TRANSPORTATION OF SEDIMENTARY DEBRIS
Transportation of Sediment to the Sea
Rivers and streams carrying both particulate and dissolved material.
Rainwash, slumping along river banks and sea coasts, and large scale landslides.
Shoreline erosion by waves.
Glaciers and sea ice carrying rock fragments.
Biological activity which may also increase the transport by other agencies.
Winds, which pick up large amounts of fine-grained debris from barren arid areas.
Volcanic activity, which may discharge large amounts of finegrained dust into the atomosphere.
Materials transported by the first three agencies are brought into the sea near the coast lines and the bulk is deposited near the coast, whereas material transported by the last four agencies may be carried to great distances from land before dropping to the sea bottom, and may therefore contribute significantly to the deep-sea deposits. These latter agencies will be discussed more fully.
Transportation by Ice. The transportation of sedimentary debris by ice has been and still is extremely important in high latitudes. Glaciers carry large amounts of material which they erode from the land surface, and in so doing, modify the general topography. Glaciation during the ice age has left its smark on many areas now below sea level. Certain submarine topographical features, particularly around north-western Europe and northeastern America, are attributed to glaciation. By the time of the ultimate retreat of the ice such quantities of debris had been deposited that the transportation by glaciers has placed its stamp on the character of the sediments in many localities in high latitudes.
Contemporary glacier ice carries large amounts of sediment to the sea. Such material is characterized by a great range in size, varying from enormous boulders to the finest material formed by mechanical abrasion. The character of the debris will depend on the nature of the rock formations over which the glacier passes. Icebergs carry with them the enclosed rock material and, since they may float thousands of miles before melting, this material may be deposited at great distances from its source, and pebbles and boulders may be found in otherwise pelagic deposits far from land (Murray and Hjort, 1912; Bramlette and Bradley, 1940).
Sea ice, that is, ice formed in the sea, also plays a relatively important role in the transportation of sedimentary material. This is particularly true in the Arctic seas, where in large areas of shallow water the ice may freeze to the bottom in winter. When thawing commences, the melting takes place at the surface of the ice, which will tend to rise due to its buoyancy. In this way the enclosed sedimentary material may be lifted off the bottom and, as the ice breaks up, may be transported to other localities where it will be released when the ice melts. The sea ice will tend to carry the unsorted material, including shells or other remains of organisms, from shallow water into deeper water, and will therefore give rise to anomalous accumulations of remains of organisms and organic material (Twenhofel, 1939).
Organic Rafting. A less significant amount of debris may be transported in the sea by the agency of buoyant organic material of both terrigenous and marine origin. Trees and clumps of vegetation eroded during floods or by wave action may float great distances in the sea before decomposition releases the load of imbedded rock material or until the vegetation becomes waterlogged and sinks. Leaves, branches, and even entire terrigenous plant forms are sometimes found in marine deposits far from land. Marine algae with holdfasts may be torn loose and float away, carrying rock fragments which may be deposited in deeper water (Emery and Tschudy, 1941). Benthic animals may contribute to transportation, particularly by loosening and overturning the material on the sea bottom. Man has become an agency of transportation in the sea and the effects of his activities are not uncommon in certain localities. Cinders and ash from coal-burning vessels are sometimes found in samples taken along steamer routes, as well as other refuse of such a character that it may be preserved in the sediments. Near shore, particularly in harbors, material is moved by dredging activities and, indirectly, by the construction of piers and breakwaters.
Transportation by the Atmosphere. In the dispersal of terrigenous material the atmosphere undoubtedly plays an extremely important part. The materials that are carried by the winds over the sea consist mainly of volcanic dust ejected directly into the air and of the particles that are swept up by the wind from the land surface. Wind erosion of the land is most effective in localities where high wind velocities occur and where the ground is not covered by a protective blanket of vegetation. Such areas are found in the high mountains and in desert regions and in semiarid regions where there is large-scale agricultural activity. The activities of man contribute also to the air-borne debris in many other ways which can be readily called to mind. Practically any type of organic or inorganic material may be carried by the winds if it is small enough.
Transportation of solid particles by the air is comparable to that in water, which will be discussed below. In general, the lowest wind velocities are found near the ground and material swept up from the ground must be lifted to considerable altitudes if it is to be carried over long distances. The material ejected by volcanoes is thrown directly to great altitudes where high velocities prevail and will therefore, in general, be transported for greater distances than dust which is picked up from the land surface. Consequently, volcanic material which has been at least partially air-borne is world-wide in its distribution, although in the vicinity of centers of volcanic activity it will be much more abundant and of somewhat coarser texture.
Air-brone terrigenous dust is an important contributor to marine sediments where the prevailing winds are offshore and where they have a suitable source of material. In general there will be a progressive decrease in size of the air-borne material as the distance from the source is increased, because the larger particles drop out first. Extremely fine material which may remain in suspension almost indefinitely is precipitated by rainfall or snow. The actual dispersal of sedimentary material originally air-borne may be extended by transportation in the water itself. Little is known concerning the rate of supply of air-borne terrigenous material to various localities, but data given by Twenhofel (1939) suggest that it may be relatively great.
In certain localities the amount of material transported in the air over the sea is sometimes sufficient to form dust clouds. For one such region off the west coast of Africa, Radczewski (1939) has summarized the existing knowledge of the effects of the aeolian material on the formation of the deep-sea sediments in this area. According to him the following types of grains could be identified in the dust collected from the air west of the African coast: quartz, feldspar, mica, organic siliceous remains, calcite, aggregates of small particles, and other unidentifiable material. In this locality calcite, aggregates, mica, and quartz are the most abundant. All of these materials may fall to the sea bottom, where they will be mixed with the water-borne debris and the remains of marine organisms. In sediment samples it is impossible to discriminate between the air- and water-borne material except in the case of a certain amount of the quartz grains. These are the so-called “desert quartz” grains coated with reddish iron oxides, and are characteristically aeolian material. Although the percentage of desert quartz in the original air-borne dust is not known, Radczewski determined their ratio to the total number of quartz fragments in a number of samples collected by the Meteor. These are referred to as “desert quartz numbers” and are used as indices of the proportions of aeolian material in the different samples. In general, the amount decreases away from the coast and the size of the characteristic quarz grains diminishes with increasing distance from the shore.
The size of the air-borne particles in deep-sea sediments averages less than 15 microns but larger fragments are quite abundant near the coast. Technical difficulties make it impossible to distinguish aeolian material smaller than about 5 microns.
Transportation of Sediment in the Sea
Settling Velocity. Sedimentary debris which has been transported to the sea settles through the water and is at the same time carried laterally by currents of different types. The settling velocity of a sedimentary particle depends upon its specific gravity, size, and shape, and upon the specific gravity and viscosity of the water. Before considering the settling velocity of particles in the sea it is necessary to examine the simplest case, where it is assumed that only spheres are involved. The classical equation for the settling velocity of a sphere is that developed by Stokes:Krumbein and Pettijohn (1938) have reviewed the various expressions which have been developed either theoretically or empirically to express the relationship between the settling velocity and the size of larger spheres. The semiempirical relationship developed by Wadell covers the range with which we are concerned. This may be expressed as a correction to be applied to Stokes’ law and can be given in the following form (Krumbein and Pettijohn, 1938, p. 105): table 105 are shown the terms applied to particles of various diameters and the settling velocity of quartz spheres (density = 2.65) in distilled water at 20°C (μ = 0.0101) of the indicated dimensions according to Stokes’ law and for certain of the larger particles according to Wadell's equation. It is readily seen that the effect of turbulence is to reduce the rate of fall. Stokes’ law can be considered valid for spheres of diameters up to 62.5 microns. Individual sedimentary particles are of course far from spherical in shape, but if their settling velocities are measured their size can be expressed as equivalent radii or equivalent diameters where these terms indicate the dimensions of quartz spheres having the same settling velocity.
|Diameter||Settling velocity||Time to fall 10 cm||Settling velocity (m/day)|
|Very coarse sand|
|1||1,000||(89.2 cm/sec)||16.0 cm/sec||0.6|
|1/2||500||(22.3 cm/sec||7.7 cm/sec||1.2|
|1/4||250||(5.58 cm/sec)||3.4 cm/sec||2.7|
|1/8||125||(1.39 cm/sec)||1.2 cm/sec||8.3||1040|
|Very fine sand|
When mechanical analyses are made (see p. 969), the size-grade composition of a sediment is determined by sieving and by determining the settling velocity of the smaller particles. In such an analysis it is customary to employ certain physical and chemical methods for separating the individual particles which in the original sample may be cemented together or held somewhat more loosely by electrostatic or physical forces. This is particularly true of the clay and colloid material which is said to be coagulated or flocculated. Although the coarser material larger than about 15 microns may not be flocculated and will therefore settle with approximately the computed velocity, this is not true for the finer particles. Little is known concerning the state of aggregation of the clay and the colloid particles that are in suspension in the sea; however, studies by Gripenberg (1934) have shown that fine-grained material when mixed with sea water tends to flocculate into units which settle with velocity equivalent to those of quartz spheres between about 5 and 15 microns in diameter, that is, they settle between 1 m and 20 m per day. The flocculation is related to the composition of the clay minerals, particularly with respect to the exchangeable bases (p. 988) and also to the salt concentration of the water. It is probable that the flocculation is much retarded when the suspension of particles is extremely dilute. Studies of clay minerals have shown that the coagulation tends to increase the size of the units, hence to increase their settling velocity, but at the same time the coagulated particles carry with them a certain amount of the water, which reduces their effective density and therefore tends to slow them down.
A certain amount of this extremely fine-grained material may be formed in the sea, but probably most of it comes from the land, where the agencies of mechanical and chemical weathering are much more effective. If this material did not find its way to the sea floor it is obvious that the oceans would ultimately become turbid with suspended particles. Measurements of the penetration of light in the sea show that finely suspended material is present everywhere in the surface layer of the sea (p. 88), but it does not seem reasonable that the average turbidity of the water is changing. Therefore, the rate of supply of material must equal the rate of deposition. Some of the problems of submarine geology are to determine the rate of deposition, the quantity of sedimentary
Transportation of Settling Particles by Ocean Currents. The effective settling velocities of sedimentary particles probably range from less than one meter per day to many thousand meters per day. Coarse material which is brought to the sea near shore or which is released from icebergs or remains of plants at great distances from the coast will sink so fast that it is immediately deposited, but fine material with small settling velocities may be carried for considerable distances by currents. A particle 4 microns in diameter settles at a rate of about one meter per day (table 105), hence, may be carried about for many years before reaching the bottom. Such fine material may be introduced by rivers, may arise from wave action in shallow water, or may be derived from the remains of planktonic organisms. The distance to which particles can be carried depends upon their settling velocity, the velocity of the current, and in some instances upon the turbulence associated with the motion. The turbulence will lead to high values of the vertical diffusion (p. 93). This great diffusion will have no effect on the settling of very small particles if they are distributed in such a manner that the net vertical transport by diffusion is zero but, depending upon the change of concentration and the change of eddy diffusion with depth, the diffusion may lead to a net upward or downward transport of particles which may decrease or increase downward transport by settling. So far, no data are available for examination of these conditions.
Another important characteristic of the ocean currents is the presence of horizontal eddies which lead to large-scale horizontal mixing, which can be expressed as horizontal diffusion (p. 92). The horizontal diffusion is of importance near coasts where fine material is brought into the sea by rivers, wave action, wind, or other agencies. In coastal waters the great supply of fine material leads to a high concentration of suspended particles which by horizontal diffusion may be carried to considerable distances from the coast. In a steady state the amount of suspended material transported away from the coast by diffusion through a vertical plane parallel to the coast must equal the amount supplied to the water between the coast and the vertical plane minus what is deposited on the bottom inside of the vertical plane. On the basis of such considerations, Revelle and Shepard (1939) have shown how the finer material may be carried away from shore by the large-scale horizontal eddies which occur off the southern California coast. They introduced a settling velocity of 15 m per day which they consider to be that of “thoroughly coagulated suspensions.”
Transportation of Particles along the Sea Bottom. Material that settles toward the bottom is by no means always permanently
Mud flows represent movement of unconsolidated material that has accumulated on a slope and are not necessarily associated with any movement of the overlying water. Owing to instability or to a stimulus such as may be caused by seismic activity, the material begins to slide down the slope. There is some evidence that mud flows are relatively common on steep slopes and it has been suggested that they are of importance as an agency which removes accumulated sediments from submarine canyons. They are most likely to occur in areas where sediments are accumulating rapidly on relatively steep slopes, hence they may occur on the continental slope and on insular slopes. The angle of repose of unconsolidated marine sediments is not known. It is thought that mud flows can take place where the slope is only about one degree, but this does not imply that slopes of greater angle are always devoid of unconsolidated material.
Transportation by mud flows tends to break down stratification that may have developed in the deposit, and may result in the accumulation of rather coarse and unsorted material in deep water. Furthermore, mud flows may carry organisms and their skeletal remains into environments where they could not have developed, thereby leading to complications in interpretation of the environmental conditions from the study of the organic constituents of a deposit. There is very little direct evidence of the occurrence of mud flows in the seas, consequently it is as yet impossible to determine their importance as transporting agencies. The status of present knowledge is discussed by Twenhofel (1939).
In rivers the motion of individual particles along the bottom is described as sliding, rolling, and saltation (Hjulström, 1939). Sliding does not often take place, but rolling and saltation (which is a jumping motion) are common forms of transportation. Nothing is known about the extent to which such transportation takes place along the sea bottom, but certain indications can be obtained by application of results of river
Relationship between average current velocity in a river and sediments of uniform texture showing velocities necessary for erosion, transportation, or deposition. (From Hjulström, 1939, in Recent Marine Sediments, edited by Parker D. Trask and published by the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Tulsa, Oklahoma.)
Applying these results from rivers to the problem of transportation along the sea bottom by sliding, rolling, and saltation, it must be borne in mind that in fig. 251 the velocity represents the average velocity across a transverse profile of a river and that the velocity at the bottom is smaller. It may perhaps be assumed that the “average velocities” correspond to those occurring a few meters above the sea bottom. Taking into account the fact that high velocities near the sea bottom are common in shallow water only, it can be considered probable that eroding velocities and transportation along the bottom of coarser material, say, particles with diameters greater than 2 to 3 mm, occur only in shallow water, but that in regions of deep currents similar transportation of fine sand and silty sand may occur at depths of several thousand meters. Sediment collections made by the E. W. Scripps off the coast of California and in the Gulf of California appear to bear out such contentions except where coarse material has been found in the bottom of submarine canyons and on banks. The latter occurrence may be related to former emergence.
It should be added that on a slope alternating currents will lead to net downward transport of sediments because gravity will facilitate a downward and counteract an upward transport.
Transportation of particles in suspension near the bottom is often considered together with sliding, rolling, and saltation because the transition from one form to another is probably a gradual one. The essential difference is that material in suspension can be carried in a short time over much longer distances.
Nothing is known as to the amount or character of material in suspension near the bottom under varying conditions, but an approach to the problem can be made by application of results from laboratory studies on the characteristics of turbulent flow. Such results have been applied to the problem of transportation in rivers (Rouse, 1938), but certain modifications are necessary when dealing with transportation near the sea bottom. The basic concept is that where turbulence exists a current can carry a load of suspended particles that is determined by the condition that the downward transport by settling must equal the upward transport by eddy diffusion. The downward transport by settling equals WS where W is the settling velocity and S is the concentration of suspended particles expressed as mass per unit volume of water. The upwards transport by eddy diffusion equals [Equation] (see p. 116) where D is the coefficient of eddy diffusion and dS/dz is the concentration gradient (z is measured positive upwards). The concentration of suspended particles is therefore determined by the equation
If the stability of the stratification is very small it may be assumed that near the bottom the eddy diffusion equals the kinematic eddy viscosity, that is, D = A/ρ where A is the dynamic eddy viscosity (p. 483). When dealing with currents near the sea bottom it can furthermore be assumed that in the lowest layers of the water the shearing stress is independent of the distance from the bottom and equals the stress against the bottom. This stress is (p. 479)
In order to make use of this general formula, specific assumptions must be made as to the variation of the eddy viscosity with increasing distance from the bottom and as to the value of the velocity at the bottom, z0. Before doing so it is necessary, however, to point out one principal difficulty that is encountered when attacking the problem in this manner, namely, that the theoretical approach leads only to relative values of the concentration of particles in suspension and not to absolute values. Actually, the mechanism which brings the particles into suspension is not clearly understood. It appears that if laminar flow exists along the bottom, that is, if the bottom is hydrodynamically smooth (p. 479), no forces are present which can thrust particles upwards. Upward thrusts probably occur only if the turbulence reaches to the very bottom, as is the case if the bottom is hydrodynamically rough. Where laminar flow is found over a smooth bottom, the velocity is always zero at the bottom and the stress exerted on the bottom varies in time only if the velocity gradient in the laminar boundary layer varies. If, on the other
Some idea as to the size or the equivalent diameter of particles in suspension can be obtained by assuming that the bottom is hydrodynamically rough. In this case (p. 479),Prandtl (1932), may be about 1/30 of the vertical dimension of the irregularities of the bottom. Furthermore, Equation], is introduced the formula takes the simpler form fig. 252 are shown two series of curves, one giving the distributions of suspended particles of different diameters at a velocity of 10 cm/sec at 2 m above the bottom, assuming the roughness length of the bottom to be 0.2 cm; the other giving corresponding distributions, assuming the roughness length of the bottom to be 2 cm.
If these results are applicable to conditions near the sea bottom, one should expect that (1) very fine sand, silt, and clay can be present in suspension near the bottom, (2) the size of the particles in suspension depends upon the velocity of the current near the bottom and the roughness of the bottom, (3) the greater the velocity and the greater the roughness the larger are the suspended particles, and (4) the coarseness of the suspended material decreases rapidly with increasing distance from the bottom, provided that material of different particle sizes is present on the bottom.
In shallow water, currents of all types can bring particles into suspension. The periodic currents such as tidal currents and currents associated with seiches (p. 538) or tsunamis (p. 544) are probably the strongest; but besides these, permanent currents reaching to the bottom may exist which will carry the suspended material away. The smaller particles can then accumulate only where the deposition is greater than the transportation. This may be the case in shallow areas to which the supply of fine material is great, for example, the Mississippi Delta, or in depressions out of which no fine material is transported, for example those off the coast of southern California (fig. 264, p. 1025), or in landlocked fjords.
Theoretical distribution of particles of indicated diameters (1/16 to 1/128 mm) over the bottom when the velocity at 2 m above the bottom is 10 cm/sec and the roughness length is 0.2 cm and 2.0 cm.
In deep water, tidal currents are weak, but currents associated with internal waves (p. 590) may have appreciable velocities near the bottom. The permanent currents are very weak but no matter how weak they are they will transport material, which can accumulate, therefore, only where the permanent currents practically vanish, that is, in the deeper parts of ocean basins. A mechanism thus exists which will tend to sweep all finer material away from submarine ridges and peaks and will lead to accumulation of this material in the ocean basins regardless of
Effects of Transportation. The effects of transportation by the various agencies outlined above can be considered from two points of view. One can examine what happens to the shape, size, and composition of individual particles during transportation in the sea, or one can examine the net effect of transporting agencies upon the distribution of sediments. As in other aspects of sedimentation, it is impossible to do more than indicate the general character of the effects because they have not yet been studied sufficiently to afford any quantitative data. Furthermore, the physical or chemical characteristics which may be used as indices of the magnitude of transformation have not been generally applied to the study of marine sediments although the methods have been developed (Krumbein and Pettijohn, 1938).
The effects of transportation upon individual particles may modify their size, shape, and composition. In some cases the size may be increased by, say, the precipitation of calcium carbonate, but in general, transportation will tend to reduce the dimensions of solid material. Such breakdown may be the result of mechanical or chemical processes and generally both will be active. Impact or abrasion may lead to mechanical disintegration and solution, or interaction of the dissolved substances with the solid particles may tend to a reduction in size. These processes may influence not only the size of the particles but also their shape. Fracturing will reduce the size and give rise to angular fragments, whereas abrasion will generally tend to round off the sharp edges and corners. A distinction is drawn between the sphericity of particles, that is, their approach to true spherical form, and the roundness which is a measure of the smoothing away of edges and corners.
The size and shape of individual particles are not only indicative of the character of the transporting agencies and source of material but will also determine many of the properties of the sediment, for example the water content and cohesive properties of the material when wet and when dry and, for larger particles, the character of the orientation and hence the bedding of the individual grains.
The composition of the particles may be affected by the wearing away of the softer or less cohesive material by mechanical agencies or by the solution of the more soluble or more readily attacked portions by chemical processes. Such changes may be determined by examination under the petrographic microscope or by certain chemical or physical tests.
If we consider the relative effectiveness of various transporting agencies in affecting the size, shape, and composition of sedimentary material it is obvious that mechanical breakdown is most likely to occur in material moved over the sea bottom by rolling and saltation. Mechanical wear will be most rapid where particles are thrown together violently and repeatedly. In the sea such conditions are found in shallow water, where currents are strong and where the wave action extends to the bottom. The extent to which chemical weathering may act in the sea is not known, but because of the high surface: volume ratio it is undoubtedly effective on small particles and will be a function of the time of exposure rather than the character of the transporting agency. The progressive change in the character of material transported by a given agency depends upon the character of the source material, the changes in competency of the transporting agency, and the material itself and that forming the sea bottom. This general statement applies only to transportation in the water by saltation or rolling over the sea floor, as in all other agencies one or more of the variables are eliminated.
The characteristics of wind-borne material will be largely determined before it reaches the sea and are therefore outside the problem under consideration. The same is generally true of river-borne debris. Discussions of the processes of transformation associated with transportation are given by Twenhofel (1932, 1939) and Russell (1939), and the methods of determining the properties of individual grains are given by Krumbein and Pettijohn (1938).