Note to the Reader
All Urdu, Arabic, and Persian names have been cited using a simplified transliteration system that eliminates diacritical marks other than the ‘ayn and hamzah. Vowels are rendered by i,u, and a; on occasion, e or o is substituted to convey a spelling more in line with the local pronunciation of the name or source cited. The use of u instead of w, and ia as opposed to iyya, reflects the closest approximation to the local pronunciation of the name or source in question. Terms such as jihad,shari‘ah, and ulama appear in their anglicized form. A glossary of Arabic, Persian, and Urdu/Hindi terms is provided at the end of this book. The terms in the glossary are transliterated with diacritical marks.
Personal names are rendered in accordance with the transliteration rules cited here even when spelled differently by the persons in question. The only exceptions are names such as Bhutto or Ayub Khan, whose particular spelling has become established in Western literature. In transliterating personal names, the collapse of vowels and the particular pronunciation of Arabic or Persian words typical of Urdu have been retained (hence, for example, Hashmi rather than Hashimi). Whenever the transliteration of a directly quoted source differs from the one employed here, the variations have been respected.
A note is also in order with regard to the references. The names of all interviewees who contributed to this study are cited both in the footnotes and in the bibliography. The dates and places of the interviews are cited only in the bibliography, as are the translations of the titles of Arabic, Persian, and Urdu books and articles, and the names of the publishers of all books, journals, and periodicals. When requested by an interviewee, the name has been withheld and the term “interviews” has been substituted. Direct quotations and references, whenever possible, are drawn from official and published English translations of the original Urdu works. However, when required, reference has been made to the original Urdu source.