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Appendix 2
Goningumi Rules, 1640 (Shimo-Sakurai, Kita-Saku District, Shinano)

1. Goningumi should not be formed only with kith and kin; membership should be diverse.

2. Re : The yearly investigation of affiliation with Christianity. There is not a single Christian in this village. The peasants are investigated every month, and comings and goings are checked with the pertinent temple in each case to verify affiliation. Therefore, should there be a Christian in this village, not only his goningumi and the headman but the entire village will be punished.

3. If there is a thief in the village, it should be reported to the shogunal authorities. Presently there are none. If one is found, the person will be apprehended immediately and turned over to the shogunal authorities.

4. The term of indentured servants is limited to ten years, as ordered. Anyone exceeding this term by even one month will be punished by the shogunal authorities. A person whose term is completed should know that he cannot come and go or deal with his employer [as if he were still employed].

5. Prohibitions against traffic in human beings have been issued. Henceforward both parties in these transactions will be punished.

6. Wells should be dug and rivers cleaned in due time; cultivation engaged in without delay; yearly tribute paid in full.


7. Turns for guarding the storehouse should be faithfully kept to avoid arrears in tribute rice; in case of fire or theft, loss has to be made up by the entire village.

8. If someone commits the offense of not paying tribute in full or absconds without paying it because he or she cannot make ends meet, the entire village should share the unpaid portion and pay it promptly in full.

9. Nothing that has to be turned in to the shogunal authorities can be sold to others.

10. Wives of headmen and peasants cannot wear starched silk or silky fabrics; peasants can only wear clothes made of cotton or thick paper at any time.

11. Roads and bridges have to be fixed regularly to keep them in good repair.

12. Bamboo cannot be cut without official permit.

13. Gambling, lotteries, and games of any kind are prohibited.

14. Business trips have to be reported to the headman and goningumi before departure, stating the purpose and the places where one will stay; if no such notification occurs and an investigation is made by the shogunal authorities during one's absence, this offense will be punished.

15. All orders from the shogunal office must be obeyed; circular letters from the intendant's assistant should be passed on without the slightest delay; negligence in delivery will be punished.

16. The width of silk and pongee should be of standard size.

17. Wounded individuals cannot be given lodging.

18. Peasants who fix up their hair in bamboo-whisk style, wear long swords, disobey their parents or master, or do not engage in cultivation but spend their days in idleness must be reported to the authorities and cannot be concealed even if they are one's children or servants.

19. People with complaints can lodge suits only on their own; they cannot encourage others to do this, invoking gods' names; as a matter of course, they cannot become involved in others' complaints elsewhere.

20. This document should be rewritten every month, and all villagers, gathered at the headman's, should affix their seals to it, and the certificates should be handed over to the intendant's assistant.


21. Oak, lacquer, and mulberry trees, obviously, but also any kind of tree and bamboo should be planted with due diligence.

The above articles should never be violated.


We have grouped all villagers, including semi-independent branch houses (kadoya), into goningumi. If we have missed anyone, we understand that we shall be punished according to the shogunal law.


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