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Sixteen— How Many Draculas Does It Take to Change a Lightbulb?

1. Nosferatu, A Symphony of Horror, (Nosferatu, eine Symphonie des Grauens, Germany; F. W. Murnau, 1922); Dracula (United States; Tod Browning, 1931); The Horror of Dracula, Dracula (Great Britain; Terence Fischer, 1956); Count Dracula (El Conde Dracula, Italy, Spain, West Germany; Jess Franco, 1970); Nosferatu (The Vampyre, Nosferatu, Phantom der Nacht, West Germany; Werner Herzog, 1979); Dracula (United States; John Badham, 1979); Bram Stoker's Dracula (United States; Francis Ford Coppola, 1992). The two television versions are Dracula (United States; Dan Curtis, 1973) and Count Dracula (Great Britain, United States; Philip Saville, 1977). The names of the characters in Murnau's work were changed from those of the characters in the novel (e.g., Dracula is called Orlok) because the film was made without copyright clearance. The long-standing rumors of the superiority of the Spanish-language version to Browning's film, with which it was made simultaneously, have been discredited by the recent release of that version on videotape. The Spanish version, directed by George Melford, is better edited and lacks some of the gaps in the English version, but it does not have the performances of Lugosi, Frye, and Van Sloan nor the moody atmosphere of Browning's film. Since both films are basically the same version of the Dracula myth, with the same script and sets, I shall discuss only Browning's better known and more effective work. See Waller and Flynn for surveys of the vampire film in general. [BACK]

2. Franco's Count Dracula begins with titles claiming that the film is exactly the way Stoker wrote the novel; Dan Curtis's television version was titled Bram Stoker's Dracula on the screen; and both Coppola and screenwriter James V. Hart claim that their version, Bram Stoker's Dracula, is the first version true to the book (Coppola and Hart, 3 and 6). [BACK]

3. Louis Jourdan's understated performance in the 1977 television version, which appeared on Masterpiece Theater, anticipates this approach, though his Dracula does not have the same rapturous relationship with Mina. [BACK]

4. Film buffs will find many filmic allusions not only to the earlier Dracula films and to horror films such as Friedkin's The Exorcist (1973) and Kubrick's The Shining (1980) but also to Jean Cocteau's surrealistic fantasies Orpheus (1949) and Beauty and the Beast (1946), not to mention the entire German expressionistic canon. [BACK]

5. A point made by Coppola himself in an interview (Biodrowski, 34). [BACK]

6. According to Melton, the common assumption that "Nosferatu" is the Romanian word for the "undead" is wrong (435). [BACK]

7. Necrophilia plays an important part in psychiatric case histories of vampirism (Noll). [BACK]

8. Jess Franco's film first suggests this connection, and Dan Curtis's 1973 television version more directly associates its Dracula, played by Jack Palance, with Vlad Tepes. See McNally and Florescu for an extensive discussion of Vlad Tepes and his relationship to Stoker's Dracula. But also see Farson, in his biography of Stoker (127-34), and Ambrogio, who argue against any significant influence of the historical figure on Stoker's characterization of the count. [BACK]

9. Although polemical and not fully reliable, Montague Summers's The Vam- soft

pire: Kith and Kin, in its opening chapter, gives a fairly good idea of the ways in which ecclesiastic writers usurped the subject of vampires. [BACK]

10. Karl Abraham sees the oral phase of the child divided into two stages, the first focused upon sucking and the second, the "oral-sadistic stage," which is related to teething, marked by biting and devouring (447-53). [BACK]

11. Otto Rank claims that the fantasy of the vagina dentata is a result of anxiety aroused by the mother's genitals because of the child's "first separation from the libido-object" through the act of birth (48-49). At an earlier point he states that this primary anxiety for the mother's genitals is exacerbated by the father's prohibition of the child's return to the mother and is eventually displaced on other objects (13). Although Rank's analysis of this fantasy clearly makes it applicable to both male and female children, the vagina dentata is also a male fantasy that conveys the fear of both sexual intercourse and women. Roth mentions the vagina dentata in relation to the devouring woman of the novel Dracula (119-20). [BACK]

12. Gary Oldman says that he sought to make his Dracula in Coppola's film androgynous in order to unnerve people sexually (Abramowitz, 56). [BACK]

13. Melanie Klein describes the child's fantasy of the "combined parent," a figure possessing a combined vagina and penis (245-46). The image of the vampire's mouth and fangs may also be the projection of such a fantasy. [BACK]

14. In eastern Europe, a vampire was sometimes thought to be the risen body of a dead werewolf (Summers, 20). [BACK]

15. Nina Auerbach's total negation of Coppola's film in her recent study of the vampire figure (see especially 209n) seems to explain her general dismissal of "animalism" in "twentieth-century Dracula films" (88). [BACK]

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