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NOTES

1. Harriet Chessman, “Mary Cassatt and the Maternal Body,” in American Iconology, ed. David C. Miller (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1993), 239–59. [BACK]

2. Griselda Pollock, Mary Cassatt: Painter of Modern Women (New York: Thames and Hudson, 1998), and Differencing the Canon: Feminist Desire and the Writing of Art's Histories (New York: Routledge, 1999). [BACK]

3. Judith Barter, Mary Cassatt: Modern Woman (Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago and Harry N. Abrams, 1998). [BACK]

4. Adam Gopnik, “Cassatt's Children,” New Yorker, March 22, 1999, 114–20. [BACK]

5. Anne Higonnet, Berthe Morisot's Images of Women (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1992), 218–20. [BACK]

6. In one picture, for instance, in which a mother is sewing, and her daughter—who may be as old as six or seven—looks out at us, the child is still contained within her mother's pyramidal definition of space, and most of the picture's surface area is dedicated to the contact zone between child's body and mother's. Or look closely at the famous Cassatt in which a mother and child together hold a hand mirror in which both the child and we see an image of the child alone. In that hand mirror, we see nothing but the child's face, but in another mirror behind we see both mother and child, and, once again, the overwhelming share of the picture surface is devoted to contact between the child's body and its mother's—in imagined space, and even more so on the picture's surface. [BACK]

7. Viewers (including myself) have often assumed, for instance, that in the famous National Gallery picture of the child holding a mirror the child is a girl. But on close examination the genitals of the child are not clear, and the child looks identical to a child in another Cassatt picture who also has shoulderlength blond hair and bangs and yet also clearly has a penis. [BACK]

8. Julia Kristeva, “Motherhood According to Bellini,” in Desire in Language, ed. Leon Roudiez (New York: Columbia University Press, 1980). [BACK]

9. Anne Higonnet, Pictures of Innocence: The History and Crisis of Ideal Childhood (New York: Thames and Hudson, 1998), 57–60. [BACK]


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