1. Gülru Necipoglu-Kafadar, "Plans and Models in Fifteenth- and Sixteenth-Century Ottoman Architectural Practice," Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, 45, no. 3 (September 1986): 224-243. [BACK]
2. One of the early examples demonstrating Western architects' interest in Islamic buildings is J. B. Fisher von Erlach's Entwurff einer historischen Architectur (1725). Numerous other drawings by European architects followed, among them the work of Napoleon's army of savants, published in the Description de l'Egypte; Lewis Vulliamy (1810s); Pascal Xavier Coste (1830s); F. V. J. Arundale (1830s); C. F. M. Texier (1830s and 1840s); and Owen Jones (1840s-1870s). For a selective survey of British architects who studied Islamic architecture and were influenced by it, see Darby, The Islamic Perspective . [BACK]
3. Leon Parvillée's Architecture et décoration turques and Jules Bourgoin's Les Arts arabes (Paris, 1873) are the outstanding examples of this viewpoint. Working with detail drawings, both authors analyzed the geometric principles of ornament. Parvillée was less systematic and persistent, whereas Bourgoin undertook a classification of the rules of ornamental designs. [BACK]
4. The premise of "theory" in Islamic architecture was denied by architectural historians until recently. Because research on the topic, led by the Soviet scholars N. B. Baklanov and M. S. Bulatov and in this country by Lisa Golombek, Oleg Grabar, Renata Holod, and Gülru Necipoglu-Kafadar, is in an early stage, it does not lend itself to conclusions. As Holod has argued in Theories and Principles of Design in the Architecture of Islamic Societies (Cambridge, Mass., 1988), looking for an Islamic architectural theory that corresponds, for example, to Roman and Renaissance theories is not appropriate; a new set of criteria might be necessary. [BACK]
5. Dogan Kuban, "Sinan," Macmillan Encyclopedia of Architecture (New York, 1982), 4:71. [BACK]
6. Cafer Efendi, Risale-i Mimariyye: An Early Seventeenth-Century Ottoman Treatise on Architecture, facsimile with translation and notes by Howard Crane (Leiden and New York, 1987), 59-20 and 26. [BACK]
7. Necipoglu-Kafadar, "Plans and Models," 242. [BACK]
8. This practice was not unusual in late nineteenth-century Westerns architecture, which welcomed any stylistic addition to its repertoire. See, for example, J. Guadet, Eléments et théorie de l'architecture (Paris, 1894). [BACK]
9. Robert Ilbert and Mercedes Volait, "Neo-Arabic Renaissance in Egypt," Mimar, no. 13 (1984): 33. Delort de Gleon's Rue du Caire in the 1889 Paris exposition should be understood in this context. As a correction to the rapidly changing local architecture, Gleon had proposed an "authentic" street, unaffected by modernization. See La Rue du Caire, chapter 2. [BACK]
10. Ilbert and Volait, 26. [BACK]
11. Frantz Bey, quoted in Ilbert and Volait, 30. [BACK]
12. Ilbert and Volait, 33-34. [BACK]
13. François Béguin, Arabisances (Paris, 1983), 20. [BACK]
14. J. J. Deluz, L'Urbanisme et l'architecture d'Alger (Algiers, 1988), 10-11. The ruthlessness of the process, which extended from palaces to religious monuments, was expressed in an Algerian song:
O regrets for Algiers, for its palaces.
And for its forts which were so beautiful!
O regrets for its mosques, for the prayers prayed there,
And for their marble pulpits,
From which the lightning flashes of the faith came.
O regrets for its minarets, for the songs sung from them,
For its talbas, for its schools, and for those who read the Qur'an!
O regrets for its zaviyas, whose doors were closed.
. . .
They have broken down the walls of the janissaries' barracks,
They have taken away the marble, the balustrades, and the benches:
And the iron grills which adorned its windows
Have been torn away to add insult to our misfortunes.
. . .
Al-Qaisariya has been named Plaza
And to think that holy books were sold and bound there.
They have rummaged through the tombs of our fathers,
And they have scattered their bones
To allow their wagons to go over them.
Their horses tied in our mosques . . .
Quoted in A. A. Heggoy, The French Conquest of Algiers, 1830, in Algerian Oral Tradition (Athens, Ohio), 1986, 22-23. [BACK]
15. Deluz, L'Urbanisme et l'architecture d'Alger, 28-32. [BACK]
16. Lyautey, quoted in Béguin, Arabisances, 20; Rabinow, French Modern, 311. [BACK]
17. Rabinow, 312. "Simple contours and facades" are Marshal Lyautey's words, quoted in Rabinow. [BACK]
18. Darby, The Islamic Perspective, 61-62. [BACK]
19. Owen Jones, "Gleanings from the Great Exhibition of 1851," Journal of Design and Manufactures (June 1851), quoted in Darby, 102. [BACK]
20. Owen Jones, The Grammar of Ornament (London, 1856), 1. [BACK]
21. Jones's monumental monograph on this palace was published in the 1840s. See: Owen Jones, Plans, Elevations, Sections, and the Details of the Alhambra (London, 1842-46). [BACK]
22. Darby, The Islamic Perspective, 105. [BACK]
23. Owen Jones's work was introduced to French architects by César Daly in a series of articles in 1844-1845: César Daly, "L'Alhambra," Revue de l'architecture et des travaux publics 5 (1844): 97-105 and 529-538, and 6 (1845): 7-14. [BACK]
24. Clay Lancaster, "Oriental Forms in American Architecture, 1800-1870," The Art Bulletin 29, no. 3 (September 1947): 183-193; G. S. Bernstein, In Pursuit of the Exotic: Islamic Forms in Nineteenth-Century American Architecture, Ph.D. diss., University of Pennsylvania, 1968, 88-151. [BACK]
25. James O'Gorman, The Architecture of Frank Furness (Philadelphia, 1973), 41. [BACK]
26. William A. Coles, "Richard Morris Hunt and His Library as Revealed in the Studio Sketchbooks of Henry Van Brunt," Art Quarterly 30 (Fall-Winter 1967): 227-228 and 236 n. 10. [BACK]
27. Henry Van Brunt, "Cast Iron in Decorative Architecture," The Crayon 6 (1859): 20. [BACK]
28. O'Gorman, The Architecture of Frank Furness, 36-37. [BACK]
29. This building was demolished in 1935 to be replaced by a new Trocadéro Palace for the 1937 International Exposition, designed by Jacques Carlu, Louis-Hippolyte Boileau, and Léon Azéma. [BACK]
30. M. B. E., "Social Aspects of the Paris Exhibition," Fraser's, August 1878, 209-210, quoted in Elizabeth Gilmore-Holt, ed., The Expanding World of Art, 1874-1902 (New Haven, Conn., and London, 1988), 19. [BACK]
31. Reports of the United States Commissioners 2:151. [BACK]
32. Paul Sédille, quoted in Louis Hautecoeur, Paris (Paris, 1972), 2:557. [BACK]
33. Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, "Les Bâtiments de l'Exposition universelle de 1878: Le Palais de Trocadéro," L'Art 14 (1878): 195-198, quoted in Gilmore-Holt, 24. [BACK]
34. M. B. E., "Social Aspects of the Paris Exhibition," quoted in Gilmore-Holt, 19. [BACK]
35. David Van Zanten, in Wim De Wit, ed., Louis Sullivan: The Function of Ornament (New York and London, 1986), 106. [BACK]
36. Dankmar Adler and Louis Sullivan, "The Transportation Building," A Week at the Fair (Chicago, 1893), 47-48, quoted in Gilmore-Holt, 89. [BACK]
37. Adler and Sullivan, quoted in Gilmore-Holt, 88-89. [BACK]
38. The writings of Owen Jones helped to shape the intellectual foundations of Sullivan's architecture. Sullivan's understanding of ornament is similar to Jones's, and his repertoire borrows from Grammar of Ornament (the American edition was published in 1889). A more direct influence was Frank Furness, for whom Sullivan had worked in 1873. Sullivan collected Islamic art objects—among them Persian rugs. See John Sweetman, The Oriental Obsession (Cambridge, London, New York, 1988), 237-241. Although there is no direct evidence that Sullivan's architecture was influenced by the Islamic pavilions, the possibility exists because Islamic architecture at the European fairs had already had an impact on European architectural theory and practice. Given Sullivan's interest in non-Western sources, it is reasonable to believe that he might have followed the discussions of the Islamic pavilions at the fairs while he was a student in Paris. [BACK]
39. The letter is quoted by David Van Zanten in DeWit, Louis Sullivan , 106-109. [BACK]
40. H. L. Sullivan, Kindergarten Chats and Other Writings (New York, 1947), 187-189. [BACK]
41. Mamluk architecture in Cairo, for example, has elaborate exterior facades. [BACK]
42. Schuyler, "Last Words about the World's Fairs," 271-301. [BACK]
43. Charles Mulford Robinson, "The Fair as Spectacle," in Johnson Rossiter, ed., A History of the World's Columbian Exposition (New York, 1897), 1:500. [BACK]
44. Dmitri Tselos, "The Chicago Fair and the Myth of the Lost Cause," Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 26, no. 4 (December 1967): 264-265. [BACK]
45. Quoted by David Van Zanten in De Wit, Louis Sullivan, 106-109. [BACK]
46. Kenneth Frampton, Modern Architecture: A Critical History (New York, 1980), 56. For Sullivan's "view of the democratic vista," see Louis Sullivan, The Autobiography of an Idea (New York, 1922), 260-284. [BACK]
47. Wailly, A travers l'exposition de 1900, no. 7:51. [BACK]
48. Wailly, no. 7:52. [BACK]
49. Wailly, no. 7:51. [BACK]
50. Wailly, no. 7:54. [BACK]
51. Wailly, no. 7:57. There are strong parallels between the Palace of Electricity and the Porte Binet, the main entryway to the 1900 exposition. Designed by architect René Binet, this entryway was composed of a dome with arches, framed by two minarets. For a discussion of this structure, see Debora Silver-
man, Art Nouveau in Fin-de-Siècle France (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1989), 288-293. [BACK]
52. Grabar, The Formation of Islamic Art, 210-211. [BACK]
53. Donald Martin Reynolds, ed., Selected Lectures of Rudolf Wittkower: The Impact of Non-European Civilizations on the Art of the West (Cambridge and New York, 1989), 2. [BACK]