This study of the triumph of the spirit despite constant political repression in Barcelona is a deeply felt personal work. Research on it began with a paper on "The Making of the Barcelona Working Class" I wrote in 1964, just after reading E.P. Thompson's The Making of the English Working Class while in Spain for the first time. Fifteen years later, Dotty and Edward Thompson became my friends, and I am happy to acknowledge that by their example as historians and as political activists they have shaped this book's political views and sense of purpose more than they might imagine.
The historical research I have carried out on Barcelona would not have been possible without the early tutoring I received from Josep Fontana, who more than anyone was my teacher. Even when he has not agreed with my focus on women or with my unwillingness to engage in academic debates, he has helped me tell my own story by suggesting sources and by permitting me to work in his personal library, one of the outstanding private collections in Spain. Scholars whose deep and rich work on other subjects has enabled me to focus on broad issues of Barcelona's cultural politics include José Álvarez Junco, James Amlang, Albert Balcells, Jonathan Beecher, Manuel Castells, Herschel B. Chipp, William Christian, Jr., T.J. Clark, Natalie Davis, Victoria de Grazia, Stuart Hall, Eric J. Hobsbawm, Lynn Hunt, Gabriel Jackson, David Kertzer, Claudia Koonz, Marilyn McCully, Robert Moeller, Mary Nash, Linda Nochlin, Ellen Ross, Joan W. Scott, Carl Schorske, Richard Sennett, Josep Termes, Dorothy Thompson, E.P. Thompson, Joan Connelly Ullman, Pierre Vilar, Raymond Williams, Eric R. Wolf, and John Womack, Jr.
What I know about Barcelona and its history comes less from books than from people, of whom the following have shared their experiences, knowledge, and opinions. James Amlang, Jordi Argente, Angels Carabi, Montserrat Condominas, Josep Fontana, Mary Nash, Susana Tavera, Madrona Torrets, and Mercé Vilanova have put up with my endless questions, accompanied me to festivals, located for me puppet theaters and votive curio shops from their youth, sent me books, found me pictures, and taught me how to cook Catalan food.
The younger generation of Catalans and Catalanists has justified my enthusiasm for the culture and history of Barcelona. As colleagues, students, research assistants, and friends, they have helped me explore new areas in order to tell my story. Foremost among them are Joan Casanovas, Eliza Martí López, Mary Ann Newman, and María Leonora Sesén. Though new to Catalan studies, my mapmaker, Bonne Wagner, shared my delight in Barcelona's physical landscape and the urban reforms that kept changing the face of the city.
Librarians and archivists have done more than orient me to their particular collections; they have helped resolve many of the difficulties involved in bringing a book such as this to completion. I am grateful to Montserrat Condominas, formerly the librarian of the Institut Municipal d'Història, Casa l'Ardiaca, who over more than twenty-five years has guided my work, introduced me to people who could advise me, and throughout the late sixties and early seventies helped me gain access to material that was hidden until the death of Franco in 1975. People like Montserrat should be considered part of an intellectual underground who preserved Barcelona's history and culture during the long, dark days of the Franco Regime. Rudolph de Jong, director of the Spanish and Latin American Section of the Institute for Social History, Amsterdam, and Thea Duijker, the assistant director, have been indefatigable sources of information about anarcho-syndicalists and their lives in Barcelona. At the Museu Picasso, Barcelona, Margarita Ferrer and María Teresa Ocaña, the director, have made the job of gathering visual evidence about Barcelona a constant pleasure. Angela Kitty Chibnik of Avery Memorial Architectural Library, Columbia University, Montserrat Blanch at the Arxiu Mas, Barcelona, and the staffs of the Institut del Teatre and the Biblioteca de Catalunya have provided me with the direction I needed at crucial junctures.
A book that has been gestating for twenty-five years has a lot of time to account for. During the past eight years while I have directed the Barnard Center for Research on Women my work has been accom-
plished largely during vacations, evenings, and weekends. Before that time, I received a grant in 1977–1978 from the National Endowment for the Humanities for an earlier version of this book and in 1982–1983 from the Rockefeller Foundation for several chapters of this work. Academic Senate Research Grants from UCLA during the period 1969–1983, when I was a professor there, enabled me to write my earlier book Anarchists of Andalusia, 1868–1903 and then, after 1977, to live and work in Barcelona over long periods of time. A Spivack Grant from Barnard College in 1985 helped me return to Barcelona at an important point in my research.
Behind this book is a community of people whose commitments to human decency make the prejudices and preconceptions about resistance to oppression expressed here seem less farfetched. I am indebted to the following people for the range of human contacts they have provided for me over the many years I have been writing this book. Ellen Ross and Dick Glendon took me into their lives and allowed me to be Zachy's aunt for his seven brief years, for which I will always be grateful. Amy Ansara; Danilo and Margaret Bach; Ruth Bloch; Leah Chodorow; Louise DeSalvo; Ellen, Tom, Abra, and Teddy Edwards; Ruth Farmer; Lucy, Billy, Tanya, Ezra, Gideon, and Sam Friedman; Mary Gordon; Charles and Susan Halpren; Claudia Koonz; Honor Moore; Deborah L. Rhode; Debora L. Silverman; Kathryn Sklar; Ann Snitow; Meredith Tax; Jane Teller; Debora Valenze; and Mary Yeager were always there when I needed them. Jean Millar taught me how to roll with the punches and keep fighting.
Individual chapters, sections, and earlier manuscripts of this book have benefited from the advice of different people. Chief among them are Victoria de Grazia and Robert Moeller, who have given unstintingly of their time, intellect, and affection. Whether or not I have taken their advice or heeded their warnings, I have also appreciated the thought-provoking comments of Louise Bernikow, William Christian, Jr., Louise DeSalvo, Susan Harding, Natalie Kampen, Eunice Lipton, Linda Nochlin, Rosalind Petchesky, Pamela Radcliff, Ellen Ross, Meredith Tax, and Joan Connelly Ullman.
I have been fortunate in receiving help from three editors. Helena Franklin provided me with the invaluable responses of someone with a probing mind and a playful spirit. By unraveling ideas that are strongly felt but were not always clearly expressed, she helped to translate enthusiastic prose into a coherent narrative. At the University of California Press, Sheila Levine immediately understood how cultural resistance
can have a significant political impact and why explaining it demanded a new kind of cultural history. For taking a chance on me and my work and for bringing this project to fruition, Sheila Levine will always have my gratitude. Rose Vekony's moral support and serenity and Anne Geissman Canright's copyediting skills turned the production process into a creative act—and a pleasant one at that.
Abby Sims, my stepdaughter, has never known me when I was not working on this book, but in many ways she has made it worth writing. By her outrage over the bombing of Guernica almost forty years before she was born, and by her feminism, she has reassured me about the value of writing history and the values of her generation. Bennett Sims, an inveterate reader of history, has urged me to break my academic chains and tell you the story of cultural resistance in Barcelona with all the passion and commitment that I feel. Most of all, my thanks go to the people of Barcelona, who have often promoted art and freedom and have frequently been willing to fight for them.