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1— The Beginnings of Afrikaner Ethnic Consciousness, 1850–1915

1. I would like to thank the Jan Smuts Memorial Trust Fund of the University of Cambridge and the Research Committee of the University of Cape Town for financial assistance towards research on this chapter. [BACK]

2. D. Welsh, "The political economy of Afrikaner nationalism', in A. Leftwich, ed., South Africa: Economic Growth and Political Change (London, 1974), pp. 249-86; H. Giliomee, "The Afrikaner economic advance', in H. Adam and H. Giliomee, Ethnic Power Mobilized: Can South Africa Change? (New Haven, 1979); D. O'Meara, Volkskapitalisme: Class, Capital and Ideology in the Development of Afrikaner Nationalism, 1934-1948 (Cambridge, 1983). [BACK]

3. F.A. van Jaarsveld, The Awakening of Afrikaner Nationalism, 1868-1881 (Cape Town, 1961). See especially pp.214-15. [BACK]

4. E. Gellner, Nations and Nationalism (Oxford, 1983), pp.47-8. break [BACK]

5. M. Bloch, 'The idol of origins', cited by C. Vann Woodward, Thinking Back: The Perils of Writing History (Baton Rouge, LA, 1986), pp.60-61. [BACK]

6. Van Jaarsveld, The Awakening, p. 215; T.R.H. Davenport, The Afrikaner Bond: The History of a South African Political Party, 1880-1911 (Cape Town, 1966). [BACK]

7. A. du Toit and H. Giliomee, Afrikaner Political Thought: Analysis and Documents: Volume 1: 1780-1850 (Cape Town, 1983), pp. 4-27, 132-4, 195-204, 230-46. [BACK]

8. A.B. du Toit, 'No chosen people: the myth of the Calvinist origins of Afrikaner nationalism and racial ideology', American Historical Review, Vol. 88, No. 4 (1983), pp.920-52. [BACK]

9. This term is used to indicate that the concept of 'Afrikaner' had not become crystallized by the second half of the nineteenth century. [BACK]

10. J.C. Visagie, 'Willem Frederik Hertzog, 1793-1847', Archives Year Book of South African History, Vol. 37 (1974), pp.55-72. [BACK]

11. J.H. Hofmeyr, The Life of Jan Hendrik Hofmeyr (Onze Jan) (Cape Town, 1913), p.42. [BACK]

12. Cape Times, May 1877, editorial. [BACK]

13. E. van Heyningen, 'Social evil in the Cape Colony, 1868-1902: prostitution and the Contagious Diseases Act', Journal of Southern African Studies, Vol. 10, No. 2 (1984), p. 182. [BACK]

14. See the comments of Olive Schreiner, Thoughts on South Africa (London, 1923), p. l7. [BACK]

15. A. Atmore and S. Marks, 'The imperial factor in South Africa in the nineteenth century: towards a reassessment'. Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, Vol. III, No. 1 (1974), pp.120-25. [BACK]

16. M. A. Basson, 'Die Britse invloed in die Transvaalse onderwys, 1837-1907', Archives Year Book of South African History, Vol. 2 (1956), pp.63-75. [BACK]

17. S.F. Malan, Politieke Strominge onder die Afrikaners van die Vrystaatse Republiek (Durban, 1982), pp. 54-5. [BACK]

18. For an analysis of rural Transvaal society, see S. Trapido, 'Landlord and tenant in a colonial economy: the Transvaal, 1880-1910', Journal of Southern African Studies, No. 5 (1978), pp.27-58, and his 'Aspects of the transition from slavery to serfdom, 1842-1902', Societies of Southern Africa, No. 6 (1976), pp.24-31. On the role of the field-cornet, see F.A. van Jaarsveld, 'Die veldkornet en sy aandeel in die opbou van die Suid-Afrikaanse Republiek tot 1870', Archives Year Book of South Africa, Vol. 2 (1952), pp. l87-352. [BACK]

19. De Tijd, 25 March 1868, letter from 'Vrystater'; De Tijd, 15 April 1868, letter from 'Een Eigenaar . . . en een Afrikaander'. [BACK]

20. A.M. Grundlingh, Die Hendsoppers en 'Joiners': Die Rasionaal en Verskynsel van Verraad (Pretoria, 1979), pp.232-6. [BACK]

21. Van Jaarsveld, 'Die veldkornet', p.332. [BACK]

22. C.W. de Kiewiet, The Imperial Factor in South Africa (Cambridge:, 1937), p.95. [BACK]

23. J.E.H. Grobler, 'Jan Viljoen, 1912-1893: 'n Transvaalse Wesgrenspioneer', unpublished M.A. dissertation, University of Pretoria, 1976, pp.83-99. [BACK]

24. C.J. Uys, In the Era of Shepstone (Lovedale, 1933), p. 283.

25. Ibid ., pp. 421-2. [BACK]

24. C.J. Uys, In the Era of Shepstone (Lovedale, 1933), p. 283.

25. Ibid ., pp. 421-2. [BACK]

26. Grobler, 'Jan Viljoen', pp. 67-82, 147-8. [BACK]

27. Malan, Politieke Strominge, pp. 25-6. [BACK]

28. A. Smith, The Ethnic Revival (Cambridge, 1981), pp. 77-8. [BACK]

29. Malan, Politieke Strominge, pp. 24-30, 37-42, 56-7. [BACK]

30. Van Jaarsveld, The Awakening, pp. 79-80. [BACK]

31. T.E. Kirk, 'Self-government and self-defence in South Africa: the interplay between British and Cape politics, 1846-54', unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Oxford University, 1972, pp.490-508. [BACK]

32. J.L. McCracken, The Cape Parliament, 1854-1910 (Cape Town, 1967), pp.36-7, 52; Hofmeyr, Hofmeyr, p.42. break [BACK]

33. A.J. Purkiss, 'Politics, capital and railway building in the Cape Colony, 1870-1885', unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Oxford University, 1978, pp.32, 55. [BACK]

34. Zuid-Afrikaan, 21 May 1857, editorial. [BACK]

35. T. N. Hanekom, Die Liberale Rigting in Suid-Afrika: 'n Kerkhistoriese Studie (Stellenbosch, 1957). For a full account of one minister's campaign against the liberal tendencies, see M.C. Kitshoff, Gottlieb Wilhelm Antony van der Lingen: Kaapse Predikant uit die Negentiende Eeu (Amsterdam, 1972). [BACK]

36. R. Robinson, 'Non-European foundations of European imperialism: a sketch for a theory of collaboration', in R. Owen and B. Sutcliffe, eds., Studies in the Theory of Imperialism (London, 1972), p. 124. [BACK]

37. J. du P. Scholtz, Die Afrikaner en sy Taal (Cape Town, 1965). [BACK]

38. Smith, Ethnic Revival, pp.97-8. [BACK]

39. See Kitshoff, Van der Lingen, chapters 6-10. [BACK]

40. H.J. Hofstede, Geschiedenis van den Oranje-Vrijstaat (The Hague, 1876). [BACK]

41. F.A. van Jaarsveld, The Afrikaner's Interpretation of South African History (Cape Town, 1964), p.36. [BACK]

42. De Tijd, 8 July 1868, letter from 'Opmerker'; J.A. Henry, Die Eerste Honderd Jaar van die Standard Bank (Cape Town, 1963), pp. 10-13, 28, 47; Standard Bank Archives (SBA), Henry's précis of general managers' letters to London, letter of 12 March 1882. [BACK]

43. Cited by Van Jaarsveld, The Awakening, p. 123. [BACK]

44. De Graaff-Reinet Courant, 7 April 1876, editorial. [BACK]

45. Uys, In the Era of Shepstone, pp.421-2; De Kiewiet, Imperial Factor, pp.105-6. [BACK]

46. 'Onze Wyn', Het Zuid-Afrikaansche Tijdschrift, February 1878, pp.26-39. [BACK]

47. 'Onze Wyn', Het Zuid-Afrikaansche Tijdschrift, February 1878, p.32. [BACK]

48. G.T. Amphlett, The History of the Standard Bank of South Africa Limited 1862-1913 (Glasgow, 1914), pp. 202-3. [BACK]

49. Purkiss, 'Politics, capital and railway building', p.28. [BACK]

50. Zuid-Afrikaan, 6 Oct. 1853, 3 May 1866; Andre du Toit, 'Constitutional politics: franchise and race', unpublished paper. [BACK]

51. A. Mabin, 'Class as a local phenomenon: conflict between Cape Town and Port Elizabeth in the nineteenth century', unpublished paper presented at the University of the Witwatersrand, 1984. [BACK]

52. S. Trapido, ' "The friends of the natives": merchants, peasants and the political and ideological structure of liberalism in the Cape', in S. Marks and A. Atmore, eds., Economy and Society in Pre-Industrial South Africa (London, 1980), pp. 247-74. [BACK]

53. A.R. Zolberg, 'Political conflict in the new states of tropical Africa', American Political Science Review, No. 68 (1968), p.4. [BACK]

54. Wilmot, Sir Richard Southey, pp. 202-3. [BACK]

55. For a discussion, see S. Dubow, Land, Labour and Merchant Capital: The Experience of Graaff Reinet District in the Pre-Industrial Rural Economy of the Cape, 1852-1872 (Cape Town, 1982), p.59; C. Bundy, 'Vagabond Hollanders and runaway Englishmen: white poverty in the Cape before Poor Whiteism', Societies of Southern Africa (London, 1983), pp.1-10; K.W. Smith, From Frontier to Midlands: A History of Graaff Reinet District. 1786-1910 (Grahamstown, 1976), pp.389-92; for an analysis of conditions of the poor in Cape Town, see E. Bradlow, 'Cape Town's labouring poor a century ago', South African Historical Journal, No. 9 (1977). [BACK]

56. 'Our agricultural population'. The Cape Monthly Magazine, Vol. 6, No. 33 (March 1873), p.130. [BACK]

57. Zuid-Afrikaan, 12 April 1873, 'Die Bijbel in Afrikaans'. The foregoing two paragraphs draw on an excellent student essay by Jean du Plessis, 'Notes on political consciousness on the periphery: with specific reference to the issue of language in the South Western Cape during the 1870s', unpublished paper, University of Stellenbosch, 1983. break [BACK]

58. Zuid-Afrikaan, 8, 15, and 22 July 1874, articles by 'A True Afrikaner'. [BACK]

59. Het Volksblad, 19 Aug. 1875, editorial. [BACK]

60. Genootskap van Regte Afrikaners, Die Afrikaanse Patriot, 1876 (facsimile reproduction of the first year of the newspaper, 1974), pp. 35, 41, 82, 113-14. See also G.D. Scholtz, Die Ontwikkeling van die Politieke Denke van die Afrikaners, IV: 1881-1899 (Johannesburg, 1977), pp. 169-71, 298-300. [BACK]

61. Davenport, The Afrikaner Bond, pp. 35-6. [BACK]

62. De Kiewiet, Imperial Factor, p. 95. [BACK]

63. J. G. Kotze, Biographical Memories and Reminiscences (Cape Town, n.d.). Vol. 1, pp.501. [BACK]

64. Van Jaarsveld, The Afrikaner's Interpretation, pp. 40-42. [BACK]

65. For these and similar statements, see Van Jaarsveld, The Awakening, pp.150-213; Malan, Politieke Strominge, pp.70-92. For the Hofmeyr quotation, see Hofmeyr, p. 164. [BACK]

66. P. van Breda, 'Die geskiedenis van de Zuid-Afrikaansche Boerenbeschermingsvereeniging in die Kaapkolonie, 1878-1883', unpublished M.A. thesis, University of Stellenbosch, 1981, pp.178-84. [BACK]

67. Hofmeyr, Hofmeyr, p.164. [BACK]

68. G.J. Schutte, 'Nederland het stamland van de apartheid?', unpublished essay, p.5. [BACK]

69. Malan, Politieke Strominge, pp. 53-5, 117-18. [BACK]

70. L. Chisholm, 'Themes in the construction of free compulsory education for the white working class on the Witwatersrand, 1886-1907', unpublished paper delivered to the University of the Witwatersrand History Workshop, 1984. [BACK]

71. Zuid-Afrikaan, 23 April 1879. [BACK]

72. Malan, Politieke Strominge, p.92. [BACK]

73. Zuid-Afrikaan, 21 Sept. 1878. [BACK]

74. Purkiss, 'Politics, capital and railway building', pp.1-84, 137-46, 451; for an in-depth analysis of the collaborating relationship, see D.M. Schreuder, The Scramble for Southern Africa, 1877-1895 (Cambridge, 1980). [BACK]

75. P. Lewsen, John X. Merriman; Paradoxical South African Statesman (New Haven, 1982), p.95. [BACK]

76. Hofmeyr, Hofmeyr, pp.330-31. [BACK]

77. Davenport, Afrikaner Bond, pp. 129-30. [BACK]

78. Hofmeyr, Hofmeyr, p.406.

79. Ibid ., p.488. [BACK]

78. Hofmeyr, Hofmeyr, p.406.

79. Ibid ., p.488. [BACK]

80. Zuid-Afrikaan, 14 April 1885, editorial; Hofmeyr, Hofmeyr, pp.42-3. [BACK]

81. James Rose Innes, Autobiography (Cape Town, 1949), p.3. [BACK]

82. Lewsen, Merriman, p.139. [BACK]

83. E.T.Cook, Edmund Garrett (London, 1909), p.109. [BACK]

84. C.T. Gordon, The Growth of Boer Opposition to Kruger, 1890-1895 (Cape Town, 1970), p.10. [BACK]

85. Van Breda,'Die geskiedenis van de ZABBV, pp.26,29. [BACK]

86. Bun Booyens, 'Ek Heb Gezeg': Die Verhaal van Ons Jongeliede en Debatsverenigings (Cape Town, 1983); Malan, Politieke Strominge, pp.186-206. [BACK]

87. G.J. Hupkes, 'Die Stellenbosche Distriksbank', unpublished M. Com. dissertation, University of Stellenbosch, 1956, p.99. [BACK]

88. A. Mabin, 'The making of colonial capitalism: intensification and expansion in economic geography of the Cape Colony, South Africa, 1854-1899', unpublished Ph. D dissertation, Simon Fraser University, 1984, pp. 222-3. [BACK]

89. The paragraphs on the Standard Bank and local financial institutions are based on primary research in the Standard Bank archives, and draw particularly on the inspection reports for Stellenbosch and Paarl between 1880 and 1930. Specific references are given in my paper, 'Farmers and polities', presented to the conference of the Economic History Society, University of Natal, July 1984. break [BACK]

90. S. W. Pienaar, ed., Glo in U Volk: Dr. D.F. Malan as Redenaar (Cape Town, 1964), p.175. [BACK]

91. G.J. Pretorius, Man van die Daad (Cape Town, 1959), pp.62-3. [BACK]

92. A leaguer is a large cask originally used to transport liquids in ships. [BACK]

93. Hupkes, Die Stellenbosch Distriksbank ; Adam and Giliomee, Ethnic Power Mobilized, Chapter 6. [BACK]

94. Malan, Politieke Strominge, pp. 238-9.

95. Ibid ., pp.199-206.

96. Ibid ., p. 262. [BACK]

94. Malan, Politieke Strominge, pp. 238-9.

95. Ibid ., pp.199-206.

96. Ibid ., p. 262. [BACK]

94. Malan, Politieke Strominge, pp. 238-9.

95. Ibid ., pp.199-206.

96. Ibid ., p. 262. [BACK]

97. See particularly A.N. Pelzer, 'Die De Wildt-toesprach van General Hertzog', in P.J. Nienaber, ed., Gedenkboek Generaal J.B.M. Hertzog (Johannesburg, 1965), pp.259-60. [BACK]

98. Gordon, The Growth of Boer Opposition to Kruger, pp. 184-204, [BACK]

99. See the succinct analysis by D. Denoon, A Grand Illusion: The Failure of Imperial Policy in the Transvaal Colony During the Period of Reconstruction, 1900-1905 (London, 1973), pp.59-95. [BACK]

100. Cited by N.G. Garson, ' "Het Volk": the Botha-Smuts party in the Transvaal, 1904-1911', The Historical Journal, Vol. 9, No. 1 (1966), p.128. [BACK]

101. A. R. Coloquhoun, The Africander Land (London, 1906), pp.xii-xiv. [BACK]

102. On the state-capital symbiosis, see D. Yudelman, The Emergence of modern South Africa: State, Capital and the Incorporation of Organized Labour on the South African Gold Fields, 1902-1939 (Cape Town, 1984), pp.3-12, 52-123. [BACK]

103. Cited by E.C. Pienaar, Die Triomf van Afrikaans (Cape Town, 1973), p. 274. [BACK]

104. Isabel Hofmeyr, 'Building a nation from words: Afrikaans language, literature and "ethnic identity", 1902-1924', in S. Marks and Stanley Trapido, eds., The Politics of Race, Class and Nationalism in Twentieth Century South Africa (New York, 1987), pp. 95-123. [BACK]

105. I. Hexham, The Irony of Apartheid: The Struggle for National Independence of Afrikaner Calvinism against British Imperialism (New York, 1981). [BACK]

106. Hofmeyr, 'Building a nation from words', p.106. [BACK]

107. C. van Onselen, Studies in the Social and Economic History of the Witwatersrand, 1886-1914, Vol. 2: New Nineveh (London, 1982), pp.111-170. [BACK]

108. Hofmeyr, 'Building a nation from words', p. 101. [BACK]

109. For an illuminating case study see R. Morell, 'A community in conflict: the poor whites of Middleburg, 1900-1930', paper presented to the University of the Witwatersrand History Workshop, 1984. [BACK]

110. Bun Booyens, Die Lewe van D. F. Malan: Die Eerste Veertig Jaar (Cape Town, 1969), pp.273-95. [BACK]

111. J. du Plessis, The Life of Andrew Murray of South Africa (London, 1919), pp.431-33. [BACK]

112. Lewsen, Merriman, p.369. [BACK]

113. J.H.H. de Waal, Die Lewe van David Christiaan de Waal (Cape Town, 1928), pp. 303-08. break [BACK]

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