Preferred Citation: Todd, Ellen Wiley. The "New Woman" Revised: Painting and Gender Politics on Fourteenth Street. Berkeley:  University of California Press,  c1993 1993. http://ark.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/ft9k4009m7/


 

Index

Page References To Illustrations Are in Bold Type

A

Abbott, Berenice, photographs by:

Union Square, 191 , 192 ;

Union Square, Bartholdi statue of Lafayette, 92 , 93 , 96 , 105 ;

Union Square West, nos. 31 -41, 86 , 87 , 96

Abbott, Harriett:

on "Newest New Woman," 32

Academy of Music (Fourteenth Street), 86 , 92 , 96

Adams, Mildred: Siren vs. flapper, 196 -199, 214

Advertising:

and construction of womanhood in, xxx ;

Depression era, 195 -196, 205 , 220 -221;

feminist rhetoric in, 203 -204;

growth of industry, xxv , 319 n.1;

as means to selfhood, 356 n.72;

views of female audience, 204 -206

Allen, Frederick Lewis:

Only Yesterday , 151 ;

on saleslady and shopgirl, 248

Alloway, Lawrence (art critic):

on Bishop, 296 , 300

Altman's (department store), 97

Amalgamated Labor Bank (Union Square), 96

American Artists' Congress, 121 , 342 n.67;

and Bishop, 295 ;

and Soyer, 68 , 266 , 267

American Home Economics Association, 152 . See also Home economics

American Magazine of Art- and American Scene painting, 75

American Scene painting, 41 , 84 ;

as artistic mainstream, 70 -72, 85 , 131 ;

Bishop's office workers in, 283 ;

critical terms and theory, 74 -75;

and figurative tradition, 71 -72;

and Fourteenth Street realism, xxv , 75 -81;

and Fourteenth Street School, 72 -74;

magazines supporting, 75 ;

and Marsh, 181 ;

and modernism, 71 ;

and National Academy of Design, 71 ;

and new womanhood, 71 ;

and realism, 314 , 315 ;

and Soyer, 230 , 263 , 264 . See also Art Students League; Whitney Studio Club

American Scene realism: See American Scene painting

Anderson, Sherwood, 46

Anti-feminism:

in Boston school paintings, 12 ;

and Bromley's "feminist—new style," 36 ;

and suffrage campaign, 27 -29

Arensberg, Walter, 71

Armory Show:

and critical reception of modernism, 74 -75;

Miller's works in, 77

Art Digest :

and American Scene painting, 75

Artists' studios, 94 . See also Fourteenth Street;

individual artists

Artists' Union:

and Art Front , 269 ,


398

Artists' Union (continued )

270 -271, 368 n.83;

and Soyer, 68 , 266 , 267 ;

and women, 335 n. 104

Arts, The , 73

Art Students League:

and Bishop's art education, 57 -58, 72 ;

and Marsh's art education, 50 -51, 54 , 72 ;

Miller as teacher at, 44 , 47 , 72 , 90 ;

role in American Scene painting, 72 ;

and Katherine Schmidt, 60 , 72 ;

and Soyer, 66 , 69 , 72

Ashcan school, 18 -19;

and masculinity, 18 -19;

and The Masses , 18 ;

and working class, 18 . See also Henri, Robert; Luks, George; Sloan, John

Ashcan school realism:

and Fourteenth Street School, 127 ;

Miller's opposition to, 79 ;

as precursor to Fourteenth Street realism, 71 , 75 , 79

Associated American Artists Gallery, 70

Astor, Mary (movie star):

Ladies Love Brutes , 215

B

Back-to-the-home movement, xxxiv ;

and Miller's matronly shopper, 167 , 177 ;

and nationalism, 176 ;

and professionalized homemaker, 136 , 152 -154;

and separate spheres, 173

Bacon, Peggy:

Fourteenth Street School artists, 73 -74;

and Whitney Studio Club, 67 , 72 ;

"The Little Jumper Dress," 167 , 168

Baldwin, William:

on professionalized homemaker, 158

Ballyhoo magazine (advertising satire), 220

Bank of Manhattan (Union Square), 92

Banky, Vera (movie star), 215

Banner, Lois (historian):

on "antifeminist" New Woman, 36 ;

on beauty culture, 204 ;

on flapper, 151 ;

on Siren, 201 -202

Bara, Theda (movie star), 218

Baur, John (art historian):

on Fourteenth Street School, 40 -41

Beach, H. Prescott (President, Fourteenth Street Association), 88

Beauty culture, 112 , 104

Bell, Clive:

and early formalist criticism, 76

Bell, Miss Kay (secretary), 302 , 303

Bellini, Giovanni:

Madonna degli Alberetti , 140 , 143

Bellows, George, 130 ;

as Art Students League teacher, 66 , 72

Benson, Frank (Boston school artist), 11 , 13

Benson, Susan Porter (historian):

on department store culture, 229

Benton, Thomas Hart, xxxii , 180 , 181 ;

America Today mural, 91 , 339 n.17;

and Art Students League, 72 ,

and Associated American Artists Gallery, 70 ;

and tempera painting, 214

Benton, William:

and advertising, 195 -196, 222 ;

patronage of Marsh, 49 , 74 , 195

Berenson, Bernard:

and early formalist criticism, 76

Betterton, Rosemary:

on male gaze, 182

Biography, 39 -43;

artists as subjects of, xxx , 40 -41

Bishop, Anna (Isabel Bishop's mother):

marriage vs. motherhood, 57 , 60 ;

as writer and feminist, 56 -67

Bishop, Isabel, xxv , 1 , 40 , 55 -62, 63 , 66 ;

art education, 57 -58, 72 ;

and biographical evidence, 41 -42;

and class difference, 293 -295;

critical reception of, 273 -274, 289 , 302 -303, 310 , 314 ;

early career, 58 -59;

early shopper imagery, 97 -99, 176 ,


399

177 ;

and family, 55 -57, 59 -61, 330 n.59, 331 nn.60, 62;

and feminism, 310 ;

and Fourteenth Street realism, 75 -78, 81 -83;

and Marsh, 58 , 61 ;

and Miller, 57 -60, 73 , 331 n.68, 332 n.78;

as New Woman and artist, xxxiv , 55 -56, 60 -62;

and office workers, xxxii , 283 , 285 , 294 , 301 , 311 ;

pictorial strategies of, 104 , 115 , 120 , 182 , 275 , 281 -282, 287 , 290 , 300 -301, 310 , 370 n.20;

and politics, 121 , 295 , 296 ;

sources and influences, 300 , 373 n.50;

on Soyer, 336 n.133;

studios, 58 -59, 273 ;

theory of "painterly mobility," 291 -293, 371 n.25;

and unemployed men, 275 , 295 -296;

and working methods, xxxiii , 58 -60.

Works: At the Noon Hour , 275 , 280 , Plate 8 , 285 , 287 , 290 , 302 ;

The Club , 132 , 133 , 275 ;

Dante and Virgil in Union Square , 77 , 78 , 81 , 90 , 92 , 100 , 165 , 274 , 338 -339n.16;

Department Store Entrance , 98 , 99 , 274 ;

Double Date Delayed , 288 , 289 ;

Hearn's Department StoreFourteenth Street Shoppers , 97 ;

The Kid , 275 , 285 ;

Laughing Head , 275 , 276 , 287 , 309 ;

Lunch Counter , 275 , 278 , 285 ;

Lunch Hour , 275 , 279 , 285 , 291 , 300 , 302 ;

Tidying Up , 275 , 277 , Plate 7 , 302 ;

Two Girls , 273 , 274 , 294 ;

Two Girls with a Book , 275 , 281 ;

Union Square during the Expansion of the Fourteenth Street Subway Station , 96 , 97 , 105 -106;

Young Woman , 286 , 295 , 302 ;

Young Woman's Head , 275 , 276 , 287

Blumer, Herbert (sociologist):

on movies and conduct, 216 , 217

Boston school painters, 11 ;

antifeminist imagery, 12 -13, 25

Bouché, Louis (artist), 72

Bourne, Randolph, 46

Bowery (New York City):

and unemployed man, 131 , 344 n.90

Bowles, Chester (advertiser), 195

Brentano's (bookstore), 86

Breuning, Margaret (art critic, New York Evening Post ):

on women artists' organizations, 61 -62

Brinton, Christian (art critic):

and modernism, 79

Bromley, Dorothy Dunbar (journalist), 32 -33;

"feminist—new style" and revised New Woman, 35 -36, 136 , 197 , 304

Brook, Alexander:

and Art Students League, 69 ;

and Fourteenth Street School artists, 73 -74;

on Miller as teacher, 47 ;

and Soyer, 66 -67, 237 ;

as studio painter, 71 ;

and Whitney Studio Club, 67 , 72

Brooks, Van Wyck, 46

Brown, Milton:

on Fourteenth Street School, 41

Bruce, Virginia (movie star): in Modern Screen , 190 , 191

Burroughs, Alan (art critic, son of Bryson Burroughs):

on Marsh and Miller, 73

Burroughs, Betty: See Marsh, Betty Burroughs

Burroughs, Bryson (curator, father of Betty, Alan), 51

Burck, Jacob (cartoonist), 54

C

Cades, Hazel (job counselor):

on office etiquette, 304

Cadmus, Paul, 65 ;

and tempera painting, 214

Caffin, Charles (art critic): on turn-of-the-century painting, 17

Carey, Henry R.:

on working women, 35 -36

Carpenter, Edward, 46

Central Savings Bank (Union Square), 96


400

Cézanne, Paul:

and American artists, 65 , 336 n.133;

as formalist model for Miller, 76

Chase, Stuart (consumer advocate), 221

Cikovsky, Nicolai (artist): and Soyer, 67 , 335 n.104

Citron, Minna (artist), 328 n.23

Cohen, Marilyn:

and interpretation of Marsh, 53 -54, 181 -182

coitus interruptus , 327 n.11

coitus reservatus , 43 , 327 n.11

Colbert, Claudette (movie star), 212 -214

Coleman, Glenn (artist), 71

Communist party, 120 , 122 ;

and feminist journalism, 69 , 335 n.105;

and Miller, 48 ;

and the Popular Front, 135 , 269 ;

and Soyer, 68

Companionate marriage, 46 , 313 ;

and Bishop, 61 ;

and Marsh, 52

Coney Island:

as Marsh subject, 49 , 54 , 193 , 223

Connoly, Louise:

on New Woman, 25

Consolidated Edison Company (Union Square), 96 ,283 , 339 n.26

Consumer culture, 180 ;

and assimilation of immigrants, 219 -221;

critiques of, xxvi , 221 -222, 359 n.110, 359 -360n.114;

historiography, 215 , 216 -217, 358 n.93;

and Marsh's imagery, 208 -214, 219 -222;

movies and, 215 -216, 217 ;

and professionalized homemaker, 155 -158

Contemporary Print Group, 131

Cooper Union Art School:

and Soyer brothers, 64

Corn Exchange Bank (Union Square), 92

Cott, Nancy (historian):

on emergence of term feminism , 3 ;

on feminism after enfranchisement, xxxiv , 31 ;

on suffrage coalition, 4

Courbet, Gustave:

influence on Soyer, 232

Coward, Rosalind:

on female spectatorship, 183

Cowl, Clarkson (Hearn's president), 87 , 88 , 104 -105

Cowley, Malcolm: Exile's Return , 50

Cox, Kenyon (artist, critic):

and antimodernism, 79 ;

as Miller's teacher, 44 , 76 ;

Lilith , 26 , 27

Coyle, Grace (economist), 284 , 291

Craven, Thomas (art critic):

and antimodernism, 75 ;

on Marsh's imagery, 180 , 206

Crawford, Joan (movie star), 178

Creative Art :

and American Scene painting, 75

Crowninshield, Frank (editor, Vanity Fair ), 49

Curran, Charles (artist):

as Soyer's teacher, 65

Current History magazine:

frontispiece, 34 -35, 35 ;

on New Woman, 31 -32, 315

Curry, John Steuart, 180 , 181 ;

and Associated American Artists gallery, 70 ;

and Marsh, 54 ;

as regionalist, xxxii

D

Daily News : Marsh as illustrator for, 49 , 195

Daily Worker , 54

Daniel, Charles (gallery owner), 67 , 70

Daniel Gallery:

and Soyer, 67 , 69 -70

Daumier, Honoré:

and crayon style, 130 ;

influence on Soyer brothers, 65 ;

The Uprising , 269 , 270

Davis, Bette (movie star):

Of Human Bondage , 200

Davis, Lew (artist): Eight Figures , 233 -235, 234 , 237 , 360 n.7

Davis, Stuart, 130 ;

critique of Marsh, 180 , 181

Debs, Eugene, 46

DeCamp, Joseph Rodefer (Boston


401

school artist), 11 , 15

Degas, Edgar:

influence on Soyer, 71 , 80 , 235 , 236 , 237 , 361 n.10;

The Ironers , 235 , 236 ;

The Millinery Shop , 253 , 254

Dehn, Adolph (cartoonist), 206 ;

and Whitney Studio Club, 67 ;

"Unemployed," 167

Delacroix, Eugène:

as source for Miller, 76

de Lauretis, Teresa:

on social construction of gendered subjects, 183 -184

Dell, Floyd, 50 , 130

Department stores:

and retail sales work, 229 ;

and training to eradicate class discrepancies, 249 -251, 364 nn.38, 41

Depression, 85 , 86 , 96 , 167 , 177 ;

attitudes toward working women in, 37 ;

and commerce on Fourteenth Street, 105 -108, 120 , 123 , 133 ;

effects on artists' subjects, xxxii , 135 ;

and Marsh's imagery, 186 ;

and movies, 188 , 198 , 211 -212;

and New Woman, xxvii ;

and Soyer's imagery, 224 -227

Dietrich, Marlene (movie star):

in Modern Screen , 190 , 191 , 345 n.46

Dijkstra, Bram: Idols of Perversity , 26

Donovan, Frances (sociologist):

The Saleslady , 249 , 251 , 363 -364n.33

Dos Passos, John, 50

Doss, Erica:

on Marsh's Paramount Pictures , 200

Dove, Arthur, 46

Downey, Fairfax: on Gibson girl, 8

Dreiser, Theodore:

and Marsh, 50 ;

and Miller, 46 ;

naturalism and genteel tradition, 18 ;

Sister Carrie and prostitution, 21

du Bois, Guy Pène:

and American Scene painting, 71 ;

Bishop as student of, 58 , 72 , 332 n.72;

Soyer as student of, 66 , 67 , 72 ;

Americans in Paris , 146 -147 , 344 nn.2, 3

Dudensing, Valentine. See Valentine Gallery

DuMond, Frank Vincent (artist):

Bishop as student of, 57

Dunn, Irene (movie star), 345 n.46

Dunn, Rhoda (Miller's cousin), 48

E

Eakins, Thomas:

influence on Soyer, 80 ;

as precursor of Fourteenth Street School, 71

Eastman, Crystal:

and feminism, 24

Eastman, Max (brother of Crystal), 46 , 50 , 130 ;

and feminism, 24

Educational Alliance Art School:

and Moses Soyer, 65

L'Elan Gallery:

and Soyer, 70

Evergood, Philip, 134 -135;

North River Jungle , 134 ;

Treadmill , 118 , 119

Ewen, Elizabeth (historian):

on consumer culture, 217 , 218 ;

on immigrant women, 68

Ewen, Stuart (historian):

on consumer culture, 217 , 218

F

Fascism:

and American artists, 121 , 129 , 267 , 270 ;

and working women, 269

Federation of Modern Painters, 121 . See also Society for Modern Artists

Femininity:

and genteel tradition, 17 -18;

and New Woman revised, 33 -34

Feminism:

and art history, xxviii ;

early definitions of, 3 ;

during Depression, xxvii , 262 , 366 -367nn.61, 63;

after enfranchisement, xxvii , 31 -38, 151 -152, 252 ;

before enfranchisement, xxvii , 25 , 172 -173;

and Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), xxxiv , 38 , 151 , 313 ;

in


402

Feminism (continued )

Greenwich Village, 3 , 24 ;

and homemaking roles, 154 , 158 ;

and individualism, 4 ;

and National Woman's Party, 38 , 313 ;

and protective labor legislation debates, 37 -38;

and right-to-work claims, 252 , 262 , 313 ;

and sexuality, 4 ;

and socialism, 3 , 38 ;

and spectatorship, 182 ;

and suffrage campaign, 4 , 12 , 27 -31

Feminist:

stereotypes of, 32 -34

Ferrar Art Club:

and Robert Henri, 65

Ferry, Irma (Miller's first wife), 44 -45, 173

Field, Hamilton Easter:

as founder, editor of The Arts , 73

Fife, Mary: Klein's Dressing Room , 100 , 102

Fifth Avenue, xxv ;

contrasted to Fourteenth Street, 117 -118

Film. See Movies

Flapper, 24 , 36 ;

attributes of, 33 -34, 110 , 147 -150;

and feminism, 151 -152;

and Gibson girl, 33 -34;

and Miller matron, 148 -149, 151 , 175 ;

and sexual liberation, 33 -34;

and Siren, 178 , 196 , 197

Fleming, Tom:

"Home or Street Corner for Woman? Vote No on Woman Suffrage," 27 -28

Force, Juliana:

and Whitney Studio Club, 67 , 72

Ford, James Bishop:

as Bishop's financial support, 56 -57, 61

Fortune magazine, 50 ;

on office workers, 296 -297, 302 , 305 , 308

Foster, William (Communist party presidential candidate, 1932), 170

Foucault, Michel:

on discourse, xxix -xxx

Fourteenth Street, 126 ;

and Bishop's studios, 58 -59, 97 ;

and Marsh's studios, 51 , 53 , 330 n.48, 336 n-132;

as Marsh subject, 223 ;

and mass commercial entertainment, 112 -120, 123 ;

and Miller's studios, 47 ;

as shopping center, xxv , 87 , 96 , 105 ;

and Soyer's studios, 67 , 336 n.132. See also Fourteenth Street-Union Square district; Union Square; individual artists

Fourteenth Street Association, 87 , 88 , 96

Fourteenth Street realism:

artistic strategies, 75 -81;

and Ashcan school realism, 75 , 79 -81;

and Miller's contemporary classical realism, 75 , 76 -79. See also Fourteenth Street School

Fourteenth Street School:

and American Scene painting, 70 -71, 72 -74;

artists, xxv , 36 , 38 ;

audience of, 314 , 315 ;

historiography of, 40 -41, 327 n.5;

images of Depression, 122 -131;

images of womanhood, xxvii , 316 -317;

and old masters, 63 , 71 -72;

and pictorial strategies, 85 , 90 , 108 , 123 -124, 135 -136, 313 , 314 , 317 ;

and politics of 1930s, 120 -121, 124 , 315 -316;

social gatherings of, 73 -74;

and unemployed, 131 , 133 -134

Fourteenth Street-Union Square district:

as center for mass culture, 108 -120;

as center for radical politics, 120 -131;

as commercial district, 86 -96;

early history, 85 -86;

effects of Depression on, 105 -108;

growth of, 92 -96;

and retail women's wear, 96 -105. See also Fourteenth Street; Union Square

Fox, Richard (historian):

on consumer culture, 217 , 222

Freedman, Estelle (historian):

and historiography of feminism, 31 -32

Freud, Sigmund, 151 , 154 ;

and Miller, 46 -47, 222

Fry, Roger:

and early formalist


403

criticism, 76

Furniss, Edgar D. (social scientist):

on assimilation of immigrants, 219

G

Garbo, Greta (movie star), 178 , 191 , 210 , 215

Genauer, Emily (art critic):

on Bishop, 289 ;

on Soyer's shopgirls, 264

Gender:

and difference, 282 -283;

and difference vs. competitive models of success, 310 ;

and social construction of subject, 352 -353n.14

Genteel tradition:

and feminization of culture, 17 -18;

and masculinity, 17 -19

Gibson, Charles Dana, 5 ;

on politics, class, and marriage, 8 ;

"One Difficulty of the Game: Keeping Your Eye on the Ball," 6 ;

"A Suffragette's Husband," 9

Gibson girl, 5 -9, 11 -12, 15 , 24 , 33 -34, 246 ;

attributes of, 7 ;

proliferation of images of, 5 , 322 .n.11. See also Steel-engraving lady

Gilman, Charlotte Perkins, 1 , 2 , 16 , 34 ;

and debates on feminism with Ellen Key, 172 -173;

on Gibson girl, 5 , 33

Giorgione:

as source for Miller, 76

Giotto: The Visitation , 144 , 145

Gish, Lillian (movie star), 218

Glackens, William: The Shoppers , 165 -166

Goldman, Emma: and feminism, 24

Goodrich, Lloyd (art critic), 91 ;

and The Arts , 73 ;

as biographer, 42 ;

on Fred Dana Marsh, 49 ;

on Reginald Marsh, 53 ;

on Miller's matronly shopper, 169 -170

Goya, Francisco de:

and Marsh, 129

Grant, Madison:

racial theories and influence on Miller, 175 -176

Graphic art: and satire in 1930s, 131

Greenwich Village, 18 , 87 ;

and Bishop, 57 -58;

and feminism, 3 , 24 ;

and Marsh, 49 -50;

and Miller, 45 -46, 48

Gropper, William:

and John Reed Club, 335 n.34;

"Free Speech," 129 -130;

"A Woman's Place Is in the Home," 157

Grosz, George, 118 , 181 , 267

Gruskin, Alan (art dealer): and Midtown Galleries, 58

Guardian Life Insurance Company (Union Square), 96 , 283

Gutman, Walter (art critic):

on Miller's matronly shopper, 170

H

Haas, Kenneth (social scientist):

on consumer behavior, 222

Hale, Philip Leslie (Boston school artist), 11

Halper, Albert: Union Square , 84 , 96 , 115 -116, 118

Hapgood, Norman:

on New Woman and feminism, 25

Harlow, Jean (movie star), publicity photo for Dinner at Eight , 140 , 141 , 200 , 202 , 355 n.46

Harper's Weekly , 25

Hartley, Marsden, 46

Hearn's (department store), 86 , 87 , 96 -97, 273 ;

and Depression, 169

Held, John (illustrator), 147 ;

dancing flapper, 148

Henri, Robert, 72 ;

and Ashcan school realism, 18 , 79 ;

Bishop as student of, 57 ;

early influence on Soyer brothers, 65 ;

and masculinity, 55 ;

and National Academy of Design, 71

Hepburn, Katharine (movie star):

in Christopher Strong , 200

Hirschberg, Rose, 294 , 295

Home economics, xxx , 153 -154

Homosocial interaction, in Bishop's imagery, 290


404

Hoover, Herbert, 122 , 343 n.76

Hopper, Edward, 70 ;

and American Scene painting, 71 ;

Office at Night , 305 -306

Horace Mann School, 45

Howe, Marie Jenny:

and the establishment of Heterodoxy, 4

Howells, William Dean: on genteel tradition, 17

Hudson Bay Fur Company (Union Square), 118

Hynd, F. S., "Mid-Afternoon," 255

I

Ideology of woman's proper place, 38 ;

and Bishop, 289 , 311 ;

and married office workers, 284 ;

and Miller's salesladies, 252 ;

and office workers, 37 ;

and pin-money argument, 245 , 262 ;

and sales work, 241 , 244 , 262 ;

and Soyer's shopgirls, 252 , 264 , 267 , 272

Immigrant women:

education of, in Jewish families, 68 -69;

and leisure, 3 ;

and sexuality, 3 ;

and work, 2 -3, 22

Immigration:

negative responses to, 26

Independent Woman , 310

Ingres, Jean-Auguste-Dominique: as source for Miller, 76

Irving Place Burlesque (Fourteenth Street), 112 , 114

Irving Place Theater (Fourteenth Street), 86

J

Jewell, Edward Alden (art critic):

on Bishop, 289

John Reed Club (New York), 40 , 160 , 342 n.68;

and Laning, 123 ;

and Miller, 161 , 167 ;

and Soyer, 67 -69, 120 , 127 , 266 , 267

Johnson, Mary O., "Sunday Morning," 255 , 256

John Wicker Art School, Detroit:

and Bishop, 57

Jones, Robert Edmond (Provincetown Playhouse):

and Marsh, 50

K

Kantor, Morris, Union Square , 124 -127, 126 , 343 n.83

Karfiol, Bernard (artist), 71

Kazin, Alfred:

on Hudson Bay Fur Company models, 263

Kelly, Annie Elizabeth (Miller's mother), 43 -44, 47

Kenwood, New York. See Oneida community

Kern, Louis (historian):

on Oneida community, 43 , 44 , 45

Key, Ellen:

on female eroticism, 4 ;

influence on Miller, 46 , 171 -173, 175 , 176 , 350 n-75;

Love and Marriage , 46 ;

other works by, 171

Klein, Samuel, 99 , 169 ;

and National Recovery Act (NRA) codes, 259 , 260

Klein's, 96 , 97 , 99 -100, 105 , 115 ;

hiring practices of, 260 ;

working conditions in, 169 , 259 -261;

images of, 100 -104

Klein's annex (better dresses), 99

Koch, Robert: on Gibson girl, 8

Kuhn, Wait (artist), 72

Kuniyoshi, Yasuo:

and Art Students League, 69 ;

influence on Soyer, 237 ;

and Katherine Schmidt (wife), 60 ;

and Fourteenth Street School artists, 73 -74;

as studio painter, 71 ;

at Whitney Studio Club, 67 , 72

Kwiat, John (critic):

on Miller's shopper, 167

L

Ladies Home Journal : and advertising copy, 217

Lafayette, bronze statue in Union Square (Frédéric-Auguste Bartholdi), 105 , 344 n.91

Lane, James (art critic):

on Bishop, 289

Laning, Edward, 92 ;

at Art Students


405

League, 72 , 74 ;

and Fourteenth Street School artists, 73 -74;

as Marsh's biographer, 51 , 53 -55, 193 ;

pictorial strategies, 75 , 85 , 104 , 106 , 115 , 176 , 177 ;

and politics, 120 , 123 , 343 n.79.

Works: Fourteenth Street , 77 , 78 , 90 , 107 , 24 , 127 , 339 n.20;

Street Orator , 123 , 124 -127, 125 , 165 ;

Unlawful Assembly, Union Square , 123 , 339 n.20

Lawrenceville Preparatory School: and Marsh, 49

Leader, Bernice Kramer (art historian):

on Boston school artists, 12 -13

Lears, T. J. Jackson (historian):

on consumer culture, 217 , 359 -360n.114

Letz, Rebecca. See Soyer, Rebecca Letz

Lewis, Sinclair:

Main Street , 155

Leyendecker, F. A. (illustrator):

"A Modern Witch," Life magazine cover, 153

Liberator :

influence on Soyer brothers, 65

Life magazine, 5 , 50 , 74

Lincoln, Abraham, statue in Union Square (Henry Kirke Brown), 105 , 344 n.91

Lord & Taylor (department store), 97 , 250 -251

Lower East Side, xxv , 64 , 86 ;

and ethnicity of residents, 85 ;

and Fourteenth Street, 117 -118;

as subject for Soyer, 65

Lozowick, Louis:

and Miller, 170 -71;

on revolutionary art, 271 , 368 n.83

Luce, Henry:

and Life magazine illustrations by Marsh, 74

Luhan, Mabel Dodge, 50

Luks, George, 65 , 66

Lurie, Alison:

and problem of biography, 40 -41;

The Truth about Lorin Jones , 39 -40

Lynd, Helen Merrell (co-author, Middletown ):

on flapper, 151 ;

on consumer culture, 222

Lynd, Robert S. (co-author, Middletown ):

on flapper, 151 ;

on consumer culture, 222

M

McBride, Henry (art critic):

on Bishop, 310

McGibbon, Helen (job counselor):

on office work, 297

Macy's (department store), 86

Mainstream, in art, 70 -71;

and American Scene painting, 70 -72

Mandel, Henry (developer), 105 , 339 n.26

Manufacturers Trust Company (Union Square), 96

Marchand, Roland (historian):

on advertisers in 1920s and 1930s, 204 -205

Marsh, Alice Randall (Marsh's mother), 49

Marsh, Betty Burroughs (Marsh's first wife):

as flapper-New Woman, 52 ;

marriage to Marsh, 52 -53

Marsh, Caleb (Betty Burroughs Marsh's son), 52 , 329 n.45

Marsh, Felicia Meyer (Marsh's second wife), 53 , 61 , 193 , 353 n.27

Marsh, Fred Dana (Marsh's father), 49 ;

and relationship with Marsh, 55

Marsh, Reginald, xxv , 1 , 40 , 48 -55, 63 , 66 , 70 ;

and advertising, 193 -196, 205 , 206 ;

on American Scene, 75 ;

artistic education, 72 ;

and The Arts , 73 ;

and biographical evidence, 41 -42;

and Betty Burroughs (first wife), 51 -53, 329 n.45;

childhood of, 48 -49;

and consumer culture, 208 -214, 219 -222;

critical reception, xxxi , 180 -181, 314 , 352 n.2;

cultural satire of, 181 ;

and documentary realism, 191 -192;


406

Marsh, Reginald (continued )

and Fourteenth Street realism, 75 , 79 -81, 83 ;

and masculinity, 53 -55, 81 , 329 n.45;

mass culture as subject, 112 -120;

and Felicia Meyer (second wife), 53 ;

and Miller, 50 -51, 55 , 222 ;

and movies, 192 -193, 353 -354n.27;

personality of, 53 -55, 330 n.57;

pictorial strategies, xxvi , 214 , 232 , 282 , 285 , 287 ;

and politics, 120 , 121 , 180 -181, 352 n.6;

professional activities, 51 , 54 , 72 -73;

and sexuality of working-class new women, xxxi , 108 , 110 -111, 114 , 313 ;

social and cultural life, 49 -50, 52 -53;

and unemployed men, 134 -135;

and Whitney patronage, 72 . See also Fourteenth Street School; Siren;

Voluptuous shopper.

Works: Alma Mater , 132 , 133 ;

"Birthday Party," or "Union Square," 121 , 123 , 131 ;

BMT #3 , 110 , 112 ;

Coney Island Beach , 186 , 188 , 219 -220;

Dead Man's Curve or Dangerous Curves , 88 , 89 , 206 , 338 n. 10;

East Fourteenth Street, photograph, 107 ;

End of the Fourteenth Street Crosstown Line , 260 , 261 ;

Fifth Avenue No. 1 , 206 , 207 ;

Fourteenth Street , 80 -81 , 100 , 108 ;

Fourteenth Street and Broadway, photograph, 162 ;

Fourteenth Street Bowling Alley/Billiards, photograph, 109 , 12 , 118 ;

Fourteenth Street Subway Stairs , 112 , 113 , 184 , 186 , 191 ;

Hat Display , 186 , 187 , 206 ;

Hudson Bay Fur Company , 114 , 116 , 186 , 193 , 198 , 208 , 263 , 282 ;

Hudson Bay Fur Company, photograph, 114 , 116 , 193 , 263 ;

In Fourteenth Street , 108 , 110 , Plate 3 , 115 , 118 , 120 , 178 , 184 , 189 , 191 -192, 193 , 198 , 205 , 209 -211, 220 , 221 , 287 ;

Irving Place Burlesque , 114 , 186 , 198 ;

Modeling Furs on Union Square , 186 , 187 , 192 , 198 ;

"No One Has Starved," 123 ;

Paramount Pictures , 200 , 212 -214, 213 ;

Show Window , 184 , 185 , Plate 4 , 192 , 205 , 209 ;

SubwayThree Girls , 110 ;

Ten Cents a Dance , 114 , 115 , 186 , 206 , 208 ;

10 Shots, 10 Cents , 109 , 118 ;

Twenty Cent Movie , 211 -212 ;

Untitled crayon drawing, 128 , 129 ;

View from My Window , 193 , 194 ;

Women on Fourteenth Street , 186 , 211 , 212

Marsh girl. See Voluptuous shopper

Masaccio, Tribute Money , 232 , 233 ;

Trinity , 232

Masculinity:

as antidote to genteel tradition, 17 ;

and Ashcan school, 17 -18;

and creative men, 35 ;

effects of unemployment on, 257 ;

and Marsh, 53 -55, 181 ;

and strenuous life, 19

Masses, The , 50 , 131 ;

and the crayon style, 130 , 214

Masteller, Richard: on satiric graphics, 131

Mather, Frank Jewett (art critic): and antimodernism, 79

Matronly shopper, image of, 186 ;

critical reception of, 167 -170;

Miller's early images of, 158 -165;

effects of Depression on, 160 -165;

ethnicity of, 176 -177, 351 n.103;

and female-centered activities, 141 , 145 -147;

as homemaker, 197 ;

and motherhood, 140 -141;

as revised new woman, 152 , 178 ;

sexuality of, 140 ;

and social class, 165 -167;

sources and iconography, 138 -151. See also Miller, Kenneth Hayes;

Professionalized homemaker

Maule, Frances: She Strives to Conquer , 305

Maule, Mary:

on Progressive Era


407

shopgirl, 224 , 244

Mayer, Miss Clara (shopgirl), 252 , 253

Maynard, George (artist): as Soyer's teacher, 65

Medici Venus, 138 , 139

Melosh, Barbara (historian):

on gender and New Deal, 69

Metropolitan Museum of Art, 51 , 73 ;

and Soyer, 65 , 70

Meyer, Felicia: See Marsh, Felicia Meyer

Meyerowitz, Joanne (historian):

on women and consumer culture, 217

Michelangelo, 63 ;

as source for Marsh, 80 , 337 -338n. 149;

as source for Miller, 76 ;

Last Judgment , 118 , 119 , 209 -210, 220

Midtown Galleries, 58 -59, 273

Miller, George (Miller's father), 43 -44

Miller, Helen Pendleton (Miller's second wife), 45 -48, 173 ;

and suffrage, 46

Miller, Kenneth Hayes, 1 , 40 , 43 -48, 66 , 70 , 92 ;

artistic education, 44 ;

and The Arts , 73 ;

and biographical evidence, 41 -42;

and Bishop, 57 -60, 97 , 331 n.68, 332 n.78;

on Communism, 48 ;

and critical reception, xxxiii , 167 -170, 314 ;

and Fourteenth Street realism, 75 -79, 81 -83,

and Freud, 46 -47, 173 -175, 222 , 350 -351n.92;

and illustration, 328 n.14;

influences on attitudes toward women, 170 -177;

marital dynamics of, 47 -48, 328 n.23;

and Marsh, 50 -51, 55 , 210 , 221 ;

on mural painting, 59 , 90 , 91 , 98 ;

and Oneida community, 43 -46;

personality of, 47 ;

and pictorial strategies, xxvi , xxxi , 84 , 104 , 115 , 182 , 214 , 228 -229, 235 , 240 -241, 282 , 287 ;

political conservatism of, 47 -48, 120 , 121 , 123 , 160 -161;

political radicalism of, 46 -48;

and studio liaisons, 47 ;

and teaching, 44 , 47 , 72 ;

and Whitney Studio Club, 72 . See also Fourteenth Street School, Matronly shopper.

Works: Afternoon on the Avenue , 100 , 101 , 123 , 161 ;

The Bargain Counter , 102 , 103 , 123 , 161 -162;

Casual Meeting , 145 ;

Department Store Shoppers , 162 , 163 , Plate 2 , 229 , 238 , 240 , 250 ;

Finishing Touches , 146 ;

The Fitting Room , 102 , 104 , 140 , 229 , 238 ;

Glove Counter , 161 -162, 129 , 238 , 239 , 140 , 143 , 252 , 253 , 263 ;

In Passing (The Shoppers ), 158 , 159 ;

Leaving the Bank , 92 , 140 , 141 , 158 -159;

Little Coat and Fur Shop , 174 , 175 ;

Mother and Child , 140 , 143 ;

Odalisque , 141 , 143 ;

Party Dress , 148 -150, 149 , 345 n. 10;

Saleswomen , 229 , 238 , 239 , 240 , 263 ;

Shopper , 137 , 138 , 139 , 147 , 175 ;

Sidewalk Merchant (revision of In Fourteenth Street ), 76 -77 , Plate 1 , 80 , 107 , 140 , 340 -341n.46;

Women Greeting , 144 , 145 ;

Woman with an Umbrella , 140 , 142 ;

Woman with Packages (or Contemporary Scene ), 162 , 164 , 165

Miller, Louise (Miller's daughter), 47

Miller, Violet (Miller's sister), 44

"Minimum Essentials in Operating a Household," 155 , 156

Minor, Robert:

influence on Soyer brothers, 65

Modernism, 67 ;

and American Scene painting, 71 ;

and Fourteenth Street School artists, 76 ;

negative responses to, xxxiii , 75

Modern Screen magazine:

features on the Siren, 199 -200;

stars as role models, 215 ;

"Modern Screen Patterns Join the Easter Parade," 189 , 191 , 217


408

Montenegro, Conchita (movie star):

in Modern Screen , 190 , 191

Movies, 112 , 188 -189;

in Depression, 211 -212; 356 -357n.74;

and immigrant women, 218 -219;

and women's conduct, 215 -216;

Siren in, 200 -202

Mowbray, H. Siddons (artist), 44 , 76

Mulvey, Laura:

on female and male spectatorship, 182 -183

Municipal Art Commission (New York City), 105

Municipal Art Society (New York City), 105

Mural painting:

and American Scene, xxxiii ;

and Fourteenth Street School, 90 -92;

influence of Mexican muralists, 91 ;

and Miller's class at Art Students League, 59 -60

Murger, Henri: Scènes de la vie de bohème , 246

Museum of Modern Art:

mural exhibition (1932), 91

Myerson, Abraham: The Nervous Housewife , 155

"The Mystery of 1920," Leslie's Illustrated Weekly Newspaper , 159 -160

N

National Academy of Design:

and American Scene painting, 71 ;

and Bishop, 275 ;

and Soyer, 64 -65

National Recovery Act (NRA):

and Fourteenth Street commerce, 259 -260, 365 n.52

National Woman's Party (NWP), 38 , 315

Negri, Pola (movie star), 215

New Masses, The , 46 , 181 , 316 , 342 n.68;

and crayon style, 130 -131, 214 ;

Marsh as illustrator for, 50 , 121 ;

and office workers, 298 ;

and shopgirl, 253 , 255 ;

shopper cartoons in, 167 -168

New Woman:

attributes and definitions, xxvi -xxx, 2 -5, 25 ;

and careers, 2 , 172 ;

and education, 2 ;

on frontispiece of Current History , 34 -35;

historical figure vs. category, 319 n.8;

and marriage, 2 , 305 ;

negative responses to, 25 -29;

and separate spheres, 11 -14, 16 ;

and sexuality, 11 . See also Feminism; Flapper; Gibson girl; New Woman, revised; New womanhood; Women as types

New Woman, revised:

attributes of, xxvii -xxix, 32 -33;

and Bishop, 282 , 295 ;

and consumer culture, 223 ;

femininity and fashion of, 33 -34;

and femininity vs. labor, 229 -230, 304 , 313 ;

and Fourteenth Street School, xxvii , 313 , 317 ;

on marriage and career, 37 ;

as Marsh girl or Siren, 178 , 202 ;

and Miller's matronly shopper, 136 , 140 , 152 , 173 ;

on motherhood, 33 ;

as office "wife," 305 ;

and Soyer, 227 -228

New womanhood, 84 , 135 ;

and Bishop, 55 -56, 60 -62;

categories and definitions, xxvii ;

and female spectatorship, 11 , 12 , 13 ;

and Fourteenth Street School, 43 ;

and male spectatorship, 11 , 12 ;

and Marsh, 52 ;

representation of, 5 ;

and Soyer, 68 -69

New York City: See Coney Island; Fifth Avenue; Fourteenth Street; Greenwich Village; Lower East Side; Union Square

New Yorker magazine, 49 , 193 , 195

New York School for Art, 44

New York Society of Women Artists:

criticism of, 61 , 62

Nietzsche: and Ellen Key's defense of motherhood, 172 , 175

Noyes, John Humphrey (founder, Oneida community), 43 -44

O

Odium, Hortense (president, Bonwit


409

Teller's):

on feminine behavior in workplace, 304

Office work, 285 ;

and class mobility, 291 ;

competition and gender difference in, 310 ;

publications on, 282 , 291 , 301 , 373 n.54;

wages and conditions of, 291 , 296 -298, 370 -371n.21

Office worker:

behavior of, 303 -305;

in Bishop's imagery, 275 , 281 , 285 , 290 ;

demographics and statistics on, 283 -284, 369 -370nn.8, 9, 10, 12;

and marriage, 308 ;

personal appearance of, 301 -302;

political activism of, 310 , 374 -375n.74;

and sexuality, 306 -308

O'Henry:

and shopgirl, 245 , 363 n.27, 364 -365n.42

Ohrbach, Nathan (president, Ohrbach's store), 338 n.11

Ohrbach's, 96 , 97 , 100 ;

working conditions at, 259 , 260 , 261

O'Keeffe, Georgia, 46

Olympic Burlesque, 108

Oneida community:

attitudes toward women, 45 ;

marriage practices in, 44 -45;

Miller's response to, 45 , 48 ;

and Oneida silver, 44 ;

sexual practices in, 43 -44, 175 , 327 n.11

Oneida silver, 44 ;

advertisement for, 148 , 150

Ormsby, Stella (shopgirl):

"The Other Side of the Profile," 259 -260

Orozco, José Clemente, 91 , 181 ;

Fourteenth Street , 167 -169, 168

P

Page, Marie Danforth, 14 , 323 n.29;

Calvin Gates Page , 14 -15 , 16

Pascin, Jules:

influence on American figurative painting, 67 ;

influence on Soyer, 237

Pass, M., drawing of typist, 298 , 299

Paul, Alice:

and National Woman's Party (NWP), 38

Pavon, José, Fourteenth Street (lithograph), 129

Paxton, Joseph (Boston school artist), 11

Peiss, Kathy (historian):

on settlement house women, 3 ;

on working-class New Women, 3 ;

on working-class women and consumer culture, 216 ;

on working-class women's sexuality, 21 -22

Pendleton, Helen. See Miller, Helen Pendleton

Pickford, Mary (movie star), 199 , 218 , 351 n.103

Pollock, Griselda:

on artists as subjects, 43 , 320 n. 16;

on gender difference, 282 -283

Poovey, Mary:

on feminist historical practice, xxxiv

Popular Front, 267 , 295 , 316 ;

and Fascism, 135 ;

influence on Soyer, 268 -269

Professionalized homemaker, xxxi , 154 -158, 346 n.27;

and child rearing, 347 -348n.39;

and consumer culture, 158 , 348 n.46;

critiques of, 155 , 157 ;

and marriage, 347 n.34;

and Miller's matronly shopper, 136 ;

and sexual liberation, 175 ;

and Siren, 196 , 198 , 208 . See also Matronly shopper

Progressive Era:

definition of American civilization in, 120 ;

ideals of female beauty in, 203 ;

and New Woman, xxvii ;

social and political causes in, 130 ;

views on immigration in, 176

Prostitution:

charity girls, 22 ;

in Sloan's art, 21 ;

among working-class women, 21 -24. See also Shopgirls

Pruette, Lorine (sociologist):

on fascist views of women, 269


410

R

Randall, Alice: See Marsh, Alice Randall

Raphael, 63 ;

as source for Miller, 76 , 80

Rapp, Rayna (historian): on lifestyle vs. activist feminism, 36

Read, Helen Appleton (art critic, Brooklyn Eagle ):

on women artists' organizations, 61 -62

Reed, John, 130 . See also John Reed Club

Rehn Gallery, 70

Rembrandt:

as source for Bishop, xxxii , 300 ;

as source for Miller, 63 , 76 ;

Hendrickje , 300 ;

The Jewish Bride , 300 ;

The Prodigal Son , 300

Renoir, Auguste:

as source for Miller, 76 , 138 , 158

Richardson, Margaret Foster, 15 -16 ;

323 n.32;

A Motion Picture (self-portrait), 15 -16

Rogers, Ginger (movie star), 199

Rogers, W. A.," 'Dead Man's Curve'—New York's Most Dangerous Crossing," 88 , 89

Rivera, Diego, 91 ;

and Rockefeller Center mural, 68

Riverview Military Academy: and Marsh, 49

Robinson, Boardman (artist, cartoonist), 50 , 130

Roosevelt, Eleanor, 169 , 357 n.86

Roosevelt, Franklin D., 135

Roosevelt, Theodore: on strenuous life, 19

Rosenberg, Harold (art critic), 270 -272

Rosenfeld, Paul (art critic):

on Miller's matrons, 170 ;

modernist advocacy and Miller, 79 ;

Port of New York and Miller, 46

Ross, Ellen (historian):

on lifestyle vs. activist feminism, 36

Rubens, Peter Paul:

as source for Marsh, 80 , 300 , 337 -338n. 149;

as source for Miller, 76 , 300

Ryder, Albert Pinkham, 46

S

S. Klein's. See Klein's

Saks Fifth Avenue (department store), 97

Saleslady:

in Miller's works, 238 -241, 243 ;

vs. shopgirl, 229 , 247 -248;

and social class, 248 , 364 n.38;

working conditions of, 249 -251, 363 n.29. See also Sales work; Shopgirl

Saleswoman. See Saleslady

Sales work: statistics on, 243

Salons of America: exhibition (1926), 66

Sanger, Margaret, 2

Santayana, George:

"The Genteel Tradition in American Philosophy," 17

Sargent, John Singer, 49 , 65 ;

and new womanhood, 11 ;

Mr. and Mrs. I. N. Phelps Stokes , 9 -12, 10 , 16

Schapiro, Meyer: and Soyer, 65

Schlink, J. F. (consumer advocate), 221

Schmidt, Katherine:

and Fourteenth Street School artists, 73 -74;

marriage to Yasuo Kuniyoshi, 60 ;

at Whitney Studio Club, 67 , 72

Schnackenberg, Henry (artist), 72

School of Applied Design for Women: and Bishop's art education, 57

Scott, Joan (historian): on language and discourse, xxix -xxx

Sears Roebuck catalog, 138 , 139

Separate spheres ideology, 171 ;

in Boston school paintings, 11 -14;

challenges to, 46 ;

definition of, 11 ;

in Oneida community, 45

Sexuality:

Ellen Key's views on, 171 -173;

and flapper, 147 ;

in Marsh's art, 181 , 184 , 208 ;

and Siren, 208 ;

statistics on, 345 n.15

Shahn, Ben:

and Soyer, 65


411

Shopgirl:

attributes of, 229 , 244 ;

as fictional type, 246 -247;

and social class, 364 n.38, 364 -365n.42;

working conditions of, 245 , 247 , 258 -262, 362 n.20, 363 n.29, 365 n.50. See also Saleslady; Soyer, Raphael

Shreiner, Olive:

on sexual equality, 4 , 34

Siegel, William:

"Office Worker's Lunch Hour," 298 , 299

Sinclair, Upton:

and naturalism, 18

Siren, 189 ;

and advertising, 202 ;

and anti-feminism, 197 , 199 ;

attributes of, 196 -202;

and consumer culture, 208 -214;

in movies, 200 -202;

and sexuality, 208 . See also Marsh, Reginald; Voluptuous shopper

Sloan, John, 50 , 51 ;

as Art Students League instructor, 72 ;

and Ashcan school realism, 79 , 81 ;

critical reception of, 21 , 23 ;

early influence on Soyer brothers, 65 ;

and female sexuality, 19 ;

humor of, 24 ;

and National Academy of Design, 71 ;

and prostitution in his art, 21 -22;

and representation of working-class new women, 19 -24, 108 , 110 ;

on socialism, 19 , 130 ;

and spectatorship, 22 -24, 324 -325n.51;

and technique, 214 . See also Ashcan school.

Works : "Hooray, Hooray for Mother," 30 ;

illustration for Mary Alden Hopkins, "Women March," 29 ;

Return from Toil , 108 -110, 111 , 232 -233, 255 ;

Subway Stairs , 108 -110, 111 ;

Sunday Afternoon in Union Square , 20 -22;

Sunday, Women Drying Their Hair , 23 -24, 255 ;

The Wigwam, Old Tammany Hall , 81 , 82 , 108

Smith-Rosenberg, Carroll (historian):

on New Woman, xxvii , 2

Socialist party:

and Ashcan school, 18 ;

and feminism, 3 , 38 ;

and Popular Front, 135 ;

and Sloan, 19 ;

and Union Square demonstrations, 122

Social realism:

and American Scene, xxxii ;

and Fourteenth Street School, xxxii , 131 , 134 ;

and Morris Kantor, 125 ;

and Miller, 161 , 167 ;

and Soyer, 230

Society for Modern Artists, 121 , 295

Soyer, Abraham (Soyer's father):

and immigration, 64 ;

as scholar-teacher, 63 , 333 n.88

Soyer, Bella (Soyer's mother):

and immigration, 64 , 333 n.88

Soyer, Fannie (Soyer's sister), 63 , 67 , 68 , 334 n.101

Soyer, Isaac (Soyer's brother), 63 ;

Office Girls , 307 , 308

Soyer, Moses (Soyer's twin brother), 63 -66

Soyer, Raphael, 1 , 40 , 47 , 62 -70;

artistic education of, 63 -66, 72 , 333 n.90;

and The Arts , 73 ;

biographical evidence, 41 -42;

and Alexander Brook, 74 ;

critical reception of, 235 , 262 -263, 264 -266, 360 n.4, 367 n.66;

early life, 63 -65;

exhibitions and galleries, 67 , 69 -70;

and family, 63 -64, 68 ;

and Fourteenth Street realism, 75 , 79 -81, 83 ;

and Fourteenth Street School artists, 74 ;

and immigrant experience, 63 -66, 68 -69;

and influence of Degas, 71 , 80 , 235 , 236 , 237 , 361 n.10;

and influence of twin, Moses, 65 -66;

and John Reed Club activities, 67 -69, 74 , 120 , 127 ;

and Rebecca Letz, 67 -68, 70 ;

on Marsh, 54 -55;

and Miller, 66 , 334 n.94;

and models, 69 , 240 , 247 , 361 n.14;

and new womanhood, 67 -68;

personality of, 64 -66, 334 n.95;

pictorial strategies, 182 , 224 -228, 230 , 240 -241, 263 -264, 271 -272, 287 ;

and politics, 121 ,


412

Soyer, Raphael (continued )

124 , 127 -128, 266 -269;

and shopgirls, xxxii , 314 ;

and studio picture tradition, xxxiii , 235 -238, 263 ;

and studios, 67 ;

and unemployed men, 296 , 373 n.48;

and Whitney patronage, 72 -73.

Works: The Crowd (originally called Union Square ), 127 , 128 , 268 ;

Dancing Lesson , 67 ;

Fé Alf and Her Pupils , 267 , 268 ;

Fourteenth Street , 81 , 83 ;

Girl Asleep , 240 , 241 , 257 ;

Girl in a White Blouse , 70 ;

Gittel , 264 -266, 265 ;

In the City Park , 133 , 134 , 256 , 263 ;

John Reed Club Meeting , 124 ;

Kathleen , 237 , 238 , 257 ;

Lunch Hour (also called Fourteenth Street Midinettes ), 228 ;

Milliner , 242 , 243 , 252 ;

Odalisque , 224 , 225 , 237 ;

Office Girls , 227 , 228 , 264 , 267 , 285 , 287 , 298 ;

Self-Portrait , 247 , 248 ;

Sentimental Girl , 200 , 201 , 237 , 257 ;

Shop Girls , 228 , Plate 6 , 230 -233, 234 , 235 , 237 -238, 241 , 247 , 256 , 257 , 258 , 261 , 263 , 264 , 266 -267, 269 , 274 , 287 ;

Shopping at Klein's , 102 , 103 ;

Solitaire , 257 -258 ;

The Subway , 70 ;

Window Shoppers , 226 , Plate 5 , 227 -228, 269 ;

Workers Armed , 268 -269, 270

Soyer, Rebecca (Soyer's sister Rebbie), 68

Soyer, Rebecca Letz (Soyer's wife): and John Reed Club, 67 -69;

as teacher, 67 , 70

Spectatorship:

in Bishop's work, 289 , 290 , 293 ;

and gaze, 11 -13, 182 -184, 216 , 223 , 324 n.51;

in Sloan's work, 22 -24;

and Soyer's Shop Girls , 232 . See also New womanhood, representation of

Speicher, Eugene (artist), 71

Stanwyck, Barbara (movie star):

Baby Face , 200

Steel-engraving lady, 5 -7, 6 , 12 ., 33 , 246 , 289

Stieglitz, Alfred, 46 , 72 ;

and modernism, 71

Stirpiculture, 43 , 44

Stuart, Gloria (movie star), 199

Studio painting: tradition of, xxxiii ;

and Bishop, 281 ;

and Soyer, 235 -238, 263

Suffrage campaign, 4 ;

anti-suffrage imagery, 27 -29;

pro-suffrage imagery, 29 -30

Sullivan, Pegeen (art dealer), 70

Sweeters, Anna, 294 , 295

Symes, Lillian, 197 ;

on flapper, 33 -34;

on masculinity, 35 -36

T

Tammany Hall (Union Square), 108

Tarbell, Edmund:

Girl Crocheting , 11 -13, 14 , 15

Thomson, Rodney:

"Militants," 28 , 29

Tickner, Lisa:

on intertextuality, xxviii

Ticknor, Caroline:

"The Steel-Engraving Lady and the Gibson Girl," 5 -8, 12 , 32 -33, 246

Tiffany's (jewelry store), 86

Tissot, James:

The Milliner's Shop , 252 -253, 254

Titian:

as source for Miller, 76 , 300 ;

Woman with a Fur , 138 , 139

Tony Pastor's (theater), 86

Transit: imagery, 88 , 90 ;

and Union Square, 88 -90, 105

True Story magazine, 199 , 200

U

Unemployed men:

images of, 85 , 131

Unemployment:

and Fourteenth Street School artists, 256 ;

and Fourteenth Street School imagery, 131 -135;

and men, 105 , 256 ;

and women, 256 -258, 365 nn.48, 49

Union Square, 87 , 126 ;

demonstrations in, xxxi , 120 , 122 ,


413

124 , 160 , 342 n.73;

in photographs, 92 , 93 , 96 , 106 , 107 ;

renovation of, 105 -107;

representations of unrest in, 123 -131

Union Square Savings Bank, 92

Urban realism, 66 . See also American Scene painting;

Ashcan school;

Fourteenth Street realism

V

Valentine Gallery:

and Soyer, 70

Vanity Fair magazine, 49 , 193 , 195

Van Vorst, Mrs. John:

"Grisettes and Midinettes, " 246 -247

Vavak, Joseph:

Women of Flint , 234 , 235 , 237 , 360 -361n.8

Veblen, Thorstein, Theory of the Leisure Class , 165 -166

Veronese, Paolo:

as source for Miller, 76

Veterans of Foreign Wars:

and Union Square, 122

Vogue magazine, 138 , 139 , 146

Voluptuous shopper, image of, 178 , 183 , 196 ;

critics' responses to, 206 ;

and consumer culture, 209 -215;

in Marsh's paintings, 184 -189, 209 -211;

and Siren, 189 -191, 198 , 232 , 313 . See also Marsh, Reginald; Siren

W

Walker, James J. (New York City mayor), 108 , 122

Washington, George, equestrian monument in Union Square (Henry Kirke Brown), 90 , 105 , 121 , 131 , 334 n.91, 338 n.15; 339 n.26

Watson, Amey, and professionalization of homemaking, 154 -156

Watson, Forbes (art critic):

on Bishop, 289 ;

critical views related to Fourteenth Street realism, 79 -80;

as editor of The Arts , 73 ;

"Perspective on American Murals," 91 ;

on Whitney organizations, 72

Weber, Max:

and Art Students League radicalism, 66 ;

Bishop as a student of, 57 ;

and modernism, 71

West, Mae (movie star), 89 ;

I'm No Angel , 193 , 210

Whitney, Gertrude Vanderbilt:

and support of The Arts , 73 ;

and Whitney organizations and activities, 72

Whitney Museum of American Art, 72

Whitney Studio, 72

Whitney Studio Club:

and Bishop, 58 ;

exhibitions of, 74 ;

and Marsh, 72 ;

and Miller, 72 ;

and Soyer, 67

Whitney Studio Galleries, 72 ;

and Soyer, 67

Wolff, Dr. Harold (Bishop's husband), 59 -61, 273 , 293

Wolff, Remson (Bishop's son), 60

Woman and Child , bronze statue in Union Square (Adolf von Donndorf), 105 -106, 344 n-91

Woman's Press , 310

Women artists:

and self-portraiture, 13 -17;

and post-franchise new womanhood, 61 -62

Women as types:

angels, 26 ;

charity girls, 22 , 24 ;

collapsing women, 26 ;

Gamin, 218 ;

militant, 28 ;

spinster feminist, 24 , 136 ;

Vamp, 218 ;

Virgin, 26 , 218 ;

whore, 26 . See also Flapper; Gibson girl; Matronly shopper; Office worker; Professional homemaker; Saleslady; Shopgirl; Siren; Steel-engraving lady; Voluptuous shopper

Women shoppers, xxvi , 97

Women workers:

statistics, xxiv , 92

Wood, Grant:

and Associated American Artists gallery, 70 ;

as regionalist, xxxii , 180

Woodstock (artists' colony), 57

Workers' School, 120 , 131

Working Woman :

and Communist party, 69


414

Y

Yale University:

and art education, 49 , 51 ;

and Marsh, 74 ;

Record , 49 , 195

Young, Art (cartoonist), 130

Z

Zigrosser, Carl (art critic):

on Soyer brothers, 70 ;

on Soyer's women, 262

Zurier, Rebecca:

on Ashcan school and The Masses , 18

 

Designer:

Ina Clausen

Compositor:

Impressions, a division of Edwards Brothers, Inc.

Text:

10/13 Sabon

Display:

Gill Sans Light

Printer:

Edwards Brothers, Inc.

Binder:

Edwards Brothers, Inc.


 

Preferred Citation: Todd, Ellen Wiley. The "New Woman" Revised: Painting and Gender Politics on Fourteenth Street. Berkeley:  University of California Press,  c1993 1993. http://ark.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/ft9k4009m7/