid.

100. Ibid. [BACK]

97. Chivilikhin, "V mire," 108-9.

98. Ibid.

99. Ibid.

100. Ibid. [BACK]

97. Chivilikhin, "V mire," 108-9.

98. Ibid.

99. Ibid.

100. Ibid. [BACK]

97. Chivilikhin, "V mire," 108-9.

98. Ibid.

99. Ibid.

100. Ibid. [BACK]

101. "Vsë prodolzhaetsia v nas," esp. 247.

102. Ibid. [BACK]

101. "Vsë prodolzhaetsia v nas," esp. 247.

102. Ibid. [BACK]

103. Chivilikhin, "Shvedskie ostanovki," 576. [BACK]

104. Chivilikhin, Pamiat '. [BACK]

105. "Pamiat'—kategoriia nravstvennaia" (Iz interv'iu gazete Sotsialisticheskaia industriia ), in Chivilikhin, Zhit'glavnym , 235. [BACK]

106. Chivilikhin, "Svetloe oko Sibiri." [BACK]

107. Interview with Vitalii Feodos'evich Parfënov, Moscow, August 21, 1995. [BACK]

108. Chivilikhin, "V mire," 108-9. [BACK]

109. Chivilikhin, "Mesiats v Kedrograde," 39. [BACK]

110. Chivilikhin, "Shvedskie ostanovki," 579.

111. Ibid., 576. [BACK]

110. Chivilikhin, "Shvedskie ostanovki," 579.

111. Ibid., 576. [BACK]

112. "I khram, i masterskaia!" (Iz besedy za 'Kruglym stolom' v redaktsii Literaturntoi gazety ), in Chivilikhin, Zhit glavnym , 232-33.

113. Ibid. [BACK]

112. "I khram, i masterskaia!" (Iz besedy za 'Kruglym stolom' v redaktsii Literaturntoi gazety ), in Chivilikhin, Zhit glavnym , 232-33.

113. Ibid. [BACK]

114. Although John B. Dunlop, in his perceptive and influential study The Faces of Contemporary Russian Nationalism , noted that preservationism was a "relatively 'safe' way of contesting the direction being taken by the regime and encouraged by the ruling ideology" (64) without overtly revealing the Russian nationalist sentiment beneath, he saw this nationalism as simply a reaction to modernization. My analysis points to a process of initial support for the regime followed by disillusionment and subsequent evolution of a nationalist ideology. break [BACK]

Chapter Fifteen— Three Men in a Boat: VOOP in the Early 1960s

1. TsGA f. 259, op. 42, d. 8530, listy 18-26.

2. Ibid., list 27. Memo of A. Ageev [to premier of RSFSR] dated August 4, 1962. [BACK]

1. TsGA f. 259, op. 42, d. 8530, listy 18-26.

2. Ibid., list 27. Memo of A. Ageev [to premier of RSFSR] dated August 4, 1962. [BACK]

3. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 791, listy 79-136, esp. list 92.

4. Ibid., list 92. [BACK]

3. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 791, listy 79-136, esp. list 92.

4. Ibid., list 92. [BACK]

5. The zubr , or European bison ( Bison bonasus ), a highly endangered cousin of the American bison, was commonly used from the 1920s on to represent intellectuals, especially scientists, of the old prerevolutionary type. [BACK]

6. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 791, listy 94-95.

7. Ibid., list 123. Copy of report of September 16, 1964, "Prezidiumu VOOP," from N. Katin, acting senior fishing inspector of Riazan' oblast' .

8. Ibid., list 99.

9. Ibid., list 101. Report of N. Katin to Professor V. G. Geptner, September 1, 1964. [BACK]

6. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 791, listy 94-95.

7. Ibid., list 123. Copy of report of September 16, 1964, "Prezidiumu VOOP," from N. Katin, acting senior fishing inspector of Riazan' oblast' .

8. Ibid., list 99.

9. Ibid., list 101. Report of N. Katin to Professor V. G. Geptner, September 1, 1964. [BACK]

6. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 791, listy 94-95.

7. Ibid., list 123. Copy of report of September 16, 1964, "Prezidiumu VOOP," from N. Katin, acting senior fishing inspector of Riazan' oblast' .

8. Ibid., list 99.

9. Ibid., list 101. Report of N. Katin to Professor V. G. Geptner, September 1, 1964. [BACK]

6. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 791, listy 94-95.

7. Ibid., list 123. Copy of report of September 16, 1964, "Prezidiumu VOOP," from N. Katin, acting senior fishing inspector of Riazan' oblast' .

8. Ibid., list 99.

9. Ibid., list 101. Report of N. Katin to Professor V. G. Geptner, September 1, 1964. [BACK]

10. A copy of the feulliton was preserved in VOOP archives concerning the incident. Ibid., list 88.

11. Ibid., listy 107-9. V Prezidium Ts. Soveta VOOP. February 1965 (date cut off on xerox). [BACK]

10. A copy of the feulliton was preserved in VOOP archives concerning the incident. Ibid., list 88.

11. Ibid., listy 107-9. V Prezidium Ts. Soveta VOOP. February 1965 (date cut off on xerox). [BACK]

12. See Blagosklonov's letter ofJanuary 24, 1965, ibid., list 111, 111 rev., as well as the letter from Vladislav Petrovich Tydman, February 19, 1965, listy 102-3, as examples of critical correspondence.

13. Ibid., listy 79-87, esp. 86-87. Postanovlenie [Prezidiuma TsS VOOP] ot 24 fevralia 1965 goda No. 16 "O stat'e v zhurnale 'Krokodil' No. 1 za 1965 god 'Vot kakie karasi."'

14. Ibid., list 130. Copy of letter of Geptner to Katin of September 5, 1964.

15. Ibid., listy 134-36. [BACK]

12. See Blagosklonov's letter ofJanuary 24, 1965, ibid., list 111, 111 rev., as well as the letter from Vladislav Petrovich Tydman, February 19, 1965, listy 102-3, as examples of critical correspondence.

13. Ibid., listy 79-87, esp. 86-87. Postanovlenie [Prezidiuma TsS VOOP] ot 24 fevralia 1965 goda No. 16 "O stat'e v zhurnale 'Krokodil' No. 1 za 1965 god 'Vot kakie karasi."'

14. Ibid., list 130. Copy of letter of Geptner to Katin of September 5, 1964.

15. Ibid., listy 134-36. [BACK]

12. See Blagosklonov's letter ofJanuary 24, 1965, ibid., list 111, 111 rev., as well as the letter from Vladislav Petrovich Tydman, February 19, 1965, listy 102-3, as examples of critical correspondence.

13. Ibid., listy 79-87, esp. 86-87. Postanovlenie [Prezidiuma TsS VOOP] ot 24 fevralia 1965 goda No. 16 "O stat'e v zhurnale 'Krokodil' No. 1 za 1965 god 'Vot kakie karasi."'

14. Ibid., list 130. Copy of letter of Geptner to Katin of September 5, 1964.

15. Ibid., listy 134-36. [BACK]

12. See Blagosklonov's letter ofJanuary 24, 1965, ibid., list 111, 111 rev., as well as the letter from Vladislav Petrovich Tydman, February 19, 1965, listy 102-3, as examples of critical correspondence.

13. Ibid., listy 79-87, esp. 86-87. Postanovlenie [Prezidiuma TsS VOOP] ot 24 fevralia 1965 goda No. 16 "O stat'e v zhurnale 'Krokodil' No. 1 za 1965 god 'Vot kakie karasi."'

14. Ibid., list 130. Copy of letter of Geptner to Katin of September 5, 1964.

15. Ibid., listy 134-36. [BACK]

16. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 790, listy 17-20. "Protokol No. 1 zasedaniia Tsentral'nogo soveta VOOP." [BACK]

17. Interview with Vitalii Feodos'evich Parfënov, Moscow, August 21, 1995.

18. Ibid.

19. Ibid. [BACK]

17. Interview with Vitalii Feodos'evich Parfënov, Moscow, August 21, 1995.

18. Ibid.

19. Ibid. [BACK]

17. Interview with Vitalii Feodos'evich Parfënov, Moscow, August 21, 1995.

18. Ibid.

19. Ibid. [BACK]

20. Parfënov, "Kedrovye lesa," 4.

21. Ibid. [BACK]

20. Parfënov, "Kedrovye lesa," 4.

21. Ibid. [BACK]

22. Interview with Vitalii Feodos'evich Parfënov, Moscow, August 21, 1995. [BACK]

Chapter Sixteen— Storm over Baikal

1. Struchkov, "Nature Protection as Moral Duty," 426-27. [BACK]

2. See Weiner, Models , 183. [BACK]

3. Pryde, Environmental Management , 84. [BACK]

4. Taurin, Daleko v strane Irkutskoi , 117. [BACK]

5. Josephson, New Atlantis Revisited . See chapter 5, "Siberian Scientists and the Engineers of Nature." [BACK]

6. TsKhSD f. 5, op. 37, d. 27, listy 28-31. Report to the Bureau of the Central Committee of the CPSU for the RSFSR from N. Kaz'min, director of the Department continue

for Sciences, Schools, and Culture for the Bureau, and N. Dikarev, instruktor . The report was dated September 3, 1958. There were two other representatives of the Central Committee at the conferences in addition.

7. Ibid., list 93.

8. Ibid., list 31. [BACK]

6. TsKhSD f. 5, op. 37, d. 27, listy 28-31. Report to the Bureau of the Central Committee of the CPSU for the RSFSR from N. Kaz'min, director of the Department continue

for Sciences, Schools, and Culture for the Bureau, and N. Dikarev, instruktor . The report was dated September 3, 1958. There were two other representatives of the Central Committee at the conferences in addition.

7. Ibid., list 93.

8. Ibid., list 31. [BACK]

6. TsKhSD f. 5, op. 37, d. 27, listy 28-31. Report to the Bureau of the Central Committee of the CPSU for the RSFSR from N. Kaz'min, director of the Department continue

for Sciences, Schools, and Culture for the Bureau, and N. Dikarev, instruktor . The report was dated September 3, 1958. There were two other representatives of the Central Committee at the conferences in addition.

7. Ibid., list 93.

8. Ibid., list 31. [BACK]

9. Taurin, Daleko v strane Irkutskoi , 118.

10. Ibid. [BACK]

9. Taurin, Daleko v strane Irkutskoi , 118.

10. Ibid. [BACK]

11. "V zashchitu Baikala," Literaturnaia gazeta , 21 October 1958, reprinted in Slovo v zashchitu Baikala , 13-16. [BACK]

12. See RGALI f. 634, op. 4, d. 2116, listy 150 and 189, for examples of letters supporting "V zashchitu Baikala." [BACK]

13. Taurin, Daleko v strane Irkutskoi , 124. [BACK]

14. MOIP Archives, d. 110. Stenogramma soveshchaniia po redkim. . . , Zasedaniia ob"edinnënykh sektsii, Evening, March 29, 1957, list 16. Remarks by L. K. Shaposhnikov. See also RGALI f. 634, op. 4, dela 1507, 1838, 2116, etc., which are "Otzyvy chitatelei o probleme okhrany okruzhaiushchei sredy" (Readers' letters on environmental problems) for 1956-58. [BACK]

15. Skalon, Okhraniaite prirodu! [BACK]

16. Taurin, Daleko v strane Irkutskoi , 126.

17. Ibid., 126-31. [BACK]

16. Taurin, Daleko v strane Irkutskoi , 126.

17. Ibid., 126-31. [BACK]

18. Taurin, "Baikal dolzhen byt' zapovednikom," reprinted in Slovo v zashchitu Baikala , 17-20. [BACK]

19. Dement'ev et al., "V zashchitu Baikala!" reprinted in Slovo v zashchitu Baikala , 20-21. [BACK]

20. Löwenhardt, Decision Making in Soviet Politics , 71.

21. Ibid., 73. [BACK]

20. Löwenhardt, Decision Making in Soviet Politics , 71.

21. Ibid., 73. [BACK]

22. Josephson, New Atlantis Revisited , chapter five, 19. [BACK]

23. Archives of Literaturnaia gazeta at the editorial offices. Letter of G. L. Pospelov, February 8, 1963, unpublished. Filed by year and date in folders. [BACK]

24. Pospelov, "Razmyshleniia o sud'be Baikala," 160-64.

25. Ibid., 164. [BACK]

24. Pospelov, "Razmyshleniia o sud'be Baikala," 160-64.

25. Ibid., 164. [BACK]

26. Chivilikhin, "Svetloe oko Sibiri." [BACK]

27. MOIP Archive, d. 2050, list 74. Letter of August 7, 1963. Carbon. [BACK]

28. "Snova o Baikale," 171-74.

29. Ibid., 171.

30. Ibid., 173-74. Twenty-one such organizations and conferences were listed.

31. Ibid., 174.

32. Ibid.

33. Ibid. [BACK]

28. "Snova o Baikale," 171-74.

29. Ibid., 171.

30. Ibid., 173-74. Twenty-one such organizations and conferences were listed.

31. Ibid., 174.

32. Ibid.

33. Ibid. [BACK]

28. "Snova o Baikale," 171-74.

29. Ibid., 171.

30. Ibid., 173-74. Twenty-one such organizations and conferences were listed.

31. Ibid., 174.

32. Ibid.

33. Ibid. [BACK]

28. "Snova o Baikale," 171-74.

29. Ibid., 171.

30. Ibid., 173-74. Twenty-one such organizations and conferences were listed.

31. Ibid., 174.

32. Ibid.

33. Ibid. [BACK]

28. "Snova o Baikale," 171-74.

29. Ibid., 171.

30. Ibid., 173-74. Twenty-one such organizations and conferences were listed.

31. Ibid., 174.

32. Ibid.

33. Ibid. [BACK]

28. "Snova o Baikale," 171-74.

29. Ibid., 171.

30. Ibid., 173-74. Twenty-one such organizations and conferences were listed.

31. Ibid., 174.

32. Ibid.

33. Ibid. [BACK]

34. Merkulov, "Trevoga o Baikale," 4. [BACK]

35. Volkov, "Tuman nad Baikalom," reprinted in Slovo v zashchitu Baikala , 45-52.

36. Ibid., 50-52. [BACK]

35. Volkov, "Tuman nad Baikalom," reprinted in Slovo v zashchitu Baikala , 45-52.

36. Ibid., 50-52. [BACK]

37. Sobolev, Sartakov, Taurin, et al., "V zashchitu Baikala!" reprinted in Slovo v zashchitu Baikala , 52-53. [BACK]

38. Orlov, "Snova o Baikale," reprinted in Slovo v zashchitu Baikala , 57-59. break

39. Ibid., 59. [BACK]

38. Orlov, "Snova o Baikale," reprinted in Slovo v zashchitu Baikala , 57-59. break

39. Ibid., 59. [BACK]

40. Volkov, ''Tuman ne resseialsia," reprinted in Slovo v zashchitu Baikala , 62-69. [BACK]

41. Trofimuk, "Tsena vedomstvennogo upriamstva," reprinted in Slovo v zashchitu Baikala , 70-77. Quotation, 76-77. [BACK]

42. MOIP Archive, d. 2050, list 8. [BACK]

43. MOIP Archive, d. 2062, list 2. Letter of January 11, 1966 from MOIP to minister of agriculture V. V. Matskevich. Draft carbon. Originally typed January 8, 1966 and amended three days later.

44. Ibid., listy 2, 3. The words used were bezzakoniia and proizvol .

45. Ibid., list 3.

46. Ibid., listy 3-4.

47. Ibid., list 5. [BACK]

43. MOIP Archive, d. 2062, list 2. Letter of January 11, 1966 from MOIP to minister of agriculture V. V. Matskevich. Draft carbon. Originally typed January 8, 1966 and amended three days later.

44. Ibid., listy 2, 3. The words used were bezzakoniia and proizvol .

45. Ibid., list 3.

46. Ibid., listy 3-4.

47. Ibid., list 5. [BACK]

43. MOIP Archive, d. 2062, list 2. Letter of January 11, 1966 from MOIP to minister of agriculture V. V. Matskevich. Draft carbon. Originally typed January 8, 1966 and amended three days later.

44. Ibid., listy 2, 3. The words used were bezzakoniia and proizvol .

45. Ibid., list 3.

46. Ibid., listy 3-4.

47. Ibid., list 5. [BACK]

43. MOIP Archive, d. 2062, list 2. Letter of January 11, 1966 from MOIP to minister of agriculture V. V. Matskevich. Draft carbon. Originally typed January 8, 1966 and amended three days later.

44. Ibid., listy 2, 3. The words used were bezzakoniia and proizvol .

45. Ibid., list 3.

46. Ibid., listy 3-4.

47. Ibid., list 5. [BACK]

43. MOIP Archive, d. 2062, list 2. Letter of January 11, 1966 from MOIP to minister of agriculture V. V. Matskevich. Draft carbon. Originally typed January 8, 1966 and amended three days later.

44. Ibid., listy 2, 3. The words used were bezzakoniia and proizvol .

45. Ibid., list 3.

46. Ibid., listy 3-4.

47. Ibid., list 5. [BACK]

48. Konstantinov et al., "Baikal zhdët," reprinted in Slovo v zashchitu Baikala , 78-83. Quotation, 80.

49. Ibid., 80.

50. Ibid., 82.

51. Ibid., 82-83. [BACK]

48. Konstantinov et al., "Baikal zhdët," reprinted in Slovo v zashchitu Baikala , 78-83. Quotation, 80.

49. Ibid., 80.

50. Ibid., 82.

51. Ibid., 82-83. [BACK]

48. Konstantinov et al., "Baikal zhdët," reprinted in Slovo v zashchitu Baikala , 78-83. Quotation, 80.

49. Ibid., 80.

50. Ibid., 82.

51. Ibid., 82-83. [BACK]

48. Konstantinov et al., "Baikal zhdët," reprinted in Slovo v zashchitu Baikala , 78-83. Quotation, 80.

49. Ibid., 80.

50. Ibid., 82.

51. Ibid., 82-83. [BACK]

52. MOIP Archive, d. 2062, list 163. [BACK]

53. MOIP Archives, d. 2063. Draft letter of July 5, 1966 to Brezhnev from Varsonof'eva, Prozorovskii, and Professor V. I. Pelevin, deputy chair of the Section on Nature Protection of the Academy of Sciences' House of Scholars. [BACK]

54. MOIP Archive, d. 2063. Reshenie sobraniia uchënykh, spetsialistov i predstavitelei sovetskoi obshchestvennosti, sostoiavshegosia v Dome uchënykh AN SSSR 13 iunia 1966 g. 4 pp. [BACK]

55. MOIP Archive, d. 2063. Protokol no. 5 zasedaniia Prezidiuma Soveta Moskovskogo obshchestva ispytatelei prirody ot 16-ogo iunia 1966 g. On 3 pp. No "listy" show up on these xeroxed pages.

56. Ibid. The resolutions are contained in the same delo . [BACK]

55. MOIP Archive, d. 2063. Protokol no. 5 zasedaniia Prezidiuma Soveta Moskovskogo obshchestva ispytatelei prirody ot 16-ogo iunia 1966 g. On 3 pp. No "listy" show up on these xeroxed pages.

56. Ibid. The resolutions are contained in the same delo . [BACK]

57. MOIP Archive, d. 2063, Letter of September 20, 1966 of Sukachëv et al. to Viktor Borisovich Sochava. Carbon copy. 4 pp.

58. Ibid.

59. Ibid. [BACK]

57. MOIP Archive, d. 2063, Letter of September 20, 1966 of Sukachëv et al. to Viktor Borisovich Sochava. Carbon copy. 4 pp.

58. Ibid.

59. Ibid. [BACK]

57. MOIP Archive, d. 2063, Letter of September 20, 1966 of Sukachëv et al. to Viktor Borisovich Sochava. Carbon copy. 4 pp.

58. Ibid.

59. Ibid. [BACK]

60. "Tol'ko dokumenty" (Only documents), Komsomol'skaia pravda , 13 May 13 1966 (no. 134), reprinted in Slovo v zashchitu Baikala , 83-90. Quotation, 83-84.

61. Ibid., 89.

62. Ibid., 90. [BACK]

60. "Tol'ko dokumenty" (Only documents), Komsomol'skaia pravda , 13 May 13 1966 (no. 134), reprinted in Slovo v zashchitu Baikala , 83-90. Quotation, 83-84.

61. Ibid., 89.

62. Ibid., 90. [BACK]

60. "Tol'ko dokumenty" (Only documents), Komsomol'skaia pravda , 13 May 13 1966 (no. 134), reprinted in Slovo v zashchitu Baikala , 83-90. Quotation, 83-84.

61. Ibid., 89.

62. Ibid., 90. [BACK]

63. "Vystuplenie Akademika P. L. Kapitsy na sovmestnom zasedanii Kollegii Gosplana SSSR, Kollegii Goskomiteta SSSR po nauke i tekhniki, i Prezidiuma Akademii nauk SSSR," 22 iunia 1966 g. First published in Khimiia i zhizn ' 7 (1987), reprinted in Slovo v zashchitu Baikala , 90-95. Quotation, 91.

64. Ibid., 92.

65. Ibid., 95. [BACK]

63. "Vystuplenie Akademika P. L. Kapitsy na sovmestnom zasedanii Kollegii Gosplana SSSR, Kollegii Goskomiteta SSSR po nauke i tekhniki, i Prezidiuma Akademii nauk SSSR," 22 iunia 1966 g. First published in Khimiia i zhizn ' 7 (1987), reprinted in Slovo v zashchitu Baikala , 90-95. Quotation, 91.

64. Ibid., 92.

65. Ibid., 95. [BACK]

63. "Vystuplenie Akademika P. L. Kapitsy na sovmestnom zasedanii Kollegii Gosplana SSSR, Kollegii Goskomiteta SSSR po nauke i tekhniki, i Prezidiuma Akademii nauk SSSR," 22 iunia 1966 g. First published in Khimiia i zhizn ' 7 (1987), reprinted in Slovo v zashchitu Baikala , 90-95. Quotation, 91.

64. Ibid., 92.

65. Ibid., 95. [BACK]

66. Goldman, Spoils of Progress ; Gustafson, Reform in the Soviet Union ; Jancar Webster, Environmental Management ; Kelley, "Environmental Policy-Making in the USSR"; Löwenhardt, Decision - Making in Soviet Politics ; Pryde, Conservation in the Soviet Union ; Komarov, Unichtozhenie prirody v Sovetskom soiuze . [BACK]

67. Pryde, Environmental Management , 86-87. break [BACK]

Chapter Seventeen— Science Doesn't Stand Still

1. Quoted in Worster, Nature's Economy , 249. [BACK]

2. Aleksandrova, "Rastitel'noe soobshchestvo," and "Problema razvitiia v geobotanike." For a highly useful bibliography of her works and those of her colleagues, see Levina, Geobotanika v Botanicheskom institute . [BACK]

3. "Postanovlenie Biuro otdeleniia biologicheskikh nauk Akademii nauk SSSR ot 18 iunia 1957 g., Protokol no. 21, P. 1, 'O ratsional'noi seti zapovednikov SSSR,"' in "Khronika" (1958), 112-13. [BACK]

4. See, for instance, Zharkov, Prosteishie nabliudeniia v prirode ; or Stepanov, "Zapovednoe delo v Kazakhstane," 4-6. [BACK]

5. TsGa f. 358, op. 3, d. 3404, list 90. "Stenogramma soveshchaniia direktorov gosudarstvennykh zapovednikov i ikh zamestitelei po nauchnoi rabote s uchastiem storonnvkh nauchnykh uchrezhdenii v Voronezhskom gosudarstvennom zapovednike."

6. Ibid., list 142. [BACK]

5. TsGa f. 358, op. 3, d. 3404, list 90. "Stenogramma soveshchaniia direktorov gosudarstvennykh zapovednikov i ikh zamestitelei po nauchnoi rabote s uchastiem storonnvkh nauchnykh uchrezhdenii v Voronezhskom gosudarstvennom zapovednike."

6. Ibid., list 142. [BACK]

7. TsGA f. 358, op. 3, d. 3405, list 147. [BACK]

8. TsGAf. 358, op. 3, d. 5082, listy 21-22.

9. Ibid., listy 22-23.

10. Ibid., list 23.

11. Ibid., listy 23-24.

12. Ibid., listy 25-26.

13. Ibid., list 26. [BACK]

8. TsGAf. 358, op. 3, d. 5082, listy 21-22.

9. Ibid., listy 22-23.

10. Ibid., list 23.

11. Ibid., listy 23-24.

12. Ibid., listy 25-26.

13. Ibid., list 26. [BACK]

8. TsGAf. 358, op. 3, d. 5082, listy 21-22.

9. Ibid., listy 22-23.

10. Ibid., list 23.

11. Ibid., listy 23-24.

12. Ibid., listy 25-26.

13. Ibid., list 26. [BACK]

8. TsGAf. 358, op. 3, d. 5082, listy 21-22.

9. Ibid., listy 22-23.

10. Ibid., list 23.

11. Ibid., listy 23-24.

12. Ibid., listy 25-26.

13. Ibid., list 26. [BACK]

8. TsGAf. 358, op. 3, d. 5082, listy 21-22.

9. Ibid., listy 22-23.

10. Ibid., list 23.

11. Ibid., listy 23-24.

12. Ibid., listy 25-26.

13. Ibid., list 26. [BACK]

8. TsGAf. 358, op. 3, d. 5082, listy 21-22.

9. Ibid., listy 22-23.

10. Ibid., list 23.

11. Ibid., listy 23-24.

12. Ibid., listy 25-26.

13. Ibid., list 26. [BACK]

14. The seven zapovedniki were: Astrakhanskii, Voronezhskii, Kavkazskii, Okskii, Prioksko-Terrasnyi, Sikhote-Alinskii, and Tsentral'no-Lesnoi. The decree was Postanovlenie SM SSSR No. 390 ot 18 maia 1965 g. Glavokhota acceded with a corresponding decree on August 7, 1965. See also TsGA f. 358, op. 3, d. 3876, listy 1-2: "Akt peredachi gosudarstvennykh zapovednikov Glavokhota RSFSR v vedenie Ministerstva sel'skogo khoziaistva SSSR." [BACK]

15. Bannikov, Po zapovednikam SSSR . [BACK]

16. Boreiko, " Tsarskie okhoty ," 24. A. A. Nasimovich Archives, Institute of Geography of the Russian Academy of Sciences, uncatalogued. Letter of Director I. Tsepliaev of the Kavkazskii Gosudarstvennyi zapovednik to Andrei Aleksandrovich Nasimovich of March 23, 1965. The letter warmly thanks Nasimovich for his help in fighting the transfer. [BACK]

17. Readers are referred to Komarov, Destruction of Nature in the Soviet Union , chapter 6, as well as to virtually any issue of Okhota i okhotnich'e khoziaistvo. See also Volkov, "Tropa brakonera," 11; and Shtil'mark, Istoriografiia rossiiskikh zapovednikov. [BACK]

18. Nasimovich Archives, Institute of Geography of the Russian Academy of Sciences, uncatalogued. A. A. Nasimovich's letter to the editor of Komsomol'skaia pravda , September 13, 1968, p. 1 of 3. [BACK]

19. RGAE f. 7486, op. 33, d. 60, list 103-6. Note of August 23, 1966.

20. Ibid., listy 40-54. "O merakh po uluchsheniiu okhrany prirody v SSSR. Proekt." [BACK]

19. RGAE f. 7486, op. 33, d. 60, list 103-6. Note of August 23, 1966.

20. Ibid., listy 40-54. "O merakh po uluchsheniiu okhrany prirody v SSSR. Proekt." [BACK]

21. V. N. Skalon, review of Trudy Voronezhskogo gosudarstvennogo zapovednika, no. 5 (Voronezh, 1954), in Biulleten' MOIP 63, no. 1 (1958): 120-22.

22. Ibid. On the Altai red squirrel, see also Grebënok, "Parazity belki," 340-42. continue

The reacclimatization of the European bison, the beaver, and the sable were among the most successful rescue operations of twentieth-century nature protection. Beavers, 3,340 of which were reacclimatized to former habitats via the zapovedniki , had attained an overall population of 100,000 by the early 1980s. From 1946 to 1977 the sable population increased by 600 percent and stood at more than 650,000 by the early 1980s as well. At one 1975 auction, 45,500 pelts sold for $3,420,000. See Geograficheskoe razmeshchenie zapovednikov , 4. [BACK]

21. V. N. Skalon, review of Trudy Voronezhskogo gosudarstvennogo zapovednika, no. 5 (Voronezh, 1954), in Biulleten' MOIP 63, no. 1 (1958): 120-22.

22. Ibid. On the Altai red squirrel, see also Grebënok, "Parazity belki," 340-42. continue

The reacclimatization of the European bison, the beaver, and the sable were among the most successful rescue operations of twentieth-century nature protection. Beavers, 3,340 of which were reacclimatized to former habitats via the zapovedniki , had attained an overall population of 100,000 by the early 1980s. From 1946 to 1977 the sable population increased by 600 percent and stood at more than 650,000 by the early 1980s as well. At one 1975 auction, 45,500 pelts sold for $3,420,000. See Geograficheskoe razmeshchenie zapovednikov , 4. [BACK]

23. Interview with Andrei Aleksandrovich Nasimovich, Moscow, April 18, 1980. [BACK]

24. Geptner, "Kakovy zhe puti obogashcheniia fauny." Quoted in Akklimatizatsiia okhotnich'e-promyslovykh , 1:4.

25. Ibid., 5. [BACK]

24. Geptner, "Kakovy zhe puti obogashcheniia fauny." Quoted in Akklimatizatsiia okhotnich'e-promyslovykh , 1:4.

25. Ibid., 5. [BACK]

26. Akklimatizatsiia okhotnich'e-promyslovykh , 1:5; Nasimovich, "Ekologicheskie posledstviia vkliucheniia novogo vida," 1593-98. [BACK]

27. Akklimatizatsiia okhotnich'e - promyslovykh, 1:5. [BACK]

28. Skalon, "Sushchnost' biotekhnii." [BACK]

29. Filonov, "Dinamika chislennosti."

30. Ibid., 88.

31. Ibid., 89.

32. Ibid., 203-4 and passim. [BACK]

29. Filonov, "Dinamika chislennosti."

30. Ibid., 88.

31. Ibid., 89.

32. Ibid., 203-4 and passim. [BACK]

29. Filonov, "Dinamika chislennosti."

30. Ibid., 88.

31. Ibid., 89.

32. Ibid., 203-4 and passim. [BACK]

29. Filonov, "Dinamika chislennosti."

30. Ibid., 88.

31. Ibid., 89.

32. Ibid., 203-4 and passim. [BACK]

33. Dement'ev, "Deiatel'nost'," 11. [BACK]

34. "Soveshchanie po okhrane prirody." [BACK]

35. Nagibina, "Zadachi sanitarnoi okhrany vodoemov."

36. Ibid., 36.

37. Ibid., 36-37.

38. Ibid., 38.

39. Ibid., 39-46. [BACK]

35. Nagibina, "Zadachi sanitarnoi okhrany vodoemov."

36. Ibid., 36.

37. Ibid., 36-37.

38. Ibid., 38.

39. Ibid., 39-46. [BACK]

35. Nagibina, "Zadachi sanitarnoi okhrany vodoemov."

36. Ibid., 36.

37. Ibid., 36-37.

38. Ibid., 38.

39. Ibid., 39-46. [BACK]

35. Nagibina, "Zadachi sanitarnoi okhrany vodoemov."

36. Ibid., 36.

37. Ibid., 36-37.

38. Ibid., 38.

39. Ibid., 39-46. [BACK]

35. Nagibina, "Zadachi sanitarnoi okhrany vodoemov."

36. Ibid., 36.

37. Ibid., 36-37.

38. Ibid., 38.

39. Ibid., 39-46. [BACK]

40. Gol'dberg, "Chistota atmosfernogo vozdukha i ego okhrana." Another article about air pollution appeared four years later in the same journal: Voroshilov and Nedotko, "Ispol'zovanie mineral'nogo topliva." [BACK]

41. Kuzin and Peredel'skii, "Okhrana prirody," esp. 65-70.

42. Ibid., 72-73.

43. Ibid., 75.

44. Ibid., 76. [BACK]

41. Kuzin and Peredel'skii, "Okhrana prirody," esp. 65-70.

42. Ibid., 72-73.

43. Ibid., 75.

44. Ibid., 76. [BACK]

41. Kuzin and Peredel'skii, "Okhrana prirody," esp. 65-70.

42. Ibid., 72-73.

43. Ibid., 75.

44. Ibid., 76. [BACK]

41. Kuzin and Peredel'skii, "Okhrana prirody," esp. 65-70.

42. Ibid., 72-73.

43. Ibid., 75.

44. Ibid., 76. [BACK]

45. S. S. Shvarts, "Voprosy akklimatizatsii mlekopitaiushchikh na Urale," 10. He noted that acclimatization always referred to the successful formation of a population working from the existing genotypes of the introduced specimens, and not from the falsely held power of the environment to work directed, adaptive hereditary changes in the introduced individuals. [BACK]

46. One Soviet informant, a close collaborator of Timofeev-Resovskii's, described Shvarts as "a classic yes-man." [BACK]

47. Quoted in Bol'shakov, Ekologicheskie osnovy okhrany prirody , 5.

48. Ibid., 3-4. [BACK]

47. Quoted in Bol'shakov, Ekologicheskie osnovy okhrany prirody , 5.

48. Ibid., 3-4. [BACK]

49. S. S. Shvarts, Tekhnicheskii progress i okhrana prirody , 1, 12-13.

50. Ibid., 15.

51. Ibid., 14. [BACK]

49. S. S. Shvarts, Tekhnicheskii progress i okhrana prirody , 1, 12-13.

50. Ibid., 15.

51. Ibid., 14. [BACK]

49. S. S. Shvarts, Tekhnicheskii progress i okhrana prirody , 1, 12-13.

50. Ibid., 15.

51. Ibid., 14. [BACK]

52. Dialog o prirode . break

53. Ibid., 127. It is significant that Shvarts uses the modern term ecosystem rather than the older and more platonic biocenosis .

54. Ibid.

55. Ibid., 37-38.

56. Ibid., 49. [BACK]

52. Dialog o prirode . break

53. Ibid., 127. It is significant that Shvarts uses the modern term ecosystem rather than the older and more platonic biocenosis .

54. Ibid.

55. Ibid., 37-38.

56. Ibid., 49. [BACK]

52. Dialog o prirode . break

53. Ibid., 127. It is significant that Shvarts uses the modern term ecosystem rather than the older and more platonic biocenosis .

54. Ibid.

55. Ibid., 37-38.

56. Ibid., 49. [BACK]

52. Dialog o prirode . break

53. Ibid., 127. It is significant that Shvarts uses the modern term ecosystem rather than the older and more platonic biocenosis .

54. Ibid.

55. Ibid., 37-38.

56. Ibid., 49. [BACK]

52. Dialog o prirode . break

53. Ibid., 127. It is significant that Shvarts uses the modern term ecosystem rather than the older and more platonic biocenosis .

54. Ibid.

55. Ibid., 37-38.

56. Ibid., 49. [BACK]

57. Borodin, "Usilit' bor'bu s volkami," 4. [BACK]

58. Gusev, "Protiv idealizatsii prirody," 26. [BACK]

59. Dialog o prirode , 43.

60. Ibid., 125; 24.

61. Ibid., 22.

62. Ibid., 125. [BACK]

59. Dialog o prirode , 43.

60. Ibid., 125; 24.

61. Ibid., 22.

62. Ibid., 125. [BACK]

59. Dialog o prirode , 43.

60. Ibid., 125; 24.

61. Ibid., 22.

62. Ibid., 125. [BACK]

59. Dialog o prirode , 43.

60. Ibid., 125; 24.

61. Ibid., 22.

62. Ibid., 125. [BACK]

63. Timofeev-Resovskii and Tiuriukanov, "Biogeotsenologiia i pochvovedenie."

64. Ibid., 109

65. Ibid., 110-11.

66. Ibid., 14-15. [BACK]

63. Timofeev-Resovskii and Tiuriukanov, "Biogeotsenologiia i pochvovedenie."

64. Ibid., 109

65. Ibid., 110-11.

66. Ibid., 14-15. [BACK]

63. Timofeev-Resovskii and Tiuriukanov, "Biogeotsenologiia i pochvovedenie."

64. Ibid., 109

65. Ibid., 110-11.

66. Ibid., 14-15. [BACK]

63. Timofeev-Resovskii and Tiuriukanov, "Biogeotsenologiia i pochvovedenie."

64. Ibid., 109

65. Ibid., 110-11.

66. Ibid., 14-15. [BACK]

67. We see a similar approach in Giliarov, Vinberg, and Chernov, "Ekologiia": "Precisely ecology has been called upon to create the scientific basis for the rational exploitation of resources [and] prognostication of the changes in nature cause by human activity" (5). [BACK]

68. See Nesterov, Voprosy upravleniia prirodoi ; Svirezhev and Logofet, Ustoichevost' biologicheskikh sistem ; Bazykin, Matematicheskaia biofizika vzaimodeistvuiushchikh populiatsii ; Budyko, obal'naia ekologiia ; Gorban' and Khlebopros, Demon Darina . [BACK]

69. The deputy chair of the commission was S. V. Kirikov. Other members were: G. E. Burdin, P. I. Valeskaln, A. G. Voronov, V. G. Geptner, I. P. Gerasimov, N. E. Kabanov, and A. N. Formozov. The commission formally was named the USSR Academy of Sciences' Commission on Nature Protection. [BACK]

70. Lavrenko, Geptner; Kirikov, and Formozov, "Perspektivnyi plan," 4-5. [BACK]

71. See Nasimovich, "V Berezinskom zapovednike," 111-13. Upstream water users siphoned off water for irrigation of tributaries of the Berezina River, causing downstream desiccation and fall of the water tables, drying up the marsh, and affecting the habitat of fauna. [BACK]

72. Interview with A. A. Nasimovich, Moscow, April 18, 1980. In 1946-47 there were 2,500 desman in the Khopër reserve but by 1975 there were only 500. An additional problem was that acclimatized axis deer and boar destroyed the rodents' burrows when they came to drink at the stream's edge. Acclimatized muskrat competed with the desman for food and burrows as well. The situation called into question the "natural" state of the territory protected within the boundaries of the zapovednik . [BACK]

73. ARAN—St. Pbg. f. 996, op. 4, d. 35, list 202. Shaposhnikov's handwritten note to Lavrenko was included on a typed letter from I. N. Iaitskii, director of the reserve, of March 24, 1959, to Shaposhnikov and the USSR Academy of Sciences Commission on Nature Protection, which supervised the scientific research and management strategies of the reserve. Attached to the letter on listy 203-15 was the proposed management plan itself.

74. Ibid., list 202. The plan, entitled "Rezhim Tsentral'no-Chernozëmnogo Goszapovednika," was dated January 22, 1959, on list 203-15. break

75. Ibid., list 203.

76. Ibid., list 204.

77. Ibid., list 208.

78. Ibid.

79. Ibid., list 209. [BACK]

73. ARAN—St. Pbg. f. 996, op. 4, d. 35, list 202. Shaposhnikov's handwritten note to Lavrenko was included on a typed letter from I. N. Iaitskii, director of the reserve, of March 24, 1959, to Shaposhnikov and the USSR Academy of Sciences Commission on Nature Protection, which supervised the scientific research and management strategies of the reserve. Attached to the letter on listy 203-15 was the proposed management plan itself.

74. Ibid., list 202. The plan, entitled "Rezhim Tsentral'no-Chernozëmnogo Goszapovednika," was dated January 22, 1959, on list 203-15. break

75. Ibid., list 203.

76. Ibid., list 204.

77. Ibid., list 208.

78. Ibid.

79. Ibid., list 209. [BACK]

73. ARAN—St. Pbg. f. 996, op. 4, d. 35, list 202. Shaposhnikov's handwritten note to Lavrenko was included on a typed letter from I. N. Iaitskii, director of the reserve, of March 24, 1959, to Shaposhnikov and the USSR Academy of Sciences Commission on Nature Protection, which supervised the scientific research and management strategies of the reserve. Attached to the letter on listy 203-15 was the proposed management plan itself.

74. Ibid., list 202. The plan, entitled "Rezhim Tsentral'no-Chernozëmnogo Goszapovednika," was dated January 22, 1959, on list 203-15. break

75. Ibid., list 203.

76. Ibid., list 204.

77. Ibid., list 208.

78. Ibid.

79. Ibid., list 209. [BACK]

73. ARAN—St. Pbg. f. 996, op. 4, d. 35, list 202. Shaposhnikov's handwritten note to Lavrenko was included on a typed letter from I. N. Iaitskii, director of the reserve, of March 24, 1959, to Shaposhnikov and the USSR Academy of Sciences Commission on Nature Protection, which supervised the scientific research and management strategies of the reserve. Attached to the letter on listy 203-15 was the proposed management plan itself.

74. Ibid., list 202. The plan, entitled "Rezhim Tsentral'no-Chernozëmnogo Goszapovednika," was dated January 22, 1959, on list 203-15. break

75. Ibid., list 203.

76. Ibid., list 204.

77. Ibid., list 208.

78. Ibid.

79. Ibid., list 209. [BACK]

73. ARAN—St. Pbg. f. 996, op. 4, d. 35, list 202. Shaposhnikov's handwritten note to Lavrenko was included on a typed letter from I. N. Iaitskii, director of the reserve, of March 24, 1959, to Shaposhnikov and the USSR Academy of Sciences Commission on Nature Protection, which supervised the scientific research and management strategies of the reserve. Attached to the letter on listy 203-15 was the proposed management plan itself.

74. Ibid., list 202. The plan, entitled "Rezhim Tsentral'no-Chernozëmnogo Goszapovednika," was dated January 22, 1959, on list 203-15. break

75. Ibid., list 203.

76. Ibid., list 204.

77. Ibid., list 208.

78. Ibid.

79. Ibid., list 209. [BACK]

73. ARAN—St. Pbg. f. 996, op. 4, d. 35, list 202. Shaposhnikov's handwritten note to Lavrenko was included on a typed letter from I. N. Iaitskii, director of the reserve, of March 24, 1959, to Shaposhnikov and the USSR Academy of Sciences Commission on Nature Protection, which supervised the scientific research and management strategies of the reserve. Attached to the letter on listy 203-15 was the proposed management plan itself.

74. Ibid., list 202. The plan, entitled "Rezhim Tsentral'no-Chernozëmnogo Goszapovednika," was dated January 22, 1959, on list 203-15. break

75. Ibid., list 203.

76. Ibid., list 204.

77. Ibid., list 208.

78. Ibid.

79. Ibid., list 209. [BACK]

73. ARAN—St. Pbg. f. 996, op. 4, d. 35, list 202. Shaposhnikov's handwritten note to Lavrenko was included on a typed letter from I. N. Iaitskii, director of the reserve, of March 24, 1959, to Shaposhnikov and the USSR Academy of Sciences Commission on Nature Protection, which supervised the scientific research and management strategies of the reserve. Attached to the letter on listy 203-15 was the proposed management plan itself.

74. Ibid., list 202. The plan, entitled "Rezhim Tsentral'no-Chernozëmnogo Goszapovednika," was dated January 22, 1959, on list 203-15. break

75. Ibid., list 203.

76. Ibid., list 204.

77. Ibid., list 208.

78. Ibid.

79. Ibid., list 209. [BACK]

80. Krasnitskii, "Lesokhoziaistvennye meropriiatiia"; Krasnitskii and Dyrenkov, "Sravnitel'naia otsenka lugovykh"; Dyrenkov and Krasnitskii, "Osnovnye funktsii zapovednykh territorii"; and Krasnitskii, Problemy . [BACK]

81. See discussion of this in Rashek, Vasil'ev, and Chumakova, "Okhrana soobshchestv." Also see Krasnitskii, Problemy , 111. [BACK]

82. Krasnitskii, Problemy , 112. [BACK]

83. See Gilyarov, "Agrocenology." [BACK]

84. Krasnitskii, Problemy , 58, 89.

85. Ibid., 112. [BACK]

84. Krasnitskii, Problemy , 58, 89.

85. Ibid., 112. [BACK]

86. Shvarts, "Teoreticheskie osnovy," cited in Krasnitskii, Problemy , 112. [BACK]

87. Krasnitskii, Problemy , 112.

88. Ibid., 144-47. [BACK]

87. Krasnitskii, Problemy , 112.

88. Ibid., 144-47. [BACK]

89. Alekseeva and Zykov, "Differentsiatsiia razmerov zapovednikov," 38-39. [BACK]

90. Nukhimovskaia, "Biologicheskie i geograficheskie," 23.

91. Ibid. [BACK]

90. Nukhimovskaia, "Biologicheskie i geograficheskie," 23.

91. Ibid. [BACK]

92. Interview with Konstantin Pavlovich Filonov, Moscow, March 6, 1986. [BACK]

93. Interview with Andrei Aleksandrovich Nasimovich, Moscow, April 18, 1980. [BACK]

94. Fedorenko and Reimers, "Nature Conservation," 87.

95. Ibid. [BACK]

94. Fedorenko and Reimers, "Nature Conservation," 87.

95. Ibid. [BACK]

96. Reimers, "Bez prava na oshibku," 17.

97. Ibid., 29. [BACK]

96. Reimers, "Bez prava na oshibku," 17.

97. Ibid., 29. [BACK]

98. Sushchenyz, Parfënov, Vynayev, and Rykovsky, "Scientific Principles," 121-24. [BACK]

99. See Kotliarov, Geografiia otdykha i turizma , 29-30; and Chizhova, Rekreatsionnye nagruzki v zonakh otdykha . [BACK]

100. The Academy of Sciences' Institute of Geography, Department of Biogeography has a section led by N. A. Kazanskaia that studies the ecological effect of recreation on landscapes. [BACK]

101. Bannikov, "Ot zapovednika do prirodnogo parka." [BACK]

102. On "natsional'nye parki," see Nikolaevskii, Natsional'nye parki ; and Filippovskii, Natsional'nyi park . [BACK]

103. Reimers and Shtil'mark, Osobo , 179.

104. Ibid., 161 and passim. An example of a land-use zoning plan based on these principles may be seen in Iagomagi and Pallok, "Funktsional'noe zonirovanie i sel'skoe khoziaistvo." [BACK]

103. Reimers and Shtil'mark, Osobo , 179.

104. Ibid., 161 and passim. An example of a land-use zoning plan based on these principles may be seen in Iagomagi and Pallok, "Funktsional'noe zonirovanie i sel'skoe khoziaistvo." [BACK]

105. Reimers and Shtil'mark, "Etalony prirody," 15-16. [BACK]

106. Frolov and Los', "Filosofskie osnovaniia sovremennoi ekologii."

107. Ibid., 16.

108. Ibid., 21.

109. Ibid., 15.

110. Ibid., 22. [BACK]

106. Frolov and Los', "Filosofskie osnovaniia sovremennoi ekologii."

107. Ibid., 16.

108. Ibid., 21.

109. Ibid., 15.

110. Ibid., 22. [BACK]

106. Frolov and Los', "Filosofskie osnovaniia sovremennoi ekologii."

107. Ibid., 16.

108. Ibid., 21.

109. Ibid., 15.

110. Ibid., 22. [BACK]

106. Frolov and Los', "Filosofskie osnovaniia sovremennoi ekologii."

107. Ibid., 16.

108. Ibid., 21.

109. Ibid., 15.

110. Ibid., 22. [BACK]

106. Frolov and Los', "Filosofskie osnovaniia sovremennoi ekologii."

107. Ibid., 16.

108. Ibid., 21.

109. Ibid., 15.

110. Ibid., 22. [BACK]

111. DeBardeleben, Environment and Marxism-Leninism . break [BACK]

112. As a sampler, see Ursul, Philosophy and the Ecological Problems of Civilisation; Obshchestvo i prirodnaia sreda ; and Fëdorov, Ekologicheskii krizis . Readers are referred to DeBardeleben's bibliography and particularly to Pidzhakov, Sovetskaia ekologicheskaia politika , esp. 142-45, nn. 15-30. [BACK]

113. DeBardeleben, Environment and Marxism-Leninism , 55.

114. Ibid., 115.

115. Ibid., 191, 214.

116. Ibid., 268. [BACK]

113. DeBardeleben, Environment and Marxism-Leninism , 55.

114. Ibid., 115.

115. Ibid., 191, 214.

116. Ibid., 268. [BACK]

113. DeBardeleben, Environment and Marxism-Leninism , 55.

114. Ibid., 115.

115. Ibid., 191, 214.

116. Ibid., 268. [BACK]

113. DeBardeleben, Environment and Marxism-Leninism , 55.

114. Ibid., 115.

115. Ibid., 191, 214.

116. Ibid., 268. [BACK]

117. See Alimov, Sukhov, Nikolaev, and Khodanovich, Problemy ekologii i sovremennost'. [BACK]

Chapter Eighteen— Environmental Struggles in the Era of Stagnation

1. See Gustafson, Reform in the Soviet Union . For legislation of this period see also Pidzhakov, Sovetskaia ekologicheskaia politika . [BACK]

2. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 2912, listy, 153-54. Dated October 5, 1981.

3. Ibid., listy 155-57.

4. Ibid., list 25. The document is V. N. Vinogradov, "Otchët o rezul'tatakh komandirovaniia v sostave sovetskoi delegatsii predsedatelia Prezidiuma TsS VOOP chlena Ispolnitel'nogo Soveta MSOP na VIII zasedanie Mezhdunarodnogo soiuza okhrany prirody i prirodnykh resursov (MSOP)." Undated (but written shortly after November 15, 1980, when Vinogradov returned from seven days in Switzerland). [BACK]

2. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 2912, listy, 153-54. Dated October 5, 1981.

3. Ibid., listy 155-57.

4. Ibid., list 25. The document is V. N. Vinogradov, "Otchët o rezul'tatakh komandirovaniia v sostave sovetskoi delegatsii predsedatelia Prezidiuma TsS VOOP chlena Ispolnitel'nogo Soveta MSOP na VIII zasedanie Mezhdunarodnogo soiuza okhrany prirody i prirodnykh resursov (MSOP)." Undated (but written shortly after November 15, 1980, when Vinogradov returned from seven days in Switzerland). [BACK]

2. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 2912, listy, 153-54. Dated October 5, 1981.

3. Ibid., listy 155-57.

4. Ibid., list 25. The document is V. N. Vinogradov, "Otchët o rezul'tatakh komandirovaniia v sostave sovetskoi delegatsii predsedatelia Prezidiuma TsS VOOP chlena Ispolnitel'nogo Soveta MSOP na VIII zasedanie Mezhdunarodnogo soiuza okhrany prirody i prirodnykh resursov (MSOP)." Undated (but written shortly after November 15, 1980, when Vinogradov returned from seven days in Switzerland). [BACK]

5. TsGA f. 404, op. 1, d. 2912, listy 107-8. Evidently sent April 29, 1981. [BACK]

6. Belorusskoe obshchestvo okhrany prirody . [BACK]

7. Komarov, Destruction of Nature , 16. [BACK]

8. Botvich, Zagrishiev, and Shvarts, "Iz opyta raboty," 19-20. Shvarts is the author of chapter 3, "Dvizhenie druzhin po okhrane prirody." [BACK]

9. Interview with Dmitrii Nikolaevich Kavtaradze, Moscow, March 23, 1991. [BACK]

10. Postanovlenie TsK VLKSM, "Ob uchastii komsomol'skikh organizatsii, komsomol'tsev i molodëzhi v okhrane prirody, ratsional'nom ispol'zovanii i vostanovlenii eë resursov," April 29, 1968, in Bulgakov, "Uchastie komsoinol'skikh organizatsii," 119. [BACK]

11. TsKhDMO f. 1, op. 36, d. 288, listy 44-45. Letter of A. Chubukov, secretary of the Perm' VLKSM (Komsomol), to F. Oborin, deputy president of the Perm' oblast' C ouncil of VOOP. [BACK]

12. TsKhDMO f. 1, op. 36, d. 423a, listy 1-229, "Stenogramma naucho-prakticheskoi konferentsii po okhrane prirody i ratsional'nomu ispol'zovaniiu prirodnykh resursov v zone stroitel'stva BAM'a, 19-20 ianvaria 1 77 g.," and f. i, op. 36, d. 345, "O zonal'nom soveshchanii komsomol'skikh rabotnikov, aktivistov po okhrane prirody, i spetsialistov po voprosu 'Okhrana prirody i ratsional'noe ispol'zovanie prirodnykh resursov v zone BAM'a,' 26-28 ogo iunia 1975, Irkutsk." See especially the speech of V. N. Skalon, list 6. [BACK]

13. Faculty adviser K. N. Blagosklonov was the leading spirit of that program, which was started by the MGU druzhina in 1975. It was the first summer school for the training of citizen inspectors. [BACK]

14. TsKhDMO f. 1, op. 36, d. 378, listy 83-151. Speech of Evgenii Grigor'evich Lysenko, "Zadachi komitetov komsomola i organizatsii VOOP po privlecheniiu continue

molodëzhi k aktivnomu uchastiiu v okhrane prirody i ratsional'nom ispol'zovanii prirodnykh resursov v svete trobovanii XXV s"ezda KPSS." See esp. listy 95-96 and 148. [BACK]

15. "Iz istorii studencheskogo dvizheniia za okhranu prirody," 2. Typed, xeroxed, n.d., no author. [BACK]

16. See, for example, Lysenko and Terent'ev, Komsomol i okhrana prirody . [BACK]

17. Ksenia V. Avilova, Memoir-history of the Moscow University Biofak druzhina po okhrane prirody , [4]. Untitled, typed (xeroxed), unpaginated. [BACK]

18. Sotsio-Ekologicheskii Soiuz, Tridtsat' let dvizheniia , 17.

19. Ibid., 24.

20. Ibid., 70 (for 1975). Figures for 1985 from Tikhomirov speech, February 3, 1986, Moscow. [BACK]

18. Sotsio-Ekologicheskii Soiuz, Tridtsat' let dvizheniia , 17.

19. Ibid., 24.

20. Ibid., 70 (for 1975). Figures for 1985 from Tikhomirov speech, February 3, 1986, Moscow. [BACK]

18. Sotsio-Ekologicheskii Soiuz, Tridtsat' let dvizheniia , 17.

19. Ibid., 24.

20. Ibid., 70 (for 1975). Figures for 1985 from Tikhomirov speech, February 3, 1986, Moscow. [BACK]

21. TsKhDMO f. 1, op. 36, d. 279, list 41. Sergei Germanovich Mukhachëv and Iurii Sergeevich Kotov, "Spravka o Kazan'skoi druzhine po okhrane prirody, 8 sentiabria 1976 g." See also Sotsio-Ekologicheskii Soiuz, Tridtsat'let dvizheniia , 42-43. [BACK]

22. Moskovskii gosudarstvennyi universitet, Molodëzhnyi sovet po okhrane prirody, Organizatsiia , 99. [BACK]

23. On "Ecopolis," see Brudny and Kavtaradze, "'Ecopolis.'" [BACK]

24. "Fenomenologiia zhestokosti," 89-90.

25. Ibid., 101. See also Singer, Animal Liberation . [BACK]

24. "Fenomenologiia zhestokosti," 89-90.

25. Ibid., 101. See also Singer, Animal Liberation . [BACK]

26. Florenskii and Shutova, "Da skroetsia t'ma," 736. On the present-day status of this conflict, see recent issues of the Eco-Stan News , edited by Eric Sievers. [BACK]

27. Blagosklonov, "Komsomol'skaia druzhina po okhrane prirody," 95. [BACK]

28. Ksenia V. Avilova, Memoir-history, [4]. [BACK]

29. I witnessed the events described. [BACK]

30. Mokievskii, Chestin, and Shvarts, "Prirodu ne obmanesh'."

31. Ibid. N. G. Ovsiannikov, VOOP's president from 1965 to 1971, was the RSFSR minister of land reclamation and water resources. N. F. Vasil'ev, the USSR minister of land reclamation and water resources from 1979 to 1988, was a member of the Society's Central Council. In 1980, the president of the Kazakh society was chairman of that republic's Supreme Soviet. Other notables on the Central Council included the deputy head of the Agriculture Section of the Kazakh party Central Committee, the first deputy minister of energy and electrification of Kazakhstan, the deputy ministers of finance, fishing, forestry, agriculture, education, culture, and public health, the deputy chair of Gosplan, and a secretary of the Komsomol. This example could be duplicated for the Russian, Kyrgyz, and other republics' societies. E. A. Shvarts, in "O politicheskikh pravakh samodeiatel'nykh organizatsii," 91, notes that in almost every case the oblast ' branch president of VOOP is the deputy chairman of the oblispolkom. [BACK]

30. Mokievskii, Chestin, and Shvarts, "Prirodu ne obmanesh'."

31. Ibid. N. G. Ovsiannikov, VOOP's president from 1965 to 1971, was the RSFSR minister of land reclamation and water resources. N. F. Vasil'ev, the USSR minister of land reclamation and water resources from 1979 to 1988, was a member of the Society's Central Council. In 1980, the president of the Kazakh society was chairman of that republic's Supreme Soviet. Other notables on the Central Council included the deputy head of the Agriculture Section of the Kazakh party Central Committee, the first deputy minister of energy and electrification of Kazakhstan, the deputy ministers of finance, fishing, forestry, agriculture, education, culture, and public health, the deputy chair of Gosplan, and a secretary of the Komsomol. This example could be duplicated for the Russian, Kyrgyz, and other republics' societies. E. A. Shvarts, in "O politicheskikh pravakh samodeiatel'nykh organizatsii," 91, notes that in almost every case the oblast ' branch president of VOOP is the deputy chairman of the oblispolkom. [BACK]

32. Xerox of speech of Ianitskaia, personal copy of author. [BACK]

33. Zhukova, "Svoi liudi u prirody," 15-23.

34. Ibid., 15.

35. Cited ibid. [BACK]

33. Zhukova, "Svoi liudi u prirody," 15-23.

34. Ibid., 15.

35. Cited ibid. [BACK]

33. Zhukova, "Svoi liudi u prirody," 15-23.

34. Ibid., 15.

35. Cited ibid. [BACK]

36. I am elaborating on a basic point made by Zhukova in ibid., 16. [BACK]

37. Yanitsky [anitskii], Russian Environmentalism, 197. [BACK]

38. Botvich, Zagrishiev, and Shvarts, "Iz opyta raboty samodeiatel'nykh," 19. break

39. Ibid., 33-36. [BACK]

38. Botvich, Zagrishiev, and Shvarts, "Iz opyta raboty samodeiatel'nykh," 19. break

39. Ibid., 33-36. [BACK]

40. On tourism, see Zhukova, "Svoi liudi u prirody," 16-17. [BACK]

41. Yet even these initial inclinations could be modified. One excellent example of such social learning was the Riazan' druzhina, whose active enlistment of tourists as allies ultimately led to the creation of the Meshcherskii National Park in 1991. Ibid., 19. [BACK]

42. Darst, "Environmentalism in the USSR," 226-27. [BACK]

43. Iaroshenko, "U istokov," 62. See also Akademiia nauk SSSR, Trudy noiabrskoi sessii 1933 goda, 222-26. [BACK]

44. Petro, "'Project of the Century,"' 236. [BACK]

45. Darst, "Environmentalism in the USSR," 227. [BACK]

46. Petro, "'Project of the Century,'" 237. This is a claim of I. Gerardi, chief engineer of the project. For articles defending diversion, see Izvestiia AN SSSR, seriia geografichekskaia, no. 2 (1977) and no. 2 (1981). [BACK]

47. See Gustafson, Reform in Soviet Politics. [BACK]

48. Iaroshenko, "U istokov," 63.

49. Ibid., 238. [BACK]

48. Iaroshenko, "U istokov," 63.

49. Ibid., 238. [BACK]

50. Zalygin, "Pisatel' i Sibir'" (161), reprinted in Zalygin, Kritika i publitsistikia, 280. [BACK]

51. Quoted in Petro, "' Project of the Century,"' 238. [BACK]

52. See Zalygin, "Lesa, zemli, vody," originally published in Literaturnaia gazeta, 26 June 1962, reprinted in Zalygin, Pozitsiia, 9-16. See also his follow-up articles in Literaturaia gazeta: "Lesa, zemli, vody i vedomstvo," published January 26, 1963, reprinted in Zalygin, Pozitsiia , 16-21; and "Delo narodnoe, a ne vedomstvennoe!" published August 1, 1963, reprinted in ibid., 24-30. [BACK]

53. Zalygin, Pozitsiia , 662. [BACK]

54. Iaroshenko, "U istokov," 64.

55. Ibid., 64-65.

56. Ibid., 65.

57. Ibid., 67, 72.

58. Ibid., 68-69. [BACK]

54. Iaroshenko, "U istokov," 64.

55. Ibid., 64-65.

56. Ibid., 65.

57. Ibid., 67, 72.

58. Ibid., 68-69. [BACK]

54. Iaroshenko, "U istokov," 64.

55. Ibid., 64-65.

56. Ibid., 65.

57. Ibid., 67, 72.

58. Ibid., 68-69. [BACK]

54. Iaroshenko, "U istokov," 64.

55. Ibid., 64-65.

56. Ibid., 65.

57. Ibid., 67, 72.

58. Ibid., 68-69. [BACK]

54. Iaroshenko, "U istokov," 64.

55. Ibid., 64-65.

56. Ibid., 65.

57. Ibid., 67, 72.

58. Ibid., 68-69. [BACK]

59. Briusova, "Antirekan,'" 660-61. [BACK]

60. See "Pechora sverkhu vniz" in Chelovek i priroda 5 (1979), cited in Iaroshenko, "U istokov," 70. [BACK]

61. Iaroshenko, "U istokov," 72-73.

62. Ibid., 75.

63. Ibid. 75, 79. [BACK]

61. Iaroshenko, "U istokov," 72-73.

62. Ibid., 75.

63. Ibid. 75, 79. [BACK]

61. Iaroshenko, "U istokov," 72-73.

62. Ibid., 75.

63. Ibid. 75, 79. [BACK]

64. Belov, "Spasut li Kaspii Vozhe i Lacha?" 10. [BACK]

65. Briusova, "'Antirekam,"' 663.

66. Ibid.

67. Ibid., 663-78. The report "Materialy k probleme perebroski chasti stoka severnykh rek na iug" (Sostavlennyi po porucheniiu Komissii po okhrane pamiatnikov istorii i kul'tury pri Soiuze khudoznikov SSSR i RSFSR, [Moscow, 1982]) is provided on 664-78, radically abridged and without notes. [BACK]

65. Briusova, "'Antirekam,"' 663.

66. Ibid.

67. Ibid., 663-78. The report "Materialy k probleme perebroski chasti stoka severnykh rek na iug" (Sostavlennyi po porucheniiu Komissii po okhrane pamiatnikov istorii i kul'tury pri Soiuze khudoznikov SSSR i RSFSR, [Moscow, 1982]) is provided on 664-78, radically abridged and without notes. [BACK]

65. Briusova, "'Antirekam,"' 663.

66. Ibid.

67. Ibid., 663-78. The report "Materialy k probleme perebroski chasti stoka severnykh rek na iug" (Sostavlennyi po porucheniiu Komissii po okhrane pamiatnikov istorii i kul'tury pri Soiuze khudoznikov SSSR i RSFSR, [Moscow, 1982]) is provided on 664-78, radically abridged and without notes. [BACK]

68. Iaroshenko, "U istokov," 78. [BACK]

69. Efremov, Nauchno-obshhestvennoe , 16-17. [BACK]

70. Briusova, "'Antirekam,'" 678-79. break [BACK]

71. Iaroshenko, "U istokov," 79.

72. Ibid. [BACK]

71. Iaroshenko, "U istokov," 79.

72. Ibid. [BACK]

73. Briusova, "'Antirekam,"' 680. [BACK]

74. Letter of V. G. Briusova to lu. V. Andropov, March 14, 1983, published in Grani 133 (1984): 262-63. [BACK]

75. Iaroshenko, "U istokov," 80; Briusova, "'Antirekam,'" 687. In December 1983 Leonid Leonov, Dmitrii Likhachëv, B. V. Raushenbakh, and I. V. Petrianov-Sokolov sent a letter to Andropov as well. See Grani 133 (1984): 263-66. [BACK]

76. The official publication that served as the subject of defense was Berezner, Territorial'noe pereraspredelenie . [BACK]

77. Briusova, "'Antirekam,'" 680.

78. Ibid., 679. See Tenditnik, "Mnogo shuma." [BACK]

77. Briusova, "'Antirekam,'" 680.

78. Ibid., 679. See Tenditnik, "Mnogo shuma." [BACK]

79. Briusova, "'Antirekam,'" 679, from excerpted letter of V. Rasputin of April 14, 1983.

80. Ibid., 681.

81. Ibid., 685. [BACK]

79. Briusova, "'Antirekam,'" 679, from excerpted letter of V. Rasputin of April 14, 1983.

80. Ibid., 681.

81. Ibid., 685. [BACK]

79. Briusova, "'Antirekam,'" 679, from excerpted letter of V. Rasputin of April 14, 1983.

80. Ibid., 681.

81. Ibid., 685. [BACK]

82. Ianshin and Melua, Uroki ekologicheskikh proschëtov , 12. [BACK]

83. Zalygin, "Vodnoe khoziaistvo bez stoimosti . . . vody?" reprinted in Zalygin, Pozitsiia , 51-55. [BACK]

84. Zalygin, "Proekt," 63-73.

85. Ibid., reprinted in Zalygin, Pozitsiia , 80. [BACK]

84. Zalygin, "Proekt," 63-73.

85. Ibid., reprinted in Zalygin, Pozitsiia , 80. [BACK]

86. Sergei Zalygin, Speech, "S"ezd pisatelei RSFSR," Literaturnaia gazeta , 18 December 1985, 7, quoted in Petro, "'Project of the Century,'" 244. [BACK]

87. See Iaroshenko, "U istokov," 81. [BACK]

88. Ianshin and Melua, Uroki ekologicheskikh proschetov , 12.

89. Ibid., 17.

90. Ibid., 18. [BACK]

88. Ianshin and Melua, Uroki ekologicheskikh proschetov , 12.

89. Ibid., 17.

90. Ibid., 18. [BACK]

88. Ianshin and Melua, Uroki ekologicheskikh proschetov , 12.

89. Ibid., 17.

90. Ibid., 18. [BACK]

91. Florenskii and Shutova, "Da skroetsia t'ma," 737. [BACK]

92. Literaturnaia gazeta , 2 July 1986, quoted in Darst, "Environmentalism in the USSR," 242. [BACK]

93. Ianshin and Melua, Uroki ekologicheskikh proschëtov , 19 .

94. Cited in ibid., 19. The decree was entitled "O prekrashchenii rabot po perebroske chasti stoka severnykh i sibirskikh rek." Ryzhkov's accusations against Vasil'ev and Aleksandrov are in Briusova, "'Antirekam,"' 688. [BACK]

93. Ianshin and Melua, Uroki ekologicheskikh proschëtov , 19 .

94. Cited in ibid., 19. The decree was entitled "O prekrashchenii rabot po perebroske chasti stoka severnykh i sibirskikh rek." Ryzhkov's accusations against Vasil'ev and Aleksandrov are in Briusova, "'Antirekam,"' 688. [BACK]

95. Efremov, Nauchno-obshchestvennoe , 19. [BACK]

96. This point is made by both Darst and Petro. [BACK]

Chapter Nineteen— Environmental Activism under Gorbachëv

1. Shipunov, "Biosfernaia etika," 447, 453.

2. Ibid., 453. [BACK]

1. Shipunov, "Biosfernaia etika," 447, 453.

2. Ibid., 453. [BACK]

3. Briusova, "'Antirekam,"' 689. [BACK]

4. Shipunov, Istina Velikoi Rossii , 54, 88. [BACK]

5. On Moldova, see V. Mikhailov, "Natsional'noe dvizhenie"; on the Baltics, see Lieven, Baltic Revolution , esp. 220. Meeting with Dainis Ivans, Riga, Latvia, May 7, 1991. [BACK]

6. Botvich, Zagrishiev, and Shvarts, "Iz opyta raboty," 22. break [BACK]

7. Zhukova, "Svoi liudi," 21-23. [BACK]

8. Rezoliutsiia Vsesoiuznoi konferentsii dvizheniia druzhin po okhrane prirody, December 11, 1987, in Sotsio-Ekologicheskii Soiuz, Tridtsat'let dvizheniia , 191-201. [BACK]

9. Dudenko, "Obshchestvennoe prirodookhrannoe dvizhenie," 6-14. [BACK]

10. lanitskii, "Problemy razvitiia studencheskogo prirodookhrannogo dvizheniia," also cited in Botvich, Zagrishiev, and Shvarts, "Iz opyta raboty," 23. [BACK]

11. Botvich, Zagrishiev, and Shvarts, "Iz opyta raboty," 24.

12. Ibid.

13. Ibid., 27. [BACK]

11. Botvich, Zagrishiev, and Shvarts, "Iz opyta raboty," 24.

12. Ibid.

13. Ibid., 27. [BACK]

11. Botvich, Zagrishiev, and Shvarts, "Iz opyta raboty," 24.

12. Ibid.

13. Ibid., 27. [BACK]

14. Sotsio-Ekologicheskii Soiuz, Sotsio-ekologicheskii soiuz , 1. [BACK]

15. Sotsio-Ekologicheskii Soiuz, Tridtsat' let dvizheniia , 241-43. For some additional sources on the history of the SEU, see Sotsial'no-Ekologicheskii Soiuz, Informatsionno-metodicheskoe pis'mo ; a number of xeroxed or rexographed Informatsionnye pis'ma from 1988 and 1989; and the episodic booklets Vsia nasha zhizn ' (All Our Life). [BACK]

16. Sotsio-Ekologicheskii Soiuz, Sotsio-ekologicheskii soiuz , 4. This is just a partial list. Interestingly, the SEU and the Natural Resources Defense Council collaborated in 1991 to stop one of Armand Hammer's companies from building a polyvinylchloride factory in the Ukrainian city of Kalusha in Ivanovo-Frankovsk oblast' (ibid., 5).

17. Ibid., 4. [BACK]

16. Sotsio-Ekologicheskii Soiuz, Sotsio-ekologicheskii soiuz , 4. This is just a partial list. Interestingly, the SEU and the Natural Resources Defense Council collaborated in 1991 to stop one of Armand Hammer's companies from building a polyvinylchloride factory in the Ukrainian city of Kalusha in Ivanovo-Frankovsk oblast' (ibid., 5).

17. Ibid., 4. [BACK]

18. Sotsio-Ekologicheskii Soiuz, Tridtsat' let dvizheniia , 244. For more on the Volga-Chograi action, see Evgenii Simonov's description in Sotsial'no-Ekologicheskii Soiuz, Vyzhivëm vmeste , 77-85. [BACK]

19. Sotsio-Ekologicheskii Soiuz, Sotsio-ekologicheskii soiuz , 4.

20. Ibid. [BACK]

19. Sotsio-Ekologicheskii Soiuz, Sotsio-ekologicheskii soiuz , 4.

20. Ibid. [BACK]

21. Shutova, "Kirishskii sindrom," 693-95.

22. Ibid., 695. [BACK]

21. Shutova, "Kirishskii sindrom," 693-95.

22. Ibid., 695. [BACK]

23. Razin, "'Bomba pochtal'ona Vasil'eva." [BACK]

24. Shutova, "Kirishskii sindrom," 693-98. [BACK]

25. Peterson, Troubled Lands , 201.

26. Ibid. [BACK]

25. Peterson, Troubled Lands , 201.

26. Ibid. [BACK]

27. Fomichëv, "Zelënye," 240-41; Peterson, Troubled Lands , 201. [BACK]

28. Peterson, Troubled Lands , 211-15. [BACK]

29. O. N. Ianitskii, "Ekologicheskaia politika i ekologicheskoe dvizhenie v Rossii," 19. Speech to the Working Group of Eco-sociologists and Leaders of Ecological Organizations, Moscow, May 19-21, 1995. Xeroxed personal copy. [BACK]

30. See, for example, "'Daiu ustanovku: unichtozhaite gosudarstvo!'" Zavtra 18, no. 23 (March 1994), which, among other things, also targets me as an abettor of the spoliation of Russia. A critic of the behavior of foreign corporations in Russia, I deny that accusation vigorously. [BACK]

Conclusion

1. Stephen F. Cohen's Bukharin and the Bolshevik Revolution and his subsequent works seem to hold out the prospect of a democratic socialist or gradualist tradition within Bolshevism as a viable alternative to the repressive, hypercentralized Stalinist continue

model that has dominated Soviet life since the 1930s. Moshe Lewin, meanwhile, found the seeds of hope for a more democratized Soviet future in postwar demographic and occupational trends. The predominance of cities over the countryside as where most Russians live, combined with generally higher levels of education, promised the withering away of a social base for authoritarian rule, according to Lewin. See Lewin, Gorbachev Phenomenon . Among prominent historians of the older generation who were sympathetic either to the Bolsheviks or to revolutionary or socialist goals of some kind and who searched for moments of ''original sin," we might mention the work of Isaac Deutscher, Robert V. Daniels, Paul Avrich, Israel Getzler, and perhaps Oliver Radkey. For a particularly hard-hitting critique of Deutscher, see Labedz, Use and Abuse of Sovietology . [BACK]

2. For a critique of this trend, see Burbank, "Controversies over Stalinism." [BACK]

3. I still treasure a letter from Stephen F. Cohen critiquing my uncritical "leftist" views as they were set out in a seminar paper in 1975. When I finally published a reworked version of that paper sixteen years later, it no longer hinted that collectivization could be justified as the "legitimate" reaction by the "proletariat" against peasant migrants to the cities who were outcompeting them for jobs. Rather, it simply tried to analyze workers' attitudes as a sociological problem. See Weiner, "' Razmychka ? '" [BACK]

4. For this view, see Nicholas Timasheff's old but still suggestive Great Retreat , as well as Nina Tumarkin's Lenin Lives! [BACK]

5. See Darst, "Environmentalism in the USSR"; Petro, "'Project of the Century'"; Goldman, Spoils of Progress; Peterson, Troubled Lands; Pryde, Environmental Management ; Feschbach and Friendly, Ecocide in the USSR ; Green, Ecology, and Perestroika ; French, Green Revolutions; Jancar-Webster, Environmental Management ; Singleton, Environmental Problems ; Stewart, Soviet Environment ; and Ziegler, Environmental Policy . [BACK]

6. Hosking, Aves, and Duncan, Road to Post-Communism; and Sedaitis and Butterfield, Perestroika from Below. For a good discussion of the Masonic lodge as the germ of "civil society" in eighteenth-century France, see Koselleck, Critique and Crisis , especially chapters 5 and 6. [BACK]

7. Kostyrchenko, Out of the Red Shadows , 104. In V plenu u krasnogo faraona , 114, Kostyrchenko gives the figure as between 15,000 and 20,000. [BACK]

8. See Fehér, Heller, and Márkus, Dictatorship over Needs . Gábor Tamás Rittersporn, in his Stalinist Simplifications and Soviet Complications , 1-55, argues that the regime was aware of some problems that seemed to threaten its legitimacy but could take no consistent measures to remedy those problems without creating equally serious new problems for its stability. Hence, it was always engaged in damage control, trying to limit "negative" trends before they imperiled supreme power, but limiting those corrective measures before the corrective measures themselves became severe liabilities. The "permanent purge" then acquires greater rationality as a kind of political juggling act. [BACK]

9. See Jarausch, Unfree Professions , for an interesting analysis of German professional identities and their relationships with the various German regimes during the period studied. Jarausch also supplies an excellent bibliography to the national and comparative literatures on the professions. On German nature protection, see Dominick, Environmental Movement in Germany ; Groening and Wolschke-Buhlmahn, "Politics, Planning, and the Protection of Nature"; and Bramwell, Ecology in the continue

Twentieth Century . On colonial or imperial nature protection, see Grove, Green Imperialism ; and Osborne, Nature, the Exotic, and the Science of French Colonialism . One of the few works to examine the social meaning of environmentalism in the United States is Samuel P. Hays's classic, Conservation and the Gospel of Efficiency . [BACK]

10. Although there were as yet scant case studies such as this one available, historian of Soviet professions Harley Balzer several years ago presciently asserted this view in his conclusion, in Balzer, Russia's Missing Middle Class, 295. [BACK]

11. Brooks, "Chemistry in War." Cited from draft manuscript, 26-27. [BACK]

12. Dunlap, "Wildlife, Science, and the National Parks," 188.

13. Ibid., 188-89.

14. Ibid., passim . [BACK]

12. Dunlap, "Wildlife, Science, and the National Parks," 188.

13. Ibid., 188-89.

14. Ibid., passim . [BACK]

12. Dunlap, "Wildlife, Science, and the National Parks," 188.

13. Ibid., 188-89.

14. Ibid., passim . [BACK]

15. Olwig and Olwig, "Underdevelopment and the Development of 'Natural' Park Ideology," 17-18.

16. Ibid., 21. [BACK]

15. Olwig and Olwig, "Underdevelopment and the Development of 'Natural' Park Ideology," 17-18.

16. Ibid., 21. [BACK]

17. Quoted in Schmitt, Back to Nature , 156. [BACK]

18. Olwig and Olwig, "Underdevelopment and the Development of 'Natural' Park Ideology," 53. break [BACK]


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