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Two— The Medieval "Community" and Aristocratic Society

24. San-kuo chih image (Chronicle of the Three Kingdoms), "Wei chih"  image (Chronicle of Wei), chuan 8, biography of Chang Lu

. [BACK]

25. Ko Hung  image , Pao-p'u-tzu

, "Nei-p'ien, wei-chih"  image (Inner chapters, on subtlety), Taipei: Chung-hua shu-chü, 1968, chuan 6, p. 3b. break [BACK]

26. Tao-chieh image . (JAF) [BACK]

27. See, in addition to the studies of Stein and Kawakatsu cited in notes 18 and 23 above, Obuchi * Ninji  image , "Kokin * no ran to Gotobeido * "  image (The Yellow Turban rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice), in Iwanami koza * sekai rekishi 5: kodai 5, pp. 23-52. [BACK]

28.  image , in Haneda hakushi shoju * kinen Toyoshi * ronso * image (Essays on East Asian history in honor of Professor Haneda Toru * ), Kyoto, Toyoshi * kenkyukai * , 1950; included in Miyakawa's Rikucho * shi kenkyu * , seiji shakai hen image (Studies in Six Dynasties history, volume on political and social problems), Gakujutsu shinkokai * , 1956, pp. 437-471. [BACK]

29. Miyazaki Ichisada  image , "Chugoku * ni okeru shuraku * keitai no hensen ni tsuite"  image (On changes in the configurations of centers of population in China), Otani * shigaku image 6 (June 1957), pp. 5-26. [BACK]

30.  image , Shisoimage 30 (October 1971), pp. 68-104; originally published in To * -A jimbun gakuho * image 3.4 (March 1943). [BACK]

31. Chin Fa-ken  image , Yung-chia luan hou pei-fang te hao-tsu image (Great clans in the North following the uprising of 307 A.D. ), Taipei, Chung-kuo hsüeh-shu chu-tso chiang-chu wei-yüan-hui, 1964. [BACK]

32. Lao Kan  image , ed., Chü-yen Han-chien k'ao-shih image (A study of the Han wood strips of Chü-yen), Taipei, Academia Sinica, 1960. [BACK]

33.  image . A large mountain range in Honan, Hopei, and Shansi. (JAF) [BACK]

34. Hou-Han-shu, chuan 47, biography of Feng I  image . [BACK]

35.  image by Li Tao-yüan  image (d. 527). [BACK]

36. Shui-ching-chu, chuan 15, entry on the Lo River I-ho  image .

37. Ibid. [BACK]

36. Shui-ching-chu, chuan 15, entry on the Lo River I-ho  image .

37. Ibid. [BACK]

38. Ch'en Yin-k'o  image , "T'ao-hua yüan chi p'ang-cheng"  image (Notes on the T'ao-hua yüan chi ), Ch'ing-hua hsüeh-pao image 11.1 (January 1936), pp. 79-88. T'ang Ch'ang-ju  image has written a critique of Ch'en's theory: "Tu 'T'ao-hua yüan chi p'ang-cheng' chih-i"  image (Doubts after reading [Ch'en Yin-k'o's] "Notes on the T'ao-hua yüan chi"), in Wei Chin Nan-Pei-ch'ao shih lun-ts'ung hsü-pien image (Essays on the history of the Wei, Chin, and Nan-pei-ch'ao period, continued), Peking, San-lien shu-tien, 1959, pp. 163-174. According to T'ang, the T'ao-hua yüan chi took for its raw material the "communitarian" life of minority peoples of Kiangnan who had fled from the feudal oppression of the Han dynasty to a place of seclusion. He goes on to claim that what Ch'en saw as the model for T'ao-hua yüan chi, the wu groups in the North led by great Han Chinese clan members, included within them feudal class relations, and that it differs greatly from seeing the T'ao-hua yüan chi as describing a world free of exploitation and classes. Yet, Ch'en also, drawing on the example of Yü Kun, recognized that the clan and local village structures that gave the wu grouping its organization possessed a "communitarian" tinge to a certain extent, and that in the early period of the group's activities it was necessary to have cooperation and mutual aid among the constituent members of the group. [BACK]

39. San-kuo chih image , "Wei chih"  image (Chronicle of Wei), chuan 11. [BACK]

40. Tsung-tsu chi shu-hsing image , in Chin-shu image , chuan 88, "hsiao-yu"  image . [BACK]

41. Tsung-tsu ji hsiang-ch'ü image , in ibid., chuan 67. [BACK]

42. See Tanigawa, "Rikucho * kizokusei shakai no shiteki seikaku to ritsuryo * taisei e no tenkai"  image (The historical character of society under the Six Dynasties aristocratic continue

      system and the evolution of a legal order), Shakai keizai shigaku image 31.1-5 (1966), pp. 204-225; included in Tanigawa, Chugoku * chusei * shakai to kyodotai * , pp. 147-173. [BACK]

43. See the four essays included in Section II of Tanigawa's Chugoku chusei shakai to kyodotai (pp. 117-197):

a) "Ichi Toyoshi * kenkyusha * ni okeru genjitsu to gakumon"  image (Reality and scholarship for one scholar of East Asian history), originally in Atarashii rekishigaku no tame ni image 68 (1961).

b) "Chugoku * kodai shakai no seikaku ronso * " (see note 6).

c) "Rikucho * kizokusei shakai no shiteki seikaku to ritsuryo * taisei e no tenkai" (see note 42).

d) "Chugoku shi kenkyu * no atarashii kadai: Hokensei * no saihyoka * mondai ni furete"  image (A new problem in the study of Chinese history: On the reevaluation of feudalism), originally in Nihon shi kenkyuimage 94 (November 1967). [BACK]

44. See Tanigawa, "'Kyodotai * ' ronso ni tsuite: Chugoku shi kenkyu ni okeru shiso * jokyo * "  image (On the kyodotai * [community] debate: The state of thought in Chinese historical studies), Nagoya jimbun kagaku kenkyukai * nempo * image I (1974), pp. 65-90. [BACK]

45. See, in particular, Tanigawa, "Hokucho * kizoku no seikatsu rinri"  image (The life ethic of the aristocracy in the Northern Dynasties), in Chugoku chusei shi kenkyu: Rikucho * Zui To * no shakai to bunka, pp. 272-303; included in Tanigawa, Chugoku chusei shakai to kyodotai, pp. 201-234. [BACK]

46. Pei-shih image , chuan 32. [BACK]

47. Wei-shu image , chuan 47; Pei-shih, chuan 30. [BACK]

48. Pei-shih, chuan 33. [BACK]

49. Pei-Ch'i-shu image (History of the Northern Ch'i), chuan 23; Pei-shih, chuan 24, biography of Ts'ui Ling. [BACK]

50.  image , "Mien-hsüeh p'ien"  image (To encourage study). (See Teng Ssu-yü's excellent annotated translation, Family Instructions for the Yen Clan, Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1968, pp. 52-84-JAF.) [BACK]

51. Yoshikawa Tadao  image , "Gan Shisui shoron * "  image (A short study of Yen Chih-t'ui), Toyoshi * kenkyu 20.4 (March 1962), pp. 1-29. [BACK]

52. See Teng, p. 59, for a slightly different translation. (JAF) [BACK]

53. Pei-shih, chuan 33. [BACK]

54. See Tanigawa, Zui-To teikoku keisei shiron, sections I and II. [BACK]

55. See Tanigawa, "Kindensei no rinen to dai tochi shoyu * "  image (The principles of the equitable field system and large landownership), Toyoshi kenkyu 25.4 (March 1967), pp. 76-97; included in Tanigawa, Chugoku chusei shakai to kyodotai, pp. 256-280. [BACK]

56. See note 18 to Part I above for a description of chan-t'ien and k'e-t'ien. (JAF) [BACK]

57. See Tanigawa, Zui-To teikoku keisei shiron, section II.

58. Ibid. [BACK]

57. See Tanigawa, Zui-To teikoku keisei shiron, section II.

58. Ibid. [BACK]

59. See Tanigawa, "So Shaku no Rikujo * shosho * ni tsuite" image (Su Ch'o's Edict on six reforms), Nagoya daigaku bungakubu kenkyu ronshu * 45  image , "shigaku" 15  image (1967), pp. 53-66; reprinted as "Seigi 'Rikujo shosho' ni okeru shitaifu rinri"  image (The literary ethic in the "Edict of six articles" of the Western Wei), in Tanigawa, Chugoku chusei shakai to kyodotai, pp. 235-255. break [BACK]

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