Preferred Citation: Kaster, Robert A. Guardians of Language: The Grammarian and Society in Late Antiquity. Berkeley:  University of California Press,  1997, c1988 1997. http://ark.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/ft8v19p2nc/


cover

Guardians of Language: The Grammarian and Society in Late Antiquity

Robert A. Kaster

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PRESS
Berkeley · Los Angeles · Oxford
© 1997 The Regents of the University of California


Preferred Citation: Kaster, Robert A. Guardians of Language: The Grammarian and Society in Late Antiquity. Berkeley:  University of California Press,  1997, c1988 1997. http://ark.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/ft8v19p2nc/


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PREFACE

The ideas that shape this book came together gradually over some seven years; but they found their initial stimulus in two specific sources. There was, first, the commonly observed truth that the late-antique schools of grammar and rhetoric were soundproof against the outside world, their methods and their status largely untouched by the profound political and religious changes that had taken place around them. There was also the simple question, What did it mean to be a professional teacher in these schools? It soon became apparent that the observation and the question were inseparably joined, and that to answer the question I needed to ask another, which the observation inevitably raised: Why did these schools and their prestige remain so impressively unchanged? This in turn pointed me toward the social role of the schools, as places that not only transmitted knowledge but also gave their students standing in a narrowly defined elite. Finally, to focus my investigations, I chose to concentrate on the grammaticus : a pivotal figure, about whom we know a good deal, but who has often been overshadowed in modern studies (as he was in antiquity) by his more conspicuous colleague, the rhetorician. Thus the book came to describe the role of the grammarian as a guarantor of social as well as cultural continuity and, more generally, to analyze the notion and practice of a profession in a traditional society.

The book is concerned mainly with the fourth and fifth centuries and consists of a series of studies on the grammarian and his profession (Part I) and a prosopography of the late-antique grammarians and the other teachers of letters below the level of rhetorician (Part II). The scope and purpose of the prosopography are described at length in the introduction to Part II.

In constructing Part I, I have not attempted to argue a single thesis but have tried to follow the leads suggested by one broad topic—the interplay of social status, individual skill, and social relations. After a


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brief prologue, the first segment, "Letters in the World" (Chapters 1 and 2), sets the terms of the discussion, emphasizing the importance of the grammarian's profession and drawing attention to some of its anomalies or ambiguities. Chapter 1, "The Guardian and His Burden," places the grammarian in the context of the late Roman Empire and describes his part in preserving the linguistic, geographic, and social boundaries that ordered the life of the urban elite. Providing the one experience that all members of the elite would share, his school was a source of continuity and stability, and was not least important as such in the empire restored and renewed after the troubles of the third century. Chapter 2, "Professio Litterarum ," then examines the grammarian's role as a professional in this context and compares that role with the modern notion of a profession.

There are some evident similarities; but we are here concerned more with the differences between the ancient profession and the modern conception, which stresses the authority and autonomy that the professional gains by mastering a body of specialized knowledge and skills, and which assumes that the professional's skills contribute to the common good. These differences are examined in three sections. In the first, "Some Variable Definitions: Literacy, Letters, and the Grammarian's Profession," we can see two effects of the limited literacy of the empire: it increased the prestige of the grammarian's profession, and it caused the profession to be defined not simply by the specialized skills it comprised but also by the privileged clientele it served. In the next section, "Independence and Constraint: Good and Bad Grammarians and the Power of Convention," we can consider how the profession's authority was fostered from its early history by the grammarian's development and control of a system of rules based on the rational analysis of language—and how the profession was yet limited in its autonomy, domesticated, because it remained firmly embedded in a social milieu that valued personal relations and the qualities conventionally associated with good character as highly as the skills and intellectual abilities specific to the profession. In the third section, "Polished Speech, the Common Good, and Christianity," we come to the assumption that the grammarian's profession—and the high literary culture in general—contributed to the common good: here we can see how that assumption was brought under debate with the rise of Christianity, and how the debate was resolved differently in the East and the West.

The remaining chapters of Part I then take up in some detail the social world of the grammarians and their texts. Chapter 3, "The Social Status of the Grammarians," examines the late-antique grammarians' personal circumstances in a survey of their origins, wealth, and mobility. The survey allows us to place them at the threshold of good society, where


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they were ambiguous figures. Their generally honorable origins, their properties and professional incomes, and the respect in which they were held for their skills placed them far above the population at large. Yet on the social pyramid of the elite they stood far closer to the base than to the pinnacle: one token of their "social poverty" is their notable lack of social mobility, especially their limited success in winning the careers in the imperial service that were open to many other literary men in the period. The grammarians were thus characterized by a combination of high and low status: this ambiguity in turn anticipates the differing images of the grammarian that emerge first in the following segment, "A Place to Stand" (Chapters 4 and 5), where the grammarians speak for themselves, and then in Chapter 6, "The Social Relations of the Grammarians," which investigates the grammarians' subordination to their patrons.

Chapters 4 and 5 are given over to two major grammatical texts, Pompeius's commentary on the handbook of Donatus and Servius's commentary on the poetry of Vergil. In each work we can clearly hear the voice of a late-antique teacher; each vividly reveals the self-image of a man immersed in his expertise and the sense of authority he draws from his skill. The grammarian in these texts is the master, buoyed up by his profession's tradition, refining it, laying down the laws of language with a confidence verging on complacence—and concerned to protect the integrity of his inherited doctrine.

In Chapter 6, by contrast, we see the grammarian as a dependent. The grammarians' patrons sustain them in their professional lives and affect for good or ill most other areas of their lives beyond the strictly professional. Here personal relations are paramount: the patron is concerned especially that his client be a good man, and emphasis is given to such personal qualities as modesty, industry, and diligence, the virtues suited to preserving the stable world of the learned elite. (No more than the grammarians would their patrons want to see the inherited doctrine overthrown, though for slightly different reasons.) Nor does it make any fundamental difference whether the power of one's patron is official or informal, whether the patron is a private citizen, a local dignitary, or a representative of the imperial government: the view that the state's control of teachers and education grows broader and more systematic in late antiquity can be shown to be mistaken; and in any case the basic patterns and ethical criteria of personal relations remain the same, regardless of the source of the patron's influence.

In Chapters 3 through 6, then, the external history of the profession surrounds the grammarians and their texts; the facts of social place and social relations press in on either side. This organization, I hope, will


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make it plain that the grammarian's profession was not only the basic literary profession, but perhaps also the one most constricted by its circumstances.

As this sketch suggests, the aims of the book are limited. It is not a history of grammar or of grammatical instruction in late antiquity. Yet limited as its intentions are, and long though it is, there are still topics I could well have included but have chosen to leave to one side for now. The study of Greek in the West and of Latin in the East is one example. Literary exegesis—especially in the service of ethical instruction—is another: although this part of the grammarian's task is less available for study in the surviving grammatical literature, and although the men of late antiquity emphasized it less than linguistic expertise, there are still interesting things to be found. Readers will think of other topics or issues deserving inclusion: that is both inevitable and all to the good; for the subject is rich, and there is much work to be done.

The basic research for the book was completed by 1981, and a draft was finished by 1984; a slightly different version of Chapter 5 appeared in Classical Philology (75 [1980]: 216-41) under the title "The Grammarian's Authority." Although I attempted to take into account the most important secondary literature published from 1981 through 1983, there are doubtless regrettable omissions. It has been possible to include very little that has reached me since November 1983.

I have been extraordinarily fortunate in the support that I have received from institutions and individuals alike. I therefore wish to thank the National Endowment for the Humanities for an Independent Study and Research Fellowship (1980-81) that provided me a year in which to read, think, and write free from my ordinary duties; the Division of the Humanities in the University of Chicago and Karl J. Weintraub, formerly Dean of the Division, for the leave of absence that allowed me to take up the fellowship and for the funds that later helped me put the draft of the book on computer for revision; the Joseph Regenstein Library for its splendid resources, and particularly—when even those gave out—the staff of Interlibrary Loan, who handled any number of odd requests with unfailing speed and courtesy; the University of California Press, for undertaking to publish a big book on a subject outside the mainstream of current classical scholarship; and the people at the Press who have had a hand in the project: Doris Kretschmer for her long patience and good advice, Mary Lamprech for her efficient supervision of the production, and Paul Psoinos for the marvelous precision and intelligence of his editing. My gratitude to all these is all the more deeply felt when I


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reflect that each represents a form of support unavailable to the men who are the subject of this book.

From the work of other scholars I have profited immensely: this will, I hope, be evident from the notes, where I have tried to record my debts rather than pursue disagreements. My great personal thanks must go to Peter Brown, who has long followed and encouraged the progress of the book and who, as editor of this series, swiftly put his finger on the places that needed improvement in the completed draft; and to Arnaldo Momigliano, whose invitation to speak about the grammarians and their audience to his seminar in November 1976 brought my thoughts into focus at an early, critical stage, and who has always been ready to talk about my work with the range and authority that is uniquely his. In addition, Alan D. Booth, Alan Cameron, C. P. Jones, Charles E. Murgia, and James E. G. Zetzel have all reviewed either the entire manuscript or large portions of it, some of them more than once. I am very grateful to each of them for reassurance or improvement, and I hope that none of them will take it amiss if I single out for special thanks my colleague Peter White, editor nonpareil , who for ten years now has shown himself to be the best and toughest critic of my work. That the book is not better for all this attention is to be attributed to my stubbornness, my weariness, and, no doubt, to other shortcomings of which I am less keenly aware.

Finally, there is my wife, Laura, who not only lived with what must too often have seemed an obsession but also found the time, amid the demands of motherhood and of her own profession, to pass her stern attorney's eye over my guilty prose. Only she can know what her help has meant to me. To her and to the two others to whom I owe the greatest debt this book is dedicated.

R.A.K.
HYDE PARK
6 FEBRUARY 1985


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ABBREVIATIONS

Abbreviations of journal titles are those found in L'année philologique , with a few small and familiar variations. Papyrological collections, series, and the like are denoted by the abbreviations found in J. F. Oates et al., Checklist of Editions of Greek Papyri and Ostraca , 2d ed., Bulletin of the American Society of Papyrologists, supplement 1 (Missoula, Mont., 1978). Beyond the abbreviations noted below, and except in the case of very common texts, editions of primary sources are noted in the citations, usually by the editor's name. The bibliography provides full references for the books and articles cited in the notes and in the prosopography.

ACO

E. Schwartz, ed., Acta conciliorum oecumenicorum , 4 vols. in 14 (Berlin and Leipzig, 1914-82)

AE

L'année épigraphique: Revue des publications épigraphiques relatives à l'antiquité romaine (Paris, 1888- )

AIJ

V. Hoffiller and B. Saria, eds., Antike Inschriften aus Jugo-slavien 1 (Zagreb, 1938)

Anecd. Helv .

H. Hagen, ed., Anecdota Helvetica (Leipzig, 1870)

Anecd. Mared .

G. Morin, Anecdota Maredsolana , 4 vols. (Maredsoli, in Monasterio S. Benedicti, 1893-1932)

ANRW

H. Temporini and W. Haase, eds., Aufstieg und Nieder-gang der römischen Welt (Berlin, 1972- )

ASS

Acta sanctorum quotquot toto orbe coluntur , 68 vols. (Paris,1863-1940)

Bekker, Anecd .

I. Bekker, ed., Anecdota Graeca , 3 vols. (Berlin, 1814-21)

BHG

F. Halkin, ed., Bibliotheca hagiographica Graeca , 3d ed., 3 vols., Subsidia hagiographica, 8a (Brussels, 1957)

Bibliotheca sanctorum

Bibliotheca sanctorum , 13 vols. (Rome, 1961-70)


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Bull. ép .

J. Robert and L. Robert, Bulletin épigraphique [appearing in the annual issues of REG ; cited by the year and the number of the entry within the survey]

Bury, LRE

J. B. Bury, History of the Later Roman Empire from the Death of Theodosius I to the Death of Justinian (A.D. 395 toA.D. 565) , 2 vols. (London, 1923)

CAG

Commentaria in Aristotelem Graeca , 23 vols. in 46 (Berlin,1882-1909)

CC CM

Corpus Christianorum , Continuatio mediaevalis (Turnhout, 1966- )

CC SG

Corpus Christianorum , series Graeca (Turnhout, 1977- )

CC SL

Corpus Christianorum , series Latina (Turnhout, 1953- )

CGL

G. Goetz, ed., Corpus glossariorum Latinorum , 7 vols. (Leipzig, 1888-1923)

Chron. min .

T. Mommsen, ed., Chronica minora saec. IV. V. VI. VII ., 3 vols. MGH AA, vols. 9, 11, 13 (Berlin, 1892-98)

Chr.-Sch.-St.

W. von Christ, Geschichte der griechischen Literatur , Hand-buch der Altertumswissenschaft, 7, 2. Teil, Die nachklassische Periode der griechischen Literatur , 2. Hälfte, Von 100 bis 530 nach Christus , umgearbeitet von W. Schmid und O. Stählin (Munich, 1924)

CIG

A. Boeckh, ed., Corpus inscriptionum Graecarum , 4 vols.(Berlin, 1828-77)

CIL

Corpus inscriptionum Latinarum , 16 vols. (Berlin, 1863- )

CJ

P. Krueger, ed., Codex Iustinianus , Corpus iuris civilis, 2 (Berlin, 1929)

CLA

E. A. Lowe, Codices Latini antiquiores , 11 vols., with supplement (Oxford, 1934-71)

CLCAG

Corpus Latinum commentariorum in Aristotelem Graecorum (Louvain, 1957- )

CMG

Corpus medicorum Graecorum (Berlin, 1915- )

Corp. ét.

B. Boyaval, ed., Corpus des étiquettes de momies grecques (Lille, 1976)

Cramer, Anecd. Oxon .

J. A. Cramer, ed., Anecdota Graeca e codicibus manuscriptis bibliothecarum Oxoniensium , 4 vols. (Oxford, 1835-37)

Cramer, Anecd. Paris .

J. A. Cramer, ed., Anecdota Graeca e codicibus manuscriptis. bibliothecae regiae Parisiensis , 4 vols. (Oxford, 1839-41)

CSCO Scr. Syr.

Corpus scriptorum Christianorum Orientalium , Scriptores Syri (Paris, 1903- )

CSEL

Corpus scriptorum ecclesiasticorum Latinorum (Vienna, 1866- )

CSHB

Corpus[*] scriptorum historiae Byzantinae , 50 vols. (Bonn, 1828-97)


xvii

CTh

T. Mommsen, ed., Theodosiani libri XVI cum Constitutionibus Sirmondianis (Berlin, 1905)

Dig

T. Mommsen, ed., Digesta , Corpus iuris civilis, 1 (Berlin, 1893)

FD

Fouilles de Delphes (Paris, 1908- )

Festschr. Berl. ägypt. Mus .

Festschrift zum 150jährig. Bestehen des Berliner ägyptischen Museums , Staatliches Museum zu Berlin, Mitteilungen aus der ägyptischen Sammlung, 8 (Berlin, 1974)

FGrH

F. Jacoby, ed., Die Fragmente der griechischen Historiker (Berlin and Leiden, 1923- )

FHG

K. Müller, ed., Fragmenta historicorum Graecorum , 5 vols. (Paris, 1851-85)

Forsch. Eph .

Forschungen in Ephesos (Vienna, 1906- )

FX

Fouilles de Xanthos , Institut français d'archéologie, Istanbul, and Institut français d'études anatoliennes d'Istanbul (Paris, 1958- )

Geerard, Clavis

M. Geerard, ed., Clavis patrum Graecorum , Corpus Christianorum (Turnhout, 1974- )

GG

Grammatici Graeci (Leipzig, 1867-)

GL

H. Keil, ed., Grammatici Latini , 7 vols. (Leipzig, 1855-80)

Gloss. Lat .

W. M. Lindsay et al., eds., Glossaria Latina , 5 vols. (Paris, 1926-31)

GVI

W. Peek, ed., Griechische Vers-Inschriften 1 (Berlin, 1955)

Hist. Gr. min .

L. A. Dindorf, ed., Historici Graeci minores , 2 vols. (Leipzig, 1870-71)

Hunger

H. Hunger, Die hochsprachliche profane Literatur der Byzantiner , 2 vols., Handbuch der Altertumswissenschaft, 12:5.1 and 2 (Munich, 1978)

IAEpidaur .

W. Peek, ed., Inschriften aus dem Asklepieion von Epidauros , Abhandlungen der Sächsischen Akademie der Wissen-schaften zu Leipzig, philologisch-historische Klasse, 60:2 (Berlin, 1969)

IANice-Cimiez

G. Laguerre, ed., Inscriptions antiques de Nice-Cimiez (Ceme-nelum, Ager Cemenelensis) , Fouilles de Cemenelum, 2 (Paris, 1975)

IAOSPE

V. Latyshev, ed., Inscriptiones antiquae orae septentrionalis Ponti Euxini Graecae et Latinae , vols. 1, 2, 4 (St. Petersburg, 1885-1901); vol. 1, 2d ed. (St. Petersburg, 1916)

IBubon

F. Schindler, ed., Die Inschriften von Bubon (Nord-Lykien) , Sitzungsberichte der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, philosophisch-historische Klasse, 278:3 (Vienna, 1972)


xviii

ICVR

G. B. de Rossi, ed., Inscriptiones Christianae urbis Romae septimo saeculo antiquiores , 2 vols. (Rome, 1857-88)

ICVR , n.s.

G. B. de Rossi et al., eds., Inscriptiones Christianae urbis Romae septimo saeculo antiquiores , nova series (Rome, 1922- )

IDelos

F. Durrbach et al., eds., Inscriptions de Délos (Paris, 1926- )

IDR

Inscriptiile Daciei Romane (Bucharest, 1975- )

IEPD

Inscriptiones extra fines Pannoniae Daciaeque repertae ad res earundem provinciarum pertinentes , 4th ed. (Amsterdam, 1975)

IG

Inscriptiones Graecae (Berlin, 1873- )

IGBulg .

G. Mikhailov, ed., Inscriptiones Graecae in Bulgaria repertae , Academia litterarum Bulgarica, Institutum archaeo-logicum, series epigraphica (Serdica, 1956- )

IGLS

L. Jalabert, R. Mouterde, et al., eds., Inscriptions grecques et latines de la Syrie , Service des antiquités et des beaux arts, Bibliothèque archéologique et historique (Paris, 1929- )

IGLTyr

J.-P. Rey-Coquais, ed., Inscriptions grecques et latines découvertes dans les fouilles de Tyr (1963-1974) , vol. I, Inscriptions de la nécropole , Bulletin du Musée de Beyrouth, 29 (Paris, 1977)

IGR

R. Cagnat et al., eds., Inscriptiones Graecae ad res Romanas pertinentes , 4 vols. (Paris, 1901-27)

IGSK

Inschriften griechischen Städte aus Kleinasien (Bonn, 1972- )

IGVR

L. Moretti, ed., Inscriptiones Graecae urbis Romae 1-3 , Studi pubblicati dall'Istituto italiano per la storia antica, 17, 22, 28 (Rome, 1968-79)

IKyzik .

E. Schwertheim, ed., Die Inschriften von Kyzikos und Umge-bung , vol. 1, Grabtexte (Bonn, 1983 [IGSK 18])

ILAfr .

R. Cagnat and A. Merlin, eds., Inscriptions latines d'Afrique (Tripolitaine, Tunisie, Maroc) (Paris, 1923)

ILAlg .

S. Gsell et al., eds., Inscriptions latines de l'Algérie , 2 vols. (Paris, 1922, 1957)

ILCV

E. Diehl, ed., Inscriptiones Latinae Christianae veteres , 3 vols. (Berlin, 1925-31)

ILER

J. Vives, ed., Inscriptiones latinas de la España romana: Antologia de 6800 textos , 2 vols. (Barcelona, 1971-72)

ILS

H. Dessau, ed., Inscriptiones Latinae selectae , 3 vols. (Berlin, 1892-1916)

IMEGR

A. Bernand, ed., Inscriptions métriques de l'Égypte gréco-romaine: Recherches sur la poésie épigrammatique des Grecs en Égypte , Annales littéraires de l'Université de Besançon, 98 (Paris, 1969)


xix

Inschr. Eph .

H. Wankel, C. Börker, R. Merkelbach, et al., eds., Die Inschriften yon Ephesos 1-7 (Bonn, 1979-81 [IGSK 11-17])

Inscr. Ital .

Inscriptiones Italiae (Rome, 1931- )

IPriene

F. Hiller von Gaertringen, ed., Die Inschriften von Priene (Berlin, 1906)

Jones, CERP2

A. H. M. Jones, The Cities of the Eastern Roman Provinces , 2d ed. (Oxford, 1971)

Jones, LRE

A. H. M. Jones, The Later Roman Empire 284-602: A Social, Economic, and Administrative Survey , 2 vols. (Norman, Okla., 1964)

Kaibel

G. Kaibel, Epigrammata Graeca ex lapidibus conlecta (Berlin, 1878)

Labraunda 3:2

J. Crampa, ed., Labraunda , vol. 3, parts 1, 2, The Greek Inscriptions , Skrifter utgivna av Svenska institutet i Athen, 4·, vol. 5, ser. 1, part 3, nos. 1, 2 (Stockholm, 1969-72)

LSJ

H. G. Liddell and R. Scott, A Greek-English lexicon , 9th ed., revised and augmented by H. S. Jones, with a supplement edited by E. A. Barber (Oxford, 1968)

LThK

M. Buchberger et al., eds., Lexikon flit Theologie und Kirche , 2d ed. (Freiburg, 1957- )

Magie, RRAM

D. Magie, Roman Rule in Asia Minor to the End of the Third Century after Christ , 2 vols. (Princeton, 1950)

MAMA

W. M. Calder et al., eds., Monumenta Asiae Minoris antiqua , 8 vols. (Manchester, 1928-62)

Mansi

G. D. Mansi et al., eds., Sacrorum Conciliorum nova et amplis-sima collectio , vols. 1-31a (Florence and Venice, 1759-98); vols. 31b-53 (Paris-Arnhem-Leipzig, 1901-27)

MGH AA

Monumenta Germaniae historica , Auctores antiquissimi, 15 vols. (Berlin, 1877-1919)

MGH SS rer. Langob.

Monumenta Germaniae historica , Scriptores rerum Lango-bardicarum et Italicarum saec. VI-IX. (Hanover, 1878)

Nov . "App."

R. Schö11 and W. Kroll, eds., Novellae , Corpus iuris civilis, 3 (Berlin, 1928)

Nov . "Val."

P. M. Meyer and T. Mommsen, eds., Leges Novellae ad Theodosianum pertinentes (Berlin, 1905)

OLD

P. G. W. Glare, ed., Oxford Latin Dictionary (Oxford, 1968-82)

Olympia

W. Dittenberger and K. Purgold, eds., Olympia , vol. 5, Die Inschriften yon Olympia (Berlin, 1896)

Pack2

R. A. Pack, ed., The Greek and Latin Literary Texts from Greco-Roman Egypt , 2d ed. (Ann Arbor, 1965)

PECS

R. Stillwell, ed., The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites (Princeton, 1976)


xx

PG

J. P. Migne et al., eds., Patrologiae cursus completus , series Graeca, 161 vols. (Paris, 1857-66)

PIR2

E. Groag, A. Stein, et al., Prosopographia imperii Romani saec. I. II. III ., 2d ed. (Berlin and Leipzig, 1933- )

PL

J. P. Migne et al., eds., Patrologiae cursus completus , series Latina, 221 vols. (Paris, 1844-1900)

PLG4

T. Bergk, ed., Poetae lyrici Graeci , 4th ed., 3 vols. (Leipzig, 1914)

PLRE I

A. H. M. Jones, J. R. Martindale, and J. Morris, The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire , vol. 1, A.D. 260-395 (Cambridge, 1971)

PLRE II

J. R. Martindale, The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire , vol. 2, A.D. 395-527 (Cambridge, 1980)

PO

Patrologia Orientalis (Paris, 1907- )

Preisigke, WB

F. Preisigke et al., Wörterbuch der griechischen Papyrusur-kunden (Berlin, 1925- )

Prosop. chrét . I

A. Mandouze, Prosopographie chrétienne du Bas-Empire , vol. 1, Prosopographie de l'Afrique chrétienne (303-533) (Paris, 1982)

RE

A. F. von Pauly, G. Wissowa, et al., eds., Real-Encyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft (Stuttgart, 1894-1972)

RE Suppl.

G. Wissowa et al., eds., Paulys Real-Encyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft , Supplementbände, 15 vols. (Stuttgart, 1903-78)

Rhet. Lat. min .

K. Halm, ed., Rhetores Latini minores (Leipzig, 1863)

RICM

D. Feissel, ed., Recueil des inscriptions chrétiennes de Macédoine du IIIe au VIe siècle, Bulletin de Correspondence Hellénique supplément 8 (Paris, 1983)

RIGCAM

H. Grégoire, ed., Recueii des inscriptions grecques chrétiennes d'Asie Mineure (Paris, 1922)

RIGCE

G. Lefebvre, ed., Recueil des inscriptions grecques chrétiennes d'Égypte (Cairo, 1907)

RIT

G. Alföldy, ed., Die römische Inschriften von Tarraco (Berlin, 1975)

RIU

L. Barkóczi and A. Mócsy, eds., Die römische Inschriften Ungarns (Amsterdam, 1972-)

RLAC

F.-J. Dölger et al., eds., Reallexikon für Antike und Christen-tum (Leipzig, 1941- )

Sch.-Hos.

M. Schanz, Geschichte der römischen Literatur bis zum Ge-setzgebungswerk des Kaisers Justinian , Handbuch der Alter-tumswissenschaft, 8:2-4: 2. Teil, C. Hosius, Die römische Literatur in der Zeit der Monarchie bis auf Hadrian , 4th ed. (Munich, 1935); 3. Teil, M. Schanz, Die Zeit von Hadrian


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(117) bis auf Constantin (324) , 3d ed., rev. C. Hosius and G. Krüger (Munich, 1922); 4. Teil, 1. Band, M. Schanz, Die Literatur des vierten Jahrhunderts , 2d ed. (Munich, 1914); 4. Teil, 2. Hälfte, M. Schanz, C. Hosius, and G. Krüger, Die Literatur des fünften und sechsten Jahrhunderts (Munich, 1920)

SEG

Supplementum epigraphicum Graecum (Leiden, 1923- )

Spengel, Rhet. Gr .

L. Spengel et al., eds., Rhetores Graeci (Leipzig, 1892-1936)

Syll .3

W. Dittenberger, ed., Sylloge inscriptionum Graecarum , 3d ed., 4 vols. (Leipzig, 1915-21)

TAM

E. Kalinka et al., eds., Tituli Asiae Minoris (Vienna, 1901- )

Teuffel

W. S. Teuffel, Geschichte der römischen Literatur , 3. Band, Die Literatur von 96 nach Chr. bis zum Ausgange des Alter-tums , 6th ed., rev. W. Kroll, F. Skutsch, et al. (Leipzig and Berlin, 1913)

TLL

Thesaurus linguae Latinae (Leipzig, 1900- )

Walz, Rhet. Gr .

C. Walz, ed., Rhetores Graeci , 9 vols. in 10 (Stuttgart and Tübingen, 1832-36)


1

PART I


3

Prologue
Anazarbus

In the southeast comer of Asia Minor lies the great plain left behind as the Taurus Mountains drop away from the coast before turning back to meet the Amanus range, which rises from the south. The pocket of land thus formed was called by the Greeks Cilicia Pedias (Cilicia of the Plain) and provided the conditions for a prosperity unknown to the neighboring wilderness of Cilicia Tracheia (Rough Cilicia): soil that was—and still is—among the richest on the Anatolian Peninsula, especially favorable for grain and cotton; three major rivers that drained the territory from north to south and linked the inland regions to the coast; and the important trade routes that ran overland from the Syrian Gates in the Amanus Mountains to the Cilician Gates in the Taurus, funneling goods and men through the region. Such conditions made for a robust urbanization. Gradually detached from the control of local kings and brought under Roman rule, the plain showed some seventeen cities by the end of the first century A.D. , both very old and very new foundations, set along the coast or on one of the three rivers, with Tarsus enjoying pride of place.[1]

Originally among the cities of second rank was Anazarbus, located on a tributary of the Pyramus, the easternmost of the major rivers, about forty kilometers as the crow flies from the nearest point on the coast. Probably ruled with the rest of the upper Pyramus by the native Tarcondimotid dynasty until A.D. 17, Anazarbus was issuing imperial coinage at least by the reign of Claudius (A.D. 41-54). From the late first century onward it is shown by its coins and inscriptions to have entered into the

[1] See Jones, CERP 191ff. For general accounts of Anazarbus (following paragraph), see ibid. 204ff.; Magie, RRAM 275, 408; Verzone, "Città"; and esp. Gough, "Anazarbus."


4

patterns of civic life and the inevitable intercity competition typical in the eastern provinces of the empire.[2]

With seeming suddenness, however, Anazarbus came at the very end of the second century to claim a new position of prestige, rivaling Tarsus as first city of the region in political and religious importance. Its inscriptions from the Severan era proclaim Anazarbus both inline image, a title long worn by Tarsus, and inline image, or temple warden of the provincial cult of the emperor.[3] How Anazarbus won these honors is not precisely known, but its prominence was apparently neither short-lived nor of purely local interest. The rivalry with Tarsus was finally resolved two centuries later, when the province of Cilicia was reorganized: Tarsus was made the metropolis of Cilicia Prima; Anazarbus, of Cilicia Secunda.[4] Probably about the same time, an account of the local history and antiquities (inline image) of Anazarbus was composed, a distinction usually enjoyed by cities that could be said to have arrived.[5]

But already in the early third century the new prestige of Anazarbus was recorded as far away as Delphi, where all the city's titles were duly mentioned in an inscription raised to one of its native sons. The publicist on this occasion was a grammarian, here honored in much the same way as a long line of literary men from other cities: "The Delphians made me a Delphian, a much-lettered[?] poet and grammarian, Naevianus, who have as my home Anazarbus, twice temple warden, ally of the Westerners, metropolis of the Cilicians."[6] The epigram nicely balances the man's cultural status with his city's political status, and the circumstances hint at a reciprocal relation: the prosperous city of the provinces has

[4] Under Theodosius I or II: see Jones, LRE 1460-61.


5

nourished the individual, whose talents carry him to the center of the old Greek world, to an honor that reflects his city's glory.[7]

Just over a century later another grammarian appears in one of the few detailed glimpses of Anazarbene life that our sources afford.[8] The incident is set around the year 332; its main actor is Aetius. Later an important theologian of the Arian sect and the teacher of Eunomius, leader of its most radical wing, the young Aetius who appeared at Anazarbus was already marked as a talented and troubling figure. Impoverished by his father's death, he had worked as a goldsmith in his native Antioch to support his mother and himself. At the same time "the strength of his nature" drew him to "the lessons of argument" as auditor of the bishop Paulinus, to whom he devoted himself when his mother died. He became a skilled and combative debater—perhaps too skilled and combative for his own good, since after the death of his protector, Paulinus, the ill will he had accumulated caused Paulinus's successor to drive him from the city. Taking up his goldsmith's craft again, Aetius traveled north from Antioch, no doubt following the trade routes through the Syrian Gates, until he came to Anazarbus.

Approaching from the south, Aetius would first have spied a face of the great limestone tor that rises from the plain to shelter the city; then, rounding the foot of the crag, he would have passed through the city's main gate, where an ambitious arch from the Severan period still stood as a monument of the city's earlier surge of prosperity. Indeed, although burned by the Persians in 260, the city must still have been known to be prosperous, else the goldsmith would not have chosen it as a promising site for his expensive skills.[9] It had of course changed as well, in a way that Aetius could have anticipated; for the city that had boasted the title of temple warden several generations earlier could now claim its own Christian martyrs and a regular ecclesiastical hierarchy, overseen by the Arian bishop Athanasius.[10]

[7] The mutual honor would have been brought out all the more if, as commonly in such circumstances, a copy of the formal decree was sent by the host city to be set up in the honorand's native town: cf., for example, Labraunda 3:2.66, on the grammarian Ti. Claudius Anteros, pp. 135f.; and IGBulg . 3:2.1573; MAMA 8.418; IG 12 Supp. 248C; C. P. Jones, Roman World 60 n. 26.

[8] For the following two paragraphs, see Philostorg. HE 3.15, with Part II no. 167.

[9] Arch: Gough, "Anazarbus" 110ff.; L. Robert, "Épigraphie" 487-89, dating the arch to the reign of Caracalla; differently Verzone, "Città" 15ff., dating to s.II 3/4. Persians: Magie, RRAM 708.

[10] Martyrs: Acta SS. Tarachi, Probi et Andronici MM ., cc. 3-4 (ASS Oct. V, 575ff.), and the version now in Halkin, Inédits byzantins no. 13, cc. 14ff.; cf. Gough, "Anazarbus" 97; Halkin, Inédits byzantins 211f. For Athanasius's Arian activity before the Council of Nicaea, see Athanas. Alex. De synod . 17 (PG 26.172); and cf. the letter of Athanasius to Eusebius of Nicomedia, Epiphan. Panar. haeres . 69.6, and Theodoret. HE 1.4.


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Both the old and the new were joined in the local grammarian, a teacher in the line of Naevianus and a Christian, to whom Aetius came to owe most at Anazarbus and whom he repaid least well. Spotting Aetius's talent, the teacher took him into his household: in return for Aetius's domestic services, the grammarian shared his expertise, bridging the ancient division between the banausic and liberal skills.[11] But as a Christian, the grammarian knew the sacred texts as well as the classical and used to discuss Scripture with his pupil. It was at one such discussion that Aetius, disagreeing with the teacher's interpretation, "publicly heaped much shame upon him for his ignorance." The grammarian took Aetius's insult to be inappropriate repayment "to the household that was his benefactor" and drove him from his home. Not for the last time, Aetius landed on his feet: taken in by Bishop Athanasius at Anazarbus, he was soon in Tarsus and then in Alexandria, continuing to circulate easily among the cities of the East. Of Aetius's grammarian we know nothing more, not even his name.

Anazarbus was not one of the great cities of the empire, and it has not figured in modern accounts of ancient education. In just such cities, however, most of the history of ancient education was made, by fairly ordinary men like Naevianus or Aetius's anonymous teacher; and the lines of the sketch above will be redrawn with varying definition and shading in the following chapters, as we try to achieve a detailed picture of the grammarian's place in late antiquity. Like the two we have already glimpsed, the grammarians in the pages below will share a number of traits with many of their contemporaries, as creatures of the city, driven by a desire for honor and a loathing of shame, consciously or unwittingly participating in the play of continuity and change. Like the Anazarbenes, too, they will have a role that is very much the grammarian's, as social and cultural mediator.


7

The grammarian was one of antiquity's great middlemen. He might turn his talents outward, like Naevianus, to link his city with the world; more often, as with Aetius's teacher, his attentions would be circumscribed by the city walls, his skills poised between town and country, between distinct levels in urban society, between the family and the community, or between the two cultures of prestige, classical and Christian. But unlike other important middlemen with whom we are familiar—rhetoricians and bishops, for example—the grammarian found that his distinctive role was also his greatest weakness: the man whose function set him amid many vital spheres of activity most often was without a place at the center of any of them.

Many students of antiquity today are only peripherally aware of the grammarian. In this they are like the ancients themselves. To his contemporaries, the grammarian was commonly a shape spied out of the corner of the eye, a recurrent figure in the margins of a series of great murals: although the central subjects of the tableaux might change, the marginal figure persisted, in different attitudes serving different structural ends in the compositions. To understand the attitudes and the ends, we must first come to terms with their varied contexts.


9

LETTERS IN THE WORLD


11

figure

figure
.


Lord, give me the grace of good understanding, that I might learn letters and gain the upper hand over my fellows.
—A child's prayer at baptism. Eustratius, Vita Eutychii 8


If the grammarian often slipped beyond his contemporaries' notice, that was no doubt in part because his contribution to their way of life was so familiar. For the classes that held the upper hand in late antiquity, entry into the grammarian's school was the first step beyond the confines of the family. A child's identity as a member of the elite and so his future power and prestige were to a great extent determined by that passage and by the schooling that followed.

Typically that schooling was purely literary. From about age seven or eight (although the age was variable), the student's experience was governed by three goals, pursued first in the grammarian's school, then in the rhetorician's: mastery of correct language, command of a fairly small number of classical texts, and an ability to turn the knowledge of language and literature to a facility in composition and speech. Set in a form already centuries old, the grammarian's main contribution to those ends consisted of the "knowledge of speaking correctly" and the "explication of the poets."[1]


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Knowledge of correct speech the grammarian conveyed as a set of rules governing phonology, morphology, and the behavior of the individual parts of speech; though syntax had been brought into the ambit of grammar in Greek before the end of the second century, it did not for the most part concern Latin grammarians until the work of Priscian, in the early sixth century. Explication of the poets combined study of the language, as its larger part, with historical and ethical instruction. In line-by-line and word-by-word progress through the text, the poet's language was explained and used as a tool to confirm the grammarian's rules. Persons, events, and other Realien and the swatches of philosophical or religious doctrine with which the author was supposed to have draped his verse were glossed as they occurred. The actions of men and gods were explained and judged in terms of accepted mores and so were used to confirm them.[2]

The grammarian's instruction and the effects of the literary education are to modern eyes appalling. Indictments are common. The scope was intolerably narrow, excluding most studies now associated with a liberal education. Within its own domain, moreover, the education was suffocating. Merely pedantic (it is said) where not superficial, it first choked the spirit of literature with its rules, then hid the body under a rigid formalism. Worst of all, it fragmented the student's understanding while doing little to provide the governing classes with the specific skills or conceptual habits they needed to govern competently.

Far from understanding his culture, the man emerging from the schools of grammar and rhetoric would have no overall view of history, only a memory of disjointed but edifying vignettes; no systematic knowledge of philosophy or of any philosophic school, but a collection of ethical commonplaces; no organic sense even of the language he had so painstakingly acquired, but rules and categories, divided and subdivided, or rare lexical tidbits to display like precious jewels. The items amassed over years of schooling, like slips filed away in a vast rank of pigeonholes, could be summoned up individually and combined to meet the needs of the moment, but no unifying relationship among them was perceived.[3]

[2] For the best and most recent accounts of grammatical instruction, see Marrou, Histoire 243ff., 400ff.; Clarke, Higher Education 11ff.; Bonner, Education 189ff.; and cf. Barwick, Remmius 215ff.; Quacquarelli, Scuola 40ff. On ethical utility as an aim of the grammarian's enarratio , see esp. Dahlmann, Kleine Schriften 257ff., and, e.g., Aug. De catech. rud . 6.10, Greg. Naz. Or . 4 C. Iulian . 1.118 (on allegorical interpretation used to remove ethical problems in Homer). On scholastic structure in general see below Chap. 1 pp. 24-26.

[3] On this fragmentation, or atomisme psychologique , see esp. Marrou, Saint Augustin 1-157.


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Because of such narrow, fragmented schooling, a man could seriously misjudge the needs of the moment if he came to comment on or participate in the workings of the empire. Since literary analysis consisted of weighing individual words, phrases, and verses, the one false note in a passage would be recognized more quickly than the place of the passage in the work as a whole; similarly, imperial laws tend to analyze and treat problems ad hoc , apparently with no recognition of their structural causes and consequences. Since good literary style was elaborate, variegated, and allusive, the imperial laws of late antiquity, composed in a kindred style, lack the simplicity and clarity that consistent, precise technical language could have provided. Where literature was judged ethically, it is unsurprising that contemporary events were sooner interpreted morally and personally than analyzed in impersonal and institutional terms. The schools of literary study at best did nothing to prepare their students to understand change; at worst, they blinded them to the fact of change.[4]

These grim observations, the product of a warm humanist ideal or the practical good sense of a technological and democratic society, are all the more piercing because they come from the outside. Their accuracy is rather confirmed than negated by the likelihood that most educated men of late antiquity would have shrugged off such criticisms, if they could have understood them at all; one might add only that the cultural situation thus described was not peculiar to late antiquity, or to antiquity in general.[5] But those views also offer us a starting point; for though the fox knows many things, the hedgehog knows one big thing. To place the grammarian's school in its context, it is necessary to begin with a feature of the school that explains both the criticisms and the reason why they would have been opaque to the ancients. The grammarian's instruction was shaped at least as much by social as by intellectual considerations, and the grammarian himself was embedded in a social system where what mattered were wealth, distinction, and eloquence amid a population vastly poor, anonymous, and illiterate; where among the wealthy, distinguished, and eloquent, fine hierarchical discriminations came as

[4] On the general question of competence and "the usefulness of their education to the elite of government, see MacMullen, Crisis 48ff.; on the character of "Roman bureaucratese," see his so-titled study in Traditio 18 (1962) 364ff. On the "blindness" of the educated classes, see Alföldi, Conflict 96ff., esp. 106ff.; but Alföldi's thesis leads him seriously to overstate how peculiar the attitudes described were to the fourth century and to the Roman senatorial aristocracy. For a less charged judgment of the literary education in the fourth century, see Downey, "Education."

[5] See esp. Finley, Use 193ff.; and the "Retractationes" in Marrou, Saint Augustin 672ff.


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naturally as breathing and were every bit as important; where competence was defined largely by personal and social, not technical, criteria, and one's conception of humanitas was so circumscribed as to embrace only those who shared one's own attainments. Whatever its other shortcomings, the grammarian's school did one thing superbly, providing the language and mores through which a social and political elite recognized its members.

The first two chapters, then, will survey the social context in which the grammarian must be set; their burden can be described simply. During the first five centuries of our era, the grammarian's school was the single most important institution, outside the family, through which the governing classes of the empire perpetuated and extended themselves. Offering those classes the one thing that approached a common experience, it only increased in importance as other, competing institutions—for example, the old Greek gymnasium—withered away, while its position was not seriously challenged by the rise of Christianity.[6] Persevering in the East, it was undermined only gradually in the West by the contraction of the imperial government and the Church's concomitant development of new paths of leadership for the elite to follow. The chapters below will elaborate these points and so will consider the different angles from which the grammarian's profession must be viewed.

[6] End of the gymnasia: Claude, Byzantinische Stadt 76; Liebeschuetz, Antioch 156ff.; and note Sijpesteijn, Liste , with the supplement at PJulTheon . appendix A—a total of 55 individual gymnasiarchs known from fourth-century Egypt, with all but 7 of the datable examples falling before 350, the latest (Liste nos. 469-72) occurring in 370 at Oxyrhynchus.


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Chapter 1
The Guardian and His Burden

One of our earliest witnesses to the grammarian's role is an inscription from the Ionian city of Priene honoring a local benefactor, dating to sometime after 84 B.C. Among the man's services is noted his subsidy for a grammarian to instruct the youth of Priene in language and literature (inline image), "through which souls progress toward excellence [inline image] and the condition proper to humanity [inline image]."[1] Itself a commonplace, a token of shared assumptions, the statement reflects the belief that excellence and humanity not only could be derived from the literary education but could even be defined by it. If the soul thus tutored knew the "condition proper to humanity," one not so educated was less than human, like uneducated Fortune (inline image)—irrational, brute, and cruel.[2] Having made himself human, the educated man belonged to a breed apart.[3]

This enduring belief in the separateness belonging to and created by the literary culture found expression in several persistent metaphors. Most notably, an idea of sacredness attached to the instruction and to its texts. In the late first century A.D. one grammarian claimed on his epitaph, "I began the holy instruction [inline image] of well-born children";[4] another not long after praised his profession as the "study of sacred letters":[5] the sentiments reecho down to the fifth century, and

[1] IPriene 112.73ff.

[2] CIG 2722.4.

[3] Cf. Snell Discovery 247ff.; Marrou, MOYS IKOS 209ff.

[5] Florus Verg. or . 3.8, praecipientem bonos mores et sacrarum studia litterarum , with Dahlmann, Kleine Schriften 256f., emphasizing the connection between the aims of ethical instruction (boni mores )—and so, good order—and the sacredness attributed to the litterae . In addition to the authors cited by Dahlmann, ibid. 257 n. 6 ad fin ., contemporary with Florus and speaking of the sacredness of literary pursuits, see also Quintil. Inst . 1.4.6, interiora velut sacri huius adeuntibus apparebit multa rerum subtilitas , in his encomiastic defense of grammar.


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the praise of Vergil's work as a sacred poem.[6] Such voices spoke with the knowledge that they possessed something set apart and enduring, something fundamental to the scheme of right order: the sacred exercised a powerful centripetal pull on a select group of men, to whom it afforded a special, shared, coherent way of life.

Consequently, the question of how one could gain access to the sacred also arose, to be elaborated in two common but antithetical metaphors. In one, the literary culture was a mystery, of the Muses or the ancients; its acquisition was an initiation, by which "the things not to be spoken" were revealed.[7] The metaphor well conveys the sense of distinction shared by an elect. But insofar as initiation in a mystery implies a transfiguring revelation, a passive experience, an irreversible change, the recurrent cast of thought does little to convey the reality of the literary education;[8] its true character is more accurately captured by the second metaphor, at once more common and more consequential. The school of literature is "the gymnasium of wisdom, where is shown the path to the blessed life."[9] The literary education is the "gymnastic of the soul";[10] the

[6] Phocas V. Verg . praef. 24: carmen sacrum . Macrob. Sat . 1.24.13: sacrum poema .

[9] Phocas GL 5.411.2ff.


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literary culture, a matter of training (inline image), achieved through "the sweat of the Muses."[11]

The process was gradual, painstaking—and painful. Like the athlete trained in the old gymnasium, the student of literature slowly acquired his knowledge and skills by replacing unrefined habits with good habits until these (ideally) became second nature; lapses into the bad, old habits were repaid with a beating.[12] Unlike the initiate, the gymnast was not separated decisively from his past but had to struggle constantly against it, using his virtues—memory, diligence, discipline—to fight free of the old ways and so rise above himself. Unremitting and austere, the effort offered correspondingly great rewards. Through "tenacious memory" and "toil," the grammarian Diomedes writes, we achieve "the square-set soundness of speech and its polished brilliance produced by skill." We are then as superior to the uneducated as they are to cattle.[13] The comparison was the oldest article of faith in the literary culture, extending back to Isocrates, repeated later through the Renaissance and beyond. The eloquent man was nothing less than a distinct and artificial species: he had created himself, and was for that reason enormously proud of his achievement.

At the threshold of that achievement stood the grammarian, controlling the access to eloquence with his texts in one hand and his cane in the other. The grammarian's position here is captured in another recurrent metaphor, that of the custos , or guardian.[14] The grammarian was, first, the guardian of the language, custos Latini sermonis , in a phrase of Seneca, or "guardian of articulate utterance," in the description of Augustine.[15] He was to protect the language against corruption, to preserve its coherence, and to act as an agent of control: thus, early in his

[12] Overcoming bad habits the function of the school: see esp. John Chrysost. Ad pop. Ant . hom. 8.5 (PG 49.97); and cf. Chap. 5 pp. 187-89.

[13] Diomedes GL 1.299.18ff.; cf. Gell. NA 13.17 (liberal education = humanitas = cura et disciplina , setting men apart from beasts), and Chap. 2 n. 301.

[14] Cf. Kaster, "Macrobius" 219f.

[15] Sen. Ep . 95.65. Aug. Solil . 2.19: vocis articulatae custos .


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history we find the grammarian claiming the right to limit the grant of citizenship (civitas ) to new usages.[16] But by virtue of his command of the poetic texts, the grammarian's guardianship extended to another, more general area, as guardian of tradition (historiae custos ).[17] The grammarian was the conservator of all the discrete pieces of tradition embedded in his texts, from matters of prosody (to which Augustine refers in his characterization), to the persons, events, and beliefs that marked the limits of vice and virtue.

The two realms of the guardianship thus answered to the two divisions of the grammarian's task, the knowledge of speaking correctly and the explication of the poets, and the task imposed a formidable burden upon him. As guardian of language and tradition, the grammarian joined those who preserved the boundaries between order and chaos. The weight of the burden can be gauged by comparing the grammarian with other custodes : the military commander on the frontier (limes ) of the empire,[18] or the provincial governor in his role as judge, the "guardian of the laws."[19] Each was a pivotal figure. The soldier preserved the geographic distinction between the insider and the outsider; the governor, placed between the local population and the central government, maintained the hierarchical distinctions that shaped the empire's political structure and its system of laws, wherein legal status depended on social status. The grammarian was similarly pivotal in his own sphere, standing where linguistic, geographic, and social distinctions converged. Although those distinctions are essentially inseparable, it is useful to consider them one by one.

The grammarian's linguistic guardianship, the most important and most complex element of his profession, will be discussed in later chap-

[17] Aug. De mus . 2.1.1.

[18] CIL 3.6660 = ILCV 798 = IGLS 5.2704, on Silvinus, limitis . . . fortissime custos . For his rank, comes et dux Phoenices (?), cf. PLRE I s.v., p. 842.


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ters; for the moment it is sufficient to sketch its salient features. In essence, the grammarian presented himself as an arbiter of the claims of three competing forces:[20] the habit of contemporary usage (consuetudo; usus ), the authority (auctoritas ) of the classical literary models, and nature (natura ), that is, the natural properties of the language, determined by reasoned or systematic analysis (ratio ) and set down as rules (regulae ) in the grammarian's handbook (ars ). In practice, the grammarian spent much of his time protecting the nature of the language (and so his own ars ) against the influences of habit and authority.

The consequences were twofold. First, the grammarian, as a man of regular speech, was fundamentally a man of distinctions. Grammar defines and separates: grammatica dividit .[21] As a distillation of the grammarian's expertise the phrase could not be bettered, and the definition applies both to the effects of grammar on the language and to its social consequences, distinguishing the educated man from the masses.[22] Second, by a paradox suited to the self-created species, the language the grammarian taught was simultaneously artificial and natural, a product of human skill that claimed objective validity and permanence. The grammarian created for himself and for his students a stable place to stand, the square-set soundness of articulate utterance, which laid the foundation for a coherent way of life. As a result, the grammarian's rules offered a liberation: the young man educated in his school could be said to have "embraced the restraints of grammatical instruction, and those rule-bound confines of speech, for the sake of freedom."[23] The paradox, although intended by the comment's author, would have been less remarkable to his contemporaries or his ancestors than it is today. The young man in question had gained freedom through discipline, finding a small spot of coherence in a sea of noise. Close at hand the vulgar language murmured—for example, the Greek and Latin of Scripture, which many of the educated had found repellent[24] —and not much farther off he could hear the hiss of the vernacular, which existed everywhere in the empire.[25]

[20] See Chap. 5 pp. 176ff.

[21] Sidon. Apoll. Ep . 5.2.1.

[23] Ennod. Epist . 1.5.10.

[24] See, e.g., Lactant. Inst . 5.1; Arnob. Adv. nat . 1.59; Jer. Comm. Is. proph . prol., Comm. Ion . 3; Cyril. Alex. C. Iulian. 7 (PG 76.853); Isid. Pel. Ep . 4.28, 67, 91.

[25] Vernacular languages: see Bardy, Question ; Jones, LRE 991ff.; MacMullen, "Provincial Languages"; Millar, "Local Culture"; Brunt, "Romanization" l70ff. Hiss: cf. Jerome's regular use of stridor and stridulus to characterize the sound of the various Semitic languages (Ep . 130.5, 125.12; Comm. Galat . 3 prol.; V. Hilarion . 22; Comm. Is. proph . 4.11; Comm. Tit . 3), and Maxim. Taurin. Serm . 50 (PL 57.635). For one's speech to change suddenly from the vernacular to a language of culture was the sign of a miracle: Mark the Deacon, Vie de Saint Porphyre 66-67 Gregoire-Kugener; Apophth. Patr ., "De abbate Poemene" 183 (PG 65.365f.). The opposite change was a mark of demonic possession: Jer. V. Hilarion . 22. Predictably, in a controversy with Augustine, the pagan grammarian Maximus of Madaurus picks as one line of attack the barbarous names of local African martyrs: Aug. Ep . 16.2; cf. Augustine's rebuke, Ep . 17.2. See also Lib. Ep . 369.9.


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The center of coherence was the town. A rough measure of that fact is provided by the following detail: of the hundred-odd grammarians we can identify and place from the mid-third through the mid-sixth centuries, all taught in spots that emerged as episcopal sees at some time during this period.[26] To be sure, we should not assume that every see had a grammarian's school; nor were all bishops' towns grand places (the grammarians in fact are mostly found in the larger sees). Such places did, however, tend to be the centers of gravity in the secular as well as the spiritual lives of their regions, and they therefore presume at least a minimal urban organization and urban life. To that extent—and because he was not concerned, like the bishop, to extend his message and his influence into the hinterland—the grammarian in late antiquity still participated in the ancient division between town and country.

Entering the grammarian's school meant that one was safely past an important geographic hurdle, that one had joined the small minority of the population who shared the life of the towns. It also meant that one would be drawn willy-nilly into a town-bound vision of the world, a


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vision so fixed that the "natural ignorance" of the rustic might casually be used to explain a verse of Vergil[27] and so powerful that the Christian preacher would need to emphasize that the grace of God is everywhere, and does not reach only the educated city-dweller like the favors bestowed by men.[28] People could easily assume that the classically educated man of the town had nothing to learn from the man of the country,[29] and that assumption was reinforced by the linguistic gulf between the two. The countryman might well not speak the language of culture at all; if he did, he would probably speak a version of it so uncouth as to require apology lest it offend "urban ears."[30]

The grammarian's school could bridge the divide between town and country—although that is not to say it regularly did so. We know, for example, of the young Hilarion, sent for his entire education to Alexandria from the hamlet (vicus ) of Tabatha, in the hinterland of Gaza;[31] one would be hard put, however, to cite many such dramatic transitions from hamlet to metropolis. More common was the movement found in the educational careers of Jerome and Augustine: Augustine certainly (and Jerome possibly) received some preliminary. education in his modest home town before being sent to a larger center for further instruction.[32] For reasons described below, even this sort of movement was subject to notable constraints. It does, however, point to two important characteristics of the literary education, a marked geographic mobility and a close conformity to the patterns of upper-class life.

It is necessary to imagine the educational geography of the empire, not in terms of the great land masses ringing the Mediterranean but as an archipelago of cities where schools of liberal letters were to be found. This distribution encouraged a good deal of island hopping. To an outsider, like the desert father St. Anthony, the spectacle of the would-be

[27] Naturalis inperitia : Ti. Claudius Donatus Interp. Vergil., ad Aen . 7.482 (2.72.5ff. Georgii).

[28] Cyril of Jerusalem Catech . 17 De spir. sanct . 2.35.

[31] Jer. V. Hilarion . 2.

[32] For Augustine, see Part II no. 20. For Jerome, see C. Rufin . 1.30, with n. 46 below.


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educated "leaving home and crossing the sea, that they might learn letters," appeared frenetic and fragmented when compared with "us who have no need to leave home for the sake of the Kingdom of Heaven, or to cross the sea for the sake of excellence."[33] The vision has the same strength and weakness as many an outsider's view, seeing only a part of the truth but seeing it clearly. The world of letters was fluid, with effects that were often fragmenting. After leaving home and crossing the sea, many did not return. Some died while studying abroad.[34] Others died away from home after beginning the careers their education had brought them.[35] Some never came home, having discovered wisdom of one variety or another;[36] others found a secular career to relieve them of curial obligations in their native cities.[37]

Yet amid the movement there was pattern and stability. As far as the literary education is concerned, only the upper levels of the population were geographically mobile. Hence traditional boundaries—for example, between town and country—were preserved far more often than vio-

[34] See Lib. Or . 1.151; Symm. Ep . 4.56, 9.54; with some epitaphs, mostly earlier, of students who died away from home: SEG 2.461 = GVI 1519 = Bull. ép . 1958, 336 (cf. Robert, Hellenica 1.154); GVI 1081; Kaibel 228 = GVI 970 = Inschr. Eph . 6 (IGSK 16) 2101 (with the corrigenda at Inschr. Eph . 7.1, p. 28; cf. also Inschr. Eph . 6.2202, 2211); ILAlg . 1363; CIL 8.12152; IG 14.1436 = IGR 1.208 = GVI 1025 = IGVR 3.1165; IG 14.1728 = IGR 1.279 = GVI 745 = IGVR 2.1243; ILCV 740 = IEPD 672.

[36] Compare Marin. V. Procli 8 (Proclus's early education, his father's ambitions for his career, and his own desire for philosophy; sim. Eunap. V. phil . 6.1.1 [Aedesius]) with Zach. Schol. Vie de Sévère 54ff. (the education of Evagrius of Samosata, his father's ambitions for his career, and his own desire for philosophy, i.e., the monastic life).

[37] Cf. Petit, Étudiants 170ff., with the qualifications of Liebeschuetz, Antioch 174ff. (esp. 180f.), and 245f., on CTh 14.9.1 (an. 370).


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lated; and the movement of students, like that of the teachers, was determined by the personal relationships between leading men in the cities who commended and received them.[38] Most important, when the literary education combined with geographic mobility to produce social mobility, it did so above an already existing and clearly definable threshold of privilege. Broadly speaking, social mobility occurred only among the portions of the urban upper classes that still maintained their eminence and its traditions, or in those segments of the imperial service that absorbed members of the urban aristocracy and their values.

The statement that one's cousins had "suffered not even a grammarian"[39] revealed as much about their social standing as it did about their linguistic and literary attainments. To make such a statement without blush or reproach, as Augustine did, signaled that one was stepping outside the culture of secular prestige. It was a step few of his educated contemporaries were wholeheartedly prepared to take. Anyone who reached the age at which Augustine wrote those words would have had a quarter-century of conditioning, forming assumptions of prestige and privilege that would have become second nature. Such assumptions are found everywhere, from letters of recommendation—a central document of the age, to which we will return repeatedly—to more unexpected or oblique forms: the knowledge that one could appropriately refer to his education as grounds for special consideration in a legal appeal,[40] or the casual assumption that even pagan literary men could by virtue of their cultural authority and social standing competently judge a religious debate between Mani and a Christian bishop,[41] or even the distinctions that produced what can be called a socially stratified sense of humor. Walking along the streets of Cyrene, a man could see the graffito, "Question: Who was the father of Priam's children?" and smile, recognizing a schoolboy's parody of the grammarian's catechism, perhaps recalling the jokes of his own school days.[42] Just so, the recipient of one of Symmachus's letters would have smiled knowingly to see him apply the obliquely obscene Vergilian tag huic aliud mercedis erit to an enemy.[43]

[38] See esp. Petit, Étudiants 112ff., 122ff., on Libanius's recruiting students from the provinces; on teachers' movement, see Chaps. 3 and 6.

[39] Aug. De beat. vit . 1.6.

[40] Cf. PSI 13.1337.21-23 (s. III, prov. unknown: a petition to the prefect), with a like note struck in similar documents of the fourth century (PKöln inv. 4533 56-57 and 4533 9-10 [an. 348, Panopolis], quoted by Browne, "Harpocration" 192f.) and the fifth (PCairMasp . 3.67295, with Part II no. 78).

[41] See Acta Archelai 12 = Epiphan. Panar. haeres . 66.10ff., with Part II nos. 179, 236. The doubtful historicity of the account does not detract from the point made here.

[42] ASIA 1961-62, 219ff. no. 192, with Kaster, "Schoolboy's Burlesque."

[43] Symm. Ep . 6.22.1 and Verg. Ecl . 6.26, with Kaster, "Echo."


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These comforting assumptions were produced by schools not only sparse in geographic distribution but markedly exclusive in social organization. It is necessary here to think not of a single, integrated track of primary and secondary schools, like the system known to (and produced in) the twentieth century, but of different types of schools serving different segments of the population.[44] The population at large, massively illiterate, was served (however ill) by the "schools of letters" (inline imageinline image, ludi litterarii ), institutions of low prestige that provided general, utilitarian literacy. But others, those who had access to the liberal schools of grammar and rhetoric, would receive the rudiments of instruction at home or from teachers assigned to impart the first elements in the grammarian's school; they thus would meet the grammarian as their first teacher. The typical product of the school of liberal letters was therefore insulated from the lower orders, just as the teachers of liberal letters were distinguished by their higher fees and their legal privileges from the common teacher of letters.

Two points should be stressed concerning this arrangement. First, it is not in itself peculiar to late antiquity, the product of a sudden aristocratization of the literary culture, but stands revealed in sources ranging from the first through the sixth centuries. If any change is visible, it is not in how the schools were structured but in how the structure was maintained and in the clientele it served: the authority and the burden were perhaps increasingly shared by the imperial government,[45] and sons of some imperial functionaries perhaps took places that sons of the depressed segment of the curial order had vacated. Second, there was some movement from one type of school to the other, especially when a student was fortunate enough to move from an outlying town that had no grammarian to a larger center that did. But passage from a school of letters to a liberal school was irregular, a trickle, not a steady stream. Of the three men noted above—Hilarion, Jerome, and Augustine—only the last clearly began in a school of letters.[46] While there were surely other

[44] For the following; which differs somewhat from the usual account of the institutional configuration of the schools, see Kaster, "Notes"; Booth, "Schooling" and "Elementary Education"; cf. also Jones, LRE 997f. For further nuance, see Chap. 2 "Some Variable Definitions."

[45] See Chap. 6 pp. 216ff.

[46] Augustine: cf. Kaster, "Notes" 326, 341. For Hilarion, Jerome (V. Hilarion . 2) mentions no preliminary schooling before he was sent to the grammarian's school at Alexandria; he was probably among those who had the grammarian as their first teacher (see Kaster, "Notes" 329ff.). Jerome: Booth ("Date," esp. 351ff.) has argued plausibly that Jerome began his education under a grammarian (the Orbilius saeviens of C. Rufin . 1.30) at Rome. Note that even if his arguments are rejected in favor of the standard view, that Jerome received some education at Stridon before going to Rome, the nature of that education is not immediately clear; cf. Kaster, "Notes" 342ff.


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such instances,[47] specific examples do not thrust themselves forward: one must not generalize from the familiar but perhaps exceptionally brilliant (and fortunate) case of Augustine.

The higher fees the teachers of grammar and rhetoric charged, the additional largesse they traditionally received on special occasions, and the allowances young men would need if they traveled to major centers of study all required surplus wealth.[48] As Lactantius remarked, instead of giving thanks for being born human, male, Greek, Athenian, and a contemporary of Socrates, Plato should have given thanks that he was born talented, teachable, "and with the resources to be liberally educated."[49] The social origins of the sophist Libanius's students show that few categories in the population had resources on the necessary scale: government functionaries, teachers of liberal letters, members of other liberal professions (for the most part, advocates), some gentlemen of no visible occupation, and curiales .[50] To these can be added some Christian bishops and presbyters,[51] and of course the old senatorial aristocracy in the West.[52]

While some from among these categories—teachers, imperial bureaucrats, advocates—could count on salaries, fees, or douceurs (paid in the stable currencies of gold and silver, no small advantage),[53] the common denominator was still land: thus, Jerome presumes that a man unable to pay a teacher's fee in a pinch would give a landowner's excuses—crops damaged by hail or drought, profits eaten up by taxes.[54] The excuses, especially the latter, are ominous. By no means could all landowners—or curiales —manage easily: although his father was a town councilor of middling means with an estate,[55] Augustine's education was a close thing, begun in the lower-status school of letters and continued only through the extraordinary efforts of his father and the timely beneficence of a family connection.[56]

[47] See esp. Symeon of Mesopotamia Hom . 15.42, quoted and discussed by Kaster, "Notes" 326.

[48] On fees and largesse, see Chap. 3; on allowances, see Liebeschuetz, Antioch 84 with nn. 8, 9; and on living conditions generally, see Petit, Étudiants 144ff.

[50] Petit, Étudiants 172,194f.

[51] Jer. Comm. Ephes . 3.6 (PL 26.574A).

[52] On social origins and access to schools in the West, see also Nellen, Viri 98ff.

[53] Liebeschuetz, Antioch 86.

[54] Comm. Galat . 3.6 (PL 26.459B). Jerome's education Was probably made possible by his family's landholdings, for which see Ep . 66.14.

[55] Conf . 2.3.5; Ep . 126.7.

[56] See Part II no. 20.


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The outlook for the lower orders was still less promising. Few students from lower levels of society than those already mentioned are known to have entered the grammarian's school: Aetius, patronized by the anonymous grammarian of Anazarbus;[57] or Eustathius, the son of a clothes factor, educated (according to the hagiographic tradition) by a grammarian at Nicomedia;[58] or the three freedmen's sons who taught as grammarians at Bordeaux.[59] In addition, there was probably a significant dropout rate. Of fifty-seven students whose length of study in Libanius's school is known, thirty-five followed the course of rhetoric for only one or two years, twelve for only three or four years, and the other ten for five or six years.[60] Evidence suggests that the pyramid of enrollments should be projected farther downward,[61] that there was also attrition between the schools of grammar and rhetoric and within the grammarian's school—hence the earlier statement that the grammarian's school would be the only thing approaching a common experience for the elite. Yet in some respects it was enough: in language and manners, the man who had never attended the grammarian's school was more marked than the man who had attended the grammarian's school but had not gone on to rhetoric; the latter, moreover, was not necessarily shut off from a career open to a man of liberal education.[62] If nothing else, he

[57] Philostorg. HE 3.15, with "Prologue" above.

[58] See Part II no. 234 for comment also on the historicity of the account.

[59] See Part II nos. 40, 146, 165. Note that these are the only grammarians of this social standing known in the period: see Chap. 3. Among other liberally educated men of humble origins who achieved some eminence, one might mention, e.g., Festus of Tridentum (= PLRE I s.v. Festus 3, pp. 334f.), described as ultimi sanguinis et ignoti at Amm. Marc. 29.2.22; Pamprepius the grammarian and political adventurer, said to have begun life as a poor man (Part II no. 114); and perhaps Fl. Mallius Theodorus, whose antecedents are passed over in Claudian's panegyric (cf. PLRE I s.v. Theodorus 27, p. 902). But "low birth" and "poverty" are notably relative terms; there is no reason to suppose that Festus, for instance, was in his origins the social inferior of, say, Jerome: see Matthews, Western Aristocracies 47; cf. Part II no. 46 ad fin . It is unlikely that any of these men was comparable in his origins to the figures mentioned in this and the preceding two notes.

[60] Petit, Étudiants 62ff., with pp. 95-96, 155f., 170ff. Note the most common reasons for withdrawal after one or two years: family circumstances, e.g., replacement of a deceased father in the local curia (cf. Kopacek, "Curial Displacements" 327ff., for the career of Firminus); or the pursuit of careers in advocacy and the law. For three years as the "indispensable minimum" for a thorough grounding in rhetoric, at least in the opinion of Libanius, see Petit, Étudiants 65.

[61] See esp. Vie d'Alexandre l'Acéméte 5 (PO 6.660f.): Alexander proceeds to serve as praefectianus directly from education in grammar. Cf. also the career imagined by Symeon of Mesopotamia (above n. 47) and, e.g., the case of Eustathius (above n. 58).

[62] Cf. Vie d'Alexandre (preceding note) and Symeon of Mesopotamia (above n. 47).


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could claim the "letters" (that is, liberal letters) or the "gifts of the Muses" sufficient for purely personal distinction.

The exclusiveness of the literary culture had two evident consequences. First, "letters" or the like recurred as one of the three or four most important marks of status—what Paulinus of Nola meant when he referred to honos, litterae, domus as the "tokens of prestige in the world," or what Jerome had in mind when he spoke of the "noble man, fluent of speech, wealthy," a vivid figure flanked by an "accompaniment of the powerful," set off against the backdrop of the "mob."[63] At one extreme, literary attainments would provide eminence at the tomb, if nowhere else, a fact that accounts for the frequent mention of such attainments on the epitaphs of children or youths, pathetic reminders of dignity achieved and promise cut short.[64] At the other extreme, literary culture followed one through life, to be noted regularly, for example, among the virtues of men who had gone on to hold the highest offices of state.[65] The phrase "among the virtues" is used advisedly here: the literary culture in itself guaranteed virtue; its acquisition signaled that one possessed discipline, an appetite for toil, and the other ethical qualities that marked a man fit to share the burden of government.[66]Doctrina presumed mores ; to be a scholar presumed that one was the right sort, a gentleman. That fact must engross the attention, however irrelevant to competent rule the literary education might seem to modern eyes.[67]

[63] Paulin. Nol. Carm . 24.481f.; Jer. Ep . 66.6; cf. id. Comm. Ion . 3 (PL 25.1143B).

[65] E.g., eloquentia (litterarum lumen , etc.) included with iustitia, integritas, auctoritas, nobilitas (vel sim .) in honorific inscriptions dedicated to L. Aurelius Avianius Symmachus signo Phosphorius (CIL 6.1698), lulius Agrius Tarrutenius Marcianus (CIL 6.1735), Petronius Probus (CIL 6.1751), L. Turcius Secundus signo Asterius (CIL 6.1772). Cf. CIL 5.7917 = IANice-Cimiez p. 94, epitaph of C. Subrius Secundinus, flamen et patronus provinciae, pietatis eloquentiae morum magister .

[66] For the learned = the good, and the uneducated = the crude and slothful (inertes ), cf. Aur. Vict. De Caes . 9.12. For the place of such virtues as discipline and diligence in the ideology of letters, see above on the gymnastic of the soul and below, Chap. 2 "Independence and Constraint."

[67] Cf. Marrou, Histoire 444f.


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Letters validated claims to status, both moral and social—although the two were hardly separate to the liberally educated man.

The fusion helps to explain the second consequence of the literary culture's exclusiveness, the importance of liberal studies in upward social mobility. If in theory the man of letters could be presumed to be the right sort, in practice the presumption provided entry into the network of personal relationships and patronage that could lead to wealth, offices, and good marriages. The general observation of Augustine and John Chrysostom, that liberal letters furthered temporal ambitions,[68] is amply borne out by specific cases: Augustine himself, Ausonius and other teachers at Bordeaux,[69] Libanius's students,[70] rhetoricians and advocates who became governors,[71] wandering panegyrists,[72] and even a few fairly obscure grammarians.[73]

When we face this picture, it is important to remember several points. First, the man thus prized for his education fundamentally embodied continuity. This is true in the obvious sense that literary attainments formed part of the foundation for success in the imperial service already in the high empire.[74] It is, however, also true in another sense, which touches more directly on the coexistence of continuity and change. The literary men—for example, the sophists of the Greek East—who were drawn into the imperial upper class from the local elites of their towns in the second and early third centuries shared the responsibility for

[68] Aug. De discipl. Christ . 12; John Chrysost. Adv. oppugn. vit. monast . 3.5.

[69] Hopkins, "Social Mobility"; and below, Chap. 3.

[70] Petit, Étudiants 166, 185.

[71] See Chap. 3 nn. 133, 178.

[72] E.g., Aur. Harpocration of Panopolis (above n. 35); the sinecure as tribunus et notarius gained by Claudian, CIL 6.1710 = ILS 2949 = IGVR 1.63, with Alan Cameron, Claudian 390ff.

[73] On the social mobility of the grammarians, see Chap. 3. On the general phenomenon of "gebildetes Beamtentum" in the West in s.IV, see the material collected by Nellen, Viri .

[74] See MacMullen, "Roman Bureaucratese" 368 n. 16; Bowersock, Greek Sophists 43ff. (with the qualifications of Bowie, "Importance"); Millar, Emperor 83ff., 101ff. (cf. also 491ff.); Champlin, Fronto, passim . For continuity within a single family, see the case of M. Postumius Festus, an African orator, acquaintance of Fronto (cf. Ad am . 2.11.1 van den Hout), participant in a vignette of Gellius (NA 19.13.1ff.), senator, and suffect consul in 160 (Alföldy, Konsulat 174), whose memory as an orator is kept alive through two of his pronepotes : T. Flavius Postumius Varus, himself a suffect consul and PVR in 271, an orator . . . beatus diis, amicis, literis (CIL 6.1417 = ILS 2940) and sectator of Festus (CIL 6.1416 = ILS 2929); and T. Flavius Postumius Titianus, consul II in 301 and PVR in 305-6, and an orator, pronepos, et sectator M. Postumi Festi orat (oris ) (CIL 6.1418 = ILS 2941). For Titianus and Varus, see PLRE I s.vv. Titianus 9 (pp. 919f.), Varus 2 (pp. 946f.); for the nuance of sectator , see further Chap. 2 "Independence and Constraint" at nn. 84, 107.


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cracking the shell of provincial life and showing new horizons to their peers.[75] If the pressures of the third century enlarged that crack beyond repair, they also guaranteed that the new horizons would remain permanently in view, providing a new measure of ambition and a new setting for old forms of homage. The man of the second and early third century who could anticipate (and take it as his due) that his townsmen would praise and remember him for his education and other inline image[76] has as his epigonus the governor of the third through sixth centuries, honored by the city for his wisdom, his literary attainments, and his other virtues.[77] The change marks part of the shift in the empire's center of gravity; insofar as the schools participated in that change, they did so by providing reassurance that nothing basic had shifted, that the right, honorable men were still conspicuously present and accounted for.

Redistribution of land after the disturbances in third-century Gaul,[78] the rift that began to open between superior and inferior town councilors in the second century[79] and produced a crisis by the early fourth century, the expansion of the imperial bureaucracy under Diocletian (A.D. 254-305) and the increased opportunity for wealth it brought to some of its members—all were elements of the third century's "loosening of society."[80] The schools thereafter had to consolidate the effects of that loosening by continuing their old job of sorting out and identifying the elite.[81] They would not only provide the basis of a career but also add the traditional adornment to a gentleman's life.[82] They would confirm status already held more frequently than they would serve as the springboard to higher status. And they would contribute to mobility,

[75] See Bowersock, Greek: Sophists 28f.

[76] E.g., IG 5.466, 563, 1168, 1369; Olympia 5.470; SEG 11.321 (Argos); Inschr. Eph . 3 (IGSK 13) 710; Miltner and Miltner, "Epigraphische Nachlese" 10ff. no. 2 (Ancyra); SEG 6.57 (Ancyra); AE 1971, 305 (Dassare [Dalmatia]).

[78] See Wightman, "Peasants" 111.

[79] See Garnsey, "Aspects."

[80] MacMullen, Enemies 246.

[81] Cf. Marrou, Christiana tempora 49ff.

[82] I would add this to balance the general and, I believe, one-sided emphasis on the purely careerist motives associated with late-antique education: our sources by their nature more often reveal the public man than the one who "knows that the calm of retirement is appropriate to those raised in philosophy and literature" (PKöln inv. 4533 9-10 at Browne, "Harpocration" 193: the words of Aur. Ammon, brother of the wandering panegyrist Aur. Harpocration; cf. n. 35 above) and who has "escaped our knowledge, simply by having escaped distinction" (Brown, Religion 186, on the members of the senatorial order at Rome).


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where they did so, by validating the aspirant's claim to standing and prestige and ushering him into predictable channels of influence, in effect acting as a brake on sudden, unstructured mobility. The sorting might take two or three generations:[83] so much the better reason for believing that virtue was safe in the order—the disciplina —Diocletian and his successors restored. Affronts to that order by jumped-up litterateurs—cases of spectacular mobility built on letters, cutting disturbingly across class lines—would not often come from the schools of liberal studies.

With its emphasis on order, discipline, and regularity, the sketch above might be read as an elaboration of Salvian.[84] Writing after the fragmentation of the imperial government in much of the West, Salvian used Carthage as an example of the impurity of Africa under Roman rule, because that city "contained virtually all those things by which the order of the commonwealth [disciplina rei publicae ] is maintained or guided in the world as a whole." He listed the institutions responsible: the military forces, the governor's office and the other tools of administration, and the "schools of liberal arts"—grammar and rhetoric—which with the "philosophers' workshops" made up "all the gymnasia of language or mores. " Salvian's hostile vision brings us back to our starting point: the grammarian as guardian, ranged alongside the military commander and provincial governor, maintaining the language and tradition of the special man produced by the gymnastic of the soul and thus preserving the disciplina and social coherence of at least one segment of the commonwealth. So deeply rooted and enduring is this conception of the grammarian's role that it persists even when—or perhaps especially when—the comparable roles of commander and governor have been submerged or radically transformed. Although at first glance surprising, it seems on reflection predictable that a grammarian in Milan should have been called guardian of the empire (imperii custos ) at the start of the sixth century under the Ostrogothic kingdom.[85]

[84] Gub. Dei 7.16.67-68.

[85] Ennod. Carm . 2.90.1; cf. Dict . 9.5, libertatis index, boni testimonium sanguinis ; all applied to Deuterius, for whom see Part II no. 44.


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Yet our sketch, spare and selective as it is, is also artificially distinct. Drawn largely from the point of view of the literary culture, the picture tends to credit the classical elite's view of itself as living the only coherent and worthy life. That was, of course, a delusion. Moreover, the sketch cumulatively attributes to the grammarian a more important place than many of his contemporaries within and without the literary culture would have been willing to grant him. As a guardian the grammarian was also a threshold figure, exposed and ambiguous; his position of strength was vulnerable, capable of being chipped away on several sides. The next chapter accordingly is intended to blur some of the distinctions and give further nuance to the picture above by drawing in some of the forces that impinged upon the grammarian and his profession.


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Chapter 2
Professio Litterarum

On 13 December 320 the grammarian Victor of Cirta / Constantina was brought before Zenophilus, governor of Numidia, for questioning. The interrogation began as follows:

Zenophilus . . . said, "What is your name?" He answered, "Victor." Zenophilus . . . said, "What is your personal condition [condicio ]?" Victor said, "I am a professor of Roman letters [professor sum Romanarum litterarum ], a Latin grammarian." Zenophilus . . . said, "What is your social status [dignitas ]?" Victor said, "My father was a decurion of the people of Constantina; my grandfather, a soldier. He had served in the comitatus , for our origin derives from Moorish blood."[1]

Several points in the exchange should be noted. First, when asked his condition, Victor specifies his livelihood, his profession of letters.[2] Moreover, in the context of the exchange, personal condition implies (or effectively means) dignitas —social status and prestige.[3] Finally, condition and social status are inextricably associated with legal status: as a member of a liberal profession and the son of a curialis , Victor would have possessed a fairly lofty position (honestas , the state of being a gentleman)[4]

[1] Gesta apud Zenophilum, CSEL 26.185.7ff. (cf. Chap. 1 n. 83).

[2] Cf. ibid. 193.5f., Zenophilus . . . dixit: cuius condicionis es? Saturninus respondit: fossor ; ibid. 11f., Zenophilus . . . dixit: cuius condicionis es? Victor [another man of the same name, not the grammarian] dixit: artifex sum .

[3] Note that when Saturninus and Victor (n. 2) have stated their condiciones , no further inquiry is made concerning their dignitas . Cf. also ibid. 195.14f., Zenophilus . . . dixit: cuius condicionis es? Castus dixit: nullam dignitatem habeo ; and Garnsey, Social Status 225ff.

[4] Cf. ibid. 185.14, Zenophilus to Victor: memor fidei et honestatis tuae simpliciter designa .


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and so certain legal privileges—for example, exemption from torture—that those of lowlier status (humiliores ) did not have.

These points touch on two of the themes of this chapter. First, the concept of a profession in Victor's world evidently involved some attributes different from those of modern professions: for example, the professional man—a physician, say, or an architect—who gives testimony before an American bench cannot expect his professional standing to affect his treatment under the law should he show contempt of court, or to distinguish him juridically from a day laborer or tradesman in similar circumstances. Second, theory and practice do not always coincide: thus Victor, when reluctant to testify, found himself threatened with torture, from which his honestas supposedly protected him.[5]

We can better understand the grammarians' position by comparing their profession with the modern concept of a profession. The comparison is suggested not only by the etymological link professio litterarum provides[6] but also by important substantive similarities.

For the contemporary notion of a profession, consider the physician or attorney.[7] First, and most obvious, the profession of each is based on a conceptually distinct system of knowledge and practice that is recognized as such by society and is reflected in the structural differentiation of society's institutions. For instance, the law in the United States today is a system of thought separate from, say, religion: the attorney does not think of himself (or, of course, herself) as a priest, nor do his fellow citizens; and the institutions of the law have their own well-defined place in the structure of American life. Because of this differentiation, the would-be physician or attorney expects to gain his expertise in a specialized institution—a professional school, where he is trained by members of the profession—and he expects his training to be subject to testing and certification, which will be determined, again, by members of the profession. He assumes that his success at this and later stages will depend above all on objective evaluation of his skills. (How often this meritocratic assumption will prove false is a different matter; we are concerned here with professional ideology.) In his practice he is expected to act autonomously and impersonally; the procedures he follows should be those defined by his expertise and its techniques and should be unaffected by personal relations or outside authority. The physician

[5] Ibid. 186.13ff.: Zenophilus . . . Victori dixit: simpliciter confitere, ne strictius interrogeris .

[6] On the phrase, cf. Dahlmann, Kleine Schriften 255ff.

[7] On the definition of a profession sketched in this and the following paragraph, see Parsons, "Professions" 536; Bledstein, Culture , chap. 3, esp. pp. 86-87 and the literature there cited in n. 12.


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should in each case prescribe the treatment dictated by his best professional judgment, irrespective of differences in the social status of his patients or his personal ties to them; the attorney should handle a case according to the methods laid down by his training, without regard for the climate of opinion, his personal feelings toward his client, or external pressures. If either man acts otherwise, he behaves unprofessionally, in the most common sense of the word. The physician or attorney is also expected to put his expertise to socially responsible use and is specifically encouraged to do so by institutions—for example, boards of ethics—that his profession has developed.

Contemporary professionalism has several other important characteristics. Since the profession is commonly a full-time occupation that provides a livelihood, it gives its practitioner a distinct place in the economic system of his society; the profession usually has a specialized or technical language (jargon), a restricted code that allows shorthand communication among its members while excluding laymen; and the profession confers (de facto , if not de jure ) a distinct and usually respected social status. In general, the emphasis falls on the professionals' individual and collective authority, objectivity, self-determination, and self-regulation, with those characteristics contributing ultimately to the well-being of society.

The grammarian's profession resembled the modern notion in several obvious ways. His expertise was conceptually distinct, with a cultural tradition of its own—embodied, for example, in the technical handbook (ars , inline image), which is his most characteristic document. The grammarian was at home in the structurally differentiated institution of his school, which was distinguished horizontally from other institutions (for example, the family) in the society around it and vertically from other institutions (for example, the school of rhetoric) in the literary culture.[8] In addition, his expertise and his institutional niche gave the grammarian a sense of autonomy and authority, which found various forms of expression: the Roman grammarian derived the word ars itself from either inline image (excellence) or artus (close, firm, tight); the grammarian treated language objectively and impersonally, as a phenomenon subject to the analytical methods of his tradition, and he imagined himself the arbiter of language.[9] Finally, from this position of professional competence and authority he could be thought to contribute to the ordered well-being of society in his role as guardian.

[8] For the concept of structural differentiation applied to institutions in the Roman world, see esp. Hopkins, "Structural Differentiation," "Elite Mobility" 108ff., and Conquerors 74ff.

[9] On these and other consequences of the grammarian's professional niche, see Chaps. 4 and 5.


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Yet in other, equally important ways the grammarian's ancient profession stands apart from the modern. Most obvious, there did not exist any specialized training comparable to modern professional education; and in its absence the grammarian was permanently linked to a tradition-minded, aristocratic amateurism, with consequences difficult to overstate. Our purpose in this chapter, then, is to survey how the grammarian's position corresponds to or differs from a modern professional's, in order to view that position and its inherent tensions more closely. We will consider, in turn, how the distinctiveness of the grammarian's profession—its conceptual and institutional differentiation—was affected by its place on the boundary between mere letters and liberal letters, how the profession's differentiation and autonomy were influenced by the social milieu of the high literary culture, and how the grammarian's contribution to the common good was regarded by the second great tradition of late antiquity, Christianity.

Some Variable Definitions: Literacy, Letters, and the Grammarian's Profession

We can begin with two propositions. First, grammar's intellectual and social distinction owed much to its role in a segment of society that had a fairly fixed idea of what literacy involved—a knowledge of letters gained in the scholae liberales —and that placed a high premium on acquiring and using this literacy. Second, that segment of society was at all times and on any estimation very small: for the mass of the population, letters of any kind were marginal in daily life. In the following few pages I would like to consider these propositions and their consequences. Specifically, I want to suggest that the marginal place of literacy made the idea of letters more flexible anal that this flexibility had the simultaneous (if contradictory) effects of partially emphasizing and partially blurring the distinctiveness of the grammarian's profession.

It is necessary first to gauge the proportions of literacy and illiteracy in the empire—an inevitably imprecise business in the absence of direct and statistically reliable evidence. The overall impression, certainly, is one of massive illiteracy. R. P. Duncan-Jones has provided the clearest indications in a recent comparative study of age rounding (the practice of giving ages in multiples of five) on tombstones from the western half of the empire in the first three centuries of our era.[10] The importance of

[10] Duncan-Jones, "Age-Rounding, Illiteracy," superseding the similar study by Mócsy, "Unkenntnis," esp. in the statistical method used. Cf. also Duncan-Jones, "Age-Rounding in Greco-Roman Egypt."


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the study lies in the correlation it notes between age rounding and illiteracy in contemporary underdeveloped societies: rounding cumulatively betokens ignorance of exact age, which cumulatively betokens circumstances wherein illiteracy is also common. The index of rounding deducible from ancient inscriptions is very high, and that in turn should imply a high rate of illiteracy. As Duncan-Jones remarked, "it is very striking that in modern cases where rounding exceeds [a level much lower than that implied by the Roman evidence], illiteracy of 70% or more is also found."[11] The observation appears all the more suggestive when one considers that a survey of inscriptions can only include those able to afford a tombstone, omitting the economically (and so, presumably, culturally) submerged portion of the population,[12] and cannot take into account the substantial number whose only language was the local vernacular.[13]

Evidence from other parts of the empire, although even patchier than the inscriptions, also points toward pervasive illiteracy. For example, contracts, deeds, and loans, largely preserved in Egypt but appearing here and there in other areas, commonly reveal that the parties (that is, persons participating in the formal economic life of their society at a fairly high level) were illiterate.[14] Or, perhaps still more notable, illiteracy appears among men whose standing or function would seem to favor a knowledge of letters, if not presuppose it; these range from illiterate local officials (including a town secretary) in Egypt of the second, third, and fourth centuries[15] to illiterate abbots, and at least one illiterate

[11] Duncan-Jones, "Age-Rounding, Illiteracy" 347.

[12] Ibid. 345.

[13] On the vernaculars, see Chap. 1 n. 25. There was probably a large overlap between the poorest and the non-Romanized segments of the population, although we need not think it was complete. It is also possible that a person whose everyday language was the local vernacular would have his tombstone inscribed in the language of culture; cf. Brunt, "Romanization" 171.


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bishop, in the fifth and sixth centuries.[16] At the least, there is reason for "a more pessimistic view of the state of literacy in the mass of Roman society than the one usually adopted."[17] It is hardly going too far to say that the great majority of the empire's inhabitants were illiterate in the classical languages.

Questions naturally arise about this limited literacy: When? Where? Among whom? The first is much the most difficult to answer. Are we, for example, to think of a general decline in literacy, aggravated if not brought on by the "political chaos of the 200's" and simply linear in its direction, with "fewer every year [knowing] how to read and write"?[18]

[17] Duncan-Jones, "Age-Rounding, Illiteracy" 335, referring to Cipolla, Literacy , and to Marrou, Histoire (sim., e.g., Picard, "D'Autun à Mactar" 15f.; Riché, Education 21f.). See now also Harris, "Literacy," for varied and powerful arguments against optimistic estimates of literacy's diffusion under the principate: unhappily, this valuable paper came to my attention only as the final touches were being put to this book.

[18] So recently MacMullen, Crisis 58ff.; and cf. Turner, Greek Papyri 83.


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That is the common opinion, and it is probably correct—in part, and for some areas more than for others.[19] But it is also surely true that—in a manner and to a degree that the current state of our knowledge prevents us from specifying—the common opinion must be modified to take account of likely regional differentiation, of varying periods of resilience and depression within a given region, and especially of the modest benchmark against which any decline must be measured. For unless the evidence is completely misleading, the general level of literacy at even the best of times must have been very low.[20]

The case of Oxyrhynchus is instructive here.[21] Over the course of the third century the city gives evidence of alternating depression and prosperity; in particular, complaints of ruin in the century's second quarter are replaced by signs of economic exuberance in the third quarter, when one finds public works in progress, ambitious games, an expensive corn dole, and municipal concern for education, in the person of a publicly appointed grammarian. Yet toward the end of the third quarter, over two-thirds of the known applicants for the corn dole—themselves members of a privileged segment of the town's citizenry—are illiterate. Allow for the possibility that some of these were illiterate because of an earlier economic depression and decline: the proportion found among a select group of citizens toward the end of a period of prosperity must still point to fundamental illiteracy in the population at large, enduring through good times and bad.

[19] Note, e.g., MacMullen's general statement (Crisis 59, based on Mócsy, "Unkenntnis") that age awareness in the western provinces decreases from the earlier to the later principate and that "in the latter period cities gradually sink toward the level of the rural areas." In fact, the chronological distinctions in Mócsy's work—based in turn on the tabulations of J. Szilágyi (see Mócsy, p. 388 n. 3; on the limited validity of these distinctions and tabulations, see Duncan-Jones, "Age-Rounding, Illiteracy" 350f.)—yield very mixed results: of the 65 towns and cities surveyed, 20 show age awareness remaining at roughly the same level, i.e., fluctuating by less than 5%, between the earlier (s.I-s.II) and later (s.III-s.VII) periods; 22 show a rise in age awareness of 5% or more between the two periods; and 23 show a fall of 5% or more. Of the provinces overall, 6 show age awareness remaining at roughly the same level (Dalmatia stays the same; Africa, which contributes 40% of the data, shows a rise of 3%; Gaul, Italy, Spain, and Moesia show a fall of 4%, 4%, 3%, and 2%, respectively); 7 show rates of age awareness increasing by 5% or more; but none shows a comparable decrease.

[20] Concerning periodic and regional fluctuations in prosperity, as against a generalized and steady decline, see the recent, suggestive survey by Whittaker, "Inflation."

[21] For the following, see Parsons, PCollYoutie 2 pp. 438ff., with Part II no. 90; Rea, POxy . 40, pp. 2ff., on qualifications for the dole at Oxyrhynchus (see also Lewis, "Recipients"); and J. D. Thomas's review of Rea, in CR 26 (1976) 111, drawing attention to illiteracy among the applicants for the dole.


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The other questions permit more straightforward answers. As could be expected, the tendency toward age rounding—and so, probably, illiteracy—increases the farther one goes from a major city[22] and the farther down one goes on the economic ladder. Thus the index of rounding for town councilors in Italy and Africa is only one-third that for the citizens at large in those two areas,[23] and illiterates in the papyri tend to belong to the lower economic levels of society.[24]

But it would be wrong to think that higher economic status guaranteed literacy at all times and in every area. The index of rounding for Italian and African curiales in the first three centuries A.D. , though much lower than that for the humbler orders, is not insignificant; possibly we find here a hint that Diocletian's ruling of 293, that illiteracy was no bar to curial status, did not so much mark a sudden shift as clarify and legitimize a situation that had existed for some time, especially in smaller towns, where the curial order was a heterogeneous mixture of occupations and backgrounds.[25] Similarly, the members of the gymnasial class in Egypt might predictably be literate, but they were not uniformly so: letters were as a rule taught outside the gymnasium, were learned desultorily, and if learned were sometimes forgotten.[26] Conversely, literacy could reach down to humble levels, to slaves trained as secretaries.[27]

What general formulation is possible, then? First, we must imagine a state of very sparse literacy at best, subject to fluctuation from time to time and place to place. Though we may suppose that literacy declined in the later empire (with the erosion affecting the margins of the upper classes most), perceptions of a broad decline should probably be tempered by a more sober view of literacy in the early empire.[28] Second, we should imagine that literacy ranged across the spectrum of classes in a way that

[22] Duncan-Jones, "Age-Rounding, Illiteracy" 341ff., on the evidence of Africa.

[23] Ibid. 338: the sharpness of the cleavage is especially noteworthy, suggesting a rapid drop in the rate of literacy below the curial order.

[25] CJ 10.31.6; on the evidence concerning illiteracy and curial status in Egypt, see Youtie, "AG PAMMATOS " 175 (= Scriptiunculae 2.625) n. 49.

[27] E.g., the notary manumitted in the will of Gregory Nazianzen, PG 37.392.

[28] To put it another way, the general properties of the curve suggested below would probably have remained fairly constant, with chronological differences dependent on changes in the pitch of the pyramid (whether, and to what degree, and with what fluctuations it became more steep) in a given place at different times.


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combined the traits of both horizontal and vertical segmentation. For example, the knowledge of litterae (that is, of Latin) in the Western Middle Ages, or the classical (as opposed to the modern) secondary education in nineteenth-century Germany, tended to be engrossed by groups not defined or united simply by common economic standing;[29] in contrast, basic literacy under the empire was probably first and foremost a function of one's place on the economic pyramid. Yet the evidence suggests that the distinction was not purely vertical that the presence or absence of literacy was not simply marked by a single class line. We should probably think of a curve superimposed on the economic pyramid, starting near the bottom and including greater proportions of each class as it approaches the top:

inline image

Another curve with similar properties could be added higher on the pyramid to mark off those who were literate in liberal studies:

inline image

The characteristics of these curves are of course purely hypothetical. The picture might nonetheless serve crudely to represent the distribution of literacy and its relation to the different types of schools:[30] above the second curve are those taught in the scholae liberales ; between the two curves are those educated only in the school of letters. The bulk of the pyramid represents those innocent of formal schooling.

Such a picture has social and political implications that have only begun to be explored, prompting different, equally valid responses when viewed

[29] The clergy in the one case; the liberal professions, the gentry, high civil servants, and officers in the other. Cf. Grundmann, "Litteratus" 14; Ringer, Education 76. In both cases there was significant horizontal segmentation: e.g., the sons of German merchants tended to receive an education different from the sons of high civil servants, although the means of the two groups might place them on an economic par.

[30] See Chap. 1 pp. 24ff.


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from different perspectives. Writing with an ideal of administrative efficiency in mind, one historian can rightly question the quality of the information that would reach the central government from a world pervaded by illiteracy.[31] Another, considering the humbler mechanics of a society that necessarily "made a large place for illiteracy," can rightly emphasize that letters were a peripheral concern, occasionally useful, not necessary in the daily lives of most men, and that far more than is imaginable today the ordinary illiterate was able to live a sound and productive life with no apparent economic or social disability, "to function in a broad variety of occupations, to be recognized as a respectable member of his class, to attain financial success, to hold public office, to associate on equal terms with his literate neighbor."[32] Our concern with the grammarian's position suggests still another point of view, determined by two evident and related facts: first, literacy was not simple in definition or possession; second, different notions of literacy existed in the different groups represented on either side of the upper curve in my second figure. I want to propose that these two facts in combination not only gave the grammarian's profession some of its distinctiveness (as could be expected) but at the same time helped to blur that distinctiveness at its edges.

Despite the tendency of modern states to standardize education on a scale unknown in antiquity, our notion of literacy is still fluid. The literate person, in the most basic sense of the term, can read and write his society's standard language (in societies that recognize a standard language) with minimal competence. But university teachers in the United States today increasingly complain of their students' illiteracy, by which they mean anything from gross deficiency in basic skills to inability to read and write with far more than minimal sophistication. And anyone seeking a university teaching position will score a point if he can be said to be literate, that is, broadly conversant with the higher literary culture, or, simply, cultured. Having so many possible applications of the term is a symptom of situational literacy: the meaning and connotation of "literacy" depend on such variables as geographic or social context and the user's view of his own literacy.

Not surprisingly, similar fluidity was apparent in antiquity.[33] At one extreme were the illiterates who appear in the contracts, deeds, loans,

[31] Cf. the trenchant comments of MacMullen, Crisis 58ff.

[32] Youtie, "YP OG PAF EYS " esp. 219ff., on the relations among literate and illiterate members of the same household and on illiteracy as a centripetal force in the family.

[33] For a useful survey of litteratus and illiteratus in Latin literary usage, see Grundmann, "Litteratus" 15ff. Grundmann's primary concern, however, was the Middle Ages; a more thorough study of the classical and late-antique evidence is needed.


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and titles from Egypt and elsewhere, the men and women described as "those who do not know letters" (inline image, litteras nescientes ): "letters" in this case refers to basic skills in reading and writing Greek or Latin, and the phrases are purely descriptive, registering a fact of life that involves no practical disadvantage and implies in itself no social or economic inferiority.[34] At the other extreme is a liberally educated man like Jerome, who reveals his own assumptions and values in the heat of polemic. Clearly, when Jerome taunts Rufinus with the charge that he and his followers "have not learned their letters," or when he calls Rufinus an "illiterate author" (inline image) and recommends that he go back to (note well) the grammarian's school to "learn his letters," he primarily means that Rufinus is deficient not in his ABCs but in more advanced literary skills.[35] Equally clearly, the deficiency in itself carries a stigma.[36]

Examples can be collected and located between the two extremes. There is Aurelia Thaisous, who asserts in petitioning for the ius trium liberorum (the laws that "give women adorned with the 'right of three children' the ability to act as their own guardian and conduct all their business without a guardian") that the laws gave this ability "especially to women who know letters," and who describes herself as "literate [inline image] and able to write with the greatest of ease."[37] Her claim of literacy is substantively fairly modest, the simple ability to write fluently. But by gilding the basic provisions of the law ("especially . . . ") she shows she is, if not boasting of her attainment,[38] at least aware she possesses a distinction that would buttress her claim to privilege and provide a practical advantage in her dealings without a guardian once the privilege was granted.

[34] Cf. Youtie, "AG PAMMATOS " 168ff. (= Scriptiunculae 2.618ff.), "YP OG PAF EYS "; and cf. n. 36 below.

[36] Note in general that illiteratus appears to have pejorative connotations in Latin only when (if not always when) the higher sense of litteratus is the implied or expressed antithesis; cf. Grundmann, "Litteratus" 16ff. Similarly, Youtie's statement that the illiterate could "associate on equal terms with his literate neighbor" ("YP OG PAF EYS " 201, quoted above) would most commonly be true of the lower forms of literacy.

[37] POxy . 12.1467 (A.D. 263).

[38] Youtie, "AG PAMMATOS " 166f. (= Scriptiunculae 2.616f.), and the second thoughts at "YP OG PAF EYS " 221 n. 62.


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Or again, there is the fourteen-year-old boy whose application for membership in the gymnasium includes the statement that he is "learning letters" (inline image).[39] Here "letters" probably means literature rather than the simple ability to read and write, and the attainment is mentioned since it "serves to enhance the boy's status."[40] Yet since such an attainment was certainly not required for membership, its absence by itself would scarcely have involved a disability or stigma for other members of the gymnasial class. In these examples the sense of "(il)literacy" and "(not) knowing letters" depends not only upon absolute or substantive criteria but also upon more fluid and less tangible considerations—the context in which the terms are used, the expectations of the circles with which one is familiar, and (clearly in Jerome's case) how far self-esteem and one's claims on the respect of others depend on literary sophistication.[41]

The curves in my second figure above are drawn in dotted lines because the concepts of letters and literacy were so fluid and so much a product of circumstantial—especially social—definition. The boundary between literacy and illiteracy marked by the lower curve was at once real and vague. The "slow writers" and "persons of few letters," who could painstakingly sign legal documents but were otherwise illiterate,[42] or the man who could only read block letters,[43] would all have called themselves literate; they were clearly not "without letters" (inline image, illiterati ), even if they could not claim such fluency as Aurelia Thaisous. Standing on the boundary of literacy, they could regard themselves, and act, as literate for a set purpose or under certain conditions. So the village secretary Petaus could state that Ischyrion, the secretary of another village, was not illiterate, because he could add the appropriate brief subscription to the documents that came before him.[44] In this case, even

[39] POxy . 22.2345 (A.D. 224), with other, similar documents discussed by Bingen, "Note," and by Sijpesteijn, "Some Remarks."

[41] Thus, for example, the question whether or not the illiterate village secretaries Petaus and Ischyrion attempted to mask their illiteracy in order to avoid its "stigma" (so Turner, Greek Papyri 83; contra , Youtie, "AG PAMMATOS " 172 [= Scriptiunculae 2.622]) could be settled finally only with more explicit testimony from Petaus and Ischyrion themselves. I suspect, however, that Turner has the better part of the argument here; see just below and n. 44.

[43] Petron. Sat . 58.7, lapidarias litteras scio , with Daniel, "Liberal Education" 157ff.


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the most marginal literacy has evident social repercussions, acquitting Ischyrion of a charge that he was unfit for his position.

It is plain enough that at the lower boundary literacy is often perceived-variably and individually, that it is defined both by objective or substantive criteria (how well and how much one can read and write) and by context. The important point is, the upper boundary—between mere letters and liberal letters, between schools of letters and liberal schools, between teachers of letters and grammarians—was also both real and porous; its demarcation was similarly influenced by circumstance and substantive considerations. But whereas at its lower ranges the circumstantial definition of literacy can be approached through variations in individual perception, at its upper range it can be more usefully discussed in terms of larger categories: institutions, class, and geography.

As we saw above, Jerome's idea of knowing letters and his play with the idea of Rufinus's illiteracy bear the stamp of his own upper-class liberal education. Just so, the Gallo-Roman aristocrat Sidonius Apollinaris can say of one of his peers that from birth he drank in letters (litteras bibere ), without having to specify liberales . Even if that sense were not clear from the context, Sidonius could be sure that his audience, men of background and expectations similar to his own, would assume as much for themselves.[45] Such men had a fairly fixed idea of what in substance literacy meant, or at least of the minimum attainments proper to a man who could be called literate: contact with the main classical texts and the correctness and adornment of language to show for it.

This conception of literacy was widely diffused geographically and ancient in its tradition, providing the liberally educated classes with much of their mental furnishings and (however much a Jerome might struggle with it) a sense of their own status and worth.[46] The importance of letters in this regard reinforced the traditional definition of knowing letters. The grammarian was of course a fixture of this tradition, his profession both distinguished and bound by its antiquity and diffusion. His instruction was standardized, but by shared conventions, not by statute. Because of the tradition of his profession and, hence, because of his clientele's expectations, a grammarian's classroom in Bordeaux would probably have looked much like its counterpart in Rome or Carthage, and a grammarian's classroom in Alexandria would probably have looked much like one in Antioch or Nicomedia.

[45] Sidon. Apoll. Carm . 23.204ff.

[46] See Chap. 1 above; on Jerome, see pp. 81f. below.


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The same is not, however, obviously true of the local teachers of letters, "boys' masters," or the like, who were scattered throughout the empire, teaching beneath the level of grammarians, in less prestigious institutions.[47] Even without any evidence we might predict that such teachers, especially in areas away from the great educational centers, would not be tied to a uniform tradition as broad or strong as the grammarian's and would offer more varied instruction. We might expect to see a more fluid understanding of literacy, depending much more on local needs and the local notion of what constituted letters as well as on the teachers' own attainments and inclinations. But there is no need for conjecture. For example, the teacher of letters Cassianus was evidently responding to one notion of letters and exploiting a particular attainment of his own when he included the useful skill of shorthand in his instruction at Imola, in northern Italy.[48] But the school of letters in Spain where Orosius had the Aeneid burned into his memory was evidently run according to a different idea of letters, one that overlapped with the grammarians'.[49]

The presence of Vergil—the poet par excellence of the Latin grammarian—in the ludus litterarius well suggests how permeable was the boundary between the two spheres and how broad, traditional distinctions could be blurred according to circumstances. This is not to say that Orosius's experience was universal, that classical texts were taught in every school of letters: neither the argument nor the evidence implies this, although there is at the same time no need to think Orosius's experience was unique.[50] Nor was the boundary less real for being porous, any more than the ambiguity of literacy at its lower levels meant there was no real distinction between knowing and not knowing letters. The point, rather, is that the boundary was marked by such intangibles as individual predisposition, locality, or class, as well as by objective criteria. In some cases mere letters and liberal letters, the school of letters and the grammarian's school, might overlap because of a local variation that

[47] On the subject of local variation that follows, see Kaster, "Notes" 342ff.

[49] Oros. Adv. pagan . 1.18.1, the tale of Aeneas's labors ludi litterarii disciplina nostrae quoque memoriae inustum est . Reading Vergil would necessarily also involve, at least incidentally, a fairly sophisticated level of linguistic instruction. For common ground between the ludus litterarius and the grammarian's school in linguistic instruction, see Quintil. Inst . 1.4.27, with the discussion by Kaster, "Notes" 339.

[50] For more evidence, see Kaster, "Notes" 342ff.; and note esp. the boys' master (magister puerorum ) Clamosus and his son of the same name and profession, both at Parentium: Part II nos. 29, 30.


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would raise the substance of mere letters to approach liberal letters. In other cases, perhaps more commonly, a similar overlap would result from factors, primarily social, that would bring the substance of the grammarian's school down to approach mere letters.

Upper-class students who aimed at an education in liberal letters would normally have the grammarian as their first teacher.[51] Some students might have received private tuition in the elements before entering the grammarian's school; some would begin as young as seven. This mixture of ages and backgrounds could be served by a mixed corps of teachers, as we find among the grammarians of Bordeaux, whom we know especially well.[52] Some of these grammarians—including, at one point, Ausonius, who began as a teacher of the youngest students—gave elementary instruction (called prima elementa or the like); others taught at a more advanced level. The classrooms of the former, in the age and attainments of their students and the level of their instruction, would not have looked very different from the classroom of a teacher of letters. Yet they were all grammatici , by definition teaching liberal letters, however humble the early stages might be:[53] they were defined by their context, as teachers in an important center of literary studies, educating children who belonged for the most part to the best families of Bordeaux, Aquitaine, and Gaul at large. At the outset of his career, Ausonius was no less a grammarian for giving elementary instruction to children he "nurtured in their suckling years."[54] Indeed, it might be said that Ausonius was then a grammarian simply because he gave that instruction in the setting he did to the children he did. In such a case, circumstances outweighed substance, intangibles defined boundaries that objectively might seem violated.

Where literacy and letters were not objectively defined but, being fluid in meaning and connotation, were dependent on the contexts in which they were embedded, it is not surprising that the agents of literacy were similarly dependent. For the grammarian this meant that his profession was marked off both by objectively definable skills (knowledge of correct speech, the explication of the poets) and by nontechnical—what we might regard as nonprofessional—considerations. As we see from the grammatici of Bordeaux, the latter were no less important in defining the grammarian's position. The differentiation of his profession coincided with and was determined by the differentiation of his skills; but the differentiation of his profession also coincided with and was determined by the

[51] See Chap. 1 n. 44.

[52] On the grammatici Burdigalenses , see Appendix 4.

[53] Cf. above n. 35, on litterae at Jer. C. Rufin . 1.30.

[54] Auson. Epist . 22.67f., with which compare Kaster, "Notes" 333, on Augustine as grammarian.


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social differentiation of the world around him—with consequences that a modern eye, accustomed to seeing a profession in terms of its technical attributes, might overlook or misjudge.[55] The grammarian was who he was not only because he possessed the traditional skills of his craft but also because he taught in circumstances and served a clientele defined by a traditional structure of prestige and privilege. It is as though a physician's profession today were partly defined by his traditionally serving patients of a certain social status.

Yet, another point of view is possible. Because he stood at the boundary of liberal letters, the grammarian was in an ambiguous position. Although he was easily distinguished from the next figure in the sequence of liberal education, the teacher of rhetoric—there would ordinarily be little opportunity to confuse their classrooms—the same statement cannot be made so flatly concerning the grammarian and the teachers of letters outside the liberal schools. With some grammarians' instruction descending to the level of the latter and the instruction of some of the latter rising to the level of the grammarian, and in view of the fluidity of letters, it is little wonder that the same general style—"agent of letters" (i.e., teacher: inline image, litterator )—is often used of both.[56]

In a world of limited and varied literacy, the grammarian's professio litterarum was only one among a number of competing educational forms, each offering its own competence and status, even power. Those who stood outside the literary culture of prestige not only were able to live productive lives but might have a freedom of movement extraordinary in itself and repugnant, if not threatening, to those loyal to traditional structures of privilege.

Among the more familiar examples of such freedom are the stenographers (notarii , "notaries") who provide some of the more spectacular instances of social mobility in the fourth century.[57] Practicing a form of literacy distinct from liberal letters and traditionally reserved for men of humble origins, the notaries were increasingly drawn into the imperial service in the first half of the fourth century, meeting the bureaucracy's need for more and more clerks. They thus merged with the new aristocracy of service; and in particular those who worked dose to the emperor—

[55] For example, Jouai, Magistraat 32ff., correctly recognized the different functions of the grammatici of Bordeaux but had to make the distinction intelligible by singling out one set as "de 'echte' grammatici," against the evidence. The situation is dearly and firmly described by Booth, "Elementary Education" 6ff.

[56] See Appendix 2.

[57] For the following, on the notaries, their status, and their relation to liberal culture, see Marrou, Histoire 448ff., Christiana tempora 55ff.; Wolf, Schulwesen 53ff.; Petit, Libanius 363ff., Étudiants 80; A. H. M. Jones, "Social Background" 28f., LRE 572ff.; Liebeschuetz, Antioch 242f.; Hopkins, "Elite Mobility" 114.


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the notaries of the sacred consistory, for example—drew power from the contact, profiting from an access few could match, being entrusted with extraordinary commissions, and enjoying a corresponding mobility as they rose to higher office and wealth. A man like Libanius—who thought of access to power as a commodity reserved for his students or men much like them, emerging from the urban upper classes and passing through the schools into a network of friends—could find the phenomenal rise of such parvenu clerks repellent on several levels. It was, for one thing, a victory of technicité over humanisme and the traditional culture of letters.[58] To a man whose life was anchored by his daily contact with the ancients, the notary's craft could represent the ultimate plunge of literacy into shapelessness and transience. More galling still was the diminution of his own privilege, which he perceived as following from the notary's circumventing the traditional structure of prestige.[59] Such disgruntlement had a predictable outcome: the upper classes coopted the notary's position.[60] After the mid-fourth century, the elite managed to win for itself the access to the emperor that notaries of humble origins had previously enjoyed. The status stenography could provide made learning notarial skills along with liberal letters in an upper-class education not only desirable but even respectable.[61] By the first half of the fifth century, the title of notary became virtually honorary.[62]

A figure comparable to the notary, if less well known, is the autodidact.[63] Like the notary in his heyday, the successful autodidact appeared to prosper independently of traditional structures and was subject to the disgruntled attacks of men who identified with those structures: talking about a man of humble origins who became an advocate by haunting the tribunals and went on to gain wealth and office, Libanius sounded much the same as he did when heaping contempt on arriviste stenographers.[64]

[58] Cf. Marrou and Petit as cited in the preceding note.

[59] "Perceived" is used here advisedly: since we know that Libanius's complaints are exaggerated (his own students continued to prosper; cf. the remarks of Petit, Libanius 368ff., Étudiants 83), it was evidently the mere thought of such circumvention that stung, as much as its effects.

[60] Cf. Hopkins, "Elite Mobility" 114, comparing the displacement of freed-men by equites in the service of the emperor in the early empire.

[61] See, e.g., Amm. Marc. 29.1.8, on Theodorus in the West; Hauser-Meury, Prosopographie 131, on the education of the sons of Nicobulus in the East. A similar mixture is implied at the beginning of the sixth century by the early career of Ioannes Lydus; see Part II no. 92.

[62] The real work of the notaries was done by a smaller number than bore the title, or by other functionaries in the bureaucracy: see Jones, LRE 574.

[63] I know of no comprehensive study of this interesting type.

[64] Or . 62.46ff. on Heliodorus; directly comparable with Or . 42.23-24, the rogues' gallery of men who rose through stenography.


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In the eyes of the expert who had painstakingly acquired his skill within the confines of his cultural tradition, the autodidact was an intruder,[65] an eccentric talent succeeding through mother wit alone,[66] disturbingly unencumbered by the forms through which expertise was customarily attained.

To be thus unencumbered meant one's achievement was intensely personal; at the same time it necessarily meant one's position was isolated and exposed. In this lonely distinction the autodidact was unlike the notary. In place of a prestigious tradition, the notary had his institutional niche and the power it could provide; but from his first appearance, the autodidact commonly found validation in another source. The claim of the bard Phemius, "I am self-taught [inline image], and the god has implanted in my wits songs of all kinds,"[67] is echoed in the epitaph of a literary man "whose life was all-pure, whom the Muse made self-taught"[68] and even in the epitaph of a woman "excelling in her devotion to her husband, for Athena herself made her self-taught in her accomplishments."[69] The charismatic claim at once asserts a splendid singularity and draws back from affirming a purely personal achievement, revealing the tendency inherent in inline image for the meaning "self-taught" to fall together with "untaught"—owing nothing to human mediators—and hence with "god-taught." The autodidact, in this sense, embodies the claim of natural knowledge, standing outside or above ordinary human culture, like the man who, "mastered by no constraint of humankind, but educated by the providence of the gods, acquired an incomparable, natural [lit., "self-generated": inline image] wisdom."[70] Such a figure

[67] Homer Od . 22.347f.

[68] Bull. ép . 1973, 475 no. 1 (Cremna [Pisidia]), lines 5f.

[69] GVI 791 (s.III / s.IV?, Syracuse), lines 7f.; the subject of the verses was, interestingly, a Christian.


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approximates the god who is "natural, untaught";[71] he has knowledge directly and immediately, like Apollonius of Tyana, who "knew all languages, having learned not a one."[72]

The socially mobile notary had joined his skill with an undeniable institutional source of power and prestige and had thus circumvented the traditional route to elite status. The charismatic autodidact vaulted over human institutions and traditions in a triumphant display of spiritual mobility. The one troubled the literary culture of prestige until he was tamed by it; the other was most evidently associated with Christianity, which emerged in the fourth century as the second culture of prestige. When we turn to the two great traditions, we will see how the history of the grammarian's profession in the classical literary culture was marked by tensions and cooptation much like the experience of the notary, and how the charismatic self-taught (untaught, god-taught) man stood near the center of the relations between the grammarian and the Christian culture of the fourth and fifth centuries.

Independence and Constraint: Good and Bad Grammarians and The Power of Convention

In Book 14, Chapter 5 of his Attic Nights , Aulus Gellius presents a curious spectacle. Two eminent Roman grammarians are engaged in a heated public argument, all but coming to blows over the correct vocative form of the adjective egregius : first one, then the other presses the claims of his rationalized account (ratio ) or rule (definitio ), then back again; no end in sight. With a shrug and a sniff Gellius withdraws: "But since . . . their competition was going on at quite some length, I did not judge it worth my while to listen longer to those same, well-known arguments, and left them yelling and battling." The incident is intended to amuse and appall, as each grammarian clings to his ratio as though his life depended on it, in a display of emotion and egotism at once unseemly and boring.

The episode, like so many in Gellius, involves a competition for prestige centering on the literary culture. Explicitly, the contestants are the two


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grammarians, each with his professional authority invested in his own ratio . But Gellius's dismissal implies the larger competition played out in the Attic Nights as whole: Gellius and his learned friends versus the vulgus semidoctum , "the common run of half-educated men," to which the "half-educated grammarian" (semidoctus grammaticus ) belongs.[73] In various vignettes the grammarians thrust themselves and their learning forward only to be embarrassed by their betters; they are consistently losers in the competition for a place in the "aristocracy of letters."[74] This competition, its tensions, and its resolutions are perhaps most responsible for shaping the grammarian's relations as a professional teacher with men of culture at large and for defining the image of the grammarian in the literary tradition from the early empire onward.

In this section, then, we will briefly trace the origins and consequences of this competition. Along the way we will see how the early grammarians were able to claim a place in the world of liberal letters through their technical skills; how the social and cultural elite regarded the rise of the profession; how once the profession and its skills were established the elite coopted them; and how as a result the elite's conventional values limited the profession's independence.

Of course for competition there must be competitors. The grammarians were latecomers to the contest, owing their position to the gradual emergence of the Roman schools of liberal letters as institutions distinct from the family, where the education of the upper classes had long been embedded.[75] Appearing at Rome from the late second century B.C. , the grammarians over the course of the next century slowly disengaged themselves from the great households to which they were formally tied as slaves and freedmen or on which as men of otherwise humble origin they were wholly dependent. Like the teachers of rhetoric, the grammarians began opening their own schools from about 100 B.C. and gradually became identified as the teachers of children in language

[73] Vulgus semidoctum: NA 1.7.17. Semidoctus grammaticus : 15.9.6.

[74] For the grammatici , apart from the passages cited above and below, see esp. NA 4.1, 5.4, 6.17, 8.10 praef., 13.31, 16.6, 18.6, 19.10, 20.10. For the most important exception, Gellius's teacher Sulpicius Apollinaris, see below, pp. 59-60. The place of letters in the larger competition for prestige and social standing among Gellius's contemporaries is well described by Champlin, Fronto 45ff., esp. 49.

[75] On the development of the grammarian's school at Rome, see recently Bonner, Education 37ff.; and esp. Booth, "Appearance." On competition within the aristocracy as a spur to the emergence of the liberal schools, see the sensible remarks of Wallace-Hadrill, Suetonius 30ff. For the idea of structural differentiation applied to education in a systematic account of institutional change, see Hopkins, Conquerors 76ff. The present discussion, less concerned with the reasons for the differentiation, takes as its starting point the fact that it did occur.


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and literature.[76] In general, we can say that structural differentiation had gone as far as it would go by the beginning of the first century A.D. By that time the grammarian's school was formally separate both from the family and from other educational institutions, the rhetorician's school within the field of liberal studies and the school of letters outside.[77]

These changes did not occur without friction between old and new. In their earliest, most explicit form the tensions of competition had as their focus the new institution that impinged most on public life. In a decree of 92 B.C. the censors attempted to close the schools of Latin rhetoric on the grounds that they contradicted the "habit and custom of the elders" (consuetudo ac mos maiorum ):[78] the mos , we can infer, was the novitiate of the forum (tirocinium fori ), the traditional form of apprenticeship for public life, through which the prospective man of affairs attached himself as a youth to an established figure, learning how to act and speak as he followed his model and watched him go about his business. By its nature the tirocinium was part of a closed and rigid system that monopolized entry to a civic career. Access depended heavily on the ascribed status of the participants and the connections of family and friendship, and its methods were informal, based upon the personal relationship between the younger and the older man. The schools of rhetoric, offering wider access to an important skill, threatened the monopoly and provoked the (fruitless) attempt at repression.

Probably because the grammarian's connection with public life was always less direct than the rhetorician's, similar tensions involving the grammarian's school were less dramatic in their appearance and longer in coming. In fact, the most overt and sustained reactions did not begin until the first century A.D. , when the grammarian had already settled into his institutional niche and had begun explicitly to stake out language

[76] On the freedmen and slaves as grammarians, see now Christes, Sklaven . For dependence and disengagement, see esp. the cases of Antonius Gnipho and Lenaeus (Suet. Gramm . 7, 15). On schools of rhetoric, see below, n. 78. On the date, and on the gradual identification with the education of younger children, see esp. Booth, "Appearance" 123f. Suetonius's statement (Gramm . 3.3) that at certain times (temporibus quibusdam ) there were more than twenty schools of grammar at Rome is unfortunately vague in its chronology, but it must refer to a period well into the first century B.C.

[77] On the different kinds of schools, see Chap. 1 n. 44; for limitations on the differentiation from the school of letters see "Some Variable Definitions" above.

[78] Suet. Gramm . 25.2, specifying Latin rhetoricians with their own schools (ludi ), thus different from the more general SC de philosophis et de rhetoribus of 161 B.C. (Suet. Gramm . 25.1; Gell. NA 15.11.1); on the opening of the schools of rhetoric in the first decade of s.I B.C. and for the interpretation of the edict of 92 B.C. that follows, see Schmidt, "Anfänge."


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as his area of expertise: it is possible here to glimpse the causes and effects, as the profession's differentiation fostered and was reinforced by the development of a specialized skill, with repercussions in the literary culture more broadly. A grammarian's claim to stand against Tiberius and control Latinity by limiting words' "citizenship"[79] and, in Nero's reign, Seneca's sarcastic reference to the grammarians as the "guardians of Latin speech"[80] mark out the period when the grammarian became identified in his own mind and in others' eyes as the agent of linguistic control. It is not accidental that the first comprehensive ars appears in Latin during this same period, composed by the professional grammarian Remmius Palaemon and providing the model for future handbooks.[81] Intellectual history here catches up with institutional and social history: the ars defined and codified the professional's expertise, the systematic analysis and the rules that were his special excellence, and so helped install the grammarian in a cultural system to which he was a newcomer.

In this conservative milieu, the grammarian's rules can still seem novel to Gellius a century later, when he turns an unfriendly gaze on "those who pay homage to the new-fangled conventions [nova instituta ] of the grammatici as though they were the sacred objects of sacred precincts [inline image]."[82] Yet Gellius's impatient disdain here dearly has a meaning different from what he intended. His characterization really shows how far the grammarians had progressed: it recognizes both the validity the common run of educated men attributed to the new-fangled conventions and the prestige those conventions' makers had come to enjoy.

This common grant of validity and prestige had several results. If two grammarians battling over the fine points of morphology are burlesque figures, the comedy nonetheless has a truth at its core: the rival grammarians cling as if for life each to his own rule because their lives—insofar as these were identified with professional and cultural status—did indeed depend on the rules. At the same time, for literary men who would stand apart from the common run, the grammatici became figures with whom they must reckon and from whom they might distinguish them-

[79] See Chap. 1 n. 16; cf. n. 113 below.

[80] Ep . 95.65. See also Ep . 108.30ff., Seneca's contempt for the grammarians, as figures concerned only with linguistic detail; and cf. Ep . 58.1ff., on "wasting one's time with a grammarian."

[81] On the influence of Palaemon's achievement, see Barwick, Remmius 146ff., 236ff. On previous artes at Rome as early as the Sullan age, and so within a generation of the introduction of the grammarian's school, see Barwick, ibid. 109ff., 229ff., with, e.g., Bonner, Education 55.

[82] NA 17.2.15. Note also Gellius's contempt for turba grammaticorum novicia at NA 11.1.5; and cf. NA 16.7.13, isti novicii semidocti .


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selves. Writing on the language as a learned amateur in the time of Nero, the elder Pliny could foresee that his work would provoke the grammarians, and he registered a combative glee when his prediction proved correct.[83] A generation later, the literary guru Yalerius Probus self-consciously set himself apart from the ordinary professional grammarian: Probus had followers (rather than pupils), three or four of whom he would admit to his home of an afternoon (not meet in larger groups, in a classroom, in the morning), where he would recline (not sit in a teacher's cathedra ) and hold conversations (not deliver lectures).[84] It is the picture of an intimate and elite coterie, gentlemen meeting in an aristocracy of letters. It is of a piece with this picture that Probus despised "those rotten rules and cesspools of grammar."[85]

Several factors aggravated the tensions that developed over the course of the first century and continued into the next. First, there was the propaedeutic paradox: grammar had become and was to remain the first stage in a liberal education, the fundamentum of eloquence, in the metaphor repeated from Quintilian through Cassiodorus;[86] as such, it was both niggling and necessary. At the end of the first century Quintilian still had to defend grammar against the view that it was "insubstantial and jejune."[87] The reasons for this view are understandable. Seemingly removed from the concerns worthy of gentlemen by its immersion in minutiae, grammar required the mastery of those rotten rules; narrow and achingly technical, it summoned up the old distinction between the technician's specialized training and the broad culture of the aristocratic ideal and fell decisively on the side of the former.[88] But because of the institutional norms and cultural expectations that had developed among the elite, grammar was also unavoidable. The grammarian, as guardian, controlled access to the language and the education one's peers valued.

[83] NH praef. 28.

[84] Suet. Gramm . 24.2, with Grisart, "Valerius" 385. On the connotations of "follower" (sectator ) in particular, see below, with n. 107.

[85] The phrases appear in the anecdote preserved at Gell. NA 13.2.1: finitiones illas praerancidas et fetutinas grammaticas .

[86] Quintil. Inst . 1.4.5; Cassiod. Var . 9.21.3.

[87] Quintil. Inst . 1.4.5ff.

[88] On the distinction, see the recent survey of Christes, Bildung 15ff., 196ff. The narrowness is part of, e.g., Gellius's contempt for the semidocti : for the narrowness of the grammarian vs. the broader culture of the ideal, see esp. NA 20.10. Note that Quintilian's review of the grammarian's tasks, Inst . 1.4-8, dwells on his linguistic instruction; the culturally more inclusive task of enarratio is considered only in the latter part of 1.8. Contrast Florus's attempt to put a fair face on the grammarian's professio litterarum , concentrating wholly on the ethical content of the instruction and, at least as his text is now preserved, ignoring the linguistic-technical: cf. Chap. 1 n. 5.


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His institutional place by itself made the grammarian a consequential figure endowed with power and respectability as a cultural authority, and his mastery of the language gave him a conceptual power that even those who might despise his pedantry were unwilling to abandon themselves.[89]

Yet the grammarians were not obviously or unambiguously gentlemen, worthy of this power: they were by and large stigmatized for taking fees,[90] and—especially at Rome, in the early first century—they were still comparable in their humble social origins to the grammarians of the preceding century. As competitors, they were at once worthy in their cultural standing and unworthy in their persons. Remmius Palaemon is emblematic of such circumstances, a grotesque in the eyes of the upper classes. Born a slave, he originally learned the lowly craft of weaving (the story went), and got his first taste of letters by accompanying his mistress's son to school; he then taught as a freedman at Rome, where his school brought him yearly earnings equivalent to a knight's census, and an estate. All his wealth went to satisfy his taste for luxury and his lusts; because of his vices, Tiberius and Claudius warned students off his school, but without effect. Vergil, he claimed, had used the name "Palaemon" in his work (Ecl . 3.50ff.) because he had foreseen that Palaemon himself would one day be the greatest scholar of poetry. Varro—a Roman senator and the greatest scholar of Latin before him—he called a pig.[91]

The sketch is familiar: it is the standard picture of the arrogant and depraved parvenu. With some adjustment, this image of Palaemon could be superimposed on the caricatures of wealthy and powerful freedmen from the first century, especially in the imperial service, or of the suddenly risen notarii from the fourth. In each case the picture appears when competition for honor has been aggravated by the inconsistent status of some of the competitors, men who might enjoy prestige in one

[90] Cf. Dahlmann, Kleine Schriften 256 (and add Suet. Gramm . 3; Dio Chrys. Or . 7.114); Hopkins, Conquerors 124; Booth, "Image" 5; and below, n. 103. In his comment on Suet. Gramm . 24.2, numquam enim ita docuit [sc. Probus ] ut magistri personam sustineret , Grisart was probably correct to conclude ("Valerius" 385 n. 26) that "la phrase veut dire que Probus ne fut jamais un professionel exerçant son art moyennant salaire " (Grisart's emphasis). On change and continuity in attitudes toward payment, see Chap. 3 pp. 122-23.

[91] Suet. Gramm . 23; cf. most recently Christes, Sklaven 98ff.


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or more areas (letters and wealth for Palaemon, political office and power for the notarii ) but have none in others (birth in Palaemon's case, letters and birth in the case of the notarii ).[92]

Which features of our picture of Palaemon might be caricature it is not my purpose to decide here,[93] nor is it necessary to question individual details. The overall emphasis speaks for itself: it betrays the tendency of a tradition to move in the direction of cliché and to resolve awkward inconsistencies by imposing a single image. An illustration can be found close to hand. One can gather references to teachers of letters in the high literary tradition from Demosthenes to Libanius and emerge with the consistent picture of a thoroughly humble figure with no claims to status in any form, a "gagne-petit universellement méprisé."[94] Nothing learned from these sources will prepare one to find, for example, a teacher of letters offering a substantial dedication to the goddess Leto in the name of the emperor, on equal footing with a rhetorician.[95] This does not mean that the tradition is wholly wrong, still less that the literary references are simply a mindless commonplace. On the contrary, the example points to an important need the commonplace meets, offering the reassuring image of a world where the people one despises are really no better than they ought to be. In Palaemon's case, that reassuring image is preserved, at very least, by the proportions in the tradition Suetonius retails and by the shape it takes in the telling. In the long entry on Palaemon, only three terse clauses are devoted to his cultural achievements;[96] all else is given over to his regrettable mores . His main claim to achieved status is thus submerged; his other potential claim, his

[92] On inconsistencies in status and their consequences for the imperial freedmen, see Weaver, "Social Mobility." On the notarii , see above "Some Variable Definitions" ad fin .

[93] Note that Suetonius's phrasing at the start of the entry (Gramm . 23.1: Q. Remmius Palaemon Vicetinus mulieris verna primo, ut ferunt, textrinum, deinde . . . litteras didicit ; cf. ferunt at ibid. 3 [below, n. 98]) should suggest that the account bears the stamp of gossip, and should therefore recommend greater caution than is usually apparent in its handling.

[94] Marrou, Histoire 484. For references to teachers of letters, see the collections of Marrou, ibid. 223; Booth, "Image" 2, "Some Suspect Schoolmasters"; and cf. Part II no. 241.

[96] Suet. Gramm . 23.1f.: sed capiebat homines cum memoria rerum tum facilitate sermonis: nec non etiam poemata faciebat ex tempore. scripsit vero variis nec vulgaribus metris . Note that even the phrasing here seems not entirely neutral: capiebat = "charmed," "won over," almost "seduced." With the brevity here, contrast the sketch of Valerius Probus, Gramm . 24, a much larger proportion of which is devoted to the man's scholarly activity.


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wealth, is tainted by association with his inherent vices.[97] In sum, he emerges as a man without weight or substance, ultimately laughable.[98]

We could never gauge Palaemon's contribution to grammar from the tradition that Seutonius passes along to us; the main lines of that tradition aim to put the upstart in his place. He is a bad grammarian, and not in the sense that he is a bad scholar (as we would use the phrase, to mean that he is bad at what he does) but because he is a bad person—morally defective, unworthy of the trust placed in him (recall the warnings of Tiberius and Claudius) and surely unworthy of his spectacular success. Not for the last time, as we shall see, personal and ethical judgments play a significant part in determining how one is to regard the grammarian; insofar as the tale of Palaemon is remarkable, it is so because ethical judgment seems to play the only part. The matter is thereby simplified considerably.

Things would not, however, always be so simple, as the Attic Nights shows. The competition informing so much of that work is, to be sure, predictably resolved by the revelation that one's competitors—including many bad grammarians—are laughable and unworthy. But for Gellius, writing in the second half of the second century, the competition is complex: there are no blatant inconsistencies of status; the villains cannot easily be caricatured and dismissed as arriviste grotesques, and their claims to learning receive dose attention. Thus the portraits of the bad grammarians also become complex as their lapses in learning are drawn in to complement and highlight their lapses in mores .

This complexity has much to do with how the social composition of the profession changed, and that change in turn is a measure of how prestigious the grammarian's role had become. From the late first and early second century onward, the profession began to attract members of the respectable classes. This was a familiar process: the elite habitually claimed positions that were worth holding, "pulling the ladder up after themselves."[99] The grammatici who appear in Gellius's work as despised rivals for a place in the aristocracy of letters would probably not have had social origins radically different from Gellius's own.[100] The competition takes place more nearly among peers, which probably made it only

[97] His wealth is mentioned only to provide a measure for his luxuria: Gramm . 23.2, luxuriae ita indulsit ut saepius in die lavaret, nec sufficeret sumptibus, quamquam ex schola quadringena annua caperet, ac non multo minus ex re familiari .

[98] The entry ends (Gramm . 23.3) with a joke handed down (ferunt ) at Palaemon's expense, concerning his libidines .

[99] Cf. Hopkins, "Elite Mobility."

[100] On Gellius's vita , to be set in the middle range of good society, see Holford-Strevens, "Towards a Chronology." It is significant that although the grammatici are spared little in the NA , none is skewered for his social origins. (I assume here, as elsewhere in my comments on Gellius, that the details in his vignettes can claim verisimilitude when they are not strictly historical, and that when historical they are subject to the improvement of Gellius's literary art.) On the grammarians' origins in this period, see now also Wallace-Hadrill, Suetonius 38f.


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more tense and difficult and no doubt influenced the strategy Gellius chose.

In anecdote after anecdote Gellius shows that whatever their claims or pretensions, most grammarians were nonetheless neither scholars nor gentlemen. Their main claims to cultural standing—their control of the language, and especially their rules—are repeatedly deflated, and their intellectual failure is usually combined with ethical lapse and social catastrophe. The grammarian who misguidedly trusts in his skill and arrogantly claims center stage is reduced to "blushing and sweating" before his betters.[101] Or, as in the anecdote earlier described,[102] the grammarians make an absurd and regrettable spectacle of themselves, not just engaging in an undignified public wrangle (that would be bad enough) but wrangling over something Gellius can dismiss as old hat. Or, in a direct confrontation with Gellius, an unbecomingly boastful fellow (homo inepte gloriosus ) must finally cover his embarrassed ignorance with a self-important (but self-destructive) defense, "That's no small question you ask; I don't teach that sort of thing for free": his desperate retreat into professional status is simply the finishing touch in a picture of cultural and ethical inferiority.[103] Or, meeting another contentious grammarian, Gellius amuses himself by coolly making up his own rule (finitio ficta ) on the spur of the moment to suit his argument and sends the grammarian off with a flea in his ear: the rule is false, Gellius says, but you cannot prove it is.[104] The implications are of course disastrous: so far as the grammarian's precious rules are concerned, anyone can play the game, with no authentic claim to validity; and without the claim, there remain only those rotten rules and cesspools of grammar that Probus had denounced, and the grammarian's silly and arrogant pedantry, which Greek epigrammatists had satirized at Rome still earlier in the first century.[105]

Yet such vignettes tell only part of the story. They report easy victories over faceless grammarians, but they do not convey the importance that Gellius attributed to grammar itself. That was a serious business for

[101] NA 19.10.

[102] NA 14.5.

[103] NA 13.3.3; cf. 18.14.1 (the contempt for a iactator quispiam et venditator Sallustianae lectionis , who is contrasted with Sulpicius Apollinaris) and n. 90 above.

[104] NA 15.9.6ff.

[105] Cf. esp. Anth. Gr . 11.321 (Philippus), with 11.347; 11.138, 140 (Lucilius); cf. also 11.279 (Lucilius).


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Gellius, as he demonstrates not only in his insistent attacks on the grammarians—if they were unimportant, he would not attack them—but also in the high proportion of chapters that are devoted to grammatical questions and show Gellius's readiness to use the grammarians' techniques and categories when it serves his purpose. How could he not, when he had been immersed in them through his schooling? The substance of grammar was just too important, in fact, to be left to the common run of grammarians, the bad grammarians. Accordingly, heroes must be summoned up to show how it should be done and to put the villains to rout; and the hero himself can be a grammarian, provided he is the right sort—a good grammarian, like Gellius's teacher, Sulpicius Apollinaris.

Sulpicius is of course shown to be more broadly and more deeply learned than the grammarian of the vulgus . More noteworthy, the difference is presented as much in terms of personal attachment and mores as in doctrina . Gellius first associates with Sulpicius not as a puer of the age normal for a grammarian's student but only after assuming the toga virilis , when he has gone on his own in search of "more expert teachers":[106] the relations and status of student and teacher are immediately characterized as extraordinary thereby. Gellius is not a common pupil but a "follower";[107] Sulpicius is "our friend Apollinaris," a familiaris ,[108] contrasted at one point with a vulgar "peddler of Sallust."[109] The bond is different from and more intimate than the exchange of cash for learning, the normal, tainted relationship between student and teacher. Further, the experiences of Gellius and Sulpicius are not set in the classroom but belong to the palace, the booksellers' quarter, or the bibliotheca Tiberiana[110] and are thus part of the public or semipublic intellectual life of the city. Their experiences in fact suggest nothing so much as a metamorphosis of the old tirocinium fori . Nor is the relationship confined to Gellius's adolescence, since Sulpicius is there to give advice to the more mature Gellius,[111] as he does to men still more eminent.[112]

[106] NA 18.4.1, which of course implies that even at this still-tender age Gellius was able to distinguish the good coin from the base.

[107] Sectari: NA 7.6.12, 13.18.3, 20.6.1; for sectator elsewhere in the NA , see, e.g., 3.1.5, sectatores of Favorinus. Cf. above, with n. 84, on Valerius Probus. For the connotations of personal loyalty inherent in sectator , appropriate to members of succeeding generations within a family, see esp. Chap. 1 n. 74 (on CIL 6.1416, 1418); and cf. Anon. Pan. Lat . 7.23.2 Galletier, multi sectatores mei equated in the preceding sentence with the rhetorician's natural children.

[108] NA 11.15.8, 13.20.1.

[109] Cf. n. 103 above.

[110] NA 19.13,18.4,13.20.

[111] NA 12.13, when Gellius was a iudex .

[112] NA 13.18, advising Erucius Clarus; cf. 19.13.


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Personally, where other grammarians are assertive and combative, Sulpicius is content not to press his authority:[113] mild in rebuke and quietly confident when he knows he is right, he handles pretenders to learning with "the kind of wily irony that Socrates used against the sophists."[114] "A man with a surpassing knowledge of literature," "a man adorned with choice knowledge," "the most learned man I recall,"[115] Sulpicius could be taken for one among the learned amateurs, did not Gellius tell us that he was a grammaticus and magister .[116] That, of course, is precisely the point: Sulpicius is the grammarian as gentleman. Consistent with this, his writings were belletristic epistulae ,[117] not an ars or other technical tract.

In his portrait of Sulpicius and in his concern with things grammatical, Gellius shows us a stylized, idealized gentrification of the discipline: gentlemen and the grammarian as gentleman together immersed in grammar. If grammar had become established as part of Rome's literary world, much of Gellius can be read as an attempt to show how it should behave accordingly, with manners and learning alike refined and exquisite. The attempt is not unique to Gellius but recurs in the period with which we are centrally concerned.

Two and a half centuries after the Attic Nights , another good grammarian is sketched in the pages of one of Gellius's literary descendants—Servius in Macrobius's Saturnalia .[118] As in the case of Sulpicius, Servius's excellence is expressed in terms of both doctrina and mores and is revealed in informal, personal relationships: he is "at once admirable in his learning and attractive in his modesty" (iuxta doctrina mirabilis et amabilis verecundia ),[119] and both his learning and his verecundia are displayed in the symposium held by "nobles and other learned men" in their discussions of Vergil. The most striking feature here is that the virtue attributed to (or imposed on) the grammarian sets the tone of the entire work, which is itself the most profoundly grammatical product of the amateur literary tradition in late antiquity.

One of the cardinal virtues, verecundia can be translated as "modesty"; more accurately (if more cumbersomely), it names the sense of propriety deriving from a regard for the opinion of other men and an awareness

[113] Note esp. NA 19.13.3: Sulpicius graciously allows Fronto the authority to give citizenship to words—an evident alteration of the metaphor's original application (cf. Chap. 1 n. 16) that conforms to the ethos of Sulpicius.

[114] Mildness: NA 13.20.5. Irony: 18.4.1.

[115] NA 4.17.11, 16.5.5, 13.18.2.

[116] NA 7.6.12, 18.4.1.

[117] NA 15.5.3; cf. 13.18.2f.

[118] For the points raised in the following paragraphs, see further Kaster, "Macrobius."

[119] Sat 1.2.15.


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of one's own position (especially one's hierarchical position) relative to others in a given context. It is the quality found, for example, in the deference an inferior owes to a superior (women to men, a young man to an older man, a humble man to an aristocrat), in the sense of shame that restrains a superior from humbling himself before an inferior, or in the awareness of parity that, ideally, checks competition between equals.[120]Verecundia is the virtue of knowing one's place, the virtue par excellence of the status quo , an abundantly social virtue, regulating the behavior of men in groups.

In the ideal world envisioned by Macrobius, verecundia is so spontaneous as to seem innate. Thus Servius, who possesses a naturalis verecundia ,[121] is found now deferring as a young man and a grammarian to his elders and betters, now offering a contribution as an expert, according to the propriety of the situation. So too the other guests as a group spontaneously take their places in a hierarchical rank (ordo )[122] and know individually when to yield to others' expertise, when to assert their own, how to combine becomingly the two kinds of behavior. And Vergil himself is presumed to have exhibited precisely the grammarian's qualities in his own sphere, delicately coordinating deference and self-assertion in his treatment of the literary tradition.[123]

This deep sense of propriety gives the Saturnalia its core and makes erudition a moral quality. The innate regard for others' opinions, the capacity for gauging how one ought to behave in general, and how in particular one should respect the cultural heritage others value provide the impulse to learning. That impulse is brought to fruition by another virtue, diligentia , the scrupulousness that in social relations characterizes the dutiful behavior of friends and in intellectual life maintains and deepens one's contact with one's culture and makes one truly learned.[124] The model of excellence is the scrupulous reader (diligens lector ), exerting himself out of respect for the text, doing his duty by reciprocating the

[120] See Kaster, "Macrobius" 224ff.; with, e.g., Ambros. De off. min . 1.17.65ff., on verecundia among the officia adulescentis ; and esp. Jer. Ep . 66.6, where verecundia denotes the sense of shame produced by consciousness of rank, and the consequent difficulty for a member of the upper classes to descend to the life of the vulgus . Cf. Reg. orient . 17 (PL 103.479D): among the rules governing a praepositus of a monastery, the injunction ne perdat animam suam propter verecundiam . Cf. also Ambros. Apol. David altera 11.56: non mediocre autem quod Nathan denuntiavit ei [sc. David ], hoc est inferior propheta. gravis enim verecundia pudorque delictum ab inferiore reprehendi .

[121] Sat . 7.11.1.

[122] Sat . 2.2.1ff., 7.4.1ff., with Kaster, "Macrobius" 227ff.

[123] Sat . 1.16.44, poeta doctrina ac verecundia nobilis , with Kaster, "Macrobius" 231ff.


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poet's diligentia ; conversely, the ignorant man (most notably, in the Saturnalia , the cross-grained aristocrat Evangelus) is such because he lacks diligentia , and he fails to be scrupulous because he lacks verecundia .

Learning thus follows mores : the learned man must first be virtuous; the ignorant man is necessarily depraved. As a result, the grammarians who are criticized in the Saturnalia , as in the Attic Nights , are vulnerable for more than their failures in learning. The "vulgar troop of grammatici " from whom Servius is distinguished, grammarians concerned only with their linguistic expertise, who neglect the studia potiora —religion, philosophy, antiquities, and other Realien —that Vergil incorporated in his work, are fundamentally moral failures.[125] But a curious twist is involved here as well, one of the features that distinguish the Saturnalia from the Attic Nights , and Macrobius's Servius from Gellius's Sulpicius. The bad grammarians are among the villains of the piece, but Servius, the good grammarian, is himself apportioned only linguistic matters in the communal discussion of Vergil; the studia potiora belong to the noble guests. The grammarian's ethos and expertise stand at the center of the work, but the grammarian himself is at the margins: so thoroughly has grammar been engrossed by the learned amateurs of Macrobius's ideal that the group must even be reminded to include Servius in distributing their roles.[126]

Later on we shall consider the behavior of real grammarians and trace the lines they followed in life between the idealized images just described: the good grammarian of Gellius, moving freely among men of power and standing, and the good grammarian of Macrobius, following in the noblemen's wake, "his eyes upon the ground and looking as though he were trying to hide."[127] But in moving from the time of Gellius to that of Macrobius, one notices a fact that requires preliminary discussion here, since it concerns the development of the grammarian's profession. The grammarians have no lack of competitors and critics in the literary world of the early empire; in the later period the critics' silence is startling by contrast.

The sniping at grammarians in the Saturnalia is far less elaborate than in the Attic Nights (perhaps partially as a function of genre, and certainly because of Macrobius's greater concern to present a front of unity, compared with the open combativeness of Gellius).[128] Beyond the passing hits in the Saturnalia and a similar swipe in Tiberius Claudius Donatus's Interpretationes Vergilianae (1.1.5ff. Georgii), criticisms or lampoons fall into three categories: a few scattered and largely sectarian or ad hominem

[125] See Sat . 5.19-22, 1.24.12f., with Kaster, "Macrobius" 235f., 252ff.

[126] Sat 1.24.14-20.

[127] Sat . 1.2.15.

[128] Cf. Kaster, "Macrobius" 247f., 259f.


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sneers from one or another of the learned professions,[129] a few limp revivals in Latin of the earlier epigrammatic tradition,[130] and the remarkable poems of Palladas in Greek.[131] A grammarian in his own right, Palladas yet turns his general contempt for the world upon himself and his profession, and falls upon the sword of his own satirical epigrams. And that is all—save for a few voices among a new group of potential competitors, the Christian Fathers.[132]

Since from no point of view can the grammarians be said to have become unimportant to the literary culture and therefore too insignificant to be attacked, an explanation for this late-antique calm must be sought elsewhere. It is possible, for example, to point to cultural inertia: the grammarians' conventions were no longer new-fangled but had long since become familiar fixtures in the life of the liberally educated elite and could be valued as such, or at least be taken for granted. It is also possible that some tensions were dissipated by changes in the grammarians' social status as members of the respectable classes took over the profession. The trend visible at the end of the first century is certainly dominant by the fourth; although a few grammarians still emerge from humble levels of society,[133] the other grammarians whose origins and circumstances are observable cluster around the curial order and belong to the landed classes. They are not categorically their students' social and economic inferiors.

Yet these observations are not sufficient to explain the absence of comment and criticism. Cultural inertia evidently involves a petitio principii , since it does not address the questions, Why did those conventions settle into such easy familiarity? Why, in fact, did so little change in the substance and especially in the conceptual bases of grammar over the centuries? The familiar conventions of course continued to serve the advantage of the grammarians, who therefore had little incentive to

[130] Cf. Epigr. Bob . 46, 47, 61, 64.

[131] See Part II no. 113.

[132] See "Polished Speech, the Common Good, and Christianity" below.

[133] See Chap. 1 n. 59 for the grammarians of libertine birth at Bordeaux. Note that the inconcinnity is still felt by Ausonius, although not as grounds for contempt: thus Prof . 21.25-28, on Crispus and Urbicus, ambo loqui faciles, ambo omnia carmina docti, / callentes mython plasmata et historiam, / liberti ambo genus, sed quos meruisse deceret / nancisci ut cluerent patribus ingenuis . On the grammarians' social status generally, see Chap. 3.


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change.[134] Part of the answer no doubt lies there. But that can still tell no more than half the story, since it overlooks the grammarians' acquiescent audience—the members of the educated classes. Nor can change in the grammarians' status offer a solution, since, as Gellius shows, competition need be no less intense when it takes place among men who are more nearly peers.

It is possible, however, to suggest a broader hypothesis that might provide, if not a solution, at least a framework for fruitful discussion. The grammarians' conventions stayed as they were, and the grammarians ceased to be disturbing competitors, because the profession's social circumstances limited its differentiation and autonomy. Despite their emergence as separate institutions, the schools—and perhaps especially the grammarian's school—remained partially domesticated: the profession's horizontal differentiation Was limited because the grammarians remained tied directly to the family, to the representatives of the gentlemanly amateur tradition, and to the values of both.

Although it is commonly said, for example, that second- or fourth-century pedantry represents a decadent acquisition of knowledge for its own sake, one could well suggest a different view of the matter: knowledge was pursued not for its own sake but as a predominantly social phenomenon, as an appanage of personal relations and a token of accepted virtues. Knowledge could not usually be pursued, analyzed, pondered for its own sake. Or to put it another way, the habit of speaking (anachronistically) of ancient universities ought to be avoided, not simply because it obscures substantive curricular differences but especially because it obscures the institutional differences and their consequences. Antiquity lacked the institutional buffer that is raised between the lay and professional worlds by the modern university, which serves as the seedbed of the learned professions; and as a result antiquity had no place where a profession could attempt to set its own course and determine its own values.[135]

In the grammarian's world autonomy and dependence, achieved and ascribed status, professional skill and the virtuous regard for the opinions of (nonprofessional) others rubbed shoulders. The distinction—so basic to the modern notion of a profession—between impersonal evaluation

[134] See Chaps. 4 and 5, esp. Chap. 5 pp. 196-97.

[135] This does not of course imply that restraints on the institutional and personal autonomy of the professions cannot be found in the recent past or today, or that the modern professions are context-free; rather, the embedding takes different forms in different contexts. For studies of the problem in specific settings, see Clark, Prophets ; Keylor, Academy ; and esp. Ringer, Decline , and Weisz, Emergence . Much light is also thrown on the question by Bledstein, Culture . For a recent general discussion, see Ben-David, "Organization."


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of skill and personal favor or antipathy had no central place in the dominant ideology; instead, the distinction was blurred by an ideal that subordinated skill to ethical qualities. Old patterns of behavior persisted long after the profession's formal establishment: the face-to-face relations that characterized the dealings of grammarians with their patrons in the great households of late republican Rome never fundamentally changed, regardless of the different ways those relations came to be articulated, linking the teacher now to one, now to another benefactor—a parent, a town council, a provincial governor, or an emperor.

These relations had their ideological foundation in the union of doctrina and mores , the combination already found in the heroes and villains of the literary tradition. The centrifugal force of learning, tending toward personal distinction and autonomy, was balanced by the centripetal force of mores , urging conformity to established values and behavior. The meeting of the two forces and the resolution of their tensions are differently expressed in different contexts, accordingly as the grammarian is glimpsed in his professional writings or in a social setting.[136] There is, overall, a strong normative urge to resolve the tensions by subordinating doctrina to mores .

First, good learning and good mores are assumed to be inseparable: Gellius's half-learned grammarians are not quite gentlemen; his gentleman grammarian is among the most learned men he ever knew. The union of qualities is part of the line of continuity in the classical tradition from the early to the late empire and between literary and social convention. Macrobius's praise of his idealized grammarian, "at once admirable in his doctrina and attractive in his verecundia, " recapitulates the qualities patrons desired in their dependents and imagines a man capable of finding the middle course between the extremes of professional life described in a fourth-century letter of recommendation: "You know, of course, . . . how rare is the affinity of eloquence and good character [bonum pectus ]: either verecundia diminishes an unassuming talent [modestum ingenium ] or the eloquent man gets above himself in his success."[137]

[136] See Chaps. 4 and 5, and Chap. 6, respectively.

[137] Symm. Ep . 1.43, recommending an advocatus to Ausonius; for verecundia in an earlier letter of recommendation, see, e.g., Fronto Ad Velum imp . 2.7.7 (p. 128.11f. van den Hout): nihil isto homine officiosius est, nihil modestius, nihil verecundius . For other examples of the mores et doctrina type in the commendaticiae of Symmachus, see esp. Ep . 1.15, 79; 2.2, 16, 29, 39; 3.22; 7.58, 91; 9.2, 54. Specimens from other sources are collected by Pedersen, Late Roman Public Professionalism 30f. nn. 84, 85. Compare also Auson. Prof . 10.37-41, on the grammarian Ammonius, doctrina exiguus, / moribus implacidis: / proinde ut meritum, / famam habuit tenuem ; and esp. the editing tale of Marcellus in Prof . 18: his talent (indoles egregia ) brought him success, including a good marriage, but his bad character (pravum ingenium ) led—inevitably—to his ruin (lines 9-10; cf. Part II no. 94).


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The conventions suggest that at least ideologically the grammarian's profession was not a carrière ouverte aux talents in any simple sense. Doctrina and mores might overcome the absence of high birth, but mere talent was not enough—unless "talent" be taken to include the seemingly innate qualities, on the order of naturalis verecundia , that predispose one to respectful and scrupulous behavior. Hence the first assumption slides easily into a second: doctrina and mores are not simply inseparable qualities or opposing forces in equipoise; the former is subordinate to the latter. When the emperor Julian laid it down that teachers "ought to be surpassing in their mores First of all, and then in the skills of speech," the novelty probably lay less in the sentiment than in the sectarian use to which it was presently put, in driving the Christian teachers from the schools.[138] The sentiment surely overlaps with the Saturnalia 's pervasive belief that virtue is the prerequisite for true learning.[139]

The emphasis on ethical qualities (especially those conducive to stability and hierarchy) as attributes equal or superior in importance to skills, which we take to be the primary qualifications for a profession, resulted from the direct contact between the professional and amateur spheres.[140] It should be added at once, however, that this contact did not produce a broad conflict along lines clearly drawn; we might think more usefully of an interpenetration of the two spheres. In this respect it is symptomatic that, in Macrobius certainly, but already in Gellius, a chief attribute of the professional that we might assume would separate him from the dilettante is taken over by the amateur literary tradition and regarded as a moral trait, one of the attributes of the good man—his scrupulous attention to the details of his cultural tradition (what impatient modern readers of Macrobius and Gellius commonly call their "pedantry"). Conversely, Servius, the grammarian whom Macrobius idealized, can remark in the introduction to one of his technical treatises, "I met with Horace when I was at my leisure in Campania":[141] a work that would seem to be a piece of professional writing is presented as a parergon of the scholarly leisure (otium ) affected in the West by the amateur litterateurs of the aristocracy.

Nowhere is this interpenetration more apparent than in the value set on the personal bond between teacher and pupil. This urge to intimate attachment, exemplified, as we have seen, by the follower (sectator ), is

[138] CTh 13.3.5 (17 June 362), elaborated in the subsequent directive specifically affecting the Christians, Ep . 61c Bidez.

[139] Cf. also at Chap. 1 n. 13.

[140] Passages that seem to base judgment of qualifications primarily or purely on skills are rare: see esp. Auson. Prof . 7.9-11, on the grammarian Leontius signo Lascivus; and cf. Prof . 9, on Leontius's brother, Iucundus.

[141] GL 4.468.6: Horatium, cum in Campania otiarer, excepi .


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expressed with special force in the blending of the images of teacher and father, and follows from the father's responsibility for his son's education. Gellius and Macrobius dedicated their works to their sons and in so doing took their places in a long and broad tradition, putting their accumulated wealth of learning and wisdom at their sons' disposal as part of their patrimony.[142] The literary convention, like most conventions, is a compound of actual practice and normative pressure: it reflects both the fact that a father supervised his son's education and the belief that such was the father's proper role.

The supervision might be direct: far from being a quaint and isolated figure, the elder Cato in taking personal charge of his son's lessons[143] is part of a tradition that runs from one of the earliest references we have to inline image, in the third century B.C. ,[144] to the households of late antiquity.[145] But the father's responsibility is no less emphasized when the supervision is mediated by the professional teacher. Libanius's extensive correspondence with his students' fathers[146] and his shock that one of his enemies would canvass prospective students' mothers[147] belong to the same world where a marriage contract stipulates a father's responsibility for his sons' liberal education,[148] or where a student writes asking his father to visit "so that you might learn whether or not the teacher is paying attention to me"[149] or asking his father to write "so

[142] For the dedication of works of literary scholarship to sons in late antiquity, see, e.g., Mart. Cap. De nupt . 1.2. and 9.997, 1000; Fl. Mallius Theodorus De metris, GL 6.585f.; Nonius Marcellus (cf. Part II no. 237); Ti. Claudius Donatus (date uncertain; cf. Part II no. 209); Vibius Sequester De fluminibus , dedicated to his son Virgilianus, who was probably a grammarian (cf. Part II nos. 163, 254); Ioannes Stobaeus (Phot. Bibl . cod. 167, 2.149 Henry); and probably Fl. Sosipater Charisius (cf. n. 153 below). For the tradition active in other areas, cf. Basil's dedication of his essay on Greek literature to his nephews; Claudius Marius Victor's dedication of his Comm. in Gen . to his son (Gennad. De vir. ill . 60); and Eucherius of Lyon's dedication of the Liber formularum spiritalis intelligentiae to his son.

[143] Plut. Cat. mai . 20.

[145] See, e.g., Symm. Ep . 4.20.2, 6.61; Eustrat. presb. V. Eutych . 8 (PG 86:2.2284); Callin. V. Hypat . 1. Cf. Paulin. Pell. Euchar . 60ff., the pietatis opus studiumque insigne parentum associated with his education at home; Greg. Naz. Or . 43.12; Aug. Ep . 2 12-13, esp. 13.2-3; Sidon. Apoll. Ep . 4.12.1.

[146] Cf. Petit, Étudiants 18ff., 104f., and esp. 151ff.

[147] Or . 39.4.

[149] SB 3.6262 (s.III).


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that I might pay reverence to your hand, because you have educated me nobly."[150]

Injecting himself into this deeply traditional and highly charged relationship, the teacher in turn was captured by it. In one of the most common images of the teacher in late antiquity, he assumes the role of surrogate father: he "nurtures" his students, his "children"; he is their "father in letters."[151] The literary image—again, not merely a convention—also appears in another form. Though amateur litterateurs dedicated their works to learned friends or sons, no professional grammarian we know in late antiquity dedicated a work to his own son; dedications were to learned friends or patrons, or to pupils.[152] A double impulse can be seen here. The professional's distinguishing mark was his stepping aside from his own role as father,[153] but this withdrawal took the form of a transference, with the dedications to pupils reproducing the traditional pattern of family relationships. The relationship was not one-sided: it was reciprocated, for example, in a former pupil's funeral oration for his teacher or in the inscriptions recording dedications students made to teachers.[154]

[152] For grammarians' dedications, see Part II nos. 19, 31, 47, 52, 60, 72, 73, 110, 126, 132, 136, 156; cf. nos. 188, 265. For dedications to pupils, see nos. 57, 130, 136; cf. no. 221.

[153] Thus the examples are sufficiently numerous, and the distinction sufficiently clear, that Charisius's dedication of his work to his son can add further and perhaps decisive weight to the evidence that he was an amateur and a palatine official rather than a professional grammarian: see Part II no. 200.

[154] Funeral oration: Ael. Arist. Or . 32, for Alexander of Cotyaeum; cf. Lib. Or . 1.105, for Zenobius. Dedications (a selection): CIL 8.5228 (an. 211/12, Thibilis), with 5229; IG 14.2454 (Massilia); CIL 6.9444, 9449, 9827; ILCV 721 = CIL 6.10008; IG 2 3897, with Raubitschek, "Phaidros" 99f.; IG 2 3793 (s.I); Raubitschek, "Greek Inscriptions" 248f. no. 10; IG 2 3813 (s.III med.); IDelos 1801; Robert, Collection no. 46 (Madytos, Thracian Chersonese), with ibid. pp. 56ff. for other examples; Inschr. Eph . 7:2 (IGSK 17:2) 4340; AE 1941, 141 (Prusa); MAMA 7.358 (Carbasli[*] Yaila, eastern Phrygia). See also the comparable expressions of piety in Dracontius Rom . 1 and 3, for his teacher Felicianus (cf. Part II no. 59); the poem of Georgius for his teacher Coluthus (cf. Part II nos. 33, 63); and Priscian on his teacher Theoctistus (esp. GL 2.238.5f.). Note that the sentiment is not confined to teachers of liberal studies: see Sahin[*] , "Neue Inschriften" 34 no. 103 (with C. P. Jones, "Two Epigrams"), a sepulchral inscription set up by an apprentice weaver to his teacher with the appropriate expressions of regard and gratitude.


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Such details trace the normative model of relations between teacher and student. They are the concrete tokens of the desire for close attachment and of the belief that, in a favored phrase of Libanius, teachers act on their students' souls.[155] To be sure, it was not the only image of the teacher,[156] and the ideal of personal attachment was often violated in practice. But the ideal was far from inert; it prepared the way for action, to the teacher's benefit: thus Libanius asks a provincial governor to show favor (inline image) to the brother-in-law of the grammarian Calliopius, so that Calliopius and his father, who were then teaching Libanius's son, would in turn be more favorably disposed (inline image) toward their charge.[157]

This cooptation should not be thought of as either dramatic or conspiratorial. The ruling elite did not rise up as a body to crush a nascent professional middle class built on the independence of achieved status and personal skill; it was a case of assimilation, a gradual process leaving room for upward mobility. Nor should we expect the teachers to regard the consequences as pernicious. To refer to the example just cited from Libanius: in comparable circumstances the modern academic presumably would claim to be equally shocked by the suggestion that official favor shown to one of his connections could influence professional dealings with a pupil and by the suggestion that his personal relations could justify manipulating the public administration for the sake of personal privilege. He would be inclined to find the transaction thoroughly corrupt, from the assault on his professional integrity to the undermining of one of the cornerstones of the common good, government without fear or favor. But the ancient academic would find equally shocking the suggestion that any discontinuity existed between professional relations and personal relations, between personal relations and customary privilege, between customary privilege and social good.

The arrangement Libanius sketches was not simply ordinary; it was proper. The outrage lay in its violation.[158] One can diagnose corruption in this sort of transaction only from outside the social system in which the transaction was embedded, and with a different image of community and social good in mind. Historical remove can provide such a vantage point, allowing us to describe as "self-satisfied idiocy" the identification

[155] Cf. Ep . 337.1, 398.2, 969.1.

[156] For an opposing image, the Christian teacher as father vs. the grammarian with his cane, cf. Aug. Tract . 1, p. 449.31ff. Morin.

[157] Lib. Ep . 678 to Iulianus, praeses Euphrat . See further Chap. 6, pp. 209ff.


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of the learned with the good and to regret all the consequences that flow from it.[159] Another such perspective might be found in a contemporary culture with different roots or a different angle of vision—the culture of the Christians, to whom we now turn.

Polished Speech, the Common Good, and Christianity

Visions show men what they want to see; reports of visions tell men what they want to hear. In the first half of the fifth century, the grammarian Alypius of Isaurian Seleucia is said to have been stricken with a wasting illness that brought him and his family to despair.[160] Taking refuge in the shrine of St. Thecla, Alypius slept, and in his sleep was visited by the saint, herself "a lover of inline image, a lover of the Muses, ever showing grace to those who speak her praises in learned speech." When Thecla asked what troubled him, Alypius replied with Achilles' answer to his mother, Thetis (Il . 1.365): "You know. Why am I to tell you, who know all these things?" The saint then "smiled, delighted with both the man and the verse, struck with wonder that he made so suitable a reply," and began his cure.

At the end of the fifth century, in the metropolis of Aries, the young Caesarius (bp. 502-42) is said to have come from the monastery of Lérins and to have been taken into the household of a local magnate, Firminus.[161] Firminus wanted to provide him with a classical education "that his monastic simplicity might be polished by the discipline of secular learning," and so entrusted him to the African Iulianus Pomerius, who was then teaching as a grammarian in the city. One night, Caesarius chanced to fall asleep over one of the books his teacher had given him to read and in a vision saw "the shoulder on which he was lying, and the arm that had rested on the book, being gnawed by a coiling serpent." Frightened from his sleep, Caesarius reproved himself bitterly, "because he wished to join the brilliance of salvation's rule with the foolish wisdom of the world. He therefore despised these things straightway, knowing that the adornment of polished speech is not wanting for those in whom spiritual understanding looms large."

[159] MacMullen, Crisis 50f. n. 7, reacting to Aur. Vict. De Caes . 9.12; cf. Chap. 1 n. 66.

[160] For the following, see [Basil. Sel.] Vie et miracles de Sainte Thècle 2.38 Dagron; cf. Part II no. 6.

[161] For the following, see V. Caes . 1.8-9 (2.279f. Morin), with Part II no. 124.


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The visions of the literate saint or the ravenous serpent, of the traditional culture as a bond of intimacy and health or as a suffocating coil, define the poles the grammarian ranged in the Christian imagination. At the same time, the visions represent different solutions to an old problem in which the grammarian was much involved.[162] Where the literary culture was not simply an elaboration of esthetic principles but a distinguishing possession of a small and extraordinarily influential segment of society, how was one to understand the relation between the polished speech of the few and the grace of God available to all? What did polished speech have to do with spiritual understanding? How did the rules and forms of grammar and rhetoric meet the real needs of men, their good relations with one another in this world and their preparations for life in the next? Such questions challenged at its base the notion that the grammarian's profession and the literary culture served the well-being of the individual and the common good of society.

The questions had their roots both within and without the Christian community. The canonical reminder that Peter and John were "illiterates and laymen" (Acts 4.13) and Paul's claim to be "ignorant in speech, but not in understanding" (2 Cor. 11.6) converged on the powerful model of the illiterate or ill-educated apostle as charismatic teacher, whose truth owed nothing to the conventions and institutions of men. But the classically educated men of the non-Christian world rejected that truth, spurning the uncouth language in which it was transmitted.[163]

In apologetics the Christian could meet that contempt readily enough with the claim that such men saw only surfaces. Not for the first or last time, a group on the defensive would align itself with substance, leaving its opponents mere words: the literary culture was a culture of the tongue, not of the heart; it invested everything in trappings meant to increase prestige among men in a world rotten with false values, and cared nothing for grace, the inner truth that bound a man to God and gave a stable center to his life and his relations with others.[164]

[162] The following pages, with their narrow focus, do not pretend to offer a full survey of the relation between Christianity and the classical culture. In addition to the works cited in the notes to this section, see esp. Laistner, Christianity ; Baynes, Byzantine Studies 1ff., 24ff.; Gaudemet, Église 582ff.; Jaeger, Early Christianity ; Dodds, Pagan ; Chadwick, Early Christian Thought ; Gigon, Antike Kultur ; Lemerle, Premier humanisme 43ff.; Quacquarelli, Scuola ; Ševcenko, "Shadow Outline"; Kennedy, Greek Rhetoric 180ff.; Wilson, Scholars 1ff.; Hagendahl, Von Tertullian zu Cassiodor esp. 83ff.

[163] See Chap. 1 n. 24.

[164] E.g., Lactant. Inst . 3.13, 5.1; Arnob. Adv. nat . 1.59; Zeno Veron. Tract . 3.1 (PL 11.280); Paulin. Nol. Carm . 10.20ff.; "Ambrosiaster" In 2 Cor . 11.6 (CSEL 81:2.283.4ff.); Quodvultdeus De acted. ad grat . 1.1.4ff., Lib. promiss . 1.37.54; Vigilius Tapsens. C. Eutych . 1.15 (PL 62.104B); Iulianus Pomerius De vit. contemp . 1.24; John Chrysost. Adv. oppugn. vit. monast . 3.8 fin . (PG 47.363), Expos. in Ps. 4 2 (PG 55.42); Isid. Pel. Ep . 4.88, 91 (cf. 1.180); Cyril Alex. Hom. Pasch . 4.3 (PG 77.460; cf. Dial. quod unus sit Christus [PG 75.1253f.], with Comm. in Ioan. Evang . 5.8.30 [PG 73.849f.]); and cf. Mohrmann, Études 3.157ff.


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When directed outward, across boundaries that could simultaneously distinguish non-Christian from Christian and liberally educated from layman, those straightforward claims might provide comfort and reassurance, a sense of old battles fought and won once more: rejecting the classical formalism recreated the apostle's charismatic leap over the written law to the natural law instilled in the heart by the grace of the Holy Spirit; the tongue of the literary culture, with its puffed-up and hollow pretensions, was like the lips of the Jews, who adhered to the shell of the Law.[165] But when, from the late third century onward, those boundaries became ever less distinct, and when more Christian voices came to speak with that tongue, answers to old questions became less clear-cut, less easily generalized. It becomes possible to trace different answers in the two halves of the empire. Beyond their specific circumstances and details, the visions of Alypius and Caesarius bespeak divergent trends in the East and the West concerning the standing and function of the literary culture and its polished speech. In the East, that culture came to be regarded less as a divisive force and was inserted in the hierarchy of values in such a way that old loyalties could blend with new. In the West, the literary culture remained an important symbol of fundamental divisions, defining loyalties more sharply and making certain that old oppositions continued to be felt.

Of course no distinctions are simple and uniform; similarities between the two halves of the empire coexist with the differences.[166] Educated men were assimilated into Christianity in the West as in the East, notably among the Christian academics teaching in the schools of grammar and rhetoric by the mid-fourth century. Julian's vindictive logic, which dictated that a Christian (whether sincere or insincere in his belief) had no place in the traditional schools, was applied and unwelcome in both parts of the empire:[167] claiming an absolute and exclusive congruence between classical literature and pagan belief that even most non-Christians would have thought outré , it had short-lived effects.[168] Conversely, one can note

[165] Cf., e.g., Ambros. Explan. in Ps. 36 69 (CSEL 64.128.15ff.), with Rom. 2.17-29.

[166] For this emphasis, see Marrou, Histoire 456ff.; and for continuing tensions in the East, see recently Alan Cameron, "Empress" 282ff., citing evidence of the fifth-century debate on the value of classicizing paraphrases of Scripture.

[167] On Julian's school law, see esp. Hardy, "Emperor"; Brown, World 91ff.

[168] Note esp. that Libanius, though a committed pagan himself, does not appear to have been much concerned with the religious loyalties of his students: Petit, Étudiants 120f. (cf. 133 n. 210); Liebeschuetz, Antioch 226f. Cf. also n. 201 below. Julian's merging of literature and religion—almost treating paganism as a religion of The Book—is so extreme and so unusual for a pagan that we should probably regard it as a legacy of his Christian upbringing.


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the rejectionist views expressed within the Christian community. In the East, the Didascalia Apostolorum repudiated the "books of the gentiles" and proposed the study of Scripture as a satisfactory alternative.[169] In the West, the Statuta Ecclesiae Antiqua forbade ordained bishops to read the classics.[170]

Yet even within these similarities it is possible to discern important differences. Consider, for instance, the men from the mid-third to the end of the fourth century who we know taught in the schools of grammar or rhetoric and (usually later) held some position in the Church hierarchy, who might therefore most conspicuously represent the mingling of the traditionally educated classes and local Christian leaders: in the West, Cyprian at Carthage, Victor, the grammarian and lector at Cirta/Constantina,[171] Marculus, a rhetorician who became a bishop and Donatist martyr,[172] and Augustine; in the East, Malchion, rhetorician and later presbyter at Antioch,[173] the two Apollinarii at Laodicea (the elder a grammarian and presbyter, the son a rhetorician and later a bishop),[174] and other rhetorician-bishops—Gregory of Nyssa, Amphilochius of Iconium,[175] Optimus of Phrygian Agdamia and Pisidian Antioch, and Ablabius, the Novatian bishop of Nicaea.[176] The Easterners are not only more numerous, they show a wider geographic spread; significantly, the Westerners are all from Africa, where Christianity had made its greatest gains in the West in the third century. The clustering is symptomatic of the uneven rate of Christianity's spread in the western provinces, which as a whole lagged behind the East.

Or again, consider the prescriptions of the Didascalia Apostolorum and the Statuta Ecclesiae Antiqua . The former sets down guidelines meant (in vain) for all "servants and sons of God"; but the latter imposes its restrictions only on the bishop, in effect emphasizing the distinction

[169] Didascalia Apostolorum 1.6.1ff. Connolly (s.III).

[170] Stat. Eccl. Ant . can. 5 (Conc. Gall., CC SL 148) = Collect. Hispan . (Conc. Carthag. IV, an. 398) can. 16 (Conc. Afr., CC SL 149), the Statuta compiled ca. 475 by Gennadius of Marseilles.

[171] See Part II no. 161.

[172] PL 8.760ff. (= Prosop. chrét . I s.v., pp. 696f.).

[173] Euseb. Caes. HE 7.29; Jer. De vir. ill . 71.

[174] See Part II no. 14.

[175] Basil Ep . 150.2, 4.

[176] For Optimus and Ablabius, see PLRE I s.vv, pp. 650 and 2, respectively; for other Novatian bishops with backgrounds as teachers, see Part B nos. 116, 238. Note also, just slightly later, Anatolius (Vie et miracles de Sainte Thècle 2.9 Dagron); Silvanus (PLRE II s.v. 2, p. 1011).


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between the community at large and a single figure specially charged with a burden of holiness. The difference is still more eloquent and reveals a consequential trait of Christianity in the West: a tendency to treat more self-consciously or explicitly the divisions in the community and in the world.

By the early fourth century most Christians of the East were prepared to look out on the world as a place with which they had much in common; the Church in the West, by contrast, was more inward-turning, still regarding itself as a small gathering of the elect, an alien body in an environment of dangerous contradictions and divisions. These divergent positions had underpinnings both intellectual and social. The decisive messages of Tertullian and Origen still reached receptive audiences, but the two men spoke with very different voices. To an educated Christian of the East, the stringent puritanism of Tertullian would have seemed strangely backward. It was at best an unsophisticated notion that classical culture in all its forms was a poison, or that education in the traditional schools, though perhaps necessary for want of an alternative, was nevertheless a regrettable and evil necessity; at worst, the idea revealed a disquieting lack of confidence in Christian intelligence and judgment. The harsh antitheses implicit in Tertullian's question "What has Athens to do with Jerusalem?" could easily be resolved along the lines Origen laid down: Athens was part of Jerusalem's perfection—in itself imperfect or immature, no doubt, with a mixture of truth and falsehood that required discrimination, but an inseparable, in fact desirable, part nonetheless. Origen had banished the choice of either/or by telling the educated Christian that he occupied the enviable position of the connoisseur: with untroubled superiority he could surely and subtly separate the true from the false, the important from the inconsequential.

This sense of easy and sophisticated superiority was further cushioned by the social experience of Christians in the East. Christianity there had not only spread more quickly than in the West, but it stood in a different relation to the organization of urban life. The Christian community closely followed the continuum of social gradations in the towns.[177] The educated bishop who emerged from the local upper classes could justifiably claim a position among his city's social and cultural elite; as the

[177] Note esp. IGLTyr 1, a Christian necropolis of the late third and the fourth century: the arrangement of the necropolis reflects the social distinctions between free and slave, honesti and humiles ; see the remarks of Rey-Coquais, pp. 162f. An unusually large number of inscriptions reveal the metiers of the deceased, with a range of craftsmen and tradesmen, and one member of a learned profession (a physician, no. 217). There are also epitaphs of the familiar type for liberally educated youths, praising their relations with the Muses (nos. 149A, B, 150); see Chap. 1 n. 64; and cf. Feissel, "Notes (III)" 550ff., with the addendum at "Notes (IV)" 474.


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leader of an important group that cut across class lines within the town, he could take his place as a force to be reckoned with, alongside—and in the manner of—the factional leaders of the old town councils.[178]

But in the West the social structure was surmounted by the class of great landowners, especially among the old senatorial aristocracy, a group of men who had no exact counterpart in the East and with whom few Western bishops could associate as social or cultural equals.[179] Seeming to stand aloof in their pursuit of otium while devoting themselves to their own interests and those of their dependents, such men were raised up by their wealth, education, and birth, and loomed over the towns. Late in coming into the Church, they provided a continuing reminder of the worldly authority and prestige of the classical culture that lay outside. They were not easily domesticated when they came in;[180] their power required gingerly treatment on the part of the bishop to coax and bend them to his purposes.[181] The status and self-assurance they derived from their wealth and education made them potential competitors of men who had risen through the ranks of the Church. Their desirability as bishops threatened to upset the developing order of ecclesiastical office.[182] The tensions did not quickly dissipate: the right that the learned (and perhaps senatorial) layman Priscillian claimed late in the fourth century, to discuss noncanonical texts as a lay teacher, and the lethal reaction of the more anxious members of the Church hierarchy, sharpened the conflict between two differently constituted elites and splintered Christian opinion.

The components of worldly and spiritual standing were at variance longer in the West, insuring that the distinctive pattern of each would remain conspicuous. At the same time, other lines of division were superimposed. The early development of vernacular Christianity in the East meant that religious boundaries were no longer fundamentally congruent with linguistic boundaries; in the West, where nothing comparable developed, Latin provided the single path of access to the vital texts. Hence,

[178] He was also increasingly likely to have his origins in the curial order; see recently Eck, "Einfluss."

[179] Cf. Eck, "Einfluss," emphasizing the exceptional status of the aristocratic bishops in Gaul and Italy of the late fourth and the fifth century; and Chadwick, Priscillian 11, on the modest social origins and intellectual attainments of the Spanish bishops.

[180] Cf. Aug. De cat. rud . 8.12, still conscious of the eruditi catechizandi as a special set offering special difficulties.

[181] Cf. Brown, Augustine 192f.

[182] See Canones Osii 13, with Hess, Canons 103ff. The canon insists that, if a wealthy man, an advocate (scholasticus forensis ), or a civil official be desired as bishop, he must first pass through the ranks of lector, deacon, and presbyter. Cf. n. 319 below.


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what kind of Latin one should use remained a sticking point and a center of attention: in many minds, the polished speech of the few continued to be incompatible with the spiritual understanding of the many. In the East, where the question of language was more diffuse, solutions were more numerous. Loyalties could be so expressed as to deflect attention away from polished speech and its conflict with spiritual understanding. A readiness to hear the Truth spoken, for instance, in a Graeco-Syriac patois[183] made it possible to turn aside from one's own highly cultivated speech—to treat it as something detachable, neutral, and so taken for granted—in a way unknown in the West. In part, the Eastern vernaculars added one more cushion against self-consciousness, a way of avoiding the problems framed in the language of either/or.

A further, decisive factor was the persistence of political unity in the East, which both sheltered urban Christianity and kept it in check, drawing it into the structure of civilian life and competing institutions with a web of familial, social, and political relations. But the sudden fragmentation of the western empire in the early fifth century tore apart that structure just when it was being finally and firmly joined with the Catholic Church. As a result the Church was isolated yet endowed with its own hauteur, left to provide the leaders of society with new careers and the institutions on which to base them. Life in the West did not suffer collapse so much as compression. Communities were thrown back on their own resources, which were frequently identical with the resources—the men, money, and culture—that the local episcopacy could mobilize. The problem of leadership, put thus acutely, would be solved differently according to the individual bishops' backgrounds and angles of vision—including the vision of the literary culture.

We can trace the points of divergence noted above in more detail, beginning with how Christians of the East resolved the problem of the traditional education. Most characteristic are the strategies that emphasize differences in value in order to discard unwanted antitheses: opposition is replaced by safe, hierarchical relationships. So, for example, one could draw on typology to adjust the relationship between charismatic teaching and the learning of men. David, the singer inspired by God, and Moses, "educated in all the wisdom of the Egyptians," can embody two acceptable types of holiness, the former "brought up in a hamlet, raised in the hands of peasants, a shepherd from childhood," the latter nurtured "in a city, in the embrace of royalty, a guardian of letters from boyhood." The two types might represent the two poles of class and culture; but the tension between them is eased by the recognition that the holiness

[183] See below, p. 79.


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of David is ultimately superior, though the external learning of Moses remains nonetheless valued.[184]

Gregory Nazianzen can be seen making a similar adjustment in order to smooth the way for his literary attainments. He dissociates himself from the normative model of St. Peter (with more than a touch of sarcasm for those who would hide behind it), declaring himself unable to match it: "I myself would have embraced the inline image that some see fit to call faith if I were a fisherman . . . and if I had the power of signs as my own form of speech." At the same time Gregory makes a place for his own eloquence, claiming that through the divine inline image he has "ennobled" and "sweetened" the "tongue educated in external inline image." The problem of the tongue is thus defused by finding one's proper place in the hierarchy of holiness and accommodating—or elevating—one's education to it.[185]

But perhaps the most important variation on this general strategy is found in Basil's influential tract, written for his nephews, on the use of Greek literature.[186] The work is neither an encomium of the classics (as some used to think) nor a recommendation that their form be approved but their content be rejected, with a warning, in the manner of Tertullian, against the danger of things evil in themselves (as others have recently claimed). Instead it is an exhortation and a guide to right choices. Beginning with the principle of utility (inline image)[187] and referring that term to what is good and useful, not in the life of men only, but for the "other life,"[188] Basil makes the classical texts subject to the moral sensibilities and spiritual aims of Christians. Without polemic, without the suggestion that one is reluctantly coming to grips with a necessary evil,[189] the status and function of the classics are simply and firmly redefined: they provide the preliminary exercises in a truly liberal education (inline image),[190] the new gymnastic of the soul, which will finally raise men up and liberate them from the transient world of crude sensation by steeping the soul in the wisdom of Christian inline image. Of course the poets, historians, and orators cannot be sufficient for such

[184] For the comparison of David and Moses, see esp. Asterius soph. Hom . 23.15-16 (p. 180.25ff. Richard). On Moses (cf. Acts 7.22), see below, p. 78.

[186] Now available in the critical edition of Wilson, Saint Basil .

[187] Basil 1.24ff.

[188] Basil 2.1ff.

[189] Cf. Wilson, Saint Basil 10.

[190] Cf. Basil 9.86ff.


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a job by themselves. Warnings must be issued not to believe what is said of the gods,[191] or to make certain that the actions of bad men are taken as negative examples; but at the same time the actions of good men are there to be imitated, and the texts have a substantive, ethical value that can help in the progress toward the true and Final good of the soul.[192]

The external culture (inline image) is the first stage in this gymnastic of the soul:[193] thus Moses, Basil says, "having exercised his intelligence [inline image] in the learning of the Egyptians, proceeded to the contemplation of reality."[194] In a different metaphor, Basil compares the external culture to the leaves of a tree that protect the fruit (the Christian Truth growing in the soul) and give it a pleasing appearance.[195] In still another metaphor, the classical texts lend themselves to a sketch or outline (inline image) of virtue, which "our inline image" will teach more completely.[196] All Basil's metaphors converge on the same point: an obvious difference in value (say, between the fruit and the leaves) can exist without implying a necessary opposition.[197] The external culture and "our inline image" are distinct and unequal: each has a function and value in its own sphere, and once the functions are recognized, the hierarchy of values sorted out, the external culture is no longer a threatening force.

Basil does the external culture the favor of allowing it to remain both clearly secular and clearly useful in Christian terms.[198] Its noxious elements remain safely outside (or below); its healthy elements ease one's passage inside (or upward). One can thus enjoy the best of both worlds. From the position Basil sketched, it requires only a short step to redefine the lover of inline image as the man who knows both classical and Christian authors.[199] At that point, one is no distance at all from the saint as inline image in a grammarian's dream, a kindly mother to a new Achilles.

[191] Basil 4.19ff.

[192] Basil 2.34ff.; cf. 4.5ff., 7.2ff., and the ethical exegesis of Hom. Od . 6.135ff. at 5.25ff. Compare Gregory Nazianzen's funeral oration on Basil, Or . 43.11, where the essentials of Basil's position are restated and their implicit premise is drawn out: the classical culture, like all the components of the created world, is a mixture of the useful and the harmful, which are to be distinguished by an understanding surrendered to Christ.

[193] For the gymnastic, see Basil passim and esp. 8.44f. Cf. at Chap. 1 nn. 9-11.

[194] Basil 3.13ff. With the thought and metaphor, cf., e.g., V. Marcell. Archimand. Akoimeton §2 Dagron, Anal. Boll . 86 (1968) 288.

[195] Basil 3.6ff.

[196] Basil 10.1ff.

[197] Just as there is a difference but no necessary opposition between the created and the Creator; cf. n. 192 above.

[198] Contrast below, pp. 87-88, on Augustine.


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In all these cases, men have found their way around stark choices. The literary culture does not get in the way of what really matters; one can glide from one sphere to the other, since the attainments and behavior traditionally valued by literate, upper-class society are compatible with Christian duties and loyalties. In the fourth century, Gregory Nazianzen could mediate a dispute between two sophists or recommend a pupil to Libanius,[200] and Gregory of Nyssa could hope that the pagan Libanius would review the style of his tract against Eunomius.[201] Neither those dealings nor the careful Atticism that the Cappadocian Fathers cultivated was felt to be inconsistent with their regard for the monastic ideal or with their remarkable efforts in proselytizing (and hellenizing) their rude province.

In the next century Theodoret, bishop of Cyrrhus, sent pupils to the pagan sophist Isocasius[202] or acted as a middleman, receiving letters of recommendation for an Egyptian rhetorician from two presbyters and in his turn recommending the rhetorician to the comes Ulpianus.[203] Theodoret's involvement in such transactions does not detract a whit from his deep admiration for the illiterate saints of the Syrian hinterland. The concerns of the tongue and their associated social forms and relations remain comfortably apart from or are dwarfed by the concerns of the heart. As a result, when the cultured townsman encounters the saint in the pages of Theodoret, the meeting is imagined as taking place with remarkable ease and tranquility: the holy man Aphraates appears at Antioch, speaking a mixture of Syriac and Greek, "crying out with the great Paul, 'I am ignorant in speech, but not in understanding'"; and at once all people come running to meet him, the high, educated, and rich together with the humble, ignorant, and poor, "the latter receiving in silence what he offered, the former questioning, learning, proposing topics for discussion."[204]

Or again, in the second quarter of the sixth century, the bishop Marcian of Gaza was among the patrons of the sophist Choricius. The beneficiary of a full literary education,[205] Marcian was interested in the local school of rhetoric and enjoyed (or endured) at least two of

[200] Greg. Naz. Ep . 192 and 236, respectively.

[201] Greg. Nyss. Ep . 15, with the remarks of Wilson, Saint Basil 11.

[202] Theodoret. Ep . XVII, XXVIII; cf. XLIV. For Isocasius, see Part II no. 85.

[203] Theodoret. Ep . 19, 20, 22.

[204] Theodoret. Hist. phil . 8.2 Canivet. The scene has no true counterpart in the West, nor could it, in view of the linguistic situation there; cf. above, pp. 75f. It is noteworthy that in the closest Western approximation (Sulp. Sev. Dial . 1.27.2-4) an apology for the rustic speaker's offense to urban ears must be confected, and the polarities thus emphasized, so that a show can be made of brushing the offense aside.

[205] Choric. Laud. Marc . 2.7 (p. 29.17ff. Foerster-Richtsteig).


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Choricius's encomia, in which he heard recounted his own student days, when he "culled from poetry whatever was useful, while smiling at the myths."[206] Town-bound as it is by the rhetorical tradition in which Choricius was working—his Gaza is completely and impeccably Greek-speaking: no more than Libanius does his epigonus reveal that the country people were largely Semitic speakers, whose language would fill Gaza's streets during the festivals Choricius lovingly describes—the sophist's point of view shows us how the local Christian gentry had merged with the civic life around them. In the Gaza of Choricius the literary culture is still an important mark of status, joined with mores ("a reverend way of life") and wealth (in the form of charitable benefactions) to form the triad "that makes men exalted."[207] Marcian's family, too, besides Marcian himself, was involved in public life: one of his brothers was an advocate; another held a provincial governorship or some other imperial office.[208] And as a local benefactor Marcian takes his place alongside the governor Stephanus and the duces Aratius and Summus as a subject of Choricius's praise.[209]

Basil allowed Greek inline image to remain both external and useful in the new gymnastic of the soul; Gregory Nazianzen claimed to ennoble the literary language; Theodoret imagined a world where the question of language is spontaneously set aside; Choricius kept his eyes fixed on the upper-class life of the town. Each in his own way overcame the problem of the traditional literary culture. The same process of accommodation of course occurred among Christians in the West: Ausonius (sometimes—quite unfairly—said to have been a nominal Christian) could not agree with Paulinus of Nola that "hearts dedicated to Christ are not open to

[206] Choric. Laud. Marc . 1.6 (p. 4.1ff.).

[209] Laud. Arat. et Steph . (pp. 48ff.), Laud. Summ . (pp. 69ff.). Cf. also Laud. Marc . 1.7 (p. 4.11ff.), with Laud. Marc . 2.16 (p. 32.5ff.); Laud. Marc . 1.30-31 (p. 10.11ff.).


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Apollo";[210] the two Clamosi, father and son, schoolmasters at Parentium, contributed to the construction of the Christian basilica in their town at the end of the fourth and again in the mid-fifth century;[211] the grammarian Calbulus donated a baptistery to his church and adorned it with his own pious verses at the end of the fifth or the beginning of the sixth century.[212] (We will meet others below.) But influential voices continued to express doubts that fundamental conflicts could be so easily resolved. Would worldly eloquence, for example, simply become antiseptic as the junior partner of faith? Or would it inevitably foster qualities—pride in personal ingenuity and achievement, competitiveness, pretensions to status fixed by ephemeral standards—that were a disease on the soul and divisive in the community? To Jerome and Augustine, the second possibility seemed more likely. To each of them the social good of the grammarian's profession continued to appear questionable, if not illusory; and for each, controlling the effects of his own education was a struggle set between scarcely reconcilable poles.

"You are a Ciceronian, not a Christian; 'where your treasure is, there too is your heart.'" So the Heavenly Judge spoke to Jerome in the dream that terrified him on his way to Bethlehem in 374, as he recounted it to edify Eustochium a decade later.[213] The "old serpent" had mocked him. Beguiled by the style of Plautus, Jerome could not turn back to Scripture without disgust at its uncouth speech; and yet, "I reckoned it the fault not of my eyes but of the sun that I could not see the light in my blindness." Fastidiously confident of his own judgment, the Ciceronian was the captive of his past, its vainglory, and its false values; he could be freed only by the salutary humiliation of the flogging he received in the dream at the Judge's order.

The crosscurrents of eloquence and faith, pride and abasement, that disturbed Jerome's sleep on that occasion continued to drag at him as he attempted to come to terms with his own highly prized literacy:[214] "It is no small thing for a noble man, a man fluent of speech, a wealthy man, to avoid the accompaniment of the powerful in the streets, to mingle with the crowds, to cleave to the poor, to associate with peasants."[215] This praise of Pammachius's descent to the life of the vulgus was written by a man with sensibilities in tune with his subject's, aware of the tug of worldly prestige, the difficulty of pulling free (aware, too, of the rare

[210] Paulin. Nol. Carm . 10.22f. On Ausonius, see Étienne, Bordeaux 278ff.

[211] See Part II nos. 29, 30.

[212] See Part II no. 23.

[213] Jer. Ep . 22.30; see Kelly, Jerome 41ff.

[214] See esp. Hagendahl, Latin Fathers 318ff.

[215] Jer. Ep . 66.6.


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satisfaction of being seen conspicuously to try). "I know that among Christians flaws of speech are not usually criticized, but . . ."[216] Enemies are skewered for their lack of education,[217] and educated men who come to Scripture from liberal letters are mocked for their pretensions: "If they chance to have soothed the ear of the people with an elegant speech, they reckon whatever they have said is the law of God."[218]

The balance was so hard to find. Split by experience and conscience, Jerome worked his conflicts out in his writings. We see him in the contemporary commentaries on Ephesians and Galatians trying to control the problem of Paul's literacy. Some were able simply to imagine Paul among the illiterate[219] or to take his agitated question "See with what big letters I've written to you?" (Gal. 6.11) as evidence that he was marginally literate, a slow writer.[220] Ridiculous, says Jerome. Yes, Paul was a "Hebrew born of Hebrews," learned in his vernacular, unable to shape his deep thoughts in an alien tongue;[221] yet Paul of course knew, for example, the literary trope of allegory, just as we learn about it in school, because he too had had some contact with secular letters.[222] Then again, he does commit solecisms[223] —of course, because his literary education was not perfect.[224] And anyway, "He did not care about the words, as long as he preserved the sense."[225] In these arguments we can sense Jerome's attempt to thread his way between two unacceptable alternatives, a Paul with too little worldly learning, or one with too much. In that respect, the arguments are symptomatic of Jerome's continuing debate on the value of his own worldly learning and of his attempt, never quite successful, to find a safe and stable (and distinctive) place between the "two imperfections" of "holy rusticity" and "sinful eloquence."[226]

[216] Jer. C. Rufin . 2.20.

[217] Cf. n. 35 above; Hagendahl, Latin Fathers 311 n. 4.

[218] Jer. Ep . 53.6f.; cf. C. Rufin . 3.34 and esp. Comm. Ephes . prol.

[219] See, emphatically, John Chrysost. In 1 Cor . hom. 3.4 (PG 61.27).

[221] Comm. Gal . 3.6 (PL 26.455A-B); cf. Comm. Ephes . 3.5 (PL 26.553A).

[222] Comm. Gal . 2.4 (PL 26.416A-C).

[223] Comm. Ephes . 2 prol. (PL 26.509B-D); cf. Tract. de Ps. 81 8.221ff. (CC SL 78.89 = Anecd. Mared . 3:2.80).

[224] Comm. Gal . 2.4 (PL 26.416A-C).

[225] Comm. Gal . 3.6 (PL 26.455A-B).

[226] Jer. Ep . 52.9: nec rusticus et tantum simplex frater ideo se sanctum purer, si nihil noverit, nec peritus el eloquens in lingua aestimet sanctitatem. multoque radius est e duobus imperfectis rusticitatem sanctam habere quam eloquentiam peccatricem . Cf. Ep . 27.1, 53.3f., 57.12; Comm. Ezech . 2.7 (PL 25.61).


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The problem with which Jerome wrestled in his own conscience was solved more directly by others, in the broader setting of the Christian community. The solution at once preserved the polarities of eloquence and faith, the learned and the simple, and attempted to mediate between them, de haut en bas . "Why does Paul lower himself [se humiliat ]," Jerome's contemporary "Ambrosiaster" asks, "when he says he is ignorant in speech?"[227] Because he wanted to serve as an example against those who sought approval for their eloquence instead of their faith:[228] he could speak in the manner of the learned of the world, but he did not choose to. Paul's statement, and by extension the blunt and restless spontaneity of his style, thus become part of a self-conscious and self-imposed humiliatio growing out of his message.

The idea had been anticipated in the apologetics of Arnobius, whose defense of the uncouthness of the Christians' Latin includes the claim that certain Fathers, although they could speak more ornately and more richly, "not only put off the cultivation of speech but even intentionally pursued a common lowness of speech [trivialis humilitas ]" lest the weight and rigor of their message be corrupted by sophistic display.[229] Transposed from apologetics to the apostolic duty of the bishop, the idea motivates Peter Chrysologus (bp. of Ravenna; d. 450) when he calls for a "natural language," "popular" and made up of "common speech," to provide a common ground for the learned and the simple;[230] or Augustine, when his preaching plays off the formidable strepitus of Cicero against the inviting sound of Scripture[231] or the "grammarian's laws" against the "people's understanding."[232] Put into effect, the idea takes the form of the humble style, sermo humilis , the style of the Christian message[233] —humble in its descent from the shimmering, timeless standards of classical correctness and adornment down to a language intent on making the Truth plain and immediate to a heterogeneous congregation. It is the vivid, simple style of Augustine's preaching,[234] fluent talk in plain language. Turning away from the classical canons that matched levels of style to importance of subject (for "everything we say is of great importance"),[235] the speaker feels free to range spontaneously

[227] In 2 Cor . 11.6 (CSEL 81:2.283.4ff.).

[228] Ibid.: hoc ergo dicens non se loqui nescire voluit intellegi, sed propter eos qui non per fidem sed per eloquentiam commendari volebant .

[229] Adv. nat . 1.59.

[230] Serm . 43 (PL 52.320A).

[231] En. in Ps. 103 serm. 3.4.

[232] En. in Ps. 36 serm. 3.6, En. in Ps. 123 8, En. in Ps. 138 20, Serm . 37.14.

[233] Cf. Auerbach, Literary Language 27ff.

[234] See van der Meer, Saint Augustin 2.212ff.

[235] Aug. De doct. Christ . 4.18.35.


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over the various styles according to the didactic needs and emotional pitch of the moment.[236] Augustine wanted such a style to reach a largely uneducated audience[237] and to extend the "franchise of the Latin language" in a mixed population of Punic and Latin speakers by simultaneously pressing Latin's claim as the only point of entry for full participation and making the entryway as wide as possible.[238]

The style was also a subtle form of episcopal discipline. Implicitly discounting the distinctions and prestige of the traditional literary culture, it was a chastening reminder for the learned that what was important, true, and correct—in language as in substance—could not be deemed by external standards. Those standards belonged rather to the arsenal of worldly competition; they divided the community. Augustine had felt their divisiveness in himself: always conscious of the pride and competitive urge of the learned,[239] he knew soon after his ordination that his enduring love of praise required the "medicine" of retirement and study.[240] His style, with its "simplicity achieved at the other side of vast sophistication,"[241] was another, continuing form of self-restraint, a way of working free of the time in his own career when those standards had meant so much. Spoken from the authoritative cathedra of the bishop, his language was a unifying force, moving downward to instruct the simple, reaching upward to set the docti an example.

This need for compelling, authoritative, yet accessible speech, capable of opening up texts singularly important in their truth but often obscurely deep or seemingly ambiguous in its presentation, motivates the De doctrina Christiana , Augustine's formal answer to the claims of the traditional literary culture.[242] Begun in 396 and completed in 427—thus nearly framing his episcopacy—the work sketches for clergy and educated layman the possibility of an alternative literary culture based on Scripture. As a necessary part of its argument, the work divorces communication from the authority of classical grammar and rhetoric.

Augustine shows that the traditional standards of correct speech refer to a man-made order and so strips them of their veneer of permanence. As classical rhetoric's seemingly absolute judgments concerning dignity of subject matter have no meaning in Christian experience,[243] so the

[236] Aug. De doct. Christ . 4.19.38ff.

[237] Cf. MacMullen, "Note."

[238] Cf. Brown, Religion 287ff.

[239] De bono vid. 15.19. Cf. Ep . 95.4, 266.2; De Gen. ad litt . 10.39; In Ioan. evang. tract . 57.2, 6; and cf. n. 251 below.

[240] See Brown, Augustine 205f.

[241] Brown, Augustine 268.

[242] See esp. Marrou, Saint Augustin 331ff., 505ff.; Brown, Augustine 263ff.

[243] See nn. 235, 236 above.


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definitions and rules of classical grammar, concerning phonology, morphology, barbarisms, and solecisms,[244] have no absolute validity but are only habitual observances: "What then is soundness of speech [integritas locutionis , the traditional province of the grammarian and his rules][245] save the preservation of an alien habit [aliena consuetudo ] supported by the authority of ancient speakers?"[246]

The grammarian would answer that soundness of speech was definitely no simple matter of habit and authority but was founded on the nature of the language.[247] One said inter homines , not inter hominibus , because the former expression preserved, and the latter corrupted, the natural force of the preposition and the natural relationship between the components of the phrase—not simply because, as Augustine claimed, it was the manner of "those who, before us, spoke with some authority."[248] But Arnobius had already rejected claims to a permanent validity for rules founded in nature; he began from the position that "no speech is sound by nature" (nullus sermo natura est integer ) and went on to describe the distinctions of grammar as merely human, hence mutable, conventions.[249] His point is essentially the same as that of Augustine, who elsewhere devalues the artifices of the grammarians as nothing more than the coventional adherence to the authority of the past:[250] the mortmain has nothing to do with us.

At one and the same time Augustine shrugs off the burden of an alien tradition, remote in the past and appealing to criteria of no permanent value, and places the grammarian in a morally untenable position. The strength of his rules—and so his own strength—lies in his weakness and others', their ambitious regard for the good opinion of other men. Where barbarisms, solecisms, or the conventions of classical phonology are concerned, "men are all the more offended by their violation the weaker they are, and all the more weak in proportion to their wish to seem more learned."[251] That weakness could be overcome by submission to the yoke of God,[252] joined with the realization that the only correct speech was speech effective in context, communicating the Truth dearly, whether or not it was correct by extrinsic, formal standards.[253] The ars

[244] De doct. Christ . 2.13.19-20, 38.56; 4.10.24.

[245] Cf. De doct. Christ . 4.3.5: ipsa arte grammatica, qua discitur locutionis integritas .

[246] De doct. Christ . 2.13.19.

[247] See Chap. 5 p. 176.

[248] De doct. Christ . 2.13.19.

[249] Adv. nat . 1.59.

[250] Cf. De mus . 2.1.1, C. Cresc . 3.79.86.

[251] De doct. Christ . 2.13.20. For pride and self-consciousness connected with the rules of correct speech, cf. 2.14.21, 41.62; 4.7.14; with Conf . 1.18.28-29.

[252] De doct. Christ . 2.13.20.

[253] De doct. Christ . 4.10.24.


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grammatica could therefore be dispensed with, so long as children could grow up among men who spoke correctly.[254]

"'Here we will not be troubled by fear of the grammarians or be afraid lest our careless use of words be punished by those who have put their goods at our disposal.' When the others had laughed . . ."[255] In the rarified atmosphere of Cassiciacum, the enclave of retirement and study the grammarian Verecundus provided outside Milan, it still seemed possible to integrate the liberal arts smoothly with Christian studies.[256] Augustine could then urbanely joke about fear of the grammarian's authority. But when the idea recurs in a sermon of Augustine the bishop,[257] joking in sheltered surroundings has been replaced by instruction in a community at once the only means of salvation and split by contradictions. Augustine had "come home"[258] and found a place where the grammarians' claims were in equal measure intrusive and irrelevant. The irritating fellows simply would not go away: witness the pagan grammarian who so disapproved of Christianity that he contemned the barbarous names of local African martyrs,[259] or the Donatist layman Cresconius, who paraded his professional expertise as part of his polemics with Augustine.[260] Yet such concerns seemed pointless when the typical newcomer to the Church was an uneducated townsman,[261] when Christians accustomed to the language of Scripture thought the locutions of Latin auctores strange,[262] when Augustine's colleagues at Hippo would most often have been like Possidius, "nurtured not by those letters that the slaves of diverse passions call 'liberal' but by the bread of the Lord,"[263] and when not a few of Augustine's fellow bishops were ill-educated by classical standards.[264] (Indeed, it should be remembered that the one illiterate bishop whom we know was Augustine's contemporary and countryman.)[265]

[254] De doct. Christ . 4.3.5. How long men would continue to speak correctly—even by the relativist measure of clarity and effectiveness in context—once the formal criteria were devalued is a question with which Augustine did not concern himself; cf. Brown, Augustine 268; Dionisotti, "On Bede" 125-26.

[255] Aug. De beat. vit . 4.31.

[256] Cf. Fuchs, "Frühe christliche Kirche."

[257] Serm . 37.14: dum omnes instruantur, grammatici non timeantur .

[258] See Brown, Augustine 266f.

[259] Maximus of Madaurus ap . Aug. Ep . 16.2, with Augustine's rebuke, Ep . 17.2.

[260] Cf. Weissengruber, "Augustins Wertung" 104ff.

[261] De cat. rud . 16.24.

[262] De doct. Christ . 2.14.21.

[263] Ep . 101.1.

[264] E.g., Ep . 34.6, on the bishops Proculianus and Samsucius.

[265] See n. 16 above.


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To stand in awe of the grammarian and his definitions in such circumstances was to surrender to the weakness of pride and self-satisfied idiocy.[266] The liberal attitude toward language expressed in the De doctrina Christiana was a way of overcoming that weakness. But at the same time, it was liberalism in the service of a scarcely tolerant and stringently exclusive counterculture. To be sure, Augustine takes it for granted that men should be literate[267] and allows that oratory may be learned—quickly, by those who have the time—in the traditional ways.[268] Like Basil he grants, momentarily, that the liberal disciplines have some ethical value in themselves.[269] Yet while he gives with one hand, he takes away massively with the other.[270] One can learn the traditional rules of oratory—but really there is little point, since a student capable of learning such rules to begin with will gain nothing that he could not acquire for himself by listening to eloquent men or by reading ecclesiastical writings.[271] Similarly, correct speech can be learned without the ars grammatica and so without the grammarian.[272] And as for the grammarian's skill as exegete, in resolving, say, a perplexity of interpretation by punctuating correctly,[273] that can be learned as well, if not better, from the example of Augustine himself, or from other commentators on Scripture.[274] In short, though Augustine assumes an audience educated like himself, most of what he says debunks that education, or shows how the familiar institutions of the traditional culture, and much of its substance, can be circumvented.

Above all, the substance of the traditional culture is to be retained as useful only insofar as it can contribute directly to understanding and communicating the faith.[275] Thus it happens that when Augustine sounds most like Basil, in offering advice to "industrious and talented youths" on their studies outside the Church,[276] he is least like Basil in fact. Far from even hinting that the utility of the classics could be defined in terms of such immediate and limited relevance, Basil assumes that the

[266] To borrow Ramsay MacMullen's phrase; see above, n. 159.

[267] De doct. Christ . 2.18.28, 25.40; cf. prol. 4.

[268] De doct. Christ . 4.3.4.

[269] De doct. Christ . 2.40.60.

[270] Cf. De doct. Christ . 2.42.63, on the general theme that all that can usefully be learned elsewhere—and more—is found in Scripture.

[271] De doct. Christ . 4.3.4-5.

[272] See above, n. 254.

[273] See De doct. Christ . 2.2.2ff., for application of the method.

[274] Cf. Marrou, Saint Augustin 415ff.

[275] Cf. De doct. Christ . 2.18.28, utile ad intellegendas sanctas scripturas and ad spiritualia capienda ; 2.28.42, ad libros sanctos intellegendos ; 2.40.60, usui veritatis aptiores and ad usum iustum praedicandi evangelii .

[276] De doct. Christ . 2.39.58-42.63.


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literary culture would remain a sanitized but unmistakably secular propaedeutic: as the first step toward the final good of the soul, Moses' preliminary gymnastics among the Egyptians have a value in themselves and are left, so to speak, in situ .[277] But when Augustine speaks of the use of the foreign culture, in the metaphor of despoiling the Egyptians, the emphasis is wholly on passing out of Egypt.[278] The bits and pieces of the literary culture that one can surreptitiously appropriate (clanculo vindicate ) are valued only to the extent that they do not remain secular; the metaphor of propaedeutic, with its implications of continuity and progress, yields before the metaphor of possessive alienation. For the spiritual émigrés envisioned in the De doctrina Christiana , rigorous and direct subordination is the only alternative to rejection of the literary culture or surrender to it. If the De doctrina Christiana is the "fundamental charter for Christian culture,"[279] then as such it recognizes no middle way, no compromise, in any real sense of those terms; it is thoroughly like its author, neither desiring to break free of the traditional culture[280] nor able to reach a comfortable rapprochement with it.

Augustine's views were not decisively influential until the deep confusion of the sixth century, when Cassiodorus could find in the De doctrina Christiana part of his formula for stripping the humanities of their vanity and including them as a branch (and nothing more) of divinity.[281] To the aristocracy—Christian and non-Christian alike—along whose edges Augustine had moved at Rome and Milan, the path he followed as bishop would have seemed both wayward and dangerous. The traditions of the literary culture were identifying marks of the natural superiority of their class; both the traditions and the assumptions of superiority largely transcended differences of religion. During the long process by which the senatorial aristocracy in the West came to Christianity,[282] classicism and paganism rarely coalesced to divide the aristocracy—least of all in the late fourth century. Although often attractively mounted,[283] attempts to find in Symmachus a Julian without

[277] See above at n. 194 and p. 78.

[278] Thus De doct. Christ . 2.40.60-61, exire de Aegypto (vel sim .) repeated four times in two paragraphs.

[279] Marrou, Saint Augustin 413.

[280] On the course and extent of Augustine's classical reading during his episcopacy, see most recently O'Donnell, "Augustine's Classical Readings."

[281] On De doct. Christ . and Inst ., see O'Donnell, Cassiodorus 205f., 212f. Cf. Riché, Education 130f., on Eugippius's use of De doct. Christ .

[282] See esp. Chastagnol, "Sénateur"; Brown, Religion 161ff.; Matthews, Western Aristocracies 101ff. For the period up to and through the reign of Constantine, see Eck, "Eindringen"; Novak, "Constantine."

[283] Most influentially within the last generation by Bloch, "Pagan Revival." See also, e.g., Klingner, Römische Geisteswelt 528ff.; Paschoud, Roma 100ff.; Klein, Symmachus 67ff.; Markus, "Paganism."


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portfolio, the center of a defensive pagan revival that sought to preserve the literary culture as a distinctive possession of a resisting elite, do not survive analysis.[284] It is more accurate and more productive to think of the literary culture as a neutral zone of communication and shared prestige, across which the best families could move, near the turn of the fifth century, toward a "respectable, aristocratic Christianity."[285] Having made the passage, the Christianized aristocracy brought the literary culture with it as naturally as it brought the traditional values and perquisites of family and class. When the fifth-century grammarian Phocas (himself a Christian, or at least writing for a largely Christian public at Rome) spoke of the schools of liberal letters as "the gymnasium of wisdom, where is shown the way to the blessed life,"[286] he would have raised hardly a ripple of disagreement in his audience.

For the Christian aristocracy the blessed life of the schools persisted through the disruptions of the fifth century,[287] which saw a Visigothic court in southern Gaul from 418 and senatorial domination in Italy transmuted by the establishment of an Ostrogothic court in Ravenna at the century's end.[288] In Italy, the change produced a fateful division: the senate and the papacy, intertwined in their connections at Rome, averted their eyes from the Germans and looked to their past or to the East; in the north more flexible figures set about domesticating their new rulers.[289] At the court in Ravenna the Italian Cassiodorus, through the edicts now gathered in the Variae , "tried to give Roman dignitas to the orders of his barbarian masters," even suggesting that their concern for the schools at Rome showed them to be not barbarians in fact, since "barbarian kings have no use" for grammar, the "mistress of words."[290] He tried,

[284] For a decisive but, one suspects, unfortunately not final demythologization of the pagan revival and of the role of the circle of Symmachus, see now Alan Cameron, "Paganism." The pagan reaction in politics (commonly linked with the revival in letters and followed to its dramatic resolution at the battle of the Frigidus, in 394) has benefited from a similar but independent inspection, which has qualified the specifically pagan character of the events and has emphasized the essential isolation of Nicomachus Flavianus; see J. Ziegler, Zur religiösen Haltung 85ff.; O'Donnell, "Career" 136ff.; Szidat, "Usurpation"; and cf. Matthews, Western Aristocracies 241ff.

[285] Brown, Religion 177.

[286] GL 5.411.6f., gymnasium sapientiae, quo ad beatam vitam semita demonstratur , with Part II no. 121 ad fin . Contrast Aug. De doct. Christ . 2.39.58: videtur mihi studiosis et ingeniosis adulescentibus . . . salubriter praecipi ut nullas doctrinas quae praeter ecclesiam Christi exercentur tamquam ad beatam vitam capessendam secure sequi audeant .

[287] See Appendix 5; Riché, Education 24ff.

[288] Domination: Matthews, Western Aristocracies 352ff. Transmutation: Wes, Ende .

[289] Momigliano, Secondo contributo 191ff.

[290] Var . 9.21.4 (MGH AA 12.286.15ff.).


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too, to give them the equally important dignitas of a past, in his Getica .[291] As deacon of the church at Milan, the Gallic nobleman Ennodius could praise the martial Theodoric and the status rei publicae , and shepherd his own young relatives and wards into the school of Deuterius, teacher and custos imperii .[292]

In southern Gaul, much of fifth-century aristocratic life consisted of a "reversion to type,"[293] a return to the local expression of power characteristic of the Gallic aristocracy in the first and second centuries of the empire. Delicately maintaining their relations with the Visigothic court, less delicately taking over what remained of the imperial structure administered from Aries, and making occasional forays into the government in Italy, the senatorial families turned their attention to their libraries, their munificence to their local communities, and their backs on their German guests, establishing their place as the center of Gallo-Roman society. In this milieu, to be learned was to know that one was still Roman: the man who postponed the eclipse of Latin letters in troubled times was a heroic figure, deserving honor as "a second Demosthenes, a second Cicero."[294] But to be truly learned was to be a Christian scholar as well, and the library worth envying had Augustine next to Varro, Prudentius next to Horace.[295] More critical still, to be Roman and Christian was to be Catholic; that was a distinction the Goths' persistent Arianism did not allow forgetting, whether the persistence was regarded as a regrettable habit in a useful Goth or the noxious motivation of a hostile one.[296] To possess all these characteristics, and to combine one's cultural and religious identity with a social standing that could command local loyalties and orchestrate local resources, was to become a characteristic figure of the period, the senatorial bishop.[297]

Such a man was Sidonius Apollinaris. Sidonius, who passed smoothly from secular to episcopal concerns, is the most conspicuous example of that blending of traditional and Christian culture already noted in the

[291] Momigliano, Secondo contributo 206; O'Donnell, Cassiodorus 43ff., 55ff.

[292] Cf. Chap. 1 n. 85 and, on Deuterius, Part II no. 44.

[293] Matthews, Western Aristocracies 348ff.

[294] Sidon. Apoll. Ep . 8.2, with Part II no. 80. In a calmer period, Sidonius invites the grammarian Domitius to enjoy his estate at Avitacum, evoking the good old Roman custom of contubernium (Ep . 2.2.3; cf. Part II no. 50).

[295] Sidon. Apoll. Ep . 2.9.4. See also Ep . 4.3 and 5.2, on the qualities of the De statu animae of Claudianus Mamertus; Ep . 9.7, on the declamationes of Remigius of Reims; cf. Ennod. Epist . 2.6.2, 4ff., on the accomplishments of Iulianius Pomerius (Part II no. 124) in utraque bibliotheca .

[296] Cf. Matthews, Western Aristocracies 344f., with Sidon. Apoll. Ep . 7.6.6, on Euric; and, a bit differently, Wormald in a review of Matthews, JRS 66 (1976) 222f.

[297] On the type, see esp. Stroheker, Senatorische Adel 72ff.


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East. The library Sidonius admired for its stock of secular and Christian classics recalls the definition of the inline image as the man who knows both classical and Christian authors;[298] the cordial correspondence of Sidonius and other bishops with the teachers of liberal letters recalls the Eastern bishops' involvement in their own literate society. "The jewel of friends and letters," Sidonius calls the young Hesperius, whose education warmly reminded Sidonius of his own; Hesperius one day would teach the son of another highly placed bishop, Ruricius of Limoges.[299] The spiritual leader of a community did not sever the ties of friends and letters that had become the accoutrements and support of his status. Sidonius and other litterati among the bishops of the late fifth and early sixth century might say that to continue their secular literary endeavors was inconsistent with their episcopal professio , and attempt to adjust their behavior to match their statements.[300] There is, however, little reason to think that such moves represented a fundamental detachment from their own education or a devaluation of its worth.

Far from it. When bishop of Clermont, Sidonius could repeat the ancient assertion that "the educated are as far superior to the uncultured as human beings are to beasts."[301] The belief did not, of course, prevent him from caring for the uncultured by dispensing alms to the poor or defending his town against Gothic attack. It does, however, suggest the perspective he brought to the job, and what he and his fellow townsmen believed his task was: to step in as a great protector, with the authority and sense of duty of his social station.[302] His education and his rhetorical style, exquisite and arabesque, were part of that station. In fulfilling the demands of episcopal office he used that style as naturally as he did his material wealth; and deficiencies of style (at least in an address composed for an audience of other bishops) demanded apology as much as would a failure of charity.[303]

Yet the mixture of classical and Christian that marks the writings and attitudes of Sidonius occurs at a level of lonely eminence unknown to the Cappadocian Fathers, or to Theodoret of Cyrrhus, or to Marcian of

[298] See above, n. 199 and at n. 295.

[299] See Part II no. 229. Cf. Sidon. Apoll. Ep . 8.9, to Lampridius; 8.11, to Lupus.

[300] On the variable success of such renunciations by Sidonius, Avitus, and Ennodius, and their probable connection with ecclesiastical pressure (cf. Stat. Eccl. Ant . can. 5, n. 170 above), see Riché Education 96ff. For a balanced survey of Sidonius's attitudes and practice, see Gualandri, Furtiva lectio 6ff.

[301] Ep . 4.17.2; cf. Chap. 1 n. 13.

[302] Cf. Stevens, Sidonius 137f.

[303] Regret for the supposed absence of sufficient stylistic elaboration: Ep . 7.9.1f.; cf. n. 35 above. His preaching parallel with the dispensation of his personal wealth in charity: Ep . 4.2.3, from Claudianus Mamertus.


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Gaza; for the same conditions that encouraged the emergence of the senatorial bishops isolated their classical culture and that of their peers among the laity. To flourish, the classical schools had always depended on their students' skills and prestige being acknowledged by an audience of significant others, whether locally or in the imperial administration. But the schools were now hemmed in by circumstance. The arena for display had become narrower: Sidonius speaks of the diminishing scope of letters, now pursued to distinction by few men in a "world already growing old."[304] The elegiac remark acquires force by appearing in the praises of an advocate, the sort of man for whose talents the thriving imperial bureaucracy a century earlier had provided a venue and opportunity for advancement. Such a man, Sidonius implies, is now one of a dying breed. Since advocacy and governorship had survived the German settlements, a fifth-century Gallic family might produce an advocate and a provincial governor as well as bishops in a single generation;[305] but opportunities for such secular careers were ever more rare and became the preserve of a small circle. Constriction of opportunities had a double effect: it made the classical culture a preserve of the high aristocracy to an extent scarcely paralleled since the last days of the republic; and it made a position of local, ecclesiastical leadership an attractive or necessary alternative to an imperial, secular career.[306]

Hence there had to develop a different institutional base for such a position. It has been well remarked that "the nearest successors to Ausonius' 'Professors of Bordeaux' are the monks from the monasteries of the south":[307] one glimpses here how institutions have consequences unintended at their inception. Founded as centers of withdrawal and meditation, where entrants could be taught literacy sufficient for the study of Scripture and where the world at large could point to a reassuring store of holy intercessors before the Heavenly Judge,[308] the monasteries at Lérins, Marseille, and elsewhere came progressively during the fifth century to serve as sources of bishops. Some of these men, like Eucherius of Lyon, had received a classical education before finding refuge in the monastery and had resumed their interest in the literary culture after leaving the monastery behind.[309] But more consequential was the

[304] Ep . 8.6.3.

[305] Cf. n. 208 above, on the family of Marcian of Gaza.

[306] The constriction is well described by Matthews, Western Aristocracies 347f. For the bishoprics of the Gallic aristocracy as alternative careers, see recently Heinzelmann, "Aristocratie"; Mathisen, "Hilarius."

[307] Matthews, Western Aristocracies 348.

[308] Cf. Sidon. Apoll. Ep . 7.9.9.

[309] Cf. Riché Education 102. Note the fusion of religious and cultural authority that provides the conceit for Agroecius's dedication of his Orthographia to Eucherius, GL 7.113.1ff.: libellum Capri de orthographia misisti mihi. haec quoque res proposito tuo et moribus tuis congrua est, ut, qui nos in huius vitae actibus corrigere vis, etiam in scribendi studiis emendares. nihil ergo quod in nobis est alienum a castigatione tua credis: omnia nostra, el quae dictu parva sunt, sollicita indage rimaris. . . . hoc est vere summum Dei sacerdotem esse, commissos sibi homines, ut ipsi dicitis, et secundum spiritum imbuere et secundum litteram perdocere . Cf. Part II no. 181. Contrast the case of Gregory of Nyssa sending his tract against Eunomius to Libanius for vetting, above, n. 201.


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trend that can be found already in the first half of the fifth century, in the shift from a father who became a bishop after holding the praetorian prefecture to his son, brought up in a monastery before becoming a bishop in his turn.[310] The fact that the father's literary sophistication could distinguish him from his son is symptomatic of the shift and of the emergence among the episcopal aristocracy of a new group, owing none of its prestige and authority to the traditional culture.[311]

The voice of that new elite is heard clearly in the Vita of Caesarius of Aries, which recounts his vision of—and triumph over—the serpent of worldly wisdom and polished speech.[312] The vision bears an evident likeness to the anxious dream of Jerome, but more significant are the differences, which emphasize the spiritual muscle of the monastic visionary: no Judge, no need for a flogging to turn the dreamer to humility, and no tears of repentance; Caesarius awoke, reproved himself, and "despised these things straightway"—and that, to all appearances, was that. Far from marking the beginning of a long inner turmoil, as it did for Jerome, the dream conveys an image of instant superiority. The temptation of foolish wisdom and its vainglory is only a moment in an otherwise direct carrière that takes Caesarius from Lérins to holy orders at Aries, and from the abbacy of the suburban monastery at Aries to the episcopal throne.[313] The secular culture and its prestige intrude only as a foil for the greater strength, and greater authority, of the monastic culture Caesarius first acquired at Lérins and later recreated for the clerics in the domus ecclesiae at Arles.[314]

[310] The Petronii: the father, bishop of Verona; the son, bishop of Bologna. See Gennad. De vir. ill . 42, with Mathisen, "Petronius" 108ff.

[311] Gennad. De vir. ill . 42: Petronius . . . , vir sanctae vitae et monachorum studiis ab adulescentia exercitatus, scripsisse putatur vitas patrum Aegypti monachorum. . . . legi sub eius nomine de ordinatione episcopi . . . tractatum, quem lingua elegantior ostendit non ipsius esse sed, ut quidam dicunt, patris eius Petronii, eloquentis et eruditi in saecularibus litteris viri: et credendum, nam el praefectum praetorio fuisse se in ipso tractatu designat . The distinction, although rejected in the past, has been vindicated by Mathisen, "Petronius."

[312] See above, n. 161.

[313] V. Cats . 1.8-14.

[314] This became the prototype of the episcopal schools, the training ground for a professional clergy: Riché, Education 124ff. On the "episcopal aggression" that might have motivated some such establishments, see briefly Wormald's review of Matthews, JRS 66 (1976) 225.


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Whether the account of the vision originated with Caesarius or with his biographers, it seems accurately to suggest the extent of Caesarius's hostility to the classical culture[315] and his limited familiarity with it:[316] certainly Caesarius's style owes more to Scripture than to classical rhetoric[317] and is the idiom of a man "nurtured not by the letters that the slaves of diverse passions call 'liberal' but by the bread of the Lord."[318] But what is equally important, the account eloquently conveys both the tensions and the quiet arrogance of men asserting against the secular prestige of the liberally educated the authority and independence of their own institutions as the framework for a career. If the movement from secular career and classical school to ecclesiastical career and the Church as educator can be thought of as a translatio imperii , it was, like all such transfers, a movement accompanied by friction.[319]

The simplicity of speech Caesarius insists upon when he offers his sermo pedestris as an example while sharply directing the bishops under his primacy to keep their worldly rhetoric out of their churches,[320] or when he draws attention to his own rusticity in his sermons,[321] is of course suited to the bishop's role as mediator, disciplining the learned while drawing into the congregation people on the margins of Latinity.[322] The role itself was not new—Augustine had molded himself to it at Hippo[323] —nor were the circumstances: it is doubtful that Arles at the beginning of the sixth century was a radically less learned place than Hippo at the beginning of the fifth.[324] The difference lies in Caesarius's blunt and unmodulated certainty, a luxury and a defense his background provided. In place of the tense dialectic through which Augustine took his traditional education for granted even as he distanced himself from it, there is the unalloyed excellence of Caesarius's monastic simplicity, a badge to be worn proudly, an emblem of divine grace[325] and in itself a guarantee

[315] See esp. Serm . 99.3.

[316] Cf. Riché Education 114f.

[317] See Bonini, "Stile."

[318] To apply Augustine's description (above, n. 263) of Possidius, who like Caesarius passed from the monastery (at Hippo) to the episcopacy (at Calama).

[319] For similar tensions appearing elsewhere in slightly different terms, see esp. Sidon. Apoll. Ep . 7.9.14, on the objections that Sidonius anticipates should he nominate a bishop from among the laity who have enjoyed a secular career. Sidonius's solution was to propose a man who could point both to bishops and to magistrates in his family's history (ibid. 17) and whose wife could count both bishops and professors among her ancestors (ibid. 24).

[320] Serm . 1.20; cf. 1.12-13.

[321] Cf. Serm . 86.1, 114.2.

[322] Cf. Auerbach, Literary Language 91; Riché Education 93f.

[323] See above, p. 84.

[324] See above, p. 86.

[325] Cf. V. Caes . 1.9.


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of virtue.[326] His simplicity is ultimately as aggressive and self-satisfied as the sophistication and polished speech of the classical culture it opposes.

In Sidonius and Caesarius one hears two distinct voices of the episcopal aristocracy, each speaking from a different position of strength, each equally removed from the struggles of Jerome and Augustine. Sidonius assumes the episcopacy as an extension of his secular primacy, of which his classical culture was a part—he was not one to suffer from visions. In counterpoise there is the image of Caesarius easily exorcising the demon of classicism, the straw man for his own monastic culture. Where Augustine had needed to think and feel his way to a resolution of his own experience, Sidonius never fully knew the need, and Caesarius never had such experience. In their differences, the two men symbolize the still-conflicting claims of worldly and spiritual sources of authority, and the divided legacy with which continental Europe entered the Middle Ages—a division in which the classical culture continued to figure and across which the men of the following generations would make their way only along such narrow paths as those pointed out by Augustine's doctrina Christiana .

In the eyes of friends and critics alike, the grammarian's profession stood for the tenacious maintenance of one kind of order. It fostered and defined, and was fostered and delimited by, a hierarchy of individual status and social relations built on the good opinion of other men. In this way the profession contributed to an idea of permanence that sought to control the instabilities of idiosyncratic achievement and historical change. In the following chapters we will look more closely at the lives and teachings of the grammarians themselves within that hierarchy. As a start, we can examine the places they occupied—the range of their social and economic circumstances, the fact and limits of their social and geographic mobility, their roles as private or public persons—between the humble experience of the common run of men and vertiginous ambition for earthly power or heavenly grace.

[326] See esp. the defense of rusticity—in effect, an assertion of moral superiority—at V. Caes . praef. 2.


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MEDIOCRITY


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Chapter 3
The Social Status of the Grammarians

ista autem sedes honoris, sella curulis,. . in cuius me fastigio ex qua mediocritate posuisti, quotiens a me cogitatur, vincor magnitudine et redigor ad silentium, non oneratus beneficiis, sed oppressus.


Whenever I think of the glorious seat of the consulship and of the eminence to which you raised me from a station so ordinary, I am overcome by the greatness of it and reduced to silence, not burdened by your favor, but overwhelmed.
—Ausonius, Gratiarum actio 1.32-36


In any attempt to define the grammarian's social and economic circumstances, we are inevitably at the mercy of our sources. Largely anecdotal, subject to distortions, unevenly distributed geographically and over time, the evidence forbids any generalizations that could lay claim to statistical significance.[1] Such limitations, of course, are hardly unique to our subject; but there is a further limitation, perhaps especially severe in the grammarians' case, which can be expressed in terms of the principle, The more one knows, the less one knows. Most grammarians surface briefly in a single source and then sink without a trace. It follows that the more varied our information is concerning a given grammarian (for example, the adventurer Pamprepius), the less justified we are in using that information to sketch a typical case: the fact that we know so much creates the strong presumption that he is somehow extraordinary.

Yet even if we are shut off from some methods of analysis, there is still much to be said; for our evidence, although fragmentary and scattered, is still sufficiently abundant to allow us to sketch the range of

[1] For one reminder of the limits of our knowledge, see Appendix 5, Macedonia, showing only two (possibly three) grammarians active on the old Greek mainland during the three centuries surveyed.


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possibilities systematically and in some detail and to suggest where the center of that range might lie. We will begin, then, by examining briefly what is perhaps the most familiar group of teachers, the grammatici of Bordeaux commemorated by Ausonius. Having drawn what inferences we can concerning the social and economic standing (or standings) of the Burdigalenses , we will compare those results with the information from other areas of the empire.

Bordeaux

Ausonius's loyal record of the grammarians and rhetoricians of his native town was composed sometime after 385, near the end of his long life.[2] Living in retirement as a former praetorian prefect and consul, Ausonius had by then far surpassed the successes of any other teacher of Bordeaux; he had also far outstripped the mediocritas of his own origins as the son of a physician of curial status and a woman of good birth but small means.[3] Looking back over more than half a century to the days when he himself had been a grammarian and then a rhetorician, Ausonius may have found that experience somehow remote and difficult to bring into focus: so much at least would account for his inconstancy and ambiguity in characterizing the grammarians' status at Bordeaux, speaking now of the exilis cathedra , now of the nomen grammatici . . . tam nobile .[4]

Yet this ambiguity is perhaps not inappropriate, for the nineteen grammarians of Bordeaux catalogued by Ausonius seem to have been a notably mixed lot, comprising, at one extreme, men a generation removed from slavery, and, at the other, a descendant of a noble family of old

[2] The best general treatment of the Professores as a social document is by Hopkins, "Social Mobility" 244ff., to which this section owes much; less balanced for the grammatici is Étienne, Bordeaux 254, 256f. Valuable discussion of prosopographical questions is provided by Booth, "Notes" and "Academic Career"; and by Green, "Prosopographical Notes." For full documentation and discussion of the teachers touched on in this and the following section, the reader is referred to the entries in Part II.

[3] The family of Ausonius: Hopkins, "Social Mobility" 240ff. But the suggestion (p. 241), based largely on Ausonius's silence, that Ausonius's paternal grandfather was a freedman should be resisted; cf. Matthews, Western Aristocracies 81f.

[4] Exilis cathedra, Prof . 7.9-12; with Prof . 10.41, fama . . . tenuis (cf. Prof . 12.6); Prof . 10.51-52, gloriolam exilem / et patriae et cathedrae ; cf. Prof . 22.17-18, exili nostrae fucatus honore cathedrae, / libato tenuis nomine grammatici , of the subdoctor Victorius. For nomen grammatici . . . tam nobile , see Prof . 9.2.5; and cf. Praef . 1.18, nomen grammatici merui; Prof . 18.8, grammatici nomen divitiasque , of Marcellus at Narbo.


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Rome.[5] Thus, three were sons of freedmen;[6] another five are grouped by Ausonius under the general rubric "of lowly origin, standing, and deserts."[7] But three others were of not less than curial rank (Ausonius, his nephew Herculanus, and Acilius Glabrio), and similar origins can be conjectured fairly confidently for a fourth.[8] Unfortunately, Ausonius offers no information on the families of the remaining seven. If one is willing to trust his silence concerning these teachers, they presumably fell somewhere between the two extremes, "freeborn, but in general undistinguished"; but this might place some of them too low.[9]

The evidence suggests, then, a middling group of men, with the balance perhaps tipped more obviously toward the lower end of the range than in our evidence from other areas of the empire (see "Beyond"). There is, however, another feature of the grammarians' origins, which we will see

[5] Nineteen grammarians: the number includes Ausonius and excludes Marcellus (Prof . 18), who only taught at Narbo, and the subdoctor Victorius (Prof . 22); cf. Appendix 4. Stemmate nobilium deductum nomen avorum: Prof . 23.3, of Acilius Glabrio.

[6] Prof . 10.15-16, of Sucuro. Prof . 21.27, of Crispus and Urbicus: for Ausonius's sense of the inconsistency of their cultural standing and their birth, see Prof . 21.25-28, quoted at Chap. 2 n. 133.

[7] Prof . 10.5-6, humili stirpe, loco ac merito , covering Macrinus, Phoebicius, Concordius, Ammonius, Anastasius, as well as the freedman's son Sucuro; note that all teachers so described were active early in the period covered by the Professores (see Part II no. 35). It is of course difficult to say with any precision what Ausonius, writing from the perspective of his own success, might have meant by humilis (cf. Chap. 1 n. 59), save that the men were likely of less than curial status. That he takes the trouble specifically to note the libertina progenies of Sucuro might suggest a somewhat more honorable origin for the rest, but that does not take us far; neither does the Druid stock claimed by Phoebicius, nor his service as aedituus of the temple of Apollo-Belenus at his native Bayeux (Prof . 10.24-25; cf. Prof . 4.9ff.).

[8] Nepotianus (Prof . 15), grammarian and subsequently rhetorician and provincial governor. Unless his later career is an example of truly extraordinary mobility, his origins will have resembled those of his friend Ausonius (ibid. 4ff.), whose career was comparable to Nepotianus's; see below. The noble marriage enjoyed by Marcellus at Narbo (Prof . 18.5-6) might also presuppose at least respectable antecedents at Bordeaux.

[9] Cf. Hopkins, "Social Mobility" 246. Ausonius does not comment at all concerning Iucundus, Leontius, Corinthus, Spercheus, Menestheus, or Citarius (the last four all grammatici Graeci ), and he states his ignorance in the case of Thalassus (Prof . 12). Hopkins' inference from Ausonius's silence might here be justified, but we should remember that Ausonius elsewhere omits information that we would think too significant to pass over: note that we know of Herculanus's relatively high origins from the Parentalia (Par . 15, on his father, Pomponius Maximus), not from the Professores , Cf. Booth, "Notes" 238 n. 12; and below, n. 24, on the social origins of the rhetoricians at Bordeaux.


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elsewhere: the noticeable (but by no means exclusive) tendency for recruitment to follow family lines. Thus, besides the Greek grammatici Spercheus and Menestheus, father and son, we find the two brothers Iucundus and Leontius, as well as Ausonius and his nephew Herculanus, the son of a vir primarius in the curia of Bordeaux. There is also an example of professional mobility from one generation to the next in Phoebicius, a grammarian and the father of a rhetorician, Attius Patera, whose success carried him as far as a chair at Rome.[10]

As for other indications of status, there is little to be found except at the upper level of the group. Acilius Glabrio and Ausonius are the only landholders we know among them. Concerning Glabrio, we are given no specific information;[11] in Ausonius's case, the evidence suggests that by the end of his life he may have owned as many as eight properties.[12] Of

[10] On Patera at Rome, see Booth, "Notes" 244. For the family's fortunes in the third generation, see the account of the career of Attius Delphidius Tiro—advocate, political adventurer under Procopius, and finally teacher of rhetoric at Bordeaux—in Booth, "Notes" 236f.; cf. Green, "Prosopographical Notes" 23. Besides Phoebicius, only 4 of the grammatici , Nepotianus, Acilius Glabrio, Ausonius, and Spercheus, are known to have had children; Citarius married but died before children were born; Herculanus died young, leaving his family without heirs. Of the rest—all three freedmen's sons and the four remaining humiles (nn. 6, 7, above), plus Leontius, Iucundus, Thalassus, Menestheus, and Corinthus—we are told nothing. Compare the showing of 19 epitaphs raised to or by grammarians in the earlier empire (i.e., all those from which some inference can be drawn): 9 give evidence of marriage and/or children (CIL 3.10805 = AIJ 249 Neviodunum; CIL 6.9447 = ILS 7770, CIL 6.9448, CIL 9.1654 = ILS 6497 Beneventum, CIL 10.3961 Capua, CIL 13.3702 = ILS 7768 Trier, IGVR 3.1261, GVI 1182 = IKyzik . 515 Kirmasti [Hellespontus]); 10 (dedicated by a friend, mother, libertus, vel sim .) suggest that the grammarian either had not married or was not survived by wife or children (CIL 2.3872 = ILS 7765 = ILER 5715 Saguntum, CIL 2.5079 = ILER 5713 Asturica Augusta, CIL 3.12702 [with 13822] = ILS 7767 Doclea, CIL 6.9444, CIL 6.9449 = ILS 1848, CIL 6.9450, CIL 6.9454 = ILS 7769, CIL 6.33859, CIL 8.21107 Caesarea, Kaibel 534 = GVI 1479 Byzantium). Cf. also CIL 5.5278 = ILS 6729 Comum, a bequest by the Latin grammarian P. Atilius Septicianus of his universa substantia to Comum, probably implying that he had no heirs of his blood.

[11] Prof . 23.7: cultor in agris .

[12] For what follows, see esp. Étienne, Bordeaux 351ff. (following Loyen, "Bourg-sur-Gironde," with some adjustments), who is certainly correct to insist that Ausonius's villula (the parvum herediolum of Dom . 1) must be distinct from the estate Lucaniacus (see also below, n. 21; differently Hopkins, "Social Mobility" 240f., following Grimal, "Villas"). But Étienne and Loyen may go too far in attributing to Ausonius villas of which he may simply have enjoyed the hospitality; cf. the restraint of Green, "Prosopographical Notes" 26 n. 33. For the evidence of Ausonius and the patterns of land tenure in Roman Gaul, see Wightman, "Peasants."


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these, one derived from his father (the parvum herediolum described in Dom . 1), as perhaps did two others (a house in Bordeaux proper and land in the pagus Novarus ); his wife's dowry certainly brought one property (the estate Lucaniacus), and possibly another in the territory of Saintes. Ausonius tells us most about the parvum herediolum , a parcel of 1,050 iugera (200 arable, 100 vineyard, 50 pasturage, 700 woodland) tended by his great-grandfather, grandfather, and father before Ausonius inherited it.[13] This herediolum was parvum only relatively: as Keith Hopkins has remarked, although the estate was a good deal smaller than some known senatorial or even curial holdings, it would have been "very much larger than the average."[14] Ausonius did not come to his teaching career a wealthy man—certainly not by the standards with which he would have become familiar in the orbit of the emperor. But neither did he come to it a pauper in the modern sense.[15] It is worth recalling that Ausonius's father, a physician, could offer his skills without fees to all[16] and that Ausonius evidently completed his literary education up through rhetoric—and thus satisfied one of the central expectations of upper-class life—with none of the financial strains apparent, for example, in Augustine's schooling.[17]

Ausonius's education is significant in another respect: it allowed him, at least early in his career, to divide his time between the classroom and practice as an advocate. Here again he is joined by Acilius Glabrio,

[13] Description: Dom . 1.21-23. Inheritance: ibid. 1-3, pace Hopkins, "Social Mobility" 240f., who argues against a paternal line of succession in the belief that Ausonius's paternal grandfather was a freedman, and who equates the herediolum with the tenuis . . . pecunia acquired with much effort by his maternal grandfather, Arborius (Par . 4.15-16). On the status of his paternal grandfather, cf. above, n. 3; note that Ausonius clearly attributes the tenuis . . . petunia to the efforts of his maternal grandfather only—i.e., it could not have come down from his maternal proavus , as Dom . 1.1-3 would require.

[14] Hopkins, "Social Mobility" 241 n. 3. The value of the property would depend greatly on the quality of the arable (1 iug . vineyard = 4 iug . 1st-class arable = 8 iug . 2d-class = 12 iug. 3d-class; so Ausonius's 100 iug . of vineyard would have been worth 2-6 times his 200 iug . of ager ). On the relative value of arable, vineyard, and pasture, see A. H. M. Jones, Roman Economy 228f.

[15] Ausonius characterizes as pauperes Aemilia (his maternal grandmother, Par . 4.14; compare ibid. 15-16, on his grandfather Arborius) and his paternal aunt Iulia Cataphronia (Par . 26.5; contrast the magna petunia attributed to his patruus at Par . 2.3). In Aemilia's case, at least, this probably indicates nothing worse than reduced circumstances of a not very harrowing sort, a lack of conspicuous wealth (opes ) that was at odds with the high standing of Aemilia's family (cf. Prof . 16.5-8, on her son, Aemilius Magnus Arborius) and with Arborius's earlier high fortune (Par . 4.3-8).

[16] Epiced . 11-12; cf. n. 128 below.

[17] Conf . 2.35.


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whose advocacy Ausonius also recalls.[18] Practice at the bar is another index of social status, implying rhetorical training and so the wherewithal to support it. Advocacy might also be taken as a sign of ambition; for although it was not the route that Ausonius eventually chose, it could provide an entry into the imperial service.[19] There were other opportunities open to grammarians at or from Bordeaux. Ausonius's respectable origins and his literary skills, combined no doubt with other ornaments attributable more to his family than to himself,[20] brought him a noble wife and a substantial dowry, probably at an early date in his career.[21] Again, Ausonius was not alone in this good fortune: the Greek grammarian Citarius also found a rich and noble wife at Bordeaux not long after his arrival from Sicily.[22] But the loftiest prospects seem to have been open only to those who moved beyond their positions as grammarians. We know of two instances of professional mobility among the grammatici Burdigalenses : Ausonius and Nepotianus, both of whom began as grammarians but moved upward in the professional hierarchy to teach as rhetoricians.[23] This movement in itself probably accounts for the fact that these two alone among the grammarians made their way into the imperial service, Ausonius initially as tutor to the prince Gratian, Nepotianus as a provincial governor.

Indeed, where such opportunities are concerned, the contrast between the rhetoricians and the grammarians at Bordeaux seems clear; and it is worth noting that the difference between the two groups is less evident in their origins than in their prospects.[24] For example, more rhetoricians

[18] Glabrio: Prof . 24.7. Ausonius: Praef . 1.17f., nec fora non celebrata mihi, sed cura docendi cultior ; on the interpretation of this remark, see Part II no. 21.

[19] Thus the path taken by Attius Delphidius Tiro: see above, n. 10; cf. at n. 133 below.

[20] Hopkins, "Social Mobility" 242, well emphasizes the fame at court of his maternal uncle, the rhetorician Aemilius Magnus Arborius, and the local influence of his brother-in-law, Pomponius Maximus.

[21] Attusia Lucana Sabina (Par . 9.5, nobilis a proavis et origine clara senatus ), daughter of Attusius Lucanus Talisius (Par . 8). The estate Lucaniacus (see Epist . 16.36, villa Lucani—mox potieris—aco , with Epist . 26.1.12, 26.2.43-44, Epigr . 48.7; and cf. Paulin. Nol. Carm . 10.256, aut quum Lucani retineris culmine fundi ) is to be associated with this family; cf. n. 12 above.

[22] Prof . 13.9; and cf. Marcellus, a native of Bordeaux who taught as a grammarian at Narbo, Prof . 18.5-6. Note that the grammarians appear to have been not much less successful than the rhetoricians in finding uxores nobiles : see Prof . 16.9, on Aemilius Magnus Arborius, Prof . 7.35-36, on Alethius Minervius; cf. Prof . 23.5, on Dynamius, like the grammarian Marcellus a native of Bordeaux who taught in a different city (Ilerda), where he found a wealthy wife.

[23] Prof . 15 tit. and 10ff., on Nepotianus, Epist . 22.73-76 and Prof . 24.5-6, on Ausonius, with the comments in Part II nos. 105, 21.

[24] On the differences in mobility, see Hopkins, "Social Mobility" 247. Although none of the rhetoricians is said to have had origins as lowly as those of some grammarians (e.g., the sons of freedmen), Ausonius describes only two rhetoricians in terms that show they were of at least curial background (Prof . 14.7, Censorius Atticus Agricius; 16.8, Aemilius Magnus Arborius). Yet it is difficult to believe that the majority of the rhetoricians of Bordeaux were of less than curial origin, given the great rarity of such instances elsewhere; Ausonius's silence here may simply pass over something that his audience would take for granted, and may lead us to underestimate the origins of many teachers. It would follow, then, that at least some of the grammarians whose origins are not specified were men of higher standing than we might at first conclude; cf. at n. 9 above. In general, we can think that the social composition of the two groups significantly overlapped, with the lower range of grammatici more humbly placed than the corresponding rhetores , and perhaps with the upper range of rhetores possessing loftier origins than most grammatici . Cf. also n. 22 above.


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than grammarians practiced at the bar,[25] though of course public advocacy may have been at least partially a consequence of their profession. More revealing are the instances of professional and social mobility: only two of the grammarians are said to have left positions at Bordeaux to teach elsewhere, one apparently out of financial necessity, another out of ambition.[26] None achieved the success of several of the rhetoricians, whose fame made them sought, or drove them to chairs at Rome or Constantinople, bringing reflected glory to Bordeaux.[27] No doubt such men may have been more talented in their metier than their colleagues among the grammatici . Yet one suspects that beneath the language of fame and compulsion lie the workings of patronage (which we will have occasion to examine in a later chapter) and that patronage at the level necessary for such brilliant success was more easily available to the rhetoricians of Bordeaux than to the grammarians. That suspicion is hardly diminished by the other clear distinction between the two groups of teachers, the opportunity for entry into the imperial service: all the professores who rose to the governing class had first been rhetoricians.[28]

[25] Prof . 2.17, on Latinus Alcimus Alethius, 3.11, on Luciolus, Par . 3.13-14, on Aemilius Magnus Arborius; cf. Prof . 23.2, on Dynamius, with n. 10 above, on the career of Attius Tiro Delphidius.

[26] Cf. Prof . 10.19-21, on Concordius, qui profugus patria / mutasti sterilem / urbe alia cathedram (on patria here, see Part II no. 35); ibid. 46ff., on Anastasius, whom transtulit ambitio / Pictonicaeque dedit (Ausonius notes his failure at Poitiers in vv. 49-53). Cf. below at n. 153.

[27] Ti. Victor Minervius (Prof . 1.3-4; Jer. Chron . s.a. 352), Attius Patera and Censorius Atticus Agricius (Prof . 14.9, with Booth, "Notes" 244); and cf. Aemilius Magnus Arborius (Par . 3.15), whose crescens fama made him petitus , and (Prof . 16.14) whose fama drove him (pepulit ) to Constantinople.

[28] The governorship of Nepotianus (Prof . 15.18) has already been mentioned; with the success of Ausonius via his service as imperial tutor, cf. the career of Exuperius, a native of Bordeaux who taught as a rhetorician at Toulouse and Narbo (Prof . 17.7ff.; for his governorship in Spain, cf. v. 13). Hopkins ("Social Mobility" 242) and others are probably wrong, however, to attribute a praesidatus of Narbo to Aemilius Magnus Arborius on the strength of Par . 3.12; the reference is probably to his advocacy. Green, "Prosopographical Notes" 20, is rightly skeptical; cf. also Booth, "Academic Career" 330.


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Taken individually, then, the grammarians of Bordeaux show considerable range in their social origins; as a group, they probably enjoyed a middling respectability in the city's elite. Their profession appears to have been a social bridge, sufficiently prestigious to attract the son of the leader of the local senate but not of such high status that it was beyond the reach of some freedmen's sons, for whom it no doubt represented a step up in the world. The position held some opportunity for professional, social, and geographic mobility, but without direct access to the highest prizes mobility could bring. In this respect, the grammarians were overshadowed by the men at the next level of the professional hierarchy, the rhetoricians. In the next section we will attempt to supplement this bare summary by drawing on the more abundant but more fragmentary evidence from other cities of the empire.

Beyond

As we have already noted, the search for grammarians in the empire leads one to regional centers.[29] Smaller towns, if they were unable to supply a steady stream of pupils or to offer a formal position by funding a chair, probably could not long sustain a teacher even if they had one in their midst: thus Augustine began his career as a private grammaticus in his native Thagaste but did not remain long.[30] By contrast, Bordeaux, a provincial capital as well as an episcopal see, could afford municipally funded positions for a teaching corps that (it appears) commonly ran to more than one grammarian.[31] It is impossible to say how many cities were as fortunate. If one looks beyond Rome and Constantinople, the number of attested positions supported by public (that is, municipal or imperial) funds is not large: Oxyrhynchus in the mid-third century; Heliopolis, in Phoenice, the provincial capitals of the northern Gallic diocese, and Alexandria in the fourth century; and Athens in the fifth.[32]

[29] See Chap. 1 at n. 26; cf. Appendix 5.

[30] Possid. V. Aug . 1; Aug. Conf . 4.1.1, 2.2, 4.7, with Part II no. 20. Compare Tetradius, teaching (at what level is not clear) in the Gallic backwater of Iculisma: Part II no. 263.

[31] Municipal funding: see esp. Ausonius's reference to his municipalis opera, Praef . 1.24. On the size of the teaching corps, see Appendix 4.

[32] Oxyrhynchus: see below, pp. 115f., on Lollianus. Northern Gaul: CTh 13.3.11 (an. 376), with Bonner, "Edict" 114ff., and Kaster, "Reconsideration" 100ff. Heliopolis: Lib. Ep . 1255, 1256, with Part II no. 4. Alexandria: Anth. Gr . 9.175 (Palladas), with 9.171, 11.378, and Part II no. 113. Athens: Damasc. V. Isid . epit. Phot. 168 (= frg. 290 Zintzen) and Malch. frg. 20, with Part II no. 114.


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This number could, however, easily be expanded—to include at least Narbo, Toulouse, Carthage, and Milan in the West, Nicaea, Nicomedia, Elusa, Caesarea, Tyre, Syrian Chalcis, Apamea, and Antioch in the East—if one were to assume that the presence of a public chair of rhetoric should imply at least one similar endowment for a grammarian.[33] Smaller still is the number of places beyond Rome and Constantinople where more than one grammarian can be found at the same time: in the fourth century one can point with certainty only to the major centers of Milan, Trier, and Antioch (in addition to Bordeaux), although some fairly modest cities—Hermopolis and Gaza—appear to have claimed at least two grammarians in the late fifth or early sixth century.[34] It seems that most grammatici were likely to be sole practitioners in their towns; as such they would have been free from competition but at the same time isolated, large fish in small ponds.

If we look, then, at the origins and social standing of our teachers, we see a range similar to that at Bordeaux. The most significant difference occurs at the lower reaches: nowhere but at Bordeaux do we find men as low on the social ladder as freedmen's sons teaching as grammarians, and we can find only one who might resemble in his origins those whom Ausonius describes as humili stirpe .[35] The profession must surely have included other such lowly figures, now concealed by the fragmentation of our sources: even among the grammarians we happen to know—well over a hundred—we can specify or legitimately infer the circumstances of only about fifty. Yet we do know enough to conclude—as Ausonius's

[33] Narbo and Toulouse: see esp. Auson. Prof . 17.7-8. Carthage and Milan: Aug. Conf . 6.7.11, 5.13.23; for Carthage in the sixth century, see CJ 1.27.1, 42. Nicaea and Nicomedia: Lib. Or . 1.48-49. Caesarea: Lib. Or . 31.42; Choric. Or. fun. Procop . 12 (p. 113.21ff. Foerster-Richtsteig), the latter mentioning Tyre also. Elusa: Lib. Ep . 132, with Part II no. 55. Chalcis: Lib. Or . 54.48. Apamea: Lib. Ep . 1391. Antioch: Lib. Or . 31, with Kaster, "Salaries" 54ff. Perhaps also Cyzicus: cf. Lib. Ep . 527.1. Many of the cities mentioned in this and the preceding note have been remarked by Jones, whose discussion of the teachers' circumstances, LRE 998f., is the best brief survey.

[34] Milan: see Part II nos. 159, 172. Trier: Auson. Epist . 13, on Ursulus and Harmonius. Antioch: Part II nos. 25, 32, 169, with Petit, Étudiants 85f. (The position of these teachers at Antioch is problematic.) Hermopolis: BGU 12.2152, Fl. Her . . ., Fl. Pythiodorus. Gaza: Procop. Gaz. Ep . 13, the Greek grammarians Alypius and Stephanus, the Latin grammarian Hierius: but all three appear to have left Gaza for Antioch; see below at nn. 140, 147. Note also the grammarians Agathodaemon and Ophelius, joint recipients of Isid. Pel. Ep . 5.439, thus presumably active in the same place (unknown, perhaps Egypt; cf. Part II no. 3).

[35] Pamprepius of Panopolis, said to have begun as a pauper and to have had a difficult youth, Rhetorius Catal. cod. astrol. Graec . 8:4.221.2, 8:4.222.8ff. This characterization might, however, be influenced by a contrast with his later good fortune, beginning with his arrival in Athens: cf. Rhetorius 8:4.221.3, and below at n. 160.


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special notice of the freedmen's sons should imply—that men of low birth were out of the ordinary.

The evidence clusters instead at a level closer to Ausonius's own mediocritas . Where the data are fairly explicit, we know of seven men certainly or probably of curial status, and one equestrian.[36] In a number of other instances we find reasonably clear indications of respectable origins. The grammarian's own education can offer a hint, as in the case of Marius Plotius Sacerdos, once a fellow pupil and a contubernalis of the vir clarissimus Gaianus, son of the senator Uranius.[37] Alternatively, family attainments provide the token of honorable standing, as with Dioscorius of Myra, the brother of a distinguished sophist, and Metrodorus of Tralles, who counted an architect, two physicians, and a lawyer among his brothers, sons of the physician Stephanus.[38] Or again, several sources of inference can converge. Calliopius, who had Libanius's son among his pupils during his time at Antioch, belonged to a well-placed family of the city:[39] even without explicit testimony to that effect, we might have been able to conclude as much from Calliopius's full literary education and from his sister's marriage to the influential Seleucus.[40] In view of these social indicators, it is particularly noteworthy that Calliopius's father was also a grammarian:[41] to this pair can be added several other examples of the profession passing through two or (in one case) three generations in the same family.[42]

[37] GL 6.496.5ff. Note also the grammarian Ophelius, who appears to have had a full rhetorical education: cf. Isid. Pel. Ep . 4.162, with Part II no. 109.

[38] Dioscorius: Part II no. 48. Metrodorus: Part II no. 101. Compare Ammonianus (Part II no. 8), a relative of the philosopher Syrianus and of Aedesia, the wife of the philosopher Hermias and mother of Ammonius and Heliodorus.

[40] Education: pupil of Zenobius, teacher of Libanius, Lib. Ep . 625.4, with Ep . 18.2. Marriage: Lib. Ep . 625.4, 678.2. For Seleucus, see PLRE I s.v. Seleucus 1, p. 818, with Part II no. 252.

[41] Part II no. 169.

[42] Fathers and sons: Danaus and Diphilus, Part II nos. 43, 49; the Clamosi of Parentium, Part II nos. 29, 30; Alypius and Olympius of Isaurian Seleucia, Part II nos. 2, 95. Three generations: Horapollon, who taught at Alexandria and Constantinople, with his son Asclepiades and grandson, Fl. Horapollon, Part II nos. 77, 17, 78. For recruitment within the family at Bordeaux, see above, p. 102; with the instance noted there of professional mobility from one generation to the next (Phoebicius and Attius Patera), compare the Apollinarii of Laodicea: the father a grammarian (Part II no. 14); the son, a rhetorician (and later a heresiarch).


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There are further, explicit indications of the rank some grammarians enjoyed, which take us still higher on the ladder of prestige; this evidence, however, requires a brief separate discussion because it is difficult to evaluate unambiguously and because, unlike the evidence discussed so far, it appears to involve a clear chronological distinction. I refer to the grammarians who are known to have possessed the clarissimate or the Flaviate: that is, respectively, the rank (clarissimus , inline image) belonging to members of the lowest grade in the senatorial order; or the name "Flavius," which was derived from the gentilicium of Constantine and served from the second quarter of the fourth century onward "as a kind of status designation," setting those who had served in the imperial military or civil service "apart from the masses of the population who continued to retain the name Aurelius, usage of which may be traced back, in the large majority of instances, to the time of the Constitutio Antoniniana."[43] In both cases, the mark of rank is associated with grammarians only in the second half of the fifth century and beginning of the sixth.

Certainly no grammarian before the year 425 is known to have possessed senatorial status by birth or to have achieved it in consequence of his teaching, although a few reached that rank after leaving their teaching careers and entering the imperial service;[44] and though we know of a few men who were elevated in 425 as a result of their teaching, they belong to the special group of grammatici active at Constantinople.[45] From the late fifth century on, however, we find not only Cledonius, Romanus senator , teaching at Constantinople, but also Rufinus, v.c ., at Antioch, Flavius Horapollon, inline image, of Alexandria, and even a vir spectabilis , Deuterius of Milan.[46] Similarly, those teachers of the fourth century

[43] On the Flaviate, see Keenan, "Names" (1973; quotation from p. 51) and (1974).

[44] E.g., Ausonius, Fl. Simplicius; see below, pp. 130f. Consentius, v.c . and author of a grammatical treatise, was probably not a grammarian by profession; see Part II no. 203. On the clarissimate attributed (very dubiously) to Aelius Donatus, see Part II no. 52.

[45] Helladius, Syrianus, and Theofilus, who received the comitiva ord. pr . and rank of ex-vicar (= spectabilis ) on 15 March 425. See CTh 6.21.1 (with CJ 12.15.1) and Part II nos. 67, 147, 154.

[46] Clarissimi : see Part II nos. 31, 78, 130. Spectabilis : see Part II no. 44 (Deuterius, v.s., grammaticus ). Note that Deuterius seems to have taught both grammar and rhetoric, although it is not dear whether or how that would have affected his rank.


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whose nomenclature shows the Flaviate almost certainly won the distinction through their service, beyond their teaching, as imperial functionaries.[47] By contrast, of the four grammarians who postdate the mid-fifth century and whose full formal names are known from legal documents, three were Flavii, not Aurelii: Flavius Horapollon, who thus possessed both the clarissimate and the Flaviate, and the two grammarians of Hermopolis, Flavius Her[. . .] and Flavius Pythiodorus.[48] Indeed, we have a document suggesting that in this later period a grammarian would normally be assumed to be a Flavius: a formulary concerning the sale of a house, dated 21 September 510. Although the document is merely a model draft, in which the buyer and seller have been given the blank names inline image and inline image, respectively, the parties have also had occupations assigned to them: the buyer, Flavius, is styled "the most eloquent grammarian and teacher of liberal Greek literature," in contrast to the seller, who bears the lower-status name "Aurelius" and is made a inline image, a trader in linen or sailcloth.[49]

The grammarians' possession of these ranks and titles thus seems to involve a chronological distinction and so presumably an historical development. Yet it is difficult to interpret the change, because we are completely ignorant of how the grammarians acquired these marks of status. We cannot know whether the grammarians who boast the clarissimate inherited their rank, or won it through some unattested mechanism because of their teaching, or received it as an honorary grant for some other reason.[50] The difficulties that the Flaviate presents are greater still, since the mechanics and regularity of its distribution to those outside the imperial bureaucracy are uncertain: the Flaviate of the two grammarians of Hermopolis, for instance, could be due simply to their possession of curial status.[51] In fact, the historical development at issue here

[48] See Part II nos. 78, 68, 128, respectively. One could add Fl. Cresconius Corippus, although his possession of the Flaviate may be due to his service as a palatinus at Constantinople; see Part II no. 37. Note also Fl. Fortunatus (Part II no. 62), a magister litterarum of Aquileia. For the exceptional Aurelius, see Part II no. 41.

[49] For the details of the formulary (SB 1.5941), see Part II no. 220.

[50] E.g., Fl. Horapollon's rank could conceivably have passed down from his grandfather, who taught with distinction at Constantinople under Theodosius II (cf. Part II no. 77) and who may have been honored as a result.

[51] Keenan, "Names" (1974) 293, notes "the increasing proportion of Flavii among 5th and 6th century decurions in general." On the Flaviate and the decurions, see ibid. 290ff.; on the mechanics of its distribution, ibid. 297ff.


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may concern the grammarians' titles more than their actual standing, for both the clarissimate and the Flaviate suffered a cheapening in the course of the fifth century.[52] It would be imprudent, therefore, to conclude that the grammarians of the late fifth and early sixth centuries suddenly or dramatically rose in status.[53] Still, even the most cautious interpretation of the titles' significance would confirm the picture of respectability our other evidence suggests.

The formulary mentioned above is noteworthy not only because it assigns the higher-status name "Flavius" to a inline image but also because it makes the inline image the buyer; it thus assumes that Flavius the grammarian would have some disposable wealth. The assumption is consistent with the evidence available. Small tokens can be found in the ownership of slaves: for instance, a casual reference in a letter on papyrus shows a grammarian of Hermopolis lending his slave to a local advocate or rhetorician so that the latter could reclaim some books he had lent to a colleague in another town.[54] More impressive are the grammarians' public dedications. In the mid-fourth century, an African magister studiorum , Annius Namptoius, restored the baths of his native town.[55] Something over a century later, when the local basilica had become the focus of a town's life, we find the grammarian Calbulus adorning with his own verses a large baptistery he had donated.[56] Similarly, at Parentium, where the basilica was built at the end of the fourth century and rebuilt in the middle of the fifth, the benefactions of two generations of teachers are memorialized in the mosaic floors of the church.[57] Such displays

[52] On "whittling down" the prestige and privileges of clarissimi and spectabiles in the years 450 to 530, precisely the period to which the grammarians noted above belong, see Jones, LRE 529 (cf. p. 542): by 530 at the latest, possibly as early as the reign of Zeno, or even of Leo, the title senator and most of the privileges attaching to it were reserved to the highest grade, the illustres . For an "inflationary" trend possibly affecting the Flaviate as well, see Keenan, "Names" (1974) 293-94, 302.

[54] Maehler, "Menander" 305ff., with Part II no. 173. As Alan Cameron has remarked ("Roman School Fees" 258), even Palladas, who of all the grammarians complains most bitterly about his poverty, could afford a slave (Anth. Gr . 10.86). Grammarians' ownership of slaves in the earlier empire is attested by SB 1.5808 = Stud. Pal . 13, p. 1 (Arsinoe, an. 124); CIL 2.3872 = ILS 7765 = ILER 5715 (Saguntum); CIL 6.9454 = ILS 7769; CIL 6.33859.

[55] Part II no. 103.

[56] Anth. Lat . 1:1.378, with Part II no. 23.

[57] Inscr. Ital . 10:2.58, 74, with Part II nos. 29, 30. The father and his wife donated 100 feet of pavement, the son and his wife 111 feet. The gifts of the other local worthies recorded in the floors range from as little as 13 feet to as much as 400; the teachers' donations are about average.


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imply at least a modest surplus of wealth and a comfortable standard of living. Although none of the grammarians would be likely to rival the inline image Evangelus of Caesarea, who purchased a nearby inline image for three hundredweights of gold,[58] many would have been able to afford such touches of civilized life as the woodcarver's services commended to the sophist Isocasius.[59]

The grammarians' professional income, which we will consider presently, contributed to that style of life; but sometimes we catch glimpses of the landholdings—especially family property—that would have been a firmer foundation.[60] Augustine is probably the most familiar example; his father's holdings (which Augustine as heir later placed at the Church's disposal) were sufficient to provide the beginnings of the saint's education, although the financial difficulties that interrupted his schooling suggest the holdings were modest.[61] At Milan, however, Augustine encountered a grammarian who appears to have been better off, Verecundus, who owned the estate Cassiciacum, outside Milan, and could offer extended hospitality to Augustine and several of his friends and relations.[62] The conversations at Cassiciacum on liberal learning and spirituality conform to an image of aristocratic otium , even if the host and his guests were not themselves members of the aristocracy. We have already mentioned a similar reflection or imitation of aristocratic life in the case of Servius, who owned or had access to a retreat in Campania.[63]

Other grammarians, however, put their holdings to different use. We find one grammarian and his heirs acting as landlords, collecting rent on one of his parcels.[64] Others were absentee owners, retaining and presumably drawing income from their property while they taught elsewhere. The family of Flavius Horapollon maintained holdings at Phenebythis, in Egypt, for at least three generations while its members taught at Constantinople or Alexandria.[65] Libanius refers to one Didymus, an Egyptian grammarian who taught at Antioch and Constantinople

[58] Procop. Caes. Anecd . 30.18-20.

[59] Theodoret. Ep . XXXVIII. Cf. the wedding gift of a pearl given by the teacher Arethusius of Antinoopolis, Part II no. 187.

[60] Cf. pp. 102f. above, on Acilius Glabrio and Ausonius at Bordeaux.

[61] See esp. Conf . 2.3.5. Contrast Augustine's notice (Conf . 6.10.17) of the rus optimum in the vicinity of Carthage belonging to the family of his friend Nebridius, who worked (unambitiously and beneath his abilities, Conf . 8.6.13) as the subdoctor of the grammarian Verecundus at Milan.

[62] See esp. Conf . 9.3.5, De ord . 1.2.5, with De beat. vit . 4.31.

[63] Implied by GL 4.468.6; cf. Chap. 2 at n. 141.


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while owning property in his native land.[66] After Didymus's death, when his son, Rhetorius, a former pupil of Libanius, was returning to Egypt to claim his father's estate, Libanius had occasion to remark to the dux Aegypti that the estate was small, a mere "solace for a poor man."[67] The characterization is probably meant to place Rhetorius and his father among those of modest means, in the sense that they did not belong to the category of inline image, the truly wealthy.[68] Similar circumstances probably stand behind Libanius's description of Eudaemon, whose family at Pelusium he calls "second to none in birth, although their possessions are not many because of their virtuous restraint" (inline image).[69]

Such evidence of respectability is not surprising—the immunities that grammarians and rhetoricians enjoyed did, after all, presuppose their being landholders. It should not, however, be overestimated. No grammarian can be shown to have been wealthy, in the sense of being able to afford the public expenditures that traditionally established and reinforced claims to social preeminence.[70] Some may have verged on poverty in the absolute economic sense;[71] the line between respectability and disaster could be thin. Libanius comments of one of his own former teachers, the grammarian Cleobulus, that he had sufficient means to avoid ignoble employment, but he adds that those means were insufficient to bear unjust penalties easily.[72] Libanius's comments were prompted by a lawsuit in which Cleobulus found himself embroiled in 359; when the suit

[66] Part II no. 46.

[69] Ep . 105.2; cf. Ep . 164.1.

[70] On the idea of social wealth, cf. Patlagean, Pauvreté 9ff. The sole exception here may be Annius Namptoius: see above at n. 55; but see also Ausonius's reference to the grammatici nomen divitiasque won, only to be lost, by Marcellus at Narbo (Prof . 18.8).

[71] With Ausonius's characterization of the tenuis victus , or the like, of some of the Burdigalenses (e.g., Prof . 10.44ff.), compare the complaints of Palladas, Anth. Gr . 9.174 (cf. 9.168, 171, 173, 175; 10.97; 11.378; with Alan Cameron, "Roman School Fees"; Part II no. 113; and below, pp. 120f.); and of Lollianus, PCollYoutie 2.66 = POxy . 47.3366, C59f., B28, with p. 115 below.

[72] Ep . 52.3. That Cleobulus possessed independent means is suggested also by the fact that he accepted few students (because of his frailty, Ep . 361.2); cf. below, p. 121. The episode touched on here is discussed in more detail at Chap. 6 pp. 213f.


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finally went against him, Cleobulus was forced to pay the insupportable fines Libanius had feared, and he was saved from ruin only by a former pupil's timely subvention. Although Cleobulus may ordinarily have been prosperous, his means were unequal to the sudden extraordinary expenses a run of bad luck might bring. A similar conclusion can be drawn for Diphilus, another grammarian Libanius knew.[73] Already established as a teacher in one of the Palestinian provinces during the late 380s, Diphilus hoped to make his mark as a poet. Encouraged by an influential man who offered to promote a series of performances in Cilicia, Diphilus made the circuit of that province in late 387 or early 388. But the patron reneged, and the trip was a literary and financial disaster: Diphilus returned from Cilicia depressed and seriously out of pocket.[74] In view of the strain this brief episode evidently put on Diphilus's finances, it is not surprising to find that as a wandering poet he played it safe: after the debacle in Cilicia we still find him traveling to further his poetic career, but he clearly did not give himself over wholly to his wanderings; he kept his position in Palestine as a hedge against failure and as a base of operations for his forays.

Diphilus's apparent reliance on his teaching post brings us to the income a grammarian could receive directly or indirectly from his profession. There were three possible sources: salaries from public funds, fees from individual students and their parents, and occasional supplements, including traditional gifts.[75] Since the evidence for all three is not extensive, each can be considered briefly in turn.

Public salaries (salarium , inline image) were of two types, municipal and imperial. Municipal salaries were derived from city revenues and were paid (probably in cash, as a rule)[76] to teachers appointed to public chairs by the local town councils. Imperial salaries were drawn from imperial funds and from the fourth century on were regularly paid or calculated in kind; salary in kind, however, could be commuted to cash.[77] The

[73] For what follows, see Part II no. 49, and Kaster, "'Wandering Poet.'"

[74] Lib. Or . 54.55.

[75] On teachers' incomes, in addition to the studies cited in nn. 76-129 below, see Bergmann, Geschichte 34ff.; Marquardt, Privatleben 94f.; Friedländer, Roman Life 1.156ff.; Forbes, Teachers' Pay ; Walden, Universities 162ff.; Headlam, Herodas 122ff.

[76] See below, pp. 115-16, on Lollianus of Oxyrhynchus, and at n. 86; cf. Choric. Or. fun. Procop . 12 (p. 113.21ff. Foerster-Richtsteig), on the salary offered to Procopius at Caesarea. Cf. perhaps also Antioch: Petit, Libanius 299f.; Liebeschuetz, Antioch 84 n. 1; but see Kaster, "Salaries" 54 n. 61.

[77] On salaries in kind, see Jones, LRE 396ff.; and below, p. 116. For commutation to cash (adaeratio ) of teachers' salaries, see Lib. Ep . 132, 800.3, with Petit, Libanius 409f., Liebeschuetz, Antioch 88f. For payments in kind, cf. also n. 98 below.


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geographic range of imperial salaries seems to have expanded in late antiquity, so that even a teacher active at a city as obscure and far removed from the imperial center as semibarbarous Elusa could hope to win a place on the imperial payroll.[78] It is not clear whether any teachers simultaneously drew both municipal and imperial salaries. No man is known to have been so fortunate,[79] but neither does there appear to have been any formal prohibition.

For detailed knowledge of a grammarian's municipal salary, we are limited to a single early example, which gives some idea of the size of such emoluments and of the difficulties that might arise in their payment.[80] The salary belongs to Lollianus, public grammarian (

figure
figure
) of Oxyrhynchus in the reign of Valerian and Gallienus; we know of his situation from two drafts of a petition he sent to the emperors (perhaps in 258 or 259) asking them to compel the town council to heed his complaints,[81] and from the draft of a letter seeking a friend's intervention at court for the petition to gain a hearing. From the documents it appears that although Lollianus had been granted a salary of 500 denarii (per annum, presumably), the salary was paid only irregularly, and then only in soured wine and spoiled grain.[82] As a result, Lollianus was attempting to convince the council to grant him in place of his salary the use of one of the civic properties of Oxyrhynchus, an orchard he could rent out for 600 denarii (again, presumably per annum). The proposal finds a close parallel in Or . 31 of Libanius, who tried a century later to persuade the council of Antioch to supplement the irregularly paid civic salaries of his four assistants by granting them the same income from a municipal property that his predecessor, Zenobius, had enjoyed.[83] The similarity of the circumstances is noteworthy, not least for the reminder that a salary ordained need not have been a salary paid. Also noteworthy are the sums in Lollianus's case (500 den . [= 2,000

[78] Elusa: Lib. Ep . 132, with Part II no. 55. Semibarbarum : Jer. V. Hilar . 25; cf. Comm. Is. proph . 5.15. Concerning this trend and the administration of municipal and imperial subsidies, see Chap. 6 pp. 227ff. On the distribution of salaried chairs, see above at nn. 32, 33.

[79] Libanius has been thought to provide an instance; but see Kaster, "Salaries" esp. 54ff.; and cf. the comments of Bonner, "Edict" 132f.

[80] For what follows, see Part II no. 90, with the excellent discussion of Parsons at PCollYoutie 2, pp. 409ff. For an earlier and more obscure example, see below, n. 86.

[81] Concerning the questionable premises on which Lollianus bases his petition, see Parsons, PCollYoutie 2, pp. 441ff.

[82] PCollYoutie 2.66 = POxy . 47.3366, B29f. (cf. B34, C65).

[83] Remarked and elaborated by Parsons, PCollYoutie 2, pp. 413f.; see also Kaster, "Salaries" 54ff. Cf. the income drawn from imperial land by Libanius, evidently in addition to his ordinary salary from the emperor, when he was a public teacher in Constantinople: Lib. Or . 1.80, with Kaster, "Salaries" 39ff.


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dr .], 600 den . [= 2,400 dr .]), for as P. J. Parsons has observed, they are, "on the face of it, quite substantial":[84] 500 denarii could perhaps have purchased as much as 167 artabae of wheat at contemporary prices, more than a year's rations for ten men.[85] This should at least have provided subsistence for Lollianus and his wife and children; but again, Lollianus's complaint suggests that his payment in kind amounted to a good deal less.[86]

The evidence for grammarians' imperial salaries comes from a later period, when such salaries were calculated in multiples of the ordinary soldier's yearly ration (annona ) and fodder (capitus ).[87] There are two relevant documents, which suggest that the imperial stipends were somewhat more generous than the municipal salaries (than the salary Lollianus received, at least), although they also suggest that the imperial salaries could vary significantly. The first is the edict of 23 May 376 (CTh 13.3.11), sometimes known as "Gratian's School Law," by which the emperors set the imperial salaries for teachers in the provincial capitals of the northern Gallic diocese. Under the terms of the edict, rhetoricians were to receive 24 annonae , grammarians (Greek or Latin) 12. A higher scale was set for the Latin teachers in Trier (then the imperial residence in the West), where the rhetorician was to receive 30 annonae , and the gram-

[84] PCollYoutie 2, p. 413; but cf. below, n. 86 ad fin .

[85] Calculated according to the prices of wheat attested in Egypt in A.D. 254-56, 12-16 dr./artaba (Johnson, Economic Survey 2.311), and taking 1 artaba / month, e.g., the size of the dole at Oxyrhynchus under Claudius II and Aurelian, as a standard ration (Rea, POxy . 40, p. 6). Note, however, that this was about one-third less than the monthly allotment of 5 modii (= ca. 1.5 artabae ) received by the plebs frumentaria at Rome (Duncan-Jones, Economy . 146f.; for the measures, cf. Hopkins and Carter, "Amount," correcting Rea, loc. cit .).

[86] PCollYoutie 2.66 = POxy . 47.3366, B28, C59f. For a grammarian's municipal salary from an earlier period, note the epitaph of the Latin grammarian L. Memmius Probus, CIL 2.2892 Tritium = ILER 5714 (which omits the last line), CVI RES (PVBLICA ) TR(I)T(I)ENSIVM AN(NOS) HABEN(TI) XXV RAIAR [= SALAR(IVM) ] CONSTITVÆ [=-IT ] M·C·LI: CS ·EI·L . . . . The last line may specify the sum, i.e., at least HS1,100 (possibly M·C·L·IIS = HS1,150, or M·C·D·IIS = HS1,400; hardly anything so odd as HS1,151, as assumed by Szilágyi, "Prices" 329). With Lollianus's 2,000 dr., contrast the 6,000 dr. paid as municipal salary to the rhetorician Apollonius at Athens at the end of s.II, Philost. V. soph . 2.20 (p. 600).

[87] An imperial salary of HS600,000 was decreed in 299 for the rhetorician Eumenius to enable him to reorganize and teach at the schools of Autun: Pan. Lat . 5.14.14 Galletier, salarium te in sexcentis milibus nummum ex rei publicae viribus consequi volumus, ut intellegas meritis tuis etiam nostram consuluisse clementiam ; cf. ibid. 11.2. The phrase ex rei publicae viribus must refer in context to imperial funds, although it has sometimes been thought that the municipal resources of Autun are meant; the sum is twice the amount that Eumenius had lately been receiving as magister memoriae with the rank of trecenarius . Eumenius's is the latest imperial subsidy for a teacher expressed simply in cash values.


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maticus 20; the Greek grammaticus , "if any worthy one should be found," was to receive 12 annonae , like the grammatici of the other cities.[88] The rhetorician's higher salary implies his more favored status.[89] Nonetheless, a grammarian who received even 12 annonae would be doing quite respectably; for that would be roughly six and a half times the ration and fodder an ordinary soldier drew at the beginning of his service, and a good deal more than even a veteran would be drawing when his honorable discharge would be advisable "lest he should prove a burden to the state by continuing to receive" his higher salary.[90] To look at the sum from a different perspective: if the grammarian were able to commute his 12 annonae to cash, he might realize between 48 and 60 solidi , the equivalent of a year's fees from students in a good-sized class. Drawing 20 annonae , the Latin grammarian at Trier would of course be still more fortunate.[91]

By comparison with the edict of 376, the other schedule of salaries we possess sets rates more modest but still not niggardly. After Justinian's reconquest of Africa, an edict of 534 laid down the salaries for a wide range of personnel at Carthage, including two grammarians and two rhetoricians. The teachers' pay is expressed both in kind and in cash, with 10 annonae and 5 capita (= a total of 70 solidi ) to be shared by the two teachers at each level;[92] each grammarian would thus receive the

[88] For the limitation to the provincial capitals of the northern Gallic diocese, see Bonner, "Edict" 113ff., with Kaster, "Reconsideration" 100ff.

[89] Although a difference in salaries is not surprising, since rhetoricians traditionally commanded higher fees than grammarians (cf. Juv. 7.217, Diocl. Ed. pret . 7.70-71, with Bonner, Education 150ff., Alan Cameron, "Roman School Fees" 258), the difference here may be exceptionally great: contrast the ratio of only 5:4 in the rhetorician's favor in the fees set by Diocletian's edict just noted (and below, p. 119); compare the parity of rhetoricians and grammarians established by CJ 1.27.1, 42 (an. 534; see below at n. 92). The great difference between the municipal salaries of Apollonius and Lollianus (n. 86) probably has as much to do with where they taught, Athens vs. Oxyrhynchus, as with their different metiers.

[90] Six and a half times: the figure takes account of the 1 capitus received by the common soldier in addition to the annona —the edict of 376 does not include capitus as part of the teacher's pay; cf. below, on CJ 1.27.1, 42 (an. 534)—and assumes that 1 capitus was worth ca. 80% of 1 annona , as in the edict of 534 just noted. Veterans: Anon. De reb. bell . 5.2 (p. 96.17ff. Thompson, specifying "5 annonae or more" and presumably including a certain amount of capitus as well, although this is not remarked by the author), cited by Bonner, "Edict" 1:32. For comparison with salaries of civil servants, see below at n. 94.

[91] Assuming a value of 4 (Nov . "Val." 13.3 [an. 445]) or 5 (CJ 1.27.1, 22 [an. 534]) sol./annona . (Equivalents are not available from the fourth century.) On fees and class size, see below, pp. 120-21. For the possession of ca. 50 solidi as a threshold for the passage beyond poverty, see Patlagean, Pauvreté 380ff.

[92] CJ 1.27.1, 42; the wording of other provisions (e.g., ibid. 41, for physicians) makes it clear that the sums mentioned are to be divided between the teachers at each level. One annona is reckoned as = 5 sol. ; 1 capitus , as 4 sol. ; cf. ibid. 22. For capitus included in a teacher's imperial salary in the fourth century, see Lib. Ep . 28, with Seeck, Briefe 241, and Kaster, "Salaries" 51.


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equivalent of 35 solidi .[93] Although this is appreciably less than the grammarians of northern Gaul earned in the fourth century and only a tiny fraction of the 100 pounds of gold Justinian ordained for the praetorian prefect at Carthage, it was probably still equivalent to a year's fees from a sizable class and compares favorably with the other civil servants' salaries in the edict.[94]

Grammarians on public salary would have benefited from an indirect subsidy as well. Public appointment would also normally entail release from burdensome and costly munera ; especially for the grammarian of curial status, these immunities might well represent a long-term financial benefit greater than the direct payment he received from city or emperor.[95] In addition to these subventions, the public teachers would also receive fees (mercedes , inline image) from their pupils.[96] By contrast, the man who taught without public appointment, as Augustine did at Thagaste, could look forward only to his fees. The two pieces of specific evidence we possess indicate that apart from such special arrangements as Aetius made, paying his inline image at Anazarbus through personal indenture,[97] fees were normally paid in cash. Payment in kind, however, cannot be ruled out.[98]

[93] The parity of rhetoricians and grammarians under the decree may reflect not so much a decline in the rhetoricians' status as a slight increase in the status of grammarians in the late fifth and early sixth centuries: see above at n. 53.

[94] Prefect's salary: CJ 1.27.1, 21. In the officia of the prefecture (ibid. 22-38) only the heads of the financial scrinia receive a higher salary (46 sol ., ibid. 22-23) than the teachers, whose 35 sol . are in turn significantly more than the sums received by the heads of the other scrinia and subclerical scholae . (For tabulation and comment, see Jones, LRE 590f.; and cf. Part II no. 92 ad fin .) To put it another way, the amount decreed for the four grammarians and rhetoricians (140 sol .) is roughly equivalent to the salaries budgeted for all twelve members of the judicial scrinium commentariensis (143 sol ., ibid. 25). Note, however, that the teacher's salaries are a good deal less than the amounts ordained for physicians (50-90 sol ., according to grade: ibid. 41).

[95] On immunities, see Chap. 6 pp. 223ff.

[97] Philostorg. HE 3.15, with "Prologue" n. 11 above.


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The first document, Diocletian's Edict on Maximum Prices, issued in 301, is problematic, being prescriptive rather than descriptive. The rate it fixes for the grammarian's fees, 200 denarii per pupil per month (as against 250 denarii per pupil per month for a rhetorician),[99] is part of a comprehensive schedule of prices and wages meant to counteract inflation. The amount might therefore be significantly less than the rate or rates paid in practice: so, for example, the edict fixes the prices of wheat and barley at only one-third those in an account on papyrus that must be almost exactly contemporary; and we cannot in any case be sure that the prescribed rate was observed.[100] Nonetheless, the edict is useful for suggesting relative values: thus, the grammarian's fee is four times that of the simple teacher of letters, who stood outside the realm of liberal learning,[101] and a grammarian with a class of twenty fee-paying students (rather small, in a good-sized town)[102] would have had four times the income of a carpenter fortunate enough to find paying work twenty days a month.[103] Similarly, if the grammarian received the set rate, and if wheat were available at the set rate as well, three pupils would suffice for a monthly ration of 5 modii , with a bit to spare:[104] indeed, a year's fee from a single pupil, reckoned according to the edict's set price for gold, would be rather more substantial than the year's fee (also reckoned in gold) our other evidence attests.[105] But the precariousness of such calculations has already been suggested.

[99] Ed . pret . 7.70-71. These figures of course reflect a significant devaluation of the denarius since the time of Lollianus, with his annual salary of 500 den ., two generations earlier.

[100] Ed. pret . 1.1a, wheat at 100 den./modius = ca. 330 den./artaba ; ibid. 1.2, barley at 60 den./modius = ca. 200 den./artaba . But POxy. 24.2421 assumes a price of wheat of 984 den./artaba ; and of barley, 655 den./artaba (for the date and details, see Part II no. 133). With the edict's (7.65) set fee of 50 den ./month/child for a pedagogue, compare the pay of 1 talent (= 1,500 den .) per month received for eight months by a pedagogue at the beginning of s.IV (Stud. Pal . 20.85 , pag. post., 11).

[101] Ed. pref . 7.66.

[102] See below, pp. 120-21.

[103] Ed pref . 7.3a, 50 den ./day, plus food. Cf. Lib. Or . 31.25, on the craftsmen at Antioch who envy the wealth of the teachers.

[104] Cf. n. 85 above.


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We are on firmer ground with our second piece of specific evidence, provided by Palladas, the Alexandrian poet and grammarian. While complaining of his students' vicious ways, Palladas reveals that his fee was 1 solidus a year, payable either in a lump sum or in monthly installments.[106] A scholium to Juvenal's comments on grammarians' income mentions the same fee: in annum unum solidum accipit .[107] Although the statement is evidently anachronistic in its application to Juvenal's time, it does represent the assumption of a reader in the late fourth century (the scholium's probable date); it thus provides a roughly contemporary confirmation of Palladas's statement and suggests that such a scale of payment was familiar not only in Palladas's Alexandria but also in the West, where the scholium was presumably written. Neither of these notices, however, is meant to suggest that 1 solidus was an especially generous sum, and some grammarians probably commanded a higher fee.[108]

Income from fees might vary wildly, depending on the size of the grammarian's class and on his students' willingness or ability to pay. The latter qualities were not always evident. The grammarian Palladas grumbles about students who deserted his class just before it came time to pay their year's fee. Augustine recalls a similar delinquency among students of rhetoric, in a way that suggests the offense still rankled long after his teaching days. Libanius even suggested something quite unparalleled, a formal contract (inline image) between the student's parent and the teacher, to combat the problem at Antioch.[109] Conversely, Libanius's assistants are said to have taken on some students who simply could not pay, as a kindness and in order to prevent their classrooms from becoming depopulated.[110] Concerning class size we have no direct evidence for the grammarians. A passage from Libanius's autobiography, however, suggests that forty students would have been a very respectable number for either a private or a public teacher of rhetoric at Constantinople, and there is no reason that the information cannot be applied to the gram-

[106] Anth. Gr . 9.174, with Alan Cameron, "Roman School Fees." For monthly payment of fees, see also Fulg. Verg. cont . 86.4-6 Helm.

[107] Schol. vet . 7.241.2 Wessner. The significance of the note was remarked by Bonner, "Teaching Profession" 30; cf. also Clarke, "Juvenal."

[108] Note the 100 solidi given by the praetorian prefect Phocas (an. 532) to the Latin teacher Speciosus (Part II no. 138: grammarian or rhetorician?) as an initial payment: loan. Lyd. De. mag . 3.73. But the episode is obscure—no services appear to have been required of Speciosus after the payment—and the sum surely extraordinary.

[110] Or . 31.29-32.


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marian.[111] But the same source shows how much variation was possible: Libanius boasts that at the height of his success as a private teacher at Constantinople he had a class of more than eighty students; yet a few years later, newly arrived as a private teacher in his native Antioch, he had as few as fifteen,[112] and it has been suggested that even as a public teacher with several assistants at Antioch Libanius probably never accommodated one hundred pupils per year.[113] Evidently, independent means would protect a teacher against the risks of the fee system and allow him to be more selective about his pupils.[114]

Beyond salaries and fees, the grammarian could expect a bit of incidental largesse. This might take the form of occasional gifts or of a benefaction to meet a specific need.[115] There were other forms of largesse, however, tied to the teacher's activity during the school year and sufficiently regular to qualify as expected supplements. Jerome mentions the New Year's strena, the sportula at the Saturnalia, and the Minervale munus as common gifts;[116] it is clear that these particular gifts were of considerable antiquity and of some geographic diffusion.[117] The scale of the gifts is uncertain. Ausonius records that through his intervention (when he was quaestor sacri palatii ) the grammarian Ursulus of Trier received a New Year's strena of 6 solidi from the emperor,[118] but the sum must be regarded as exceptional. There were probably other, more localized forms such gifts could take: from Choricius, in the age of Justinian, We learn that it was customary at Gaza for the rhetorician, at least, to receive a gift of 1 solidus when one of his students successfully completed a composition.[119]

[111] Or. 1.31, Nicocles' offer to provide Libanius with 40 pupils; such a class would have made Libanius, then still a private teacher, a serious rival of the publicly appointed sophists.

[112] Eighty: Or. 1.37. Fifteen, most of whom followed Libanius from Constantinople: Or. 1.101, with Norman, Autobiography 175 ad loc.

[113] Petit, Étudiants 72ff. Étienne, Bordeaux 244f., in calculating that the rhetorician Ti. Victor Minervius regularly enrolled 200 students per year, misunderstands the hyperbole of Ausonius's effusive lines, Prof. 1.9-10: mille foro dedit hic iuvenes, bis mille senatus / adiecit numero purpureisque togis.

[114] See above, n. 72, on Cleobulus.

[116] Jer. Comm. Ephes. 3.6 (PL 26.574A).

[117] E.g., the three occasions mentioned by Jerome are also mentioned by Tertullian, plus two others: see De idol. 10, with Bonner, Education 148f.

[118] Ep. 13 tit., 1-24.

[119] Apol. mim. 104 (p. 368.8ff. Foerster-Richtsteig). For compositions by a grammarian's students at Gaza, see Part II no. 83.


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All these forms of income could in favorable circumstances add up to a substantial if not lordly sum: a grammarian with a decent public salary and a sizable class of regularly paying students could probably realize more than 100 solidi a year, or well over a pound of gold, with little difficulty. Perhaps only an exceptionally fortunate grammarian, however, could have put away 1,500 solidi after eight years' teaching, as Libanius appears to have done.[120] Clearly, too, circumstances were not always favorable, nor was the combination of salary and fees always available: we have seen evidence of difficulties with both kinds of payment; in the worst case, a private teacher with no public subsidy and a small class of delinquent students might labor all year for very little indeed.

If the grammarians' receipts could vary considerably, so evidently could their needs: the complaints of Lollianus and Palladas suggest that they depended heavily on their professional incomes, but one can infer a greater freedom for others—Verecundus at Milan, for example, or Cleobulus at Antioch. Notably absent at all levels of the profession, however, is any reluctance to accept payment. In the second century, a distinguished grammarian's receipt of fees had called for explanation and justification in his funeral oration;[121] the examples of such compunction could easily be multiplied.[122] But one must listen hard for any echo in late antiquity—in the euphemism, for instance, that makes a public salary an "encouragement."[123] Far louder are the unembarrassed complaints of Augustine and Palladas[124] or the equally frank good wishes Procopius of Gaza extends to various teachers of his acquaintance, that they might grow wealthy in their profession.[125] Even Libanius, who most shows the traces of the older attitudes, marks the shift. Libanius might have preferred to regard his payments as gifts and to divert his public salary at Antioch to his assistants while stressing his own honorable freedom from the "need to receive";[126] but his orations in behalf of his assistants or against delinquent students, as well as other, incidental comments, reveal that in principle he saw no stigma for the teacher—one of the

[120] Implied by Or. 1.61, as Jones, LRE 1002, remarks.

[121] Ael. Aristid. Or. 32.16. The subject of the eulogy, Alexander of Cotyaeum, had been one of the tutors of Marcus Aurelius; cf. PIR A.502.

[122] See Chap. 2 pp. 55, 58.

[124] See n. 109 above.

[125] Procop. Gaz. Ep. 13, 86, 89.

[126] Payments as gifts: cf. Petit, Étudiants 144f.; Liebeschuetz, Antioch 84. Refusal of salary: implied by Or. 31 (see Kaster, "Salaries" 54ff.), but note that at the same time Libanius was probably receiving an imperial salary; see also below, n. 128.


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"better sort of person"—in his professional income.[127] The reasons for the change in attitudes are not at all clear. One can, however, conjecture that for grammarians, at least, the change in the teacher's social status played a part: the stigma earlier associated with the recipient's generally low and often servile standing may gradually have been effaced as the profession came to attract men of more respectable origins. In any case, it would appear that though to refuse payment was still a mark of honor, to accept it, even to insist upon it, was no longer felt to be shameful.[128] No grammarian of late antiquity gives evidence of waiving his salary.[129]

Up to this point, our survey of the main evidence for the grammarians' standing—their origins, family connections, and wealth—has suggested a group of men who might differ considerably in their individual situations but who would on the whole belong to the quality of their towns, respectable if unprepossessing members of the local elite. A few touches can briefly be added to this picture from other, less direct evidence.

Whether as a participant in the adventus of the governor in fourth-century Antioch or as a favored guest on the estate of a Gallic magnate in the fifth, the grammarian would be an appropriate ornament in the public or private retinue of the powerful: honorably placed in a proximity few could enjoy, but clearly subordinate, a peripheral figure.[130] A similar favored subordination is apparent in other contexts, when a grammarian steps out of his role as a teacher—for example, trying his hand as an encomiast. It was no simple matter to gain access to an imperial administrator or local potens for that purpose: the man's residence would be

[128] Waiver of payment in liberal professions—rhetoric: e.g., Lib. Or. 36.9, 38.2, 62.19f., Ep. 140, 466, 1539 (and cf. n. 126); Eumen. Pan. Lat. 5.11.3 Galletier. Medicine: Auson. Epiced. 11-12; Greg. Naz. Or. 7.10 (PG 35.768A), cf. IG 12:2.484.28f. (Hiera [Lesbos]); IGR 3.733 = TAM 2:3.910.17 (Rhodiapolis). Philosophy: Symm. Rel. 5.2.3, on the philosopher Celsus.

[130] Adventus : Lib. Ep. 255.6, to Eudaemon of Pelusium (Part II no. 55), with Liebeschuetz, Antioch 208f.; on the teachers' status at Antioch, cf. Norman, "Gradations" 79, 82. Fifth-century Gaul: Sidon. Apoll. Ep. 2.2, with Part II no. 50.


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crowded with rival poets and others seeking favor; the way would have to be cleared by a timely introduction or letter of commendation from a respected connection.[131] The grammarians could muster the necessary influence, as is demonstrated by their fair showing as encomiasts of regional administrators and even, among those who moved to the capital, of emperors.[132]

Proximity to administrators was possible in another form as well: advocacy. In the fourth century especially, advocacy was a promising path for an ambitious man, not least because provincial governors often chose their own counselors (assessores ) from among the advocates, and the governors in turn were heavily recruited from among the assessors. In fact, as we shall see below, Simplicius, the only grammarian in our period who became a provincial governor, had earlier been an assessor, and he had possibly combined advocacy with his teaching before that.[133] If so, he would not have been alone: we have already seen that Ausonius early in his career and Acilius Glabrio were active as advocates at Bordeaux, and there are a couple of examples from elsewhere.[134] But if

[132] Besides Diphilus and Eudaemon (n. 131), whose success or failure is not recorded, see Bergk, PLG 3.342ff. nos. 2, 3 (with Part II no. 83 [Ioannes of Gaza]); Coripp. Iohann. (cf. Part II no. 37); Anth. Gr. 16.34 (with Part II no. 264 [Theodoretus]); probably Olympiod. Comm. in Alc. 1 2.80ff. Westerink (with Part II no. 12 [Anatolius]); and perhaps Aur. Cyrus (Part II no. 41). Encomia (vel sim. ) of emperors: Helladius (Part II no. 67); Dioscorius (Part II no. 48); Priscian (Part II no. 126); cf. also Part II nos. 37 (Corippus) and 92 (Ioannes Lydus), and note that no grammarian is attested as imperial encomiast before the reign of Theodosius II.

[133] Amm. Marc. 28.1.45, 52, with Part II no. 137. For advocates passing to positions in the imperial administration, largely governorships, in the fourth century, note in PLRE I: Ambrosius 3, Domnio 2, Fl. Eusebius 40, Eutherius 2, Gaianus 6, Heraclius 7, Fl. Asclepiades Hesychius 4, Fl. Antonius Hierocles 3, Iovinus 1, Vindaonius Magnus 12, Marcianus 7, Maximinus 7, Nemesius 2, Olympianus 2, Palladius 18, Petronius 2, Priscianus 1, Sabinus 5, Severus 14 (withdrawn from Libanius's school, not at the latter's request, as stated in PLRE I, but at his father's, so that he could immediately begin his career as an advocate: Or. 57.3), Fl. Severus 24, Theodorus 11 Fl. Mallius Theodorus 27 (cf. his brother Lampadius 3, with PLRE II pp. 654f.), Ulpianus 3. See also above at n. 10, on Attius Delphidius Tiro; and Jones, LRE 512.

[134] Aur. Theodorus of Hermopolis (Part II no. 150); Eudaemon of Pelusium at Elusa (Part II no. 55). Calliopius of Antioch, who also rose to a prominent position (see below at n. 171), appears to have practiced as an advocate only after his teaching: see Lib. Ep. 18.2, with Part II no. 25.


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Simplicius had practiced as an advocate, he was alone in the success it brought him; no other grammarians gained the promising post of assessor. That position was evidently more accessible to others.

So too was another position, rather different in the ambitions it might satisfy, but perhaps revealing as well as any other the secondary standing of the grammarian in the local elite. From the early fourth century onward we find grammarians occupying or moving into positions in the ecclesiastical hierarchy of their towns; but they appear in the second rank of the clergy, as presbyters. Only once does a grammarian become a bishop; and the singularity of that event is all the more noticeable when it is contrasted with the success of rhetoricians and sophists in getting bishoprics.[135] The fortunes of the two types of teacher in the world of the Church clearly reflect their positions not only in the world of letters but also in the community at large.

It is possible of course to find grammarians of more than usual distinction, men capable of reaching out from their teaching positions to affect events at even the highest levels. Nicocles, for example, in virtue of his having taught the prince Julian at Constantinople, was a person of some consequence during Julian's reign, able to mediate between the population of Constantinople and the city's prefect during a crisis, and a suitable ambassador from the city to the emperor himself.[136] Perhaps still more striking is the fame of Timotheus of Gaza, whose literary efforts were credited with persuading the emperor Anastasius to abolish a hated tax.[137] But these men were exceptional in their connections or in their successes. More commonly, while he remained in the town where he taught, the grammarian would have resembled Lollianus of Oxyrhynchus: claiming personal connections that might extend into the imperial administration, perhaps even running to a friend at court, but attaining only a middling status[138] and satisfied (or, in Lollianus's case, dissatisfied) with his modest local eminence. For the grammarian who wanted more, there was little alternative to stepping out from his town or from his profession.

[136] Lib. Ep. 1368.

[137] Suda T.621; Cedren. 1.627.8f. Bekker. On Nicocles and Timotheus, see Chap. 6 pp. 202f.

[138] Beyond the man at court whom he calls "Brother," he refers to an optio beneficiariorum and relative of the corrector Aegypti Theodorus, and to the brother of a canaliclarius : see PCollYoutie 2.66 = POxy. 47.3366, B26f, 28, 38, with the remarks of Parsons, PCollYoutie 2, p. 415.


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And step out they did, above all geographically. Of the 140-odd grammarians whose place of teaching is known, a quarter can be seen to have moved from their homelands or otherwise to have changed their place of teaching.[139] As we might expect, such movement was predominantly from smaller or less promising areas to larger, more promising centers: from Thagaste to Carthage, from Aegeae or Gaza to Antioch, or from Gaza to Alexandria.[140]

The capital cities especially were magnets. Augustine's testimony to the lure of the greater profit and higher status that even a private teacher of rhetoric could expect at Rome[141] is more than borne out for the grammarians. For example, all but one of the Africans who moved went to one of the imperial centers: Nicomedia under Diocletian, or Rome and Constantinople in the fourth century and later.[142] Similarly, most of the Egyptians who left their native land went to Constantinople, either directly or by way of Athens or Antioch.[143] But not only Africans and Egyptians felt the tug: in the fourth through sixth centuries we find grammarians from Sparta and the provinces of Lycia, Phrygia, Asia, and Lydia teaching in the new Rome.[144] Already by the mid-fourth century

[141] Conf. 5.8.14.

[142] Nicomedia: Flavius, Jer. De vir. ill. 80. Rome: see Part II no. 170 (Anonymus 4); perhaps also Aelius Donatus and Probus (Part II nos. 52, 127). Constantinople: Chrestus, Jer. Chron. s.a. 358, with Part II no. 27; Priscian (if from Caesarea Mauretania), Part II no. 126; Speciosus, a Latin grammarian or rhetorician from Africa, Part II no. 138. (Corippus also went from Africa to Constantinople, but he is not known to have taught in the latter place: cf. Part II no. 37, and below, pp. 130f.) The exception is Iulianus Pomerius (Part II no. 124), who went from Africa to the metropolis of Aries in the late fifth century: V. Caes. 1.9; [Gennad.] De vir. ill. 99.

[143] See Part II nos. 10, 46 (from Egypt via Antioch), 67, 77, 111, 114 (from Panopolis via Athens). Note also Part II no. 226, Harpocration's movement from Egypt via Antioch; but he was more likely a sophist than a grammarian. Two other Egyptians are sometimes thought to have taught at Constantinople, but their movement is questionable: see Part II nos. 79, 110.

[144] Sparta: Part II no. 106. Lycia: Part II no. 48. Phrygia Salutaris: Part II no. 56. Asia: Part II no. 101. Lydia: Part II no. 92: Ioannes Lydus, initially drawn to the imperial service, only later becoming a Latin grammaticus ; on the unusual sequence in his career and the reasons for it, see ibid. Cf. also Part II no. 42: from Cos to Constantinople?


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Constantinople's attraction for mobile teachers was sufficiently strong for Libanius to complain that skilled teachers were being drawn from Antioch, where they were needed, to where there was a surplus.[145]

Like many of Libanius's complaints, however, this probably should be taken with its grain of salt: Constantinople's draw was no doubt all that Libanius asserts; but surely Antioch too exerted a considerable pull, attracting teachers from Egypt and from provinces in its own diocese, Oriens. From Libanius's correspondence we know that grammarians from Egypt, Arabia, Phoenice, and Palestine made their way to Antioch.[146] Over a century later, Antioch was still attractive enough to bring the entire corps of grammarians from Gaza to the city's suburb of Daphne, evidently in hopes of greater prosperity.[147] Although the evidence for other great cities—Carthage, Alexandria—is less abundant, it seems probable that like Antioch they too drew teachers from lesser cities in their regions and were a springboard for the leap to Rome or Constantinople.

Compared with the mobility visible elsewhere, the fixity of the grammarians of Bordeaux, especially their apparent failure to move to more brilliant centers,[148] suggests that they were either atypically complacent or unlucky. Yet the mobility and sheer footloose freedom many grammarians seem to have had is remarkable.[149] Teachers had of course long been among the most mobile groups; the late-antique phenomenon is nothing new.[150] But the ease with which such men appear to have

[145] Ep. 368.1.

[146] Egypt: Part II nos. 32, 46. Arabia: Part II no. 155. Phoenice: Part II no. 4. Palestine (Elusa): Part II no. 55. Cf. Lib. Or. 31.9: all four of Libanius's assistants ca. 360 were foreigners, drawn from their home towns by reports of the prosperity of Antioch's teachers.

[148] See above, p. 105.

[149] Note the movements of Eudaemon of Pelusium that can be traced—from Elusa, where he was teaching, to Egypt, to Antioch, where he also did some teaching, to Constantinople, and back to Egypt—all in little more than a year: Lib. Ep. 255, 632, 633, with Part II no. 55.


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moved is particularly noteworthy at a time when the central government was attempting by force of law to bind its citizens (not least curials) to their places of origin[151] and when—less formal, but perhaps no less important—the force of sentiment might work a similar restraint. Ausonius, for example, much admired the teachers of rhetoric whose fame compelled them to leave their patria for posts at Rome or Constantinople and thus brought honor indirectly to Bordeaux.[152] But he appears to have had no special regard for the two grammarians who left their chairs at Bordeaux for other cities less prestigious than the capitals: indeed, he speaks of one of them as though he were guilty, if not of betrayal, then of something very like it.[153] Similar feelings can be deduced from Libanius's comment that it was a happy town that could appoint one of its own citizens to a chair, or from the eulogy of a teacher for having loyally resisted' the blandishments of other cities and having remained in his native town.[154] In view of the potential obstacles, the freedom of movement displayed is all the more remarkable, whether in response to an imperial invitation or in hasty retreat from a scene of riot and murder.[155] Such mobility says much about the power of patronage, which we shall examine in a later chapter.

Change of place could bring a dramatic change in fortune, linking geographic and social mobility. As we have already seen in Bordeaux, marriage offered one route.[156] If a man were ambitious, it helped to be unmarried. A wife and children already on hand were an anchor:[157]

[151] Cf. MacMullen, "Social Mobility" 49ff. Curials: Jones, LRE 740ff.; and, for a regional study of Cappadocian curials, Kopacek, "Curial Displacements."

[152] See above at n. 27.

[153] Concordius and Anastasius: see n. 26 above; note esp. the motive attributed to Anastasius, characterized by the pejorative ambitio, and the emphasis on his failure at Poitiers.

[154] Lib. Ep. 1366.2, Or. 1.92; Choric. Or. fun. Procop. 12-14 (p. 113.15ff.); cf. also Aug. C. Acad. 2.2.3. For the earlier empire, note especially the implications of Flor. Verg. or. p. 108.1ff., the newcomer's characterization of the populus Tarraconensis as tarde quidem, sed iudicio hospitalis.

[156] See above, p. 104.

[157] Cf. PCollYoutie 2.66 = POxy. 47.3366, B22f., 28: Lollianus points to his family as the reason he must remain at Oxyrhynchus, unable to visit his friend at court.


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some teachers, like Augustine, prudently remained unencumbered;[158] others less scrupulous cut themselves free.[159] The rewards could be significant. Pamprepius's appointment as grammarian at Athens was followed by a good marriage, and appointment and marriage together raised him above the hard life he had previously led.[160]

But Pamprepius may have been as unusual in this good fortune as he was in other elements of his career.[161] Available evidence shows no other grammarian prospering in the same way, beyond the teachers of Bordeaux already noted. Nor do many grammarians appear to have taken another opening that geographic mobility might offer, changing place to step up in the profession. When Augustine went from Thagaste to Carthage, he moved to rhetoric from grammar; a similar shift followed Isocasius's move from his native Aegeae to Antioch.[162] The change was decisive for each man's career. Augustine, of course, was finally carried by rhetoric to Milan, where his conversion canceled the good marriage he had contracted and the hopes he entertained for a governorship.[163] Isocasius's position at Antioch brought him influence with the imperial administration and, eventually, high office in the palatine service.[164] In this respect the careers of Augustine and Isocasius are comparable to those of Nepotianus and Ausonius, the only grammarians of Bordeaux to exchange the grammarian's chair for the rhetorician's and then to prosper in the imperial administration. The comparison, however, extends not only to the rise in profession, expectations, and fortunes of the two pairs, but to their isolation as well. No other grammarians are known to have followed the same path.[165]

[159] Teachers abandoning their families: Procop. Gaz. Ep. 57 (with Part II no. 142), Ep. 91 (with Part II no. 231; the man's family appears to have rejoined him later: Ep. 124).

[160] Appointment, marriage, rise in fortune: see Part II no. 114 for the sequence.

[161] See below, pp. 130ff.

[162] See n. 140 above.

[163] Conf. 6.13.23 (marriage contracted), 6.11.19 (ambition for governorship).

[164] Influence: cf. Theodoret. Ep. LII. Position as QSP under Leo: Malal. 369.17ff.; Chron. Pasch. 595.6ff.; Theoph. Chron. p. 115.9ff. de Boor; Cedren. 1.612.21 Bekker; and below, p. 130.

[165] Note, however, that at the beginning of the sixth century Deuterius of Milan taught grammar and rhetoric concurrently, the only teacher in the period who can be seen to have done so; see Part II no. 44. Cf. also Part II nos. 124, 140.


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Despite their geographic mobility, in fact, the grammarians were otherwise not conspicuously mobile. They tended to remain grammarians; and although as grammarians they might under circumscribed conditions receive significant preferment from the emperors,[166] they do not appear in our period to have had notable success in gaining other, richer rewards. Consider, for example, the informal yet prestigious position of imperial tutor, which not uncommonly led to high honors and office, and for which a grammarian of any distinction might be thought a reasonable candidate by virtue of his profession. We know of a fair number of men from the early fourth century onward who taught the children belonging to the households of reigning emperors; but not until the second half of the fifth century, with Dioscorius of Myra, tutor to the daughters of Leo, do we find the sole instance of a man who came to the job as a grammarian. For the rest, the position appears to have been held by more distinguished men of letters, especially rhetoricians (once again) or those still more highly placed.[167]

If we consider the grammarians' service in the imperial bureaucracy, the evidence tells a similar tale of restricted access. Indeed, one should properly say "ex-grammarians' service," since nearly all those who succeeded here had left their positions as grammatici well before, either advancing in the profession or striking out in a different direction. Thus in the palatine service we find[168] Ausonius, quaestor sacri palatii in 375-76; Calliopius, magister epistularum in 388; Isocasius, QSP in 467; Pamprepius, QSP with an honorary consulship and the patriciate in early 479 and magister officiorum under the rebel Leontius after July 484; and Corippus, who appears to have held some palatine office in the first years of Justin II.[169] Of these five men, with their careers scattered over more than two centuries, only Pamprepius can be said with any confidence to have reached his position still fresh from his profession as a grammarian.[170]

[166] See above, n. 45, on the rank awarded some grammatici at Constantinople.

[167] Dioscorius: SudaD .1208, with Part II no. 48, and cf. below. For other tutors of imperial offspring, besides the eunuchs Mardonius (Iul. Misopog. 352A-B) and Antiochus (= PLRE II s.v. 5, pp. 101f.), note Lactantius (Jer. De vir. ill. 80, with Eck's review of PLRE I in Zephyrus 23-24 [1972-73] 330; Barnes, Constantine 13); Fl. Optatus (Part II no. 241); Exuperius (Auson. Prof. 17.9ff.); Aemilius Magnus Arborius (Prof. 16.15, with Booth, "Notes" 244ff.); Marcianus (Part II no. 238); Decimus Magnus Ausonius (Part II no. 21); Themistius (Or. 16.204B-C, 213A-B); Arsenius (= PLRE I s.v. 4, p. 111). Nicocles' tuition of Julian at Constantinople is a special case; see Part II no. 106 ad fin.

[168] For the following, see Part II nos. 21, 25, 85, 114, 37, respectively.

[169] Note also Fl. Eugenius, magister scrinii after 385(?) and later Augustus in the West. But the evidence of his ever having been a grammaticus is questionable; see Part II no. 211.

[170] See below, p. 132.


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The careers of Ausonius and Isocasius, both of whom became teachers of rhetoric (and Ausonius, an imperial tutor) before reaching their offices, have already been remarked. Calliopius, whom we met as the son of a grammarian and member of a well-placed and well-connected family of Antioch,[171] appears to have taught only in his youth, before going on to practice as an advocate; Corippus is only known to have taught in Africa some twenty years before appearing at Constantinople. The showing is even more sparse when we look beyond the central administration: Ausonius, again, who moved from the palatium to assume praetorian prefectures in 377-79;[172] Nepotianus, a provincial governor (perhaps of Tripolitania) in the mid-fourth century;[173] Simplicius, assessor to Maxi-minus during the latter's governorship of Corsica or Sardinia, then governor of Numidia in the late 360s or early 370s, and finally vicarius urbis Romae in 374-75;[174] and Dioscorius, described as "ex-prefect of Constantinople" in 467, and later honorary consul.[175] Here again, only one man, Simplicius, might have stepped directly into the imperial service from his grammarian's chair.[176] Nepotianus of Bordeaux, like his friend and colleague Ausonius, had made the transition from grammar to rhetoric; Dioscorius almost certainly was already the tutor of Leo's daughters by 467. Indeed, the rank (inline image) he held in that year may well have been honorary (as his later consulship unquestionably was), a distinction bestowed by his pupils' grateful father.[177]

All this is not to diminish the dramatic rise of some of these men. One would not have predicted the praetorian prefect Ausonius from the grammaticus of the 330s; still less would Pamprepius's early years as a wandering poet have foreshadowed his later role as an agent of rebellion. As individuals, such figures testify to the social fluidity of the period and the possibilities that were open when ambition, talent, and the right connections met in the same man; but they scarcely combine to suggest a pattern of mobility in the grammarian's profession itself.[178] Since most

[171] See above, p. 108.

[172] See Part II no. 21.

[173] See Part II no. 105.

[174] See Part II no. 137; PLRE I s.v. 7, p. 844.

[175] Note also the career of Ioannes Lydus as praefectianus, the greater part of which preceded his activity as a teacher: Part II no. 92.

[176] Conceivably Simplicius had been an advocate (see above, p. 124), like his protector Maximinus (Amm. Marc. 28.1.6).

[177] On this and other questions concerned with the titles attributed to Dioscorius, see Part II no. 48.

[178] Contrast the success of the following men, who passed from their activity as rhetoricians or sophists to a place in the imperial service in the fourth century (in PLRE I): Alexander 9, Belaus, Fl. Bonus, Calliopius 2, Celsus 3, Demetrius 2, Eros 2, Eustathius 6, Fl. Antonius Hierocles 3, Ianuarius 6, Leontius 9, Marius 1, Musonius 2, Nymphidianus, Palladius 12, Aemilius Quintilius Pyrrhus 3, Quirinus. Cf. also n. 133 for a similar and frequent mobility among the advocates.


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of these men left the regular practice of the grammarian's profession before their rise, their careers suggest rather the opposite: that ambition and talent were led to Find outlets in different spheres, where the necessary relations of patronage were also more available.

The two apparent exceptions, Simplicius in the fourth century and Pamprepius in the fifth, only support that suggestion. Though the offices of both men appear to have followed close upon their teaching as grammatici, their fortunes were made not through a network of patrons gradually assembled but by the favor they received from a single powerful protector.[179] Simplicius began his service in the imperial administration as assessor to Maximinus and reached the vicariate of Rome during the same man's ascendancy. Similarly, Pamprepius gained his chair at Constantinople through the favor of the Isaurian Illus—and then lost the chair when his protector withdrew from the capital not long after. Yet Pamprepius remained attached to Illus as his confidant and agent; and Illus for his part soon gave Pamprepius an office and titles and drew him into the adventure of Leontius. The careers of Simplicius and Pamprepius might also offer a salutary warning of the risks that were run when a spectacular rise was combined with such singular dependency: having tied his fortunes to one patron, each man shared his patron's fall. Simplicius and Maximinus were executed early in the reign of Gratian, and Pamprepius was murdered by Illus and Leontius in desperate anger and suspicion shortly before they themselves were crushed. In their violent deaths no less than in their swift advances the two grammarians are unique.

The grammarians thus show a range of backgrounds and fortunes about as wide as one could imagine, from the sons of freedmen to high ministers of state. Such variety reveals the profession's diverse attractions and the opportunities it could offer, if only exceptionally. But the extremes tell us less than the center, and from the preceding pages we should be able to draw together the elements of the ordinary grammarian's status.

Such a man would be active in one of the larger provincial cities, where—despite the movements of other teachers in his region, and despite whatever ambitions he might nurse himself—he would likely pass all his days. His origins would be among the respectable classes of the city, as the son of a teacher, perhaps, or of a curial family of no great

[179] See Part II nos. 137, 114; on patronage, see Chap. 6.


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distinction. If he married, his wife would be from a comparable background and would bring a modest dowry; this dowry, some modest holdings of his own in the city's territory, and his professional income would combine to provide an honorable if not opulent standard of living, unburdened (if he possessed immunities) by liturgical demands, and might even allow a modest benefaction to the community in the course of his life. As an offshoot of his professional activity and general culture, he might dabble in poetry, perhaps gaining a moment in the spotlight for an encomium of a visiting dignitary. If his teaching was distinguished, he would contribute directly to the civic pride of his town—although if the town's educational resources ran to a teacher of rhetoric, the grammarian would probably be accustomed to cooperative subordination, channeling pupils to the rhetorician or sophist and standing in his shadow. Not a vir primarius himself, he would know the primarii well enough; as their children's teacher he would be respected by them and dependent on them. When with any luck he died at a mature age in his own bed, his loss would be regretted and his work would for a time be remembered.

Our hypothetical ordinary grammarian, in other words, stood as far above the common people in the city and its hinterland as he was below the men who directed the central and provincial administration of the empire. This is perhaps the essence of what Ausonius called his mediocritas, as Ausonius and his contemporaries would have understood it: a position within the elite that would appear either undistinguished or insignificant, depending on one's point of view. The combination of high and low standing marked the profession, both in the range of men who practiced it and in the components of the individual grammarian's status. In contrast to the overwhelming mass of the population, his birth, means, and culture placed him in the small circle of those free from ignoble employment. Yet for all that he was a social pauper in the world of the elite. Compared with the imperial aristocracy of birth or service, he was no more than a "mere grammaticus."[180]

The grammarian thus was located at the meeting point of several contradictions. So, for example, the teacher's nominal status, especially the honor he derived from his skill, must frequently have been at odds with his economic status. We can recall the conflicting characterizations—the sterilis cathedra and the nomen grammatici tam nobile —that crop up in Ausonius's Professores ; the discrepancy is embodied in Lollianus of Oxyrhynchus, who could approach emperors aware that even the world's rulers had traditionally respected men of culture and skill like himself, while yet he scraped along in circumstances that must have seemed

[180] Cf. Alan Cameron, "Date" 34 n. 65.


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uncomfortably close to vulgar. At the same time, nominal status could extend its support and protection only so far. The Saturnalia of Macrobius shows us Servius, carried by his skill into the salons of the high aristocracy, where all the right-minded gentlemen are scholars and the grammarian can consort with them by virtue of his scholarship. Macrobius's portrait sketches a clear hierarchy of birth and learning: the grammarian becomingly assumes his place as the least of the invited.[181] At the same time, the grammarian's vulnerability is no less clear. Servius's willing self-effacement does not save him from—indeed, it provokes—the bullying of the perverse nobleman Evangelus, who sneers at the profession's title and, by implication, at the status it confers.[182] Macrobius's work is of course an idealization, in which only the morose villain of the piece would behave so crudely. In the less than ideal rounds of daily life, the reminders of hierarchy and its barriers, its rebuffs and snubs, would doubtless have been more common and no less vivid.[183]

While making these rounds, the grammarian could hope to be sustained by the knowledge and skills of his profession. In no setting, however, was his hope more certain than in his own classroom: there, if anywhere, he was in his glory. In the next chapters we will look more closely at the grammarian in his professional role and examine his own conception of the cultural authority his expertise provided, before going on to consider in detail the position of genteel obscurity and dependence that he occupied in his relations with patrons and the state.

[181] See esp. Sat. 2.2.1ff., 7.4.1ff., with Kaster, "Macrobius" 227f.

[182] Sat. 2.2.12, with Kaster, "Macrobius" 226f.

[183] Cf. Lib. Ep. 1492, with Chap. 6 at n. 63.


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A PLACE TO STAND


137

ars est rei cuiusque scientia usu vel traditione vel ratione percepta tendens ad usum aliquem vitae necessarium.


A skill is the knowledge of any given matter derived from experience, tradition, or reason and aiming at some advantage essential to life.
—Diomedes, Ars grammatica, GL 1.421.4f.


Among the lost works of the ancient grammarians, some no doubt are more to be regretted than others; and no doubt opinions could differ in assessing the losses. For our purposes in this section, we would be especially fortunate to have a work by the grammarian Telephus, onetime teacher of the emperor Lucius Verus, which addressed the question, How much does a grammarian need to know?[1] Telephus's answer, necessarily revealing a grammarian's thoughts about his profession, would have offered us something otherwise hard to come by. Rhetoricians, philosophers, historians, poets—all are given to talking about their craft, their understanding of it, and the claims they would make for it. Not so the grammarians, who among the major participants in the literary culture are the most reticent in staking out their own position. We are for the most part left to draw what inferences we can from the largely impersonal discourse of their technical writings.

Where are we to look, then, to study the grammarian's view of his profession? Time has made the decision easier regarding either side of


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the question, the methodical instruction in language or the exegesis of literary texts. Of the latter, only one authentic specimen from the period survives in reasonably complete form, the Vergilian commentary of Servius; and for the former—the side most often mentioned in non-grammatical sources—little in Greek could serve our purpose. To the extent that the efforts of the Greek grammarians survive at all from the fourth, fifth, and early sixth centuries, they survive as scattered excerpts or jejune epitomes. Only one extensive piece has come down to us in its original form, Theodosius's Introductory Rules of Nominal and Verbal Flexion, a work that does not provide much scope for the analysis needed here.[2] The remnants of the Latin grammarians offer more promising material.

In the following pages, therefore, we will examine in some detail two major texts. Each is clearly connected with the grammarian's school; each shows a different facet of the grammarian's work and his understanding of it; and each was composed by a man who on any reasonable estimate must be located in the intellectual foothills of the profession. I have resisted the temptation to make for the summit (say, Priscian), in order to gain a more accurate view of the terrain as a contemporary would have seen it. We will begin with Pompeius's commentary on the Ars of Donatus, which affords an especially vivid glimpse of the grammarian's mind-set and his sense of continuity or rivalry with his predecessors. We will then turn to Servius's commentary on Vergil, where we will be able to gauge the grammarian's sense of his authority over the language and to observe how he behaves when confronted by the authority of a classical text.


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Chapter 4
Pompeius

Pompeius taught as a grammarian in Africa in the late fifth or perhaps the early sixth century, the countryman and (in rough terms) contemporary of a clutch of African grammatici ranging in date from Dracontius's teacher, Felicianus, to the young Corippus.[1] We know Pompeius through his Commentum Artis Donati, the most garrulous of grammatical texts and, since its first modern publication by Lindemann in 1820, perhaps the least' esteemed.[2] The harsh modern verdict, although overdone, is not entirely undeserved: the commentary's scholarship is flawed, and its sprawling devotion to one of the most elegant Latin handbooks is a stunning paradox.[3] Nonetheless, that devotion can pay generous dividends to the modem reader, for it is expressed in a distinctive, lively voice that strikingly reveals the concerns of a late-antique teacher.

The object of Pompeius's attention was composed by Donatus in the mid-fourth century; by Pompeius's time it was on its way to becoming a central document of Latin studies in the West.[4] Donatus's work consisted of two parts, the Ars minor and, in three books, the Ars maior. The Ars

[1] On Pompeius's place and date, see Part II no. 125. On the other African grammarians of this period, see Part II nos. 23 (probably but not certainly African), 24, 37, 58, 59, 124, 126 (if a native of Caesarea Mauretania), and perhaps 138. In this chapter Pompeius and Cledonius are cited by page and line of Keil, GL 5; Explanationes 1 and Servius's commentary on Donatus are cited by page and line of Keil, GL 4.

[2] Characterized as a "botch" and a "sham" by Keil, GL 5.90; and by Jeep, Zur Geschichte der Lehre 43f. The judgment was resumed by Helm, RE 21.2313.23f., 2314.63f.

[3] Cf. Holtz, "Tradition" 50, who also offers the best concise and general characterization of Pompeius's work.

[4] See now the massive study of Holtz, Donat, esp. 75ff., on Donatus's relation to the earlier tradition, and 219ff., on the reception of Donatus down through the High Middle Ages.


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minor offered a swift introduction to the parts of speech—the heart of the grammarian's doctrine—cast in the form of questions (partes orationis quot sunt? . . . nomen quid est? ) with the appropriate answers. The Ars maior then followed the standard sequence for such handbooks, beginning with brief, introductory definitions (of vox, littera, and so on) before taking up the parts of speech in greater detail and concluding with a rapid survey of the vitia et virtutes orationis.[5] The work is concise, almost clipped, throughout: drawing on several sources for his doctrine, Donatus evidently tried to pare it down to its essentials. By contrast, Pompeius is brief only in his passing glance at the lesser Ars, praising its utility as an introduction and approving its ordering of the partes.[6] He then presses on to exhaust the greater Ars.[7] To appreciate the value of his comments, we must first try to understand Pompeius's method, his style, and the audience he has in mind. And in turn, to understand his method we must understand his relationship to his main source, Servius's early fifth-century commentary on Donatus.

To speak of Pompeius's "relationship" to Servius is to put the matter delicately, or at least neutrally: some would say that Pompeius shamelessly plagiarized Servius, whom in fact he does not name. Although the charge is inaccurate, as we shall see, the dependence is nonetheless plain—not on the extant, abridged version of Servius, but on a more complete version of his original work. Though that original is now lost, it is represented in different ways and in varying degrees by the surviving epitome (405.2-448.17), by Book 1 of "Sergius's" Explanationes in Artem Donati (486.4-534.12), and by Cledonius's commentary on Donatus (9-79).[8] Pompeius drew from Servius much of the substance of his own

[5] With the prominence given the partes orationis in the Ars minor and the modification of the standard sequence thus produced, compare the similar dislocation in Book I of Diomedes; see Jeep, Zur Geschichte der Lehre 57.

[6] See the full form of the preface published by Holtz, "Tradition" 59-60, with GL 5.96.19-98.8.

[7] Apparently Pompeius assumes that his audience was already familiar with the Ars minor ; see 246.32, legistis illas [sc. significationes adverbiorum ] in prima parte artis, adverting to Don. 596.1-5 Holtz. Cf. Pomp. 189.27, quem ad modum legistis in primordiis, with the apparatus in Holtz's edition of Don. at 587.28; and cf. Keil, GL 5.90.

[8] On the relationship of Pompeius, Serv. Comm. Don., and Explan. 1, see Keil, GL 5.92; Helm, RE 21.2313.59ff.; and esp. Schindel, Figurenlehren 21f., 36f., refining Jeep, Zur Geschichte der Lehre 43-53. For dear evidence that Pompeius and Explan. 1 draw on a common source, compare, e.g., Pomp. 208.28f. and Explan. 502.17f. On Cledonius, see Holtz, "Àl'école de Donat" 526, correcting Jeep, Zur Geschichte der Lehre 41f.

I should stress that the matter of Pompeius's main source is probably more complex than previously suspected: I use "Servius" in what follows to mean the version of Servius known to Pompeius. That version had very possibly been interpolated by some intermediary: note, e.g., Pomp. 262.28, where the subject of dicit can be neither Donatus nor Servius; or Pomp. 224.32ff., where the nonsensical statements quam removit and "clam" vult remotam esse omnino may derive from interpolations in Pompeius's source subsequent to Servius; and cf. the appendix to Part II no. 125. It is possible, therefore, that some of Pompeius's departures from Servius discussed below were already present in his main source. It is also conceivable that if Pompeius's version of Servius had already been revised to include non-Servian material, the name of the reviser was Astyagius; see below, nn. 35, 36, and Part II no. 189. (This could, incidentally, account for Pompeius's failure to mention Servius by name: he might not even have known that the work before him was originally Servius's.)

These and other puzzles (e.g., the curious doublet Pomp. 165.19-174.11 vs. 174.12-190.13) need to be considered in a full study of Pompeius (desiderated by Holtz, "Tradition" 50f.), which this chapter does not provide; but such a study must be based on a decent critical edition, a still more pressing need. I have used Keil's text but have tacitly repunctuated in some places.


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comments, including the references to pre-Donatan scholars (Varro, Pliny, Caper, Terentianus, the younger Probus, and others) that pepper the work, and many of the illustrative quotations from auctores.[9] The extent of the debt can scarcely be overestimated and can be exemplified by some of the howlers that Pompeius evidently borrowed without blinking an eye,[10] or by a brief passage like the following:

sed sunt aliquae litterae, quae neque ab "e" inchoant neque in "e" desinunt. hae litterae calumniam patiuntur, ut est "x." idcirco non littera dicitur, sed duplex littera. "k" et "q" neque ab "e" inchoant neque in "e" desinunt. "h" et ista similiter in calumniam venit. (101.18-22)

Pompeius means that the letters x, k, q, and h were charged with being illegitimate or unnecessary: so much emerges from the parallel passage in the Explanationes. But Pompeius has reproduced his source so elliptically—as though forgetting his audience would not have Servius open before them, as he did—that his reference to the letters' calumnia becomes

[9] The doubts of Jeep, Zur Geschichte der Lehre 44-53, that Pompeius himself ever saw the work, e.g., of Probus were well founded, although Jeep's discussion of some individual passages is vitiated by the belief that Pompeius used the surviving version of Servius's commentary; see, e.g., a garbled version of Probus clearly taken over by Pompeius from Servius: Pomp. 224.30ff., with Jeep, pp. 44f.

[10] E.g., Pomp. 215.24f. (cf. Serv. 411.35-37; Explan. 504.5f.); and cf. Pomp. 185.33-186.6, the assertion that mille in the clause habeo mille servorum is in the genitive: the presence of a supporting citation from Cicero suggests that the lesson was already in his source. Note, however, that Pompeius does not reproduce Servius's equally astonishing claim that vulgus is attested in the feminine: Serv. 431.27f., citing in vulgum ambiguam, evidently a faulty recollection of Aen. 2.95f., spargere voces / in vulgum ambiguas.


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intelligible only when it is compared with the passage in the Explanationes derived from the common source.[11]

The way Pompeius mined his Servius can be illustrated from his discussion of the participle, a passage that also exemplifies some of his more peculiar habits. The discussion begins as follows:

pleraque dicit quae et in superiore arte memoravit, pleraque addit. participium dictum est pars orationis ab eo, quod pattern capit nominis, partem verbi, ut siqui dicat "legens" "scribens" "currens": ista participia sunt. ham habent haec quae dixi: "legens" habet et casus et genera et tempora et significationes. quod casus et genera habet, nominis sunt: nam et casus nomini accidit, et genus nomini accidit. quod tempora et significationes habet, haec duo verbi sunt: nam tempus verbo accidit, significatio verbo accidit. ergo participium habet a nomine partes, habet a verbo partes. ideo dicitur participium, quasi particapium. (256.9-17)

The striking feature of the paragraph is Pompeius's cross-reference to an earlier mention of the participle's accidents (256.12, nam habent haec quae dixi )—striking because Pompeius has previously said nothing whatever about the specific attributes of the participle and their relation to the attributes of nouns and verbs. But Servius, who worked through both parts of Donatus's text, had earlier reviewed the accidents of the participle in his comments on the Ars minor. Pompeius here has simply taken over a cross-reference from Servius: compare participium est quasi particapium: habet enim a nomine genera et casus, a verbo tempora et significationes, ab utroque numerum et figuram et cetera, quae in superioribus dicta sunt (440.17-19). This is not an isolated symptom; Pompeius's discussion as a whole is articulated by the introductory statement pleraque dicit quae et in superiore arte memoravit, pleraque addit (256.9) and by the transitional statement hoc est quod legimus etiam in arte superiore. iam addit alia propria et utilia (260.39). And both the introduction and the transition correspond to Servius's quae in superioribus dicta sunt. in posterioribus illud adicit (440.19).

We can see what Pompeius has done with his source in this passage. He starts from the introduction (256.9ff.), with its reference back to Donatus's Ars minor, that he found in Servius's discussion of the participle in his commentary on the Ars maior ; and he offers a preliminary clarification of the difference between the participle and the noun, antequam tractemus hoc participium, debes scire discretionem participii ipsius a nomine (256.18f.), which is also derived from Servius's commentary on the Ars

[11] Explan. 520.20-26; cf. also Serv. 422.34ff.


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maior.[12] He then makes a new beginning, repeating the definition of the participle (258.6-8 = Don. 644.2-4H.; cf. 597.5-6H.) and the review of its accidents (258.8-10), and discusses the accidents as they occur in Donatus (258.12-260.38 = Don. 644.6-645.3H.). But for this purpose he has turned back to Servius's commentary on the Ars minor (416.32ff.), which he follows until the transition hoc est quod legimus etiam in arte superiore. iam addit . . . (260.39f.).[13] At this point he resumes Servius's commentary on the Ars maior, which he uses until the end of the chapter,[14] garbling its account at one point and disagreeing with it at another.[15] Pompeius's general procedure, flipping back and forth between different sections of his Servius, is especially transparent here, but it is not at all unusual, and requires little comment. To understand the way Pompeius works, however, we must examine his other peculiarities glimpsed above (particularly his tendency toward confusion) and the marks of independence amid his general and profound reliance on his main source.

We can begin with Pompeius's curiously inconstant attitude toward that source. As was noted earlier, Pompeius does not mention Servius by name; but this does not prevent him from occasionally revealing he is aware of his debt. When, for example, Pompeius is about to retail an easy way to distinguish the proper accents of words (127.1ff.), he says, et hoc traditum est ; he then goes on to present the lesson he found in Servius. Similarly, Pompeius repeats Servius's doctrine that if any part of speech "ceases to be what it is," it becomes an adverb (250.36ff.);[16] when he has occasion farther on to refer to the same lesson, Pompeius says, legimus enim talem regulam, omnis pars orationis, cum desierit esse quod est, nihil est aliud nisi adverbium (273.34f.), where legimus suggests he was conscious of

[12] See esp. Pomp. 256.;58-258.5, with Serv. 441.16-21; and cf. Don. 646.3-6H. For this sort of preliminary ground-clearing in Pompeius, cf. 112.6ff., 128.15ff.

[13] Note that Pompeius omits discussion of numerus and figura, which occur in Donatus (645.9-12H.) only after the material (645.4-8H.) that provokes his return to Servius on the Ars maior.

[14] Cf. Pomp. 261.1-264.15, with Serv. 440.19-441.15 and 441.21-27—i.e., all of Servius's discussion except 441.16-21, which had already contributed to Pompeius's preliminary remarks; see n. 12 above.

[15] Disagreement: compare Pomp. 262.26-33 and 263.5-9 vs. Serv. 441.4-10; for other examples of Pompeius's independence, see pp. 150ff. below. Garbling: compare Pomp. 261.21-26 and Serv. 440.27-29; similar instances occur, e.g., at Pomp. 101.27ff. (cf. Serv. 421.16ff., Explan. 520.27ff., with Keil's apparatus on p. 102), 105.19-29 (cf. Explan. 521.21ff., with Don. 604.5-6H.), 231.9f. (cf. Serv. 437.14f.), 286.7ff. (cf. Serv. 445.8-10, with p. 157 below).

[16] Cf. Serv. 439.22f. The notion does not appear in Donatus.


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having read the lesson in Servius and is in effect citing his source.[17] But Pompeius is far from consistent in this. Discussing communes praepositiones Pompeius concludes his series of examples for in with the remark iam de aliis [sc. exemplis ] saepius dixit (275.28f.); the subject of dixit here cannot be Donatus but must be Pompeius's source.[18] A bit earlier, however, in his comments on the prepositions, Pompeius includes the cross-reference sicut . . . diximus (275.6). As in the passage on the participle, Pompeius here refers back to the discussion of a topic he has nowhere treated before; like haec quae dixi (256.12), the clause sicut . . . diximus must have been lifted from his source. In the space of less than a page, then, Pompeius wavers between nonsensically reproducing his source and consciously referring to it as a separate entity. The example is not unique.

Elsewhere, to conclude his explanation of why the nominative is regarded as a casus even though cadit cannot accurately be said of a noun in the nominative, Pompeius draws an analogy with the positive degree of comparison, so regarded even though the positivus gradus does not make comparisons. He introduces the analogy by saying, habet hoc etiam exemplum de gradibus (182.15f.). Once again, the subject of the verb (here, habet ) must be his source; the clause functions as an acknowledgment of a debt, like et hoc traditum est (127.1). But when he offered the same analogy a bit earlier, he said, diximus etiam talem rem de gradu positivo (171.1ff.)—another cross-reference with no antecedent, which must have been taken over from his version of Servius. The clause, like haec quae dixi (256.9) and sicut . . . diximus (275.6), is only one more example of a habit first discerned in Pompeius long ago. The most notorious instance is found where Pompeius says, sed diximaus in illa priore parte artis, id est in superioribus (208.11f.), a reference to a comment on the Ars minor that of course does not occur earlier in Pompeius's text: Servius had already made the cross-reference (cf. 436.7, qua ratione fiant, diximus superius ) to a passage in his commentary on the Ars minor (cf. 410.32ff.).[19]

[17] Cf. also Pomp. 243.23, legimus in principio, referring to material provided at Pomp. 149.19ff. that remedies an omission for which Donatus is criticized (Pompeius cannot therefore refer to what was read in Donatus); Pomp. 274.4f., nam legimus praepositionem adverbio non iungi, referring to the lesson presented at Pomp. 255.6ff.

[18] Cf. Serv. 443.9f.: "in" autem et "sub" qua ratione servantur in superiore arte tractatum est.

[19] See Keil, GL 5.90; Jeep, Zur Geschichte der Lehre 44; Schindel, Figurenlehren 21; Holtz, Donat 237 n. 45. For such confusions, see also Pomp. 135.36, et iam saepius hoc tractavimus, with Serv. 416.19ff.; Pomp. 227.4, diximus etiam in principio, with Serv. 413.35-38. A similar borrowing may explain the inconsequence of Pomp. 199.10f., dixi hoc saepius: multi dicunt, utrum "lac" dicamus an "lact" (contrast Pomp. 165.15); cf. also the appendix to Part II no. 125.


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At times, then, Pompeius seems to remember that he is drawing on the commentary open before him, referring to its doctrine impersonally (traditum est ) or to its author in the third person singular (dixit, habet ). At other times, perhaps more frequently, that awareness seems completely submerged—he simply borrows his source's references, apt or not. The vagueness makes itself felt in another, more unsettling form: Pompeius's inconsistent discrimination between Donatus and Servius, the text on which he is supposed to be commenting and the commentary he is using as his source. In this respect, his use of dixit and habet is a disturbing sign. Although one might naturally expect that the subject of those verbs is Donatus, whose text he is ostensibly reviewing, sometimes such statements can only refer to Servius, and much more often the subject remains ambiguous.[20]

Pompeius is capable of drawing the distinction. When he says, for example, Donatus ait, "quinque sunt adverbia, quae non debemus iungere nisi positivo tantum, 'tam' 'magis' 'maxime' 'minus' et 'minime.'" . . . et reddita est ratio non a Donato, sed ab aliis, quare non iunguntur ista adverbia comparativo et superlativo, sed tantum positivo (156.1-8), the former reference must look back to the text of Donatus,[21] and the latter statement—despite the generalizing ab aliis —is clearly Pompeius's way of referring to Servius.[22] But Pompeius attaches little significance to the distinction, or at least he is concerned to maintain it only flickeringly. At one point Pompeius assures his reader, hoc quod dicit tenendum nobis fideliter: omnis pars orationis, cum desierit esse quod est, adverbium est (250.36f.). Although it becomes plain farther on in the paragraph that Pompeius is in general dealing with a Donatan doctrine (cf. 643.4-8H.), the specific lesson introduced by hoc quod dicit corresponds to nothing in Donatus; it is the formulation of Servius.[23] Yet at the end of the same paragraph Pompeius reports, "sed plane," ait, "in his rebus aliqua discernimus accentu, sensu aliqua" (251.33-34), referring to Donatus's horum quaedam accentu discernimus, quaedam sensu (643.7-8H.). In this instance we can follow the shift that occurs in the space of less than a page from dicit to ait, from Servius to Donatus.

Whether Pompeius himself was aware of the shift is much more difficult to determine; the distinction is effaced often enough to indicate he was not. For example, when introducing his discussion of adverbs ending in -e and

figure
, Pompeius remarks, tractat de duabus regulis optime . . .

[20] Cf. Keil, GL 5.91f.

[21] Don. 618.14-15H., of which Pompeius's text is an accurate paraphrase; see below at n. 26.

[22] So Serv. 431.15ff., giving the explanation reproduced by Pompeius, beginning ea scilicet ratione, quoniam. . . .

[23] Cf. Serv. 439.22f., and above at n. 16.


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et ait sic, "omnia adverbia 'e' terminata producuntur, omnia penitus . . . exceptis tribus regulis" (244.21-26). The statement after ait sic corresponds in substance to Donatus: adverbia quae in "e" exeunt produci debent praeter illa quae aut . . . aut . . . aut . . . (640.12-14H.). But in form it much more closely resembles—and must surely refer directly to—the formulation in Servius, omnia adverbia "e" terminata in positivo semper producuntur . . . exceptis tribus regulis eorum adverbiorum quae aut . . . vel . . . vel . . . (438.22ff.). This example in effect shows Pompeius commenting on the commentary, and the examples could easily be multiplied.[24]

Such confusions may tell us something not only about Pompeius's work habits but about his resources as well. Even the most careless of men would not blend Ars and source commentary so frequently if he were constantly reminded of the distinction as he turned from the text of Donatus spread open before him to his copy of Servius. But the confusion would be readily explained if Pompeius did not have separate copies of the two works. One is tempted to suggest, therefore, that Pompeius was not reading Donatus independently but was working directly from a version of Servius that like Cledonius's commentary had lemmata from Donatus's text.

The instances where Pompeius's text coincides with Donatus against Servius seem to guarantee that he had at least lemmata before him.[25] But there is much evidence that Pompeius was not following Donatus line by line, hanging on every word. He can, for example, be hair-raisingly inexact, even when he clearly has Donatus in mind, especially in his tendency to paraphrase instead of quoting.[26] This habit is harmless when the paraphrase is tolerably accurate. Less innocuous, however, and

[24] For clear instances of this sort of confusion, see Pomp. 103.22-24, with Serv. 421.26-28 vs. Don. 604.1-2H.; Pomp. 135.8ff., with Serv. 436.25f. vs. Don. 631.12-632.1H.; Pomp. 219.10f., with Serv. 412.29ff. and Explan. 505.15ff. vs. Don. 633.6-7H.; Pomp. 232.16-17, with Serv. 437.23f. vs. Don. 636.8-9H. (remarked by Holtz, Donat 237 n. 43); Pomp. 241.11-12, with Serv. 415.7-8 and 438.7 vs. Don. 640.2-3H.; Pomp. 274.17-19, with Serv. 442.23-25. Probable or possible instances also occur at Pomp. 98.21, with Explan. 519.11f. vs. Don. 605.5-6H.; Pomp. 189.35-37 (contrast Don. 626.19-627.6H.); Pomp. 225.16f., dicit, correcting Donatus; Pomp. 278.24ff. (contrast Don. 651.9-10H.); Pomp. 298.10f. (see Schindel, Figurenlehren 25 n. 42).

[25] E.g., Pomp. 281.9f., on the definition of the interjection, with Don. 602.2H. and 652.5-6H. vs. Serv. 420.19f. and 443.19f.; Pomp. 269.22ff., on the irregular use of conjunctions, with Don. 648.1-2H. vs. Serv. 441.30.

[26] Cf. above at n. 21; and for this feature of Pompeius's text in general, see Keil, GL 5.91 and, e.g., Pomp. 164.13ff. vs. Don. 621.7-9H.; Pomp. 170.2ff. vs. Don. 624.5 and 10-11H.; Pomp. 188.28ff. vs. Don. 626.5-7H.; Pomp. 177.20f. vs. Don. 623.6H.; Pomp. 186.34ff. vs. Don. 625.10H.; Pomp. 240.3-5 vs. Don. 639.8-10H.; Pomp. 279.14ff. vs. Don. 651.11-12H.; Pomp. 288.6-8 vs. Don. 655.1-2H.; Pomp. 292.8-11 vs. Don. 658.1-2H.; Pomp. 302.3-4 vs. Don. 664.9-10H. (but cf. also Schindel, Figurenlehren 32 n. 75).


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perhaps more revealing, are the places where Pompeius offers an inaccurate, interpretive version of Donatus's words and then criticizes Donatus on the basis of the inaccurate interpretation. Thus in his chapter on the pronoun Donatus observed, sunt alia demonstrativa, quae rem praesentem notant, ut "hic" "haec" "hoc" (629.12-13H.), and went on to add, sunt alia magis demonstrativa, ut "eccum" "ellum" "ellam" (630.1-2H.). The corresponding passage in Pompeius reads, sunt aliqua pronomina quae rem praesentem significant, ut diximus [= 203.10ff.], "hic" "haec" "hoc." sunt aliqua quae magis significant (205.25-26). Pompeius then continues, hoc quid sit nescio. omnis res aut praesens est aut non est praesens: "magis praesens" quid sit nescio (205.26-28). The absurdity of magis praesens that troubled Pompeius does not of course appear in Donatus's text; it is a careless combination—based, moreover, not on Donatus's ipsissima verba but on the version of Donatus that Pompeius transmits: rem praesentem significant blended with magis significant, so that the latter is taken to mean rem magis praesentem significant.[27]

Whether Pompeius would have stumbled here if he had been reading the text of Donatus is difficult to say. But the error is indistinguishable from the confusions and imprecisions in other passages where Pompeius was obviously commenting on Donatus only through Servius. For example, semper Donatus "clam" conputat inter ablativas praepositiones: et in alia parte artis [= Ars min. 601.1, 3H.] hoc fecit, et hic [= Ars mai. 649.17, 19H.] fecit hoc. . . . falsum est, sed est utriusque casus (274.33ff.). The criticism has been taken over directly from Servius (cf. 419.25-27), as has a cross-reference farther on in the discussion that cannot be Pompeius's.[28] Pompeius has not noticed that Servius missed a statement by Donatus, "clam" praepositio casibus seroit ambobus (650.2-3H.), which undercuts the criticism (contrast Pompeius's semper Donatus, evidently a case of secondhand confidence). Or, omne verbum aut agere aliquid aut pati significat (213.21). The statement corresponds to the second half of Donatus's definition of the verb, aut agere aliquid aut pati aut neutrum significans (632.5-6H.), except that it omits aut neutrum —no doubt because Servius had already rejected that part of Donatus's definition.[29] But Pompeius betrays no knowledge that he is departing from Donatus and commenting on an improved version. In such places (and again the examples could be multiplied) it is

[27] For another criticism based on an inaccurate paraphrase, see Pomp. 117.29-118.25, with reference to Don. 606.11-12H., and cf. Serv. 4114.21-28.

[28] Pomp. 275.6f.: sicut in illis diximus. See p. 144 above.

[29] Cf. Explan. 503.6ff., with Serv. 413.35ff., Explan. 507.3ff., Pomp. 227.3ff.


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difficult to believe Pompeius was consulting the full text of Donatus directly, independent of his source.[30]

There is little question, then, that Pompeius was hugely indebted to Servius for much of the substance of his commentary; and the preceding paragraphs argue that Pompeius more than occasionally misunderstood or poorly presented or ill digested that substance.[31] It would be a mistake, however, to conclude that Pompeius was merely reproducing Servius, that he did not use other sources, or that he brought nothing of his own to the work. Eclecticism is characteristic of the late-antique grammarians: heirs to a long tradition, they could draw on large resources, adapting to their own purposes the variations they found in one branch of the tradition or another. For the individual grammarian, the question was not whether he would help himself to this varied heritage, but how much, and how; depending largely on circumstances and inclinations, the answer could differ considerably from one man to the next.

For example, we have noted that Donatus drew on a fairly small number of sources for his Ars and attempted to weave them seamlessly together. Diomedes, in contrast, had very different intentions and methods: expansive where Donatus is terse, Diomedes wished to produce a wide-ranging collection of excerpts from earlier works in order to display to its best advantage the tradition that (he said) "the brilliance of human talent has brought to a state of high polish" (GL 1.299.3). Where Donatus had tried to achieve a tight weave, Diomedes created from his excerpts a mosaic, in which the junctures between the individual pieces remain visible while the pieces combine to form a coherent pattern. lie plainly exerted himself in hunting out the byways of the tradition, so that, for example, his long treatment of verbal coniugatio (1.346.30-388.9) can be seen to derive from at least five different major sources and an indeterminate number of lesser works. Whether because of his own inertia or (at least equally possible) because of limited resources,

[30] Compare esp. Pomp. 217.28-219.4, a vindication of the gerundi modus, after Servius (cf. Serv. 412.18-26 and Explan. 504.30-505.2; Donatus ignored this modus ); Pomp. 293.14ff., on three kinds of cacenphata (cf. Serv. 447.16f.; Donatus had recognized only two, 658.11-12H.); Pomp. 298.32ff., a double departure from Donatus's comments on antithesis (663.1H.; Pompeius gives no hint that he is aware of any such departure). See. also Pomp. 100.5f., with Explan. 519.29f.; Pomp. 200.5-7, with Keil, GL 5.91 and his app. crit. on p. 200; Pomp. 164.28-165.18, where Pompeius cannot be following the order or substance of Donatus's text.

[31] Note that Pompeius sometimes ignores in his own usage the regulae he transmits: e.g., contrast 157.20ff., Pompeius's strictures on the proper use of cases with the comparative degree (after Servius: cf. Serv. 407.28f.; Explan. 492.11ff.), with his phrasing at 110.18 [regula ] melior ab antiqua (similarly Pomp. 127.6, 10; 148.2, 5; 151.28; 155.5f.; 280.15f.).


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Pompeius does not show anything like the eclecticism of a Diomedes.[32] But that characteristic is nonetheless discernible in his work.

So, for example, Ulrich Schindel has demonstrated that Pompeius exploited Donatus's commentaries on Vergil and Terence in order to supplement the literary examples with which he corroborated various lessons.[33] He used still other sources to expand or refine the lessons, most obviously in the case of Astyagius.[34] Pompeius cites this otherwise unknown authority twice. On the first occasion, he provides an expanded argument to demonstrate that the first-person-singular pronoun does not possess a vocative.[35] The second citation shows that Astyagius like Pompeius must have been active after Servius and must have been influenced by him.[36]

More tentatively, we can point to a deficiency of Servius that Pompeius criticized and remedied in a matter of prosody: et nusquam voluerunt hoc dicere isti qui instituerunt artem, quare quattuor breves pro duabus longis ponantur. legimus tamen in antiquis, quae sit ratio (119.32ff.). Pompeius does not make plain just what distinction he has in mind in the antithesis isti qui instituerunt artem versus in antiquis.[37] But with the former phrase, "those who have drawn up the ars," he appears to be referring to his source commentary: for when he goes on to unveil the ratio he has found, Pompeius applies that explanation to the same examples (except one) that had already been noted, without explanation, by Servius (425.17-19). A similar supplement seems to occur, with less fanfare, at 197.24ff.: here Pompeius announces eight modi of analogy and proceeds to review them as they occur in Servius (cf. 435.16ff.); but Pompeius ultimately includes a ninth modus (cf. 197.28-29, 198.14-15), not found in Servius and presumably imported from another source.[38]

[32] For Pompeius's dependence on Servius for his knowledge of much of the pre-Donatan scholarship, see above at n. 9. For Diomedes, see Part II no. 47. For brief accounts of his method, see Jeep, Zur Geschichte der Lehre 59f., and "Jetzige Gestalt" 408f.; Barwick, Remmius 11f.

[33] Schindel, Figurenlehren 29ff., 101ff., esp. 113f.

[34] See Part II no. 189.

[35] Pomp. 209.3ff. The vocative was already denied to ego by Servius (cf. 436.7), whom Astyagius here supplements.

[36] Pomp. 211.5ff. Pompeius quotes Astyagius's definition of the pronoun—precisely the same definition, illustrated by the same example, that Pompeius himself elsewhere reproduces from Servius: cf. Pomp. 96.32f. and 199.26, with Serv. 409.35f., Explan. 488.18f. and 499.12.

[37] With the latter phrase, cf. Pomp. 141.12, habes in antiquis artibus ; Pomp. 150.34, ita definierunt antiqui ; Pomp. 151.14, habes hoc in antiquo tractatu.

[38] Note also Pomp. 284.30-285.9, Pompeius's comments on the form of barbarism that occurs pronuntiatu, which differ both from the meaning of Don. 653.5-7H. and from the doctrine of Serv. 444.13-14.


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At other times Pompeius seems to furnish differences in judgment or extensions of a lesson that may be all his own. Some of these are little more than departures in minor details.[39] In other places, however, more substantive issues are involved. At 214.33ff. Pompeius comes to accept the promissivus modus as an authentic part of the verbal system, although Donatus had rejected it out of hand (632.10H.) and Servius had apparently left the question open, merely noting the arguments on both sides.[40] Pompeius similarly stakes out a position independent of Servius at 273.25ff., when he confronts the problem of usque in the Vergilian phrase ad usque columnas (Aen. 11.262). Pompeius first applies the rule (273.25) that a preposition cannot be joined with a preposition, in order to show that usque here cannot be a preposition. Then, recalling the principle that if any part of speech "ceases to be what it is," it becomes an adverb,[41] he shows that this in turn is in conflict with the rule (274.4-5; cf. 255.6ff.) that a preposition (here, ad ) cannot be joined with an adverb. He therefore concludes that since the rules are in conflict, usque can be regarded as either an adverb or a preposition:

ob hanc causam, quoniam nec illud nec illud verum est, utrumque accipitur. habemus enim hoc in iure: in plerisque regulis, ubi neque illa firmissima est neque illa firmissima est, utrique consentimus. quoniam nec illud firmissimum est nec illud firmissimum est, ita fit ut defendatur utraque pars. (274.9-14)

Although Pompeius knew Servius's discussion of this problem,[42] the last rule of thumb has no counterpart here or elsewhere in Servius, who takes a different position on the matter.[43] Moreover, Pompeius applies that same rule of thumb at one other point in the commentary, where again he appears to be independent of Servius.[44]

[39] E.g., Pomp. 288.28-35 vs. Serv. 445.36-446.2 (with Schindel, Figurenlehren 22), on the origins of the term soloecismus ; Pomp. 269.22ff. vs. Serv. 441.30f., a license granted by Servius but emphatically denied by Pompeius.

[40] Cf. Serv. 412.6-12; Explan. 503.30-504.3. Note that one of Pompeius's arguments (215.10-17) shows no trace in the surviving versions of Servius's commentary and may be Pompeius's invention.

[41] Pomp. 273.34f., legimus enim talem regulam, referring to Pomp. 250.36ff. Cf. pp. 143ff. above.

[42] Cf. Pomp. 274.17-19, with Serv. 442.23-25.

[43] See Serv. 419.16-21 and 442.15-25, denying that usque can be an adverb and identifying it as a praepositio novo modo sibi aliam [coniungens ] praepositionem.

[44] See Pomp. 166.6ff., on the accusative forms duolduos, ambolambos. Neither the extant version of Servius nor Explan. contributes anything on this point, and Servius is silent on the morphology of duo (s ) and ambo (s ) in his commentary on Vergil; contrast DServ. at Ecl. 5.68 and 6.18, and at Aen. 12.342 (on this form of the Servian commentary, see Chap. 5, n. 2). Cf. also below at n. 66: Pomp. 136.18ff. vs. Serv. 428.26-31.


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Pompeius's independent forays are not all equally successful. When discussing how the doubling of medial consonantal -i - can lengthen the preceding syllable in a word such as Troi (i )a ,[45] Pompeius cites arma virum tabulasque et Troia gaza per undas (Aen . 1.119). He appears to have chosen the example himself; he also appears to be unaware that Troia in that verse cannot possibly be scanned to support his point.[46] Pompeius stumbles similarly elsewhere.[47] And in at least one place, we can watch as Pompeius's self-sufficiency rebounds to leave him noticeably discomfited.

When taking up the topic of barbarism (283.37ff.), Pompeius draws a traditional distinction, noting that what would be a barbarism in prose is regarded as a metaplasm in poetry.[48] But Pompeius goes on to add, sed plerumque contingit ut etiam in versibus deprehendamus barbarismos (283.37f.), explaining that if a barbarism in verse is not justified by the demands of meter, it is a barbarism no less than in prose and cannot be passed off as a metaplasm (284.3ff.).[49] Pompeius here is extending the doctrine of barbarism in the direction of greater strictness; he goes on to make the analogous claim when he comes to the section on solecism (289.2-6), insisting that a solecism remains such in verse and cannot be excused as a figura if it is not justified metri necessitate . The unusual stringency of Pompeius's teaching in both places is owed to no one else—certainly not to Servius[50] —and it causes Pompeius difficulty when he encounters the different doctrine of solecism that Servius transmitted from the elder Pliny:

Plinius sic dicit, "quando sit soloecismus, quando sit schema [= figura , "figure"], sola intellegentia discernit." noli te referre ad illud, quod

[45] Pomp. 105.37-106.3. Pompeius, like Servius (cf. 422.6, 423.28ff.), believed that the -o - was short by nature.

[46] The example does not occur in the corresponding passages of Servius and Explan. ; Servius gives a different, if equally false, explanation of the scansion of Aen . 1.119 in his commentary ad loc .

[47] E.g., Pomp. 158.16, an inept and apparently independent citation of Aen . 1.343: cf. Serv. 407.32, 431.25; Explan . 492.2f. Or Pomp. 210.16ff., where Pompeius adduces Ecl . 3.1, dic mihi, Damoeta, cuium pecus , to illustrate the supposed genitive forms cuia and cuium ; the example does not appear in Serv. or Explan ., and Servius's Vergilian commentary ad loc . gives the correct explanation.

[48] Cf. Don. 653.2-3H., Serv. 444.8-11.

[49] Cf. Pomp. 284.13ff., the examples Catilinna vs. Catilina .

[50] The statement concerning barbarism might be thought a case of Pompeius's making explicit what was implied by Servius; see Serv. 444.8-11, with 447.22f. = Pomp. 296.4f. But the extension to solecism, which corresponds to nothing in Servius and is inconsistent with, e.g., Serv. 447.22f., is certainly Pompeius's.


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diximus de metaplasmis. ham [et][51] in soloecismo hoc quaeritur, utrum sciens hoc fecerit an nesciens: si sciens fecerit, erit schema; si nesciens fecerit, erit soloecismus. (292.13-17 = Serv. 447.5-10 = Plin. frg. 125 della Casa)

Confronted with Pliny's claim, Pompeius begins to thrash about, adverting to his doctrine de metaplasmis but insisting it does not apply in soloecismo —seeming to ignore the fact that he had himself extended the same doctrine to solecisms a few pages earlier. The reason for Pompeius's uneasiness is clear. In order to extend that doctrine to solecism, Pompeius now realizes, he must be prepared—as he is not—explicitly to convict Vergil of solecism:

in hoc loco quid dicimus? "pars in frusta secant"[52] et "pars in frusta secat": et ita et ita stat versus, unde apparet quoniam adfectavit novitatem.[53] nefas est autem de isto tanto viro credere per inperitiam hoc fecisse, non per scientiam adfectasse novitatem. (292.20-23)

According to Pompeius's earlier lesson, Vergil's coupling of a singular subject with a plural verb should be judged a solecism in this line, since it plainly cannot be justified metri necessitate: et ita et ita stat versus . But Pompeius recoils—nefas est —and in excusing Vergil must swallow his own inconsistency. The disgruntled note on which he ends the discussion shows that he is conscious of doing so, and not entirely pleased:

hoc [= the restatement of Pliny's formulation, 292.23-27] quidem dixit [sc. Plinius]. tamen quivis potest facere soloecismum et dicere "figuram feci," si noluerit rationem reddere. nihil est hoc, licentia est prava. (292.27-29)

Pompeius's piety before Vergil may overcome the logic of his rule, but he is not willing to Met go of the rule gracefully.

These displays of independence, if they do not uniformly increase our regard for Pompeius as a scholar, should nonetheless soften the impression that he was a simple plagiarist. They scarcely touch at all, however, on what is distinctly Pompeius, the tone and style of the text. More than any other Latin grammatical work, the commentary allows us to hear a

[51] Although printed by Keil, et here cannot be correct.

[52] Aen . 1.212, from Servius; cf. Serv. 447.11, with 446.37f. = Pomp. 291.20; and Serv. 448.2f. On this stock example, see also Chap. 5 n. 77.

[53] Cf. Serv. 447.8: novitatis cupidi .


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living, idiosyncratic voice.[54] To that voice and its nuances we can now turn our attention.

The most conspicuous characteristic, perhaps already revealed in some of the excerpts above, is Pompeius's prolixity. Pompeius evidently believed that he had not made his point unless he had made it at least twice. He repeats himself launching a piece of instruction; he repeats himself referring to scholars; he repeats himself registering approval. So in his pleasure that the pronoun stands second in the order of the parts of speech—et hoc bene secundum est. bene secunda est ista particula (97.3-4)—he sounds uncannily like a distant ancestor of Polonius: "That's good. 'Mobbled queen' is good."[55] Above all, he repeats himself to make certain the abstract principle he is stating does not merely receive the necessary stress but is given specific application through an example: a typical passage will find him first stating the rule twice, once with direct reference to his audience and himself (tu hoc scire debes; conputamus ) and again with reference to the world at large (quisquis vult ), then repeating the rule twice more with a specific example, as he responds to an imagined request from his audience (quando dicis mihi . . .).[56]

Often the examples are vivid and seem to bubble up spontaneously, to reveal now a taste for the amenities (bene olebant in hospitio meo rosae ),[57] now a touch of the macabre: when he wants to clarify the meaning of totus , he says, "What's this that I've said? Pay attention. Take, for example, 'The whole man was eaten up by a bear': look now, what does it mean? The whole man all at once, so that nothing was left. 'The whole man was eaten up,' that is, his hands, feet, back, everything" (204.11-14). In like fashion Pompeius tosses off allusions to simple features of contemporary life as he flows along. He expects his audience to regard "Gaudentius" as a typical slave name or to recognize that birrus was a corrupt noun in the communis sermo .[58] When he comes to the treatment of proper names in the Ars , he passes along the traditional distinction between nomen and cognomen —then in the same breath acknowledges

[54] Cf. Holtz, "Tradition" 50, Donat 236f.

[55] Cf., e.g., Pomp. 182.30-32, 184.12-15, 227.23-25, 249.13-19; examples could be gathered from any page.

[56] See, e.g., Pomp. 112.6-15, his instructions for distinguishing the length of syllables; and contrast the parallel passage at Serv. 423.14-15.

[57] Pomp. 102.8, prompted by the single word rosa , which appears to have stood as the example in Servius: cf. Serv. 428.18f.; Explan . 520.30f.


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that the old system of nomenclature has passed out of use: "We can't nowadays say, 'What is your cognomen?' We'd get laughed at if we did" (140.35-141.3). Similarly, he breaks off a discussion of nouns that occur only in the plural to pursue a tangent—a quaestio concerning the morphology of Pascha —in a way that suggests the matter was of some personal interest:

idcirco etiam debemus hoc animadvertere, quod aliquis obiecit. quaerebatur "Pascha" cuius est numeri. dies festus est: omnia nomina dierum festorum numeri sunt tantum pluralis, "Vulcanalia," "Compitalia." dicebat ille qui obiciebat etiam hoc numeri esse tantum pluralis. sed sunt causae quae repugnant: primo, quod. . . . deinde. . . . unde constat non esse numeri pluralis. (177.3ff.)

This is the only indication in the work that Pompeius was a Christian (as we should anyway expect), and it is probably fair to infer that he himself had been nettled by ille qui obiciebat . The passage suggests a vignette from the life of Pompeius's African town, a group of local learned men in conversation, perhaps, falling into debate over a matter of grammatical detail: quaerebatur . . . A reminder of the time that Gellius and his mentors spent pondering the sense of nani in the vestibule of the imperial palace or that Libanius and his friend Eudaemon of Pelusium spent discussing the vocative of "Heracles" while awaiting the arrival of the governor at Antioch, the passage is also a token of the continuity that can be traced through changes of place and time.[59]

To match emphatic repetitions and vivid examples, there are turns of phrase to rivet his audience. Most common is Pompeius's beloved ecce , his constant gesture of satisfaction, whether in producing an illustration, launching into an explanation he likes, or rounding off a lesson.[60] Only slightly less constant, and equally flexible, is Pompeius's vide , now warning, now peremptory, now patently excited.[61] He conveys a similar excitement in the clipped quare . . . ? quare? quoniam . . .,[62] or in the questions (or statements, or commands) cast in the form numquid [or non , or ne ] . . . ? non. sed [or nam , or autem ] . . . —a question, when Pompeius is

[60] E.g., Pomp. 103.14, 123.20f., 128.37, 129.12f., 134.23f., 194.36f., and passim .

[61] E.g., Pomp. 104.16f.: quando "u" nihil est? tunc "u" nihil est—vide qua subtilitate nihil est!—si dicas "quoniam." Cf. Pomp. 127.25ff., 139.26f., 144.16f., 163.7, 184.17, 224.36, 227.23, and passim .

[62] E.g., Pomp. 116.33f.; cf. Pomp. 149.37ff.


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trying to make plain the sound of vocalic u;[63] a flat statement, when he is treating the quality of the letter a;[64] or an abrupt command, when he is discussing the prosody of cano in the first line of the Aeneid .[65] These and other features of Pompeius's language can best be savored in a characteristic passage such as the following, in which Pompeius discusses the questions that arise when a nomen (i.e., an adjective) is used as an adverb, or an adverb is used as a nomen (i.e., a noun);[66]

Don't let anyone tell you, "If we sometimes use an adverb as a noun, we are also obliged to decline the adverb itself." Impossible. For when a nomen is put in place of an adverb, it maintains its cases; but when an adverb passes into the place of a nomen , there's no way it can take on a case. Don't say to me, "hoc mane :[67] now, if hoc mane is a noun, you ought to decline huius manis, huic mani. " We don't find that sort of explanation [ratio ista ]; it can't follow that it's declined. "Nonetheless, we read that very declension, a primo mani , in Plautus.[68] Where did a mani come from, if there isn't the declension mane, manis, mani?" mane , from which a primo mani came, produced the declension. But we still shouldn't decline it. Why? You want to know why? Because an adverb absolutely cannot be declined. . . . When we say toroum clamat ,[69]toroum is now an adverb, and toroum stands for torve . I'm not allowed, am I, to say, for example, torvi clamat, torvo clamat, a torvo clamat ? I'm not, but I pick up that one case for the special use [ad usurpationem ]. If, therefore, I pick up that one case when I produce the adverb, and I can't pick up the other cases, so too when I use an adverb in place of a noun, I'm not allowed to decline it, but have to put the adverb itself in place of the noun. (136.18-35)

Logic is not the argument's strong point: "But we still shouldn't decline it. Why? You want to know why? Because an adverb absolutely cannot be declined." The passage does have a brute movement about it, though,

[63] E.g., Pomp. 103.34ff.; cf. Pomp. 143.22f., 230.1-3.

[64] E.g., Pomp. 106.16f.; cf. Pomp. 138.36ff., 139.16f.

[65] E.g., Pomp. 118.7f.; cf. Pomp. 138.2f., 191.31ff., 240.10ff., 252.30f.

[66] The discussion is directed implicitly against Servius's position; cf. Serv. 428.26-31. Pompeius probably has Servius in mind when he begins, nequi tibi dicat, "si aliquotiens fungimur adverbio pro nomine, debemus etiam declinare hoc ipsum adverbium" (Pomp. 136.18-20): cf. Serv. 428.26f., item adverbium si transeat in significationem nominis, non nunquam declinatur ; and cf. n. 68 below.

[67] Alluding to Georg . 3.325, dum mane novum , cited earlier at Pomp. 136.3f.

[68] Most. 767, usque a mani ad vesperum , the example on which Servius based his case; see Serv. 428.28-30.

[69] Aen . 7.399, cited earlier at Pomp. 135.38.


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as the repetitions, warnings, and emphatic questions hammer the point home.

In this passage, as in any number of others, it is also notable that Pompeius speaks as though to one other person, the second person singular, tu .[70] Here he imagines the reader offering an objection or counterexample—ne dicas mihi, "hoc mane "—or exposed to some third-party influence: nequi tibi dicat, 'si aliquotiens. . . ." Similar turns of thought appear frequently in the small dialogues with which Pompeius spices the commentary. Compare, for instance, Pompeius's ruminations on the letter u ,

puta si dicas mihi, "'unus,' 'u' qualis est?" dico tibi, "nescio utrum brevis sit an producta, nisi . . ." (106.31ff.),

or on barbarisms,

et dico tibi, "in versu barbarismus est." tu dicis mihi, "quo modo mihi dixisti . . .? quo modo?" (284.38ff.).

Such dialogues, to which we shall return below, reinforce the impression Pompeius's discourse creates with its freely flowing repetitions, its spontaneous tangents, or its abrupt questions and commands. Pompeius is a man talking, not writing, and talking with his audience either face-to-face or vividly fixed in his imagination. The impression has been noted before,[71] although doubtless these features of Pompeius's style could equally occur in a work composed at the writing desk. It is, however, possible to go beyond the mere impression that Pompeius was speaking, with his words taken down by a notary; for Pompeius has left unequivocal indications that that is just what he was doing.

The best evidence occurs where Pompeius takes up the notion of vox and the distinction between vox articulata and vox confusa :

vox dicitur quicquid sonuerit, sive strepitus sit ruinae sive fluvii currentis, sive vox nostra, sive mugitus boum: omnis sonus vox dicitur.

[70] Against the several hundred times that the second person singular occurs, the second person plural is found in just over two dozen places, mostly in references either to auctores (e.g., Pomp. 167.10, legite in Petronio et invenietis , a citation certainly taken over from Servius [cf. Serv. 432.24f.]; Pomp. 186.2, habetis in ipso Cicerone ; sim. Pomp. 153.12, 242.5, 293.27f., 305.7f., 306.17ff.) or to the technical literature (e.g., Pomp. 114.1, habetis hanc rationem in Iuba ; Pomp. 138.20, legite artem Probi et invenietis ; sim. Pomp. 109.34, 137.33, 139.34f., 246.34f., 269.10, 280.12f., 295.34ff., 297.34f.), only once in one of Pompeius's warnings to the reader (253.23f.), never in one of the characteristic dialogues.

[71] Cf. Holtz, "Tradition" 50, Donat 236f.


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verum hae duae sunt partes, articulata et confusa. articulata est vox quae potest scribi: ut ecce hoc ipsum quod dixi potest scribi. (99.9-12)

As the characteristically extended list of examples shows, Pompeius is thinking of vox as real sound, the physical phenomenon; and when he exemplifies vox articulata by saying, ut ecce hoc ipsum quod dixi , he must be referring self-consciously to his own speech, the sonus he is making—which, as he is also aware, is being written down as he speaks: potest scribi .[72] The statement scarcely makes sense otherwise, and some other passages are most naturally interpreted in the same way.

Listen, for example, to the following, where Pompeius expands on Donatus's mention (612.7-8H.) of the periodos :

et non dixit quem ad modum fiant, aut quare quaerantur periodi, aut qui sint periodi—vel quae periodi (nam feminino genere dicimus hoc nomen). (281.22-24)

Here Pompeius realizes he has made a slip in the gender of periodos , and we can suppose it was more likely a lapsus linguae than a lapsus still : although the error obviously occurred to him immediately, he did not simply remove it with a stroke, but flowed right along, adding the correct phrase in midstream.[73] Another, perhaps still better sign of oral composition comes in Pompeius`s treatment of iotacism:[74]

iotacismi sunt qui fiunt per "i" litteram, siqui ita dicat "Titius" pro eo quod est "Titius" [i.e., "Titsius"], "Aventius" pro eo quod est "Aventius" [i.e., "Aventsius"], "Amantius" pro eo quod est "Amantius" [i.e., "Amantsius"]. . . . non debemus dicere ita, quem ad modum scribitur "Titius," sed "Titius" [i.e., "Titsius"]: media illa syllaba mutatur in sibilum. ergo si volueris dicere "ti" vel "di," noli, quem ad modum scribitur, sic proferre, sed sibilo profer. (286.7-9, 14-16)[75]

[72] With ut ecce hoc ipsum quod dixi potest scribi contrast the parallel passage at Explan . 519.15-18: articulata est quae scribi potest, quae subest articulis [= Pomp. 99.12ff.], id est digitis, qui scribunt, vel quod artem habeat aut exprimat. . . . ergo si dicas "orator," articulata vox est.

[73] Compare Pomp. 252.14-18, 297.19-27: in both places Pompeius begins to illustrate a lesson with an example, then realizes that the example was not well chosen and abruptly shifts to another, leaving the inept example in his wake. Cf. also the shift from quo vadis? to quo festinas? in the example used at Pomp. 235.16ff., quoted at p. 158 below.

[74] Pompeius here reverses the correct doctrine concerning iotacism (contrast Serv. 445.8-10), but the confusion does not affect the point under discussion.

[75] See also Pomp. 286.20-24, on dies vs. meridies ; Pomp. 286.24-28, on castius . For Titius , see also Pomp. 104.6f.


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The passage makes sense only if Pompeius distinguished the forms as he spoke: evidently Pompeius did say "Titsius," but his amanuensis simply rendered the word in its usual written form, quem ad modum scribitur .[76] It is appropriate, therefore, to note that elsewhere one of Pompeius's illustrations for the nomen proprium presumes he would as a matter of course have had a notary.[77]

We can pause here to piece together the picture of Pompeius that has emerged so far. We should first of all imagine Pompeius sitting with his version of Servius open before him, a version probably supplied with lemmata from Donatus's text. He sometimes reads directly from his Servius, but more commonly he paraphrases or elaborates upon it; at times he ignores the distinction between what his source has said and what he is saying himself, and at times he confuses Donatus with Servius. As he goes along, he might supplement or alter the commentary in front of him, relying on a few written sources at hand, or on his memory, or on his own mother wit, striking out on tangents or repeating and emphasizing his point ad libitum in his own distinctive voice, while his notary takes it all down. The picture is consistent and almost complete: one question remains, concerning his audience. Who, after all, are "you"?

We can begin to sketch an answer by recalling Louis Holtz's sympathetic observation that more than any other Latin grammatical work, Pompeius brings us directly into the grammarian's classroom.[78] The remark is just, in the sense that we hear in Pompeius's text a teacher's voice, speaking with some immediacy. But I would like to suggest that the text does not bring us directly into the classroom—the second person singular by itself tells against this—and to refine Holtz's observation by drawing attention to a set of passages in which Pompeius reveals the audience he has in mind.

Consider, for example, the implications of the following vignettes Pompeius uses to illustrate the proper application of the future tense:

festinanter vadis nescio quo per plateam, occurrit tibi amicus et dicit tibi, "quo vadis?"—ut advertas, quam gravia sic fiunt vitia—dicit tibi, "quo festinas?," dicis, "ad auditorium festino." "quare?" melius, si

[76] Keil resisted the urge to print Titsius , etc. (see his app. crit., ad loc .), against Lindemann and against Wilmanns, "Katalog" 402.

[77] Pomp. 141.28f.: puta notarium meum volo vocare "Africanum."

[78] Holtz, "Tradition" 50, "ce text n'a pas son équivalent pour nous faire réellement pénétrer dans l'école du grammaticus "; and more specifically Donat 236, "le seul texte de l'Antiquité romaine qui nous faire entendre les paroles mêmes du maître en présence de ses élèves"; with n. 37, suggesting "un cours publié d'après les notes sténographiques." Cf. also Keil, GL 5.89, 90; Helm, RE 21.2313.31ff. We should not, however, forget the fragment of the Ars grammatica accepta ex auditorio Donatiani (GL 6.275.11, with Part II no. 51); and cf. Chap. 5, on Servius.


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participialiter utaris et dicas, "quoniam dicturus sum." ecce per par-ticipium sane locutus es: dixisti enim te necdum fecisse, sed facturum esse. si autem sic dicas—"quo festinas?" "ad auditorium." "quare?" "hodie dico."—soloecismum fecisti. "dico" enim non est nisi eius qui agit, qui iam tacit hoc ipsum. ergo siqui dicit, "hodie dico," qui adhuc vadit ad dicendum, iam videtur soloecismum facere. (235.16-24)

ergo siquis tibi hoc iterum dicat, "exponis mihi hodie lectionem?," si dicam, "expono," soloecismus est. non enim exponis, non adhuc facis, sed facturus es. (236.19-21)

In the first passage the reader is imagined to be hurrying across the town square on his way to speak in the schoolroom (auditorium ). In the second, related passage, he is asked if he plans to lecture on a text (exponere lectionem ).[79] In other words, the reader seems to be thought of as a teacher, setting out on his day, fielding questions from fellow townsmen interested in his plans. The scene might remind one of the grammarian in Juvenal, stopped on his way to the baths to answer less innocuous questions (7.232ff.), and such scenes were doubtless a part of Pompeius's own experience.

That the tu of the commentary is thought of as a teacher much like Pompeius himself is confirmed in other passages. After setting out the rules of antepenultimate accent, Pompeius advises the reader not to concern himself with unnecessary details when he is discussing the matter: ergo noli te in diversas ambages mittere, sed tracta quando debeat accentum habere (129.32f.). The significant word is the verb tracta , virtually a technical term of the grammarian's professional activity, applied by Pompeius throughout the work both to himself (e.g., tractaturus sum , 98.25) and to Donatus (e.g., tractaturus est , 98.21-22).[80]

When explaining how poor punctuation can undermine the rules of accentuation, Pompeius warns the reader of the risk of misleading a student through his own error: si male distinguas, potest errare puer (130.31ff.). The reference to the student (puer ) in the third person shows that the text does not derive from Pompeius's schoolroom; rather, the reader himself appears to be thought of as a teacher, who must guard against setting a bad example for the student.[81] A passage on punctuation

[79] On Pomp. 236.20, dicam , see below at n. 84. For lectio meaning "text" in a similar context, see Pomp. 141.34ff.; and cf. n. 82 below.

[80] With reference to Pompeius, see also Pomp. 128.16f., 132.5f., 135.36, 256.18, 289.14; with reference to Donatus, Pomp. 96.10ff., 133.4, 155.1, 156.11, 159.23, 162.3, 164.28, 165.15f., 231.32, 238.38, 244.21, 281.27 (bis ), 289.15, 292.30f. (bis ), 305.2, 305.34; similarly Pomp. 180.31, of Probus.

[81] For pueri , beyond the passages quoted below, see also Pomp. 293.19f.; and cf. the version of the preface published by Holtz, "Tradition" 59f.


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proper that follows shortly—quod si vis codicem distinguere, ita distingue (132.1)—makes my point plainer still. Once more the reader is warned against leading the student into error: ne erret puer et male pronuntiet . . . . ne erret puer et dicat . . . (132.7ff.). And from the context it is clear Pompeius is thinking of the grammarian's task of praelectio and of the punctuation of his codex for that purpose.[82]

In discussing the correct definition of the noun, Pompeius stresses the importance of making the definition clear to the student: ut possit puer intellegere (137.18). Here again Pompeius is thinking of the reader as a teacher, and note that he immediately thinks of Donatus in the same terms: idcirco laborat [sc. Donatus ] ut definitionem nominis propriam reddat (137.20). A few pages farther on, Pompeius offers another bit of coaching, this time in the classroom practice of question and answer (142.35-143.8). Pompeius provides two examples of how a teacher ought to handle the questions put to and by a student. In the first example (142.36ff.) Pompeius plays the teacher as interrogator , and the purr replies—the format, to take only the most obvious example, of Donatus's Ars minor . In the second example, ceterum, si te interroget [sc. puer ] (143.4f.), the reader takes Pompeius's place and responds to the student's question—ineptly, as it happens, so that Pompeius can reinforce his advice by pointing out the correct procedure.[83]

There are other, comparable passages, to which we will come shortly; but these examples should suffice to show how Pompeius thinks of his audience. Pompeius is talking to another grammaticus —or, more strictly, he is talking to an imagined audience presumed to share the point of view and concerns of Pompeius himself as grammaticus .[84] Notionally, then,

[82] On punctuation for reading by the grammarian, see Bonner, Education 220-22, esp. 221, citing Pomp. 133.4ff. Bonner assumes, no doubt rightly for most circumstances, that only the teacher would have a text: in the Hermeneumata Pseudodositheana, colloquia Monacensia (CGL 3.122.26-29 = 3.646), clamatus ad lectionem audio expositiones, sensus, personas seems to imply that the student listened while the teacher lectured from his own text; the version of the Hermeneumata published by Dionisotti, "From Ausonius' Schooldays?" 100 (line 37, eunt 'priores ad magistrum, legunt lectionem de Iliade, aliam de Odysseia ; and cf. line 39, tunc revertitur quisque, in suo loco considunt. quisque legit lectionem sibi subtraditam ), seems to show students reading from a text prepared by the teacher. Cf. also Lib. Or . 1.9: Libanius stands by his teacher's chair while reading Acharnians .

[83] For questions put to teachers by their students, see the general comment of Eutyches, GL 5.447.1ff. (quoted at Part II no. 57); and the questions put by Filocalus and Rusticus at Explan . 498.23ff., with Part II no. 217.

[84] Tu does not denote a specific listener but is used in the generalizing sense of "one," "someone in our position": note esp. the shift from second to first person and back again in Pomp. 236.19-21 at p. 159 above (siquis tibi . . . dicat, "exponis mihi hodie lectionem?," si dicam, "expono," soloecismus est. non enim exponis ) and the interchangeability of probas and probamus in the formulas unde hoc probas? (Pomp. 114.13, 151.37f., 200.20, 225.23) and unde hoc probamus? (Pomp. 159.5, 180.12ff., 185.31f., 196.13); cf. Pomp. 191.38, unde hoc probem?


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the commentary is a manual for colleagues. In this respect Pompeius's work is comparable to Donatus's variorum commentary on Vergil, expressly composed as an aid "for the grammaticus still wet behind the ears."[85] Pompeius no doubt assumed his audience would use his commentary as he used Servius's, as part of the inherited Gemeingut of the profession, taking it over as his own. At the same time, and because it is intended as a manual for colleagues, the commentary offers the closest approximation that we have to a grammarian's extended musings on his profession—often oblique, offhand, and rambling, to be sure, but for that reason more unself-conscious, more revealing, than the poise of formal reflection. Whatever its other shortcomings, Pompeius's text is exceptionally vivid evidence for the grammarian's mind-set.

To appreciate this cast of mind we might look first at a passage similar to those just noted. While reviewing the category of nouns defective in two or more cases, Pompeius says, vide autem, quid dicit ipse Donatus: ait "sed haec, quae dico deficere, secundum usum dico, ceterum scio me legisse haec ipsa quae deficiunt " (186.34ff.). The statement attributed to Donatus is in fact an extended paraphrase of sunt nomina quorum nominativus in usu non est (625.10H.). Leaving aside the question how far Pompeius has stretched Donatus's intended meaning here, we can identify the motive behind the paraphrase easily enough. For Pompeius soon points out that the nominative forms of certain words (later, Iovis ), although not in common use, can indeed be found in literary texts (in auctoritate ); and he concludes, ideo dixi, ne putes istum [viz., Donatum ] inperitum esse aut te omnia debere dicere. ita enim locutus est, "sunt aliqua quorum nominativus in usu non est " [i.e., 625.10H.; see above]; non dixit "quorum nominativus non est quidem," sed "in usu non est." ergo vides quia docuit lecta esse, sed non debere poni (187.13-16). Thus the passage has two purposes beyond the stringent lesson of the last sentence, which Pompeius has inferred from or imposed on Donatus's text. First, Pompeius is intent on defending Donatus—ne pules istum inperitum esse —by claiming that Donatus of course knew the rare forms and signaled his knowledge in the phrase in usu non est . Second, Pompeius takes the opportunity to offer an object lesson to his reader, evidently imagined as a teacher in the same position and subject to the same criticisms as Donatus, by assuring the reader that he is not obliged to tell everything he knows: ne pules . . . te omnia debere dicere . A well-chosen formula—like Donatus's in usu non est —can make a point clearly, economically, and blamelessly, without a parade of learning that might in the end obscure the teaching.

[85] Don. Epist. praef . 17 Hardie: grammatico . . . rudi ac nuper exorto .


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The passage is reminiscent of Pompeius's comments, remarked above, on the proper definition of the noun; there his injunction to the reader is linked with praise for Donatus's effort:

quid si ita definias nomen, ut possit puer intellegere quid sit nomen, ut dicas, "nomen est pars orationis cum casu"? idcirco laborat [sc. Donatus] ut definitionem nominis propriam reddat. (137.18-20)

The two passages are symptomatic of the work's sustained demand for clarity, precision, and logic. (Here, as elsewhere, the disparity between Pompeius's values and his own achievement is not without poignancy.) So, when Donatus is praised, typically the economy and exactness of his organization or his definitions are singled out: in presenting the accidents of the verb, Donatus tenuit conpendium optimum (240.3f.); when touching on the period—which strictly "pertains to rhetoricians, not to grammarians"—Donatus noluit dilatare, ut doceret aperte (281.27f.); Donatus's definition of the pronoun's qualitas is preferred to competing views as vera . . . et brevis et utilis , earning Donatus a "well done."[86] Pompeius dispenses similar praise when he thinks he has spotted similar virtues in the doctrine he has inherited from other grammarians, who made their points "carefully" or "plainly" or "vigorously."[87]

Conversely, when Donatus is criticized, the fault is usually superfluity or confusion in presentation, or imprecision in a definition, or the failure to teach aperte .[88] Pompeius occasionally softens such criticisms by magisterially assuring the reader that Donatus really did know what he was talking about, even if he expressed himself badly.[89] But he is unforgiving when he finds faults of logic, in explanations or positions that lay themselves open to a reductio ad absurdum or are internally inconsistent. His distaste is apparent when he rejects as stupid the belief of many that de intus venio is a proper expression and observes that for consistency

[86] Pomp. 200.31: bene hoc fecit Donatus . See also Pomp. 96.15-17 (with Pomp. 98.6f. and the version of Pompeius's preface published by Holtz, "Tradition" 59f.), 281.9, 289.29, 292.9-11, 307.28f.

[87] Pomp. 111.13 and 118.15f. (Terentianus), 139.34 (Apollonius), 154.13f. (Caper), 227.23f. and 283.13f. (Pliny).

[88] Superfluity or confusion: Pomp. 140.20, with Don. 614.8-9H. (contrast Pomp. 237.10f., with Don. 638.5-8H.); Pomp. 231.15f., on Don. 636.6-7H. Imprecision: Pomp. 138.12ff., concerning Probus as well. Failure to teach fully and plainly: Pomp. 305.33f., introducing a supplement to Don. 668.7H.; cf. also the omissions criticized at Pomp. 105.19ff., 149.24ff., 151.5ff., 192.12ff., 302.2ff. (with Schindel, Figurenlehren 35, 101-2).

[89] See Pomp. 279.14ff., a correction already made—but tacitly, it appears, and without the attempted extenuation—in Servius (cf. Serv. 420.8-9, 443.4-5); Pomp. 220.13ff. (a similar correction: cf. Serv. 413.10-13, Explan . 506.14-18).


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such people would have to embrace the equally awful ad intro .[90] So too, it was "extremely stupid" of Probus to include accent among the accidents of the noun, for he might as well have gone on to include letter and syllable and all the other attributes the noun shares with the remaining parts of speech.[91]

A demand for ratio —both "reason" and the "clear and systematic account" it provides—pervades the commentary. What does not "make sense" (habet rationem ) is simply stultum and is easily dismissed.[92] But what reason demands is codified in the ars and its regulae , to produce the rigor artis and the rigor regularum .[93] It is consistent with this rigor that when faced with the two traditional etymologies of ars , from the Greek inline image and from the Latin artus , Pompeius should prefer the latter, because of the power of the ars to embrace the language with its "tight" or "firm precepts" (artis praeceptis ).[94] Surrounded by these, Pompeius is conscious of the special sphere of expertise the ars defines for him and other grammatici , centering above all on the partes orationis , which distinguish the grammarian's territory alike froth that of the teacher of letters and from that of the rhetorician.[95] The ars fortifies Pompeius and fills him with exuberant confidence: so, for example, he can differentiate between the definitions of the noun according to the grammatici and according to the philosophi , dismissing the latter as ridiculum .[96]

That verdict is characteristic of Pompeius's magisterial tone, as he complacently delights in the support his profession's traditional doctrine lends and in the certain belief that he can separate the precious metal in

[90] Pomp. 248.16ff., with 248.38ff.

[91] Pomp. 138.22ff., with reference to Prob. GL 4.51.22, 74.32ff. (But from Pomp. 139.16ff., Probus . . . dixit "nomini accidunt qualitas, genus, numerus, figura, casus," et non dat conparationem nomini , it is clear that Pompeius never set eyes on Probus's text and is probably basing his comments on the report that he found in the full commentary of Servius; this seems preferable to the suggestion of Jeep, Zur Geschichte der Lehre 51, that Probus in the last sentence is a corruption.) For similar criticisms, see Pomp. 169.19ff. (cf. Explan . 495.11, with Jeep, pp. 48f.), 173.26ff. (cf. Jeep, p. 47), 240.34ff. For seeming inconsistencies in Donatus explained away, see Pomp. 170.2ff., 217.10ff.; and cf. below, pp. 164f., on Pomp. 230.19ff.

[92] Stultum est vs. habet rationem , in the vice of perissologia , Pomp. 294.11ff.; for the virtue of rationabiliter dicere (= regulariter dicere , to speak according to the rules laid down by ratio ), see Pomp. 276.16, 290.31, 310.21f.

[93] Ratio exigit : Pomp. 185.23, 195.14. Rigor artis (vs. auctores confuderunt ): Pomp. 268.8. Rigor regularum : Pomp. 196.9.

[94] Pomp. 95.5-96.2, agreeing with the preference of Serv. 405.2.

[95] Pomp. 96.2-18. For the sphere of the grammarian distinguished from that of the rhetorician, see also Pomp. 281.25f., 282.34f., 299.20ff. = 300.1ff.

[96] Pomp. 137.26f., with 137.36. To judge from Explan . 489.22ff., the distinction was already included in Servius's commentary, without the ridicule.


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one vein of the tradition from the fool's gold in another. Criticism he metes out with a curt stultum or, if the victim is lucky, a simple falsum , and he adjudicates firmly and surely between competing views.[97] When the received doctrine works, his pleasure is audible: vide quam bonam brevitatem invenerunt Latini , he exclaims three times in reviewing word accent (127.25, 128.1, 128.6), and then concludes, vides quanta brevitate utantur Latini. Graeci vero chaos fecerunt, totum confuderunt, ut quamvis mille legas tractatus non te convenias (130.1f.). And he is plainly satisfied when the maiores —the ancients, the classical authors—can be thought to have followed ratio .[98] He is satisfied, that is, when the maiores seem to behave as he and his colleagues behave. But when their auctoritas goes against the regulae firmissimae he has inherited, his satisfaction gives way to a strong warning against literary blandishments.[99] The shift is only to be expected, since the past practitioners who built up the tradition of firm rules piece by piece have an auctoritas of their own,[100] a match for the auctoritas of antiquity. In the coordination of verbal person and nominal case, Donatus laid down the law and resolved the confusiones antiquitatis :[101] just so, Pompeius later with a flourish produces a regula to resolve a "great difficulty."[102]

Here as elsewhere we see Pompeius taking his place in the authoritative tradition and identifying with it. He is ready, not surprisingly, to make its strengths his own: when he declares, "I have three rules" to deal with the genitive plural of the third declension, he seems oblivious of the fact that the rules are not his, but Donatus's.[103] Yet before we conclude that he is simply pilfering from Donatus, we should remember that he identifies as readily with the vulnerability of the inherited doctrine as with its strength. When he touches on the verbs pudet and taedet (230.19ff.), he notes an apparent contradiction with what he has said

[97] Stultum : Pomp. 108.19 (Varro), 110.12 (Iuba), 125.9ff. (non nulli metrici ), 138.32 and 178.15ff. (Probus), 186.12ff. and 248.17ff. (multi ), 180.32ff. (Donatus; subsequently mitigated). Falsum : Pomp. 174.21ff. and 222.30ff. (non nulli ), 193.31ff. (the elder Pliny), 228.18ff. (in artibus istis vulgaribus ). Adjudication: e.g., Pomp. 108.29ff. (multi and levis ratio vs. multi and valentissima [ratio ]), 144.14ff. (Caesar vs. the elder Pliny), 151.18ff. (multi vs. multi ), 164.33ff. (Probus vs. alii and auctoritas ), 209.2ff. (plerique vs. Astyagius).

[98] Pomp. 193.10ff.; cf. Pomp. 197.4ff., 199.21ff.

[99] Pomp. 253.23ff.; cf. Pomp. 232.2-8 and 12-14, 255.31ff., 263.11ff., 269.22ff.

[100] See Pomp. 156.32, secundum auctoritatem Donati ; Pomp. 159.24, auctoritatem ipsius [viz., Varronis ]; Pomp. 169.19, eius [viz., Probi ] auctoritatem ; cf. Pomp. 144.31, melius est ut sequaris praeceptum tanti viri, Plinii Secundi .

[101] Pomp. 237.11-22; cf. Pomp. 110.18.

[102] Pomp. 242.15ff., on the derivation of adverbs from proper nouns. On regulae, auctoritas, maiores , and their interrelation, see Chap. 5 pp. 182ff.

[103] Pomp. 191.16ff. = Don. 626.19-627.4H.


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previously, then affirms he has not made an error after all: et illo loco bene . . . dixi et hoc loco bene . . . dixi . The noteworthy point is that the inconsistency is in fact due to Donatus; but instead of attributing the contradiction to Donatus and treating it in those terms,[104] Pompeius regards the lapse as his own and defends himself.

Pompeius's need for self-defense is virtually a reflex, inseparable from his magisterial tone. His confidence in passing the verdict stultum is constantly shadowed by his anxiety in contemplating an attack on his own expertise; his avoidance of calumnia and his search for excusationes , to show he is not guilty of inperitia , are leitmotifs of the commentary.[105] So, for example, in the dialogues with the reader there recur anticipated objections or the dreaded counterexamples that can upset one's ratio :[106]

scire debes. . . . ne dicas mihi, "sed. . . ."(138.1f.)

non potest inveniri. . . . ne dicas mihi. . . . (240.10f.)

sed tamen illud meminisse debes. . . . ne dicas mihi ergo, "quoniam. . . ."(269.22ff.)

Above all, Pompeius is intent on preparing the reader, the alter ego of his tu , for situations in which he can expect to be put on his mettle. "If anyone asks you" is a constant refrain,[107] together with the negative counterpart, "Take care lest anyone put a question to you in this matter."[108] You must anticipate the question, How do you prove this?[109] and can expect to be challenged especially on doubtful or ambiguous points.[110] As a result, you must also be on guard against being deceived, sometimes by the language itself,[111] but also by the tricks and cross-grained ingenuity of your fellow men:

[104] As at Pomp. 217.10ff. (referring to Don. 633.2-4H., 639.10-12H.; cf. Serv. 437.8-10), explaining that the contradiction was only superficial; cf. n. 91 above.

[105] Calumnia : Pomp. 153.25ff., 158.34ff., 205.7ff., 283.1ff. Excusatio : Pomp. 155.1ff., 159.27ff., 229.4f.

[106] E.g., Pomp. 138.28., 177.31f., 180.13ff., 191.31ff., 202.1ff., 260.25ff., 263.11ff., 284.38ff., with Pomp. 136.18-35, translated at p. 155 above. For Pompeius's use of counterexamples, see, e.g., 115.15-21, 164.33ff.

[107] E.g., Pomp. 160.19ff., 166.6-7, 175.22ff., 230.11ff., 262.40f.

[108] E.g., Pomp. 138.15f., 227.36f.; cf. Pomp. 142.23ff., 228.36ff.

[109] Unde hoc probas : see n. 84.

[110] Pomp. 256.20ff.: plerumque proponitur nobis et dicitur, "'amans' quae pars est orationis?," el videmus quod et nomen est et participium. videamus ergo discretionem ipsam .

[111] See Pomp. 141.25, sed non te decipiat ista res nec fallat , with, e.g., Pomp. 153.15f., 163.7, 175.11, 179.15f., 270.15f. For Donatus so deceived, see Pomp. 243.19ff., 270.27ff.


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quare hoc dico? solent aliqui homines plerumque esse callidi, et inter-rogat te aliquis et dicit tibi, "'Lucius' quale nomen est?" "proprium." "quae pars est proprii nominis?" dicis illi, "praenomen." dicit tibi, "falsum est: nam ecce servus meus ita appellatur et non habet praenomen."[112] (142.8-12)

This anxious hedging against a world of continuous challenges produces an interesting symptom in Pompeius's comments, a tendency toward plainly subjective interpretations through which he projects his own concerns and defenses onto Donatus. When, for example, Donatus takes up the subject of nouns that waver between the feminine and neuter genders—sunt incerti generis infer femininum et neutrum, ut "buxus," "pirus," "prunus," "malus," sed neutro fructum, feminino ipsas arbores saepe dicimus (621.1-2H.)—Pompeius's comment focuses on the phrase saepe dicimus , which Donatus used to qualify his distinction between the neuter (the fruit) and the feminine (the trees): et interposuit "saepe dicimus." scit enim esse arborem et masculini generis quae sit et neutri, ut 'siler" neutri est, "oleaster" masculini est (163.31-33). In other words, Pompeius takes saepe to be Donatus's means of protecting himself against counterexamples, which Donatus is also presumed to know: scit enim . There is, of course, no explicit sign of this in Donatus's text.[113]

The concern with counterexamples here is Pompeius's own, imposed on Donatus's words. Although it is surely possible that Donatus had some such point in mind in this case, the chance is slim he did in every other. Reviewing the use of the various cases with various verbs, Donatus says, alia [sc. verba ] accusativi [sc. casus formulam servant ], ut "accuso," "invoco" (638.14H.). Pompeius comments:

"accuso" accusativum regit tantum modo, "accuso illum": non possumus dicere "accuso illius." hoc satis latinum est; nemo potest dicere "accuso illius." quis hoc nesciat? sed timuit vim Graecam. Graeci enim "accuso illius" dicunt, inline image. ergo ut faceret differentiam propter Graecam elocutionem, ideo huius rei reddit rationem. ubi enim dubitatum est, utrum hoc sic possit dici? semper "accuso illum" dicimus. sed propter expressionem verbi Graeci ideo hoc fecit. (238.19-26)

[112] For the principle, viz., that a slave does not possess a praenomen , see Pomp. 141.24ff. For trick questions, see also the exchange just preceding, Pomp. 141.34ff., and, e.g., Pomp. 231.34f.

[113] Compare Pomp. 186.34ff., the interpretation of in usu non est (Don. 625.10H.), discussed on p. 161 above. With scit enim , cf. Pomp. 162.2ff., sciens . . . tractat in the interpretation of Don. 620.1-5H.


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Pompeius is evidently surprised that Donatus has bothered to say what every schoolboy knows, and he hits upon an explanation: sed timuit vim Graecam . . . . ut faceret differentiam propter Graecam elocutionem . Once again, Donatus's text gives no hint he was motivated as Pompeius suggests; and in this case there is no probability at all that he had the Greek usage in mind, much less that he feared it. In his survey Donatus naturally chose accuso as an example of a verb taking the accusative case; the accusative derived its name from it.[114] Pompeius has simply (if unconsciously) used Donatus's text as a peg to hang his lesson on, concerning a topic—the possibly misleading example of Greek usage—that obviously worried him elsewhere.[115]

In this instance Pompeius projected his concerns onto Donatus where a specific point of doctrine was involved; but we can find him behaving much the same way in a passage that reveals the grammarian's anxious turn of mind more generally. When Donatus comes to the category of nouns occurring in the singular or plural only, he follows his usual practice of noting the various subcategories and offering a few examples for each: sunt semper singularia generis masculini, ut "pulvis," "sanguis," semper pluralia, ut "Manes," "Quirites," "cancelli," semper singularia generis feminini, ut "pax," "lux," and so on (623.1-9H.). At this point Pompeius tells his reader, vide quia, quodcumque tibi dat exemplum, dat secundum artem, ne recurras ad auctoritatem et rumpas hoc ipsum quod proponit. multa enim contraria sunt (176.6-8). Pompeius is not accusing Donatus of chicanery, as the statement might at first sight suggest, of suppressing information in the interest of preserving an invalid lesson.[116] Rather, Pompeius is again using Donatus as a model of effective teaching, to underscore the principle that one does not need to say everything:[117] Donatus presents his examples secundum artem , according to the handbook—that is, as straightforward rules, according to what one is supposed to say. He does not clutter his lesson with the exceptions in the literary texts (auctoritates ), so that one will not be tempted to point to those exceptions and fractiously challenge the generally valid rule by saying, ecce . . .

But as so often, the specter of counterexample preys on Pompeius's mind, and he soon returns to the matter as it concerns Donatus: ait sic

[114] As Pompeius himself later notes at 171.10f.: accusativus, quod per ipsum accusemus, "accuso illum."

[115] Cf. Pomp. 259.23f., Graeci habent [sc. praesens participium in passivo et praeteritum in activo ] et idcirco praemonui, ne quasi trahant te elocutiones Graecae el velis miller ponere , and Pomp. 260.31ff., ne dicas ergo, "licet mihi." Pompeius shows a similar concern at 232.16-17.

[116] As the larger context shows (e.g., Pomp. 176.11ff.), Pompeius approves of Donatus's lesson.

[117] See Pomp. 186.34ff., with p. 161 above.


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etiam ipse timens (quoniam scit lecta esse multa contra regulas suas), "sed scire debes multa per usurpationem esse conexa." nam ecce "pulvis" dicimus secundum artem, d tamen invenimus 'pulveres," "bigae" debemus dicere, invenimus "biga " (177.21-24). As in the passage above, what Donatus is alleged to know, and especially what he says fearfully, owe far more to Pompeius's concerns than to his own text. Indeed, Pompeius's subjectivity is particularly evident here, since it has led him to tear from its context the qualification he attributes to Donatus in the paraphrase sed scire debes . . . and apply it misleadingly to the whole category of nouns under discussion.[118] Safeguarding one's rules and expertise exacts a price, as Pompeius's agitation eloquently testifies: ait . . . timens. With so many worries crowding about, it was not altogether easy being a grammarian.

If Pompeius's free-flowing talk tells us anything, it tells us of values and aspirations, and their cost: the importance placed on the rational mastery of language that is condensed in the grammatical tradition, the desire to set one's own stamp on the tradition even as one merges with it, and the edgy self-concern that those values and desires evoke. It would be possible to elaborate the portrait of Pompeius and trace the qualities we have already seen, as he treats the topic at the heart of the grammarian's authority, the definition of linguistic correctness. There is, however, another text that can teach us more about the criteria of correctness and their dynamics. We will turn, then, to Servius and his commentary on Vergil.

[118] Donatus's qualification concerns only singularia generis neutri ; cf. Don. 623.4-6H.


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Chapter 5
Servius

We have already encountered Servius as the author of the commentary on Donatus's Ars that was Pompeius's main source. That is not, however, the work for which he is best known today. Born probably in the late 360s or early 370s, Servius was a teacher at Rome by the 390s. His only writing datable with any security—a brief treatise De centum metris —was probably composed between 400 and 410; its dedication to a clarissimus Albinus (a pupil at the time, as the context shows; probably Caecina Decius Aginatius Albinus, PVR 414) reveals that Servius had by then become connected with one of the most distinguished families of the old capital. His other surviving works include two other concise pamphlets (De finalibus, De metris Horatii ) and the abbreviated version of his commentary on Donatus. The great work that has come down to us is the commentary on Vergil.[1]

Here too Servius was following in the tracks of Donatus, using his variorum commentary as a major source. Beyond the dedicatory epistle, a vita of Vergil, and the introduction to the Bucolics , Donatus's commentary has not survived. We do, however, have significant extracts thanks to a reader of Vergil—perhaps of the seventh century, perhaps Irish—who incorporated other material into his copy of Servius, including notes from Donatus's commentary.[2] In the dedication of his work Donatus had said that his compilation was meant to serve as a resource for

[1] See Part II no. 136; for possible evidence of the relative chronology of the commentaries on Vergil and Donatus, see the appendix to Part II no. 125.

[2] The product of the compiler is conventionally termed Servius Auctus or Servius Danielis (after its discoverer, P. Daniel), to be distinguished from the vulgate commentary, which is here taken to be Servius's own. On the relations between the expanded commentary (cited here as DServ.) and the vulgate, see Thilo in Thilo and Hagen, eds., 1, v-lxix; and most recently Goold, "Servius" esp. 102-22; Murgia, Prolegomena 3-6; and Marshall, "Servius." A promising method for reclaiming more of Donatus's commentary has lately been elaborated by Schindel, Figurenlehren . All references to the commentary below are to the vulgate Servius and the Aeneid unless otherwise noted. As in Chap. 4, the extant version of Servius's commentary on Donatus's Ars is cited by page and line of Keil, GL 4.


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other grammatici,[3] and Servius clearly used the work much as Donatus had intended; the learning his predecessor had gathered is excerpted, simplified, and criticized—Servius tends to mention Donatus only to convict him of error—now suppressed, now supplemented.[4]

It is also clear that Servius's commentary, although a less personal document than the work of Pompeius, is nonetheless the instrument of a teacher.[5] The commentary remains at the level suitable for pueri as Servius makes his way word by word and line by line through the text, remarking on punctuation, meter, uncertain readings, myth or other Realien , and especially on the language. The last category, in fact, dwarfs all the others, occasioning two notes out of every three. Only one note in seven, by contrast, is concerned with the broader mythical, historical, and literary background of the poetry, and of this small minority only another small proportion amounts to more than perfunctory references or glosses.[6] The disproportion is a sign of the emphasis that the late-antique grammatici placed on linguistic instruction, which continued well beyond the study of the ars . It reminds us of the distance that separates a modern commentary, given over to exegesis, from its ancient counterpart, in which exegesis coexists—often uncomfortably, as we shah see—with instruction in a living language.

In the central portion of this chapter, then, we shall try to listen to Servius as his students would have heard him, in order to define the impression of Servius's teaching and of Servius himself that would have been fixed in minds more prepared than the modern to appreciate the nuances of his comments and accept them as fresh. Above all, by placing ourselves in the pupils' position we should be able to experience directly one important element of Servius's personality: the grammarian's sense of his own authority. Servius's conceptions of his task and of his status as a cultural figure remain largely unexpressed. Yet in his commentary

[3] See Chap. 4 n. 85.

[4] Note esp. the suppression of many of the references to republican authors that Donatus had included and the inclusion of citations from the newly fashionable Silver Latin poets. See Lloyd, "Republican Authors," with Kaster, "Macrobius" 257.

[5] See Thomas, Essai 182; Lloyd, "Republican Authors" 326; Levy, "To hexês "; Goold, "Servius" 135.

[6] See Kaster, "Macrobius" 256 n. 109.


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an individual and often decidedly quirky turn of mind is demonstrably at work, and Servius's implicit self-image at times so influences his comments that they cannot be understood unless it be taken into account.

To begin, however, we will turn briefly away from the commentary to establish a point of comparison with the voice we will later hear and to open a way into Servius's text. It happens that alone of the grammatici in the period Servius speaks both in his own works and as a character in imaginative literature, in the Saturnalia , Macrobius's recreation of the Roman aristocracy's intellectual life in the saeculum Praetextati . Composed just over a generation after the age it celebrates, the Saturnalia offers an idealized Servius standing head and shoulders above the plebeia grammaticorum cohors (Sat . 1.24.8), the good grammarian demonstrating the moral and intellectual qualities desirable in a man of his profession, a teacher "at once admirable in his learning and attractive in his modesty" (Sat . 1.2.15).[7] As such, Servius is called upon early in the first book (Sat . 1.4) to deal with the adulescens Avienus, who at this point in the dialogue wears the character of a young man essentially sound, if somewhat obstreperous and unformed.

On listening to a discourse by one of the aristocratic participants, Caecina Albinus, Avienus has been struck by the untoward quality (novitas ) of certain turns of phrase the older and more learned man uses. He is moved to question their legitimacy; in effect, he asks why Caecina has committed two solecisms and a barbarism (respectively, noctu futura for node futura, diecrastini for die crastino , and Saturnaliorum for Saturnalium ). The defense of Caecina is entrusted to the professional, Servius, who explains each of the usages in turn and shows that what Avienus in his ignorance took for novitas was in fact antiquitas , the usage of the ancients. The appeal to antiquity fails to impress the adulescens : Avienus savages the grammarian for using his professional status to encourage a way of speaking that time has rubbed out and cashiered. Avienus calls for current language, praesentia verba , until he is brought to heel by the grave rebuke of the group's most distinguished member, Praetextatus himself (Sat . 1.5).

In the conflict that arises from Servius's correction of Avienus, two details are especially important. One is general, Avienus's insistence upon praesentia verba , which is supposedly antithetical to the grammarian's defense of antiquity: in fact, as we will see shortly, Avienus's demand is rather what one might expect from a pupil of the real Servius. The other detail is specific, the method Servius uses to justify diecrastini (Sat .

[7] For general discussion of Servius's role in the Saturnalia and of the context of the incident described below, see Kaster, "Macrobius" 224ff., esp. 243ff.


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1.4.20-27), the last of the controversial expressions treated before Avienus's outburst. As commonly elsewhere in the Saturnalia , the words of the speaker—here, Servius—are drawn from a chapter of Aulus Gellius (10.24); and, as is his practice, Macrobius substantially rearranges and modifies the chapter to suit his purpose. Servius's defense proceeds from the assertion that the doctissimus vir Caecina did not use the expression sine veterum auctoritate . The method of the defense, and so the use of auctoritas as a criterion of correctness, is essentially analogical; that is, Servius adduces no attested use of diecrastini to provide an authoritative precedent, nor does he even claim (as did Gellius) that the form was ever used by the ancients.[8] Rather, the expression is justified solely and explicitly by analogy with such attested archaic forms as diequinti and dienoni .[9] The fictional Servius's defense of analogical archaism and the respect for the veterum auctoritas that it implies conform thoroughly to Macrobius's idealized vision of the literary culture: they are in accord both with Servius's role as the good grammarian, the man who guarantees the continuity of the language, and with the more general notion that stamps each page of the dialogue, the belief that the cultural tradition continues as a living presence, influencing and validating every aspect of a mature and learned man's life. At the same time, the defense of antiquity that Macrobius's Servius offers and the regard for auctoritas that analogical archaism implies are directly opposed to the doctrines of the Servius we find in the commentary.

The real Servius's view can be seen in several notes on the Aeneid . Characteristically, the instruction appears early in the first book, so that the student may carry the lesson with him as he proceeds:

1.4 MEMOREM IVNONIS OB IRAM constat multa in auctoribus inveniri per contrarium significantia: pro activis passiva, ut [11.660] "pictis bellantur Amazones armis," pro passivis activa, ut [Georg . 1.185] "populatque ingentem farris acervum," et haec varietas vel potius contrarietas invenitur etiam in aliis partibus orationis . . . et in nomine, ut "memorem Iunonis ob iram"—non "quae meminerat" sed "quae in memoria erat." de his autem haec tantum quae lecta sunt ponimus nec ad eorum exemplum alia formamus.

[8] In a sentence omitted by Macrobius, Gellius does offer the assurance that item simili figura "diecrastini" dicebatur, id erat "crastino die" (NA 10.24.8); the only attested use of diecrastini before Gell. NA 2.29.7 is Plaut. Most . 881, a fact of which Macrobius would almost certainly have been unaware.

[9] Sat . 1.4.20, with 1.4.25-27. The analogical defense is found clearly at Sat . 1.4.25, verum ne de "diecrastini" nihil retulisse videamur, suppetit Caelianum illud ex libro Historiarum secundo , citing a passage that contains diequinti . Symmachus and Praetextatus then follow with quotations offering diequinti and dienoni .


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The final sentence warns against imitative extension of the peculiar usages found in the text and conveys the main point of the note.[10] The principle found there can be compared with the burden of another note, which occurs not long after:

1.26 ALTA MENTE REPOSTVM. . . . "repostum" autem syncope est: unam enim de medio syllabam tulit. sed cum omnes sermones aut integri sint aut pathos babeant, hi qui pathos habent ita ut lecti sunt debent poni, quod etiam Maro fecit: namque et [6.655] "repostos" et [8.274] "porgite" de Ennio transtulit. integris autem et ipsis utimur et eorum exemplo aliis.

The main thrust of the note (hi . . . poni and integris . . . aliis ) moves in the same direction as the comment on Aeneid 1.4. Both notes concern the use and abuse of analogy and the proper relation between analogical formation and auctoritas :[11] the combined lesson is plainly opposed to the validation Servius gives diecrastini in the Saturnalia , where the one odd expression is justified merely by analogy with similar odd expressions in the texts of literary auctores . Such notes represent specific and limiting applications of the general statement concerning figurative usage found later in the commentary:

5.120 PVBES INPELLVNT figura est, ut [1.212] "pars in frusta secant." et sciendum inter barbarismum et lexin, hoc est, Latinam et perfectam elocutionem, metaplasmum esse, qui in uno sermone fit ratione vitiosus, item inter soloecismum et schema, id est, perfectam sermonum conexionem, figura est, quae fit contextu sermonum ratione vitiosa. ergo metaplasmus et figura media sunt, et discernuntur [sc. from barbarism and solecism, respectively] peritia et imperitia. fiunt autem ad ornatum.

Compared with the definitions found in the grammatical tradition, Servius's note here is distinctive in several details[12] and can be contrasted

[10] In the final sentence I have read ponimus and formamus with Thilo and the manuscripts of Servius, against posita sunt and formata , the readings of codex C of DServ., printed by the Harvard editors: for the reason, see p. 181 and n. 34.

[11] For a similar formulation, cf. Servius's comment at 1.587. See also Serv. 441.13-15, with Pomp. 263.11-28 (cf. Pomp. 232.2-8 and 12-14, and the still more stringent formulation at 187.15f.); and the elder Pliny ap . Charis. 151.18-25 Barwick, warning against the analogical extension of archaic nominal forms in -es (i.e.,copies , on the model of amicities ) and opposing the rationis via to the veterum licentia .

[12] Esp. in its precise tripartite schematization (lexis, metaplasmus, barbarismus , and schema, figura, soloecismus ) and in the formal categories of lexis and schema . Schema itself is commonly used interchangeably with figura to denote what in ordinary discourse would be considered a solecism: e.g., Don. 658.3H.; Serv. 448.1-7; Pomp. 292.13ff. = Plin. frg. 125 della Casa (above, p. 151f.); cf. also Quintil. Inst . 9.3.2, with Don. 663.5-6H.


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with the less precisely worded doctrine in the extant version of his commentary on Donatus's Ars :

quidquid scientes facimus novitatis cupidi, quod tamen idoneorum auctorum firmatur exemplis, figura dicitur. quidquid autem ignorantes ponimus, vitium putatur. (447.8-10)

This last, broad formulation, with its emphasis on novelty—novitas , toned down to the less daring ornatus in the Vergilian commentary, where little good is said about novitas —and with its vague proviso concerning auctoritas (idoneorum auctorum firmatur exemplis ), could perhaps be taken to countenance the kind of analogical argument offered in Macrobius. The comment on Donatus provides a general, liberal alternative to the specific and confining statements found, for example, in the notes on Aeneid 1.4 and 1.26. In the latter places, it seems, we hear the authentic and assertive voice of Servius the teacher,[13] a voice distinct from that of the good grammarian of the Saturnalia .

There is more at stake here than just another variation in detail between the creation of Macrobius and the author of the commentary.[14] The two figures understand and value in fundamentally different ways the processes of the language, the authority of the culture that stands behind it, and the status of the grammarian himself. The practice of analogy in the Saturnalia clearly accords with the ideal of cultural continuity developed in the dialogue. In using that approach, one assumes that the forms guaranteed by auctoritas are—to adapt the term Servius used in the note on Aeneid 1.26—as "sound" (integra ) as the forms used in regular speech and thus are as suited to the operations of analogy; through that linguistic exercise one achieves a more intimate and vivid participation with the ancients.

Precisely the opposite is true of the teaching of Servius, for whom auctoritas holds no such guarantees: figurae (or metaplasms, which operate under the same terms) are a large but finite and isolated repository of ancient expressions.[15] The repository is, above all, controllable; it is not

[13] On Servius's tendency to vary his teaching in the commentary on Vergil, "where he was not as bound to the [grammatical] tradition" as in his observations on Donatus, see the remarks of Wessner, "Lucan" 329.

[14] For such differences in general, see Kaster, "Macrobius" 255ff.

[15] Just how finite and isolated can be gauged from such collections as the Exempla elocutionum of the rhetorician Arusianus Messius (edited most recently by A. della Casa [Milan, 1977]), based on Terence, Vergil, Sallust, and Cicero. Cf. the singularia gleaned from the works of Cato and Cicero in the second century by Statilius Maximus, discussed by Zetzel, "Statilius."


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to be extended. Figurae may be used under certain conditions virtually as literary allusions, but at the same time they exemplify what should be avoided as vicious in general practice. In Macrobius, figurae represent a free channel of communication between past and present that the grammarian has modestly and reverently opened; in Servius's commentary, figurae represent a nearly closed door over which he stands guard. The ends of immediacy and participation that the grammarian of the Saturnalia serves in instructing young Avienus are countered in Servius's own teaching by the preservation of distance and control.

The goals of distance and control are themselves partially the result of an institutional quirk of Roman education. Figurae occupied a no-man's-land between the schools of the grammaticus and of the rhetor , falling a bit short of the latter's main interest but a bit beyond the former's central concern, the correct understanding of the parts of speech and their attributes.[16] This institutional no-man's-land coincided with a no-man's-land of language and method. The ambiguous place of figurae in the structure of formal education conditions the ambiguous function of figurae in the commentary, where they commonly mark the boundary between two opposing ideas (e.g., exegesis vs. prescription, the ancients vs. "us," the language of Vergil vs. correct language) but at the same time leave it porous or vague. So, for example, in the economy of Servius's commentary, figurae mediate between the two main purposes, exegesis and prescription: figurae make intelligible what the author is saying (and often defend his way of saying it) while segregating the author's usage from the grammarian's central lesson of correct speech.[17] In any given note, one purpose may predominate, but the boundary between the two is never neat; one should perhaps speak not so much of boundaries as of buffer zones. The institutional niche of figurae corresponds to their use as a buffer (compare Servius on Aeneid 5.120, quoted above, where such usages are termed media ): the category figura protects

[16] See the remarks of Schindel, Figurenlehren 12ff. Servius most often uses figura in the sense of the schema grammaticum , a deviation from the loquendi ratio , as defined by Quintil. Inst . 9.3.2; cf. Serv. 448.1-7, opposing the schema in sermone factum (= the figura grammaticalis ) to the schema in sensu factum (= figure of thought, the sphere of the rhetor ). On the place of the parts of speech at the heart of the grammarian's expertise, cf. Chap. 4 pp. 140, 163.

[17] This is grammar's quod liter Iovi, non licet bovi ; cf. Aug. C. Faust . 22.25 (PL 42.417): puer in barbarismo reprehensus, si de Vergilii metaplasmo se vellet defendere, ferulis caederetur . The dispensation is usually but not always extended to Vergil: see Servius at, e.g., 4.355, 8.260, 10.572.


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the regular operations of the language against the authority of the text just as it protects the text against the charge of solecism.[18]

As the goals of protection, distance, and control suggest, the commentary is often a scene of conflict, between the ancients and "ourselves," between different forms and sources of authority, between the deference owed to the author's prestige and the grammarian's domination of the text. Understanding the commentary means in large part understanding how the grammarian controls such conflicts, and understanding that control requires us to appreciate the sense of authority that the grammarian derives from his own institutional niche. As is often pointed out, Servius's approach to the text is one of regulations and categories; and this quasi-bureaucratic treatment of Vergil has done little to endear Servius to modern tastes. But bear in mind that controlling regulations and categories carries a power with it. Servius understands whatever comes before his eyes through the rules his institution provides, and he owes whatever authority he possesses to his command of those rules and to his status in that institution. As we shall see, Servius has so thoroughly internalized those rules and the authority of his position that they are at times combined and expressed unconsciously, in ways that offer unexpected glimpses of Servius's personality and self-image.

Before considering his self-image, however, we must try to understand the basis of Servius's rules and authority and how they are deployed in the commentary. Servius's status as a grammarian, his place in the specialized institution of his profession, involves a specific knowledge, recte loquendi scientia , which is presumed to rest on the natura of the language. Recte loqui means naturaliter loqui : strictly correct usage is natural usage.[19] Natura provides the raw material of the language, from, say, the quantity of the root vowel of unus or the correct spelling of scribo to the various functions and forms of the parts of speech.[20] This raw

[18] See n. 17; compare Servius at, e.g., 1.120, on the construction of Ilionei .

[19] Compare the phrase sermo natura . . . integer (implicitly the claim of the grammarians) in the polemics of Arnob. Adv. nat. 1.59: above Chap. 2 p. 85. On the grammarian's presumption of a natural order in language, see most recently Blank, Ancient Philosophy esp. 13, 51 n. 1.

[20] The most venerable text on this subject is preserved by Diom. 439.16-22 = Varro frg. 115 Goetz-Schoell: [Latinitas ] constat . . . . ut adserit Varro, his quattuor, natura analogia consuetudine auctoritate. natura verborum nominumque inmutabilis <<est> nec quicquam aut minus aut plus tradidit nobis quam quod accepit. nam si quis dicat "scrimbo" <<pro eo> quod est "scribo," non analogiae virtute sed naturae ipsius constitutione convincitur. analogia sermonis a natura proditi ordinatio est secundum technicos ; Charis. 62.14-63.9B. offers a parallel version. Ratio and analogia are used interchangeably in the passage; see esp. Diom. 439.16f., with 439.27f. On auctoritas and consuetudo (= usus ), see below. The relation between natura and ratio or analogia here was correctly seen by Barwick, Remmius 183f.: "analogia . . . ist die der natura gegebenen Sprache abgewonnene Gesetzmässigkeit. Daher sind natura und analogia bis zu einem gewissen Grade zwei verschiedene Seiten ein und derselben Sache."


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material is subject for the most part to ratio (or analogia ), which systematically orders the data of nature to provide the regulae set down in the ars ; the ars in its turn is the product and property of the grammarian. The nature of the language is thus incorporated in the institution and identified with the grammarian's expertise. The linguistic forces that lie beyond his institutional niche and contradict his expertise are against nature.

Consider, for example, the comments on figurative usage noted above. By definition a deviation from correct usage, figurae are also necessarily a deviation from natural usage, the sermo naturalis.[21] Inevitably, therefore, the grammarian is as opposed to analogically extending figurative usage as he is to extending any other usage against nature: with Servius's note on Aeneid 1.4, we can compare the following, which warns against back-formation from a form whose natura has been corrupted:

2.195 PERIVRI in verbo "r" non habet; nam "peiuro" dicimus corrupta natura praepositionis. quae res facit errorem, ut aliqui male dicant "peiurus."[22]

Here, as in the case of figurae , an accommodation must be reached with the corruption already accomplished: Servius is saying, in effect, "This far, but no farther."

Hedged around by the wall of natura , Servius deals from a clearly defined position of strength with the other, unruly forces—auctoritas (literary authority) and usus or consuetudo (ordinary, current usage)—that have an impact on the language. These forces are variously treated in the commentary. For example, auctoritas serves largely as a court of last resort, defining the periphery of permissible usage rather than the core of what is correct;[23] but auctoritas can also appear, now and then, to govern the language when that serves the grammarian's didactic

[21] So 2.132, figura vs. sermo naturalis . See also 1.5, expanded at 5.467: usage adopted causa metri vs. what one does naturaliter ; 2.60, usurpatum vs. naturale (on this comment see below, p. 182); 7.161, secundum naturam vs. figuratum .

[22] See also the comments at 4.427, against the 1st sing. perf. indic. revulsi as derived from the "unnatural" form (re )vulsus ; and cf. 2.39 (sim. 1.149), on the declension of vulgus .

[23] See above, on 1.4 and 1.26; similarly Pomp. 232.2-8 (with Serv. 437.20-23), 237.35ff., 263.11-28 (with Serv. 441.13-15), 273.3ff.; cf. also Diom. 370.19-23 for reliance on auctores in a case where non est inventa ratio .


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purpose.[24] Much the same is true of usus : what usage has maintained can be a determining factor,[25] and can even be credited with altering the nature of the language.[26] But throughout, the grammarian, with his understanding—or rather, definitive control—of natura , stands watch over auctoritas and usus , guarding against the perceived abuse, confusion, and corruption that both produce.[27]

This intricate and often arbitrary interweaving of natura, usus , and auctoritas is tolerably familiar;[28] only two tendencies need emphasis here. First, one can reasonably suggest that the authority of the grammarian's own pronouncements would be perceived by his students and by the grammarian himself as dominant and decisive: the grammarian establishes the distinction between "what we read" and "what we say," grants his permission according to his notion of "what we are able to say," determines the propriety of particular usages, and above all issues warnings.[29] Second, when that authority is blended with the prescriptive

[24] See, e.g., 8.409, 12.587; cf. Servius's comment on Georg . 3.124, and, on Servius's often arbitrary invocation of idonei auctores , see Kaster, "Servius." For auctores or veteres used to confirm a rule reached by way of analogy, cf. Diom. 368.3-11, 375.16-25.

[25] Cf. 2.268, where Servius notes the divisions of night and day according to Varro and concludes, de crepusculo vero, quod est dubia lux, . . . quaeritur, et licet utrique tempori [i.e., twilight or daybreak] possit iungi, usus tamen ut matutino iungamus obtinuit . The meaning "daybreak" authorized by usus according to Servius in fact first appears outside Servius in Latin of the fourth and fifth centuries; see TLL s.v. crepusculum 1175.39ff.

[26] Cf. 5.603, HAC CELEBRATA TENVS tmesis est, "hactenus." et hic sermo, quantum ad artem [i.e., naturam ] special dubs continet partes orationis, ut "hac" pronomen sit, "tenus" praepositio. . . . sed iam usus obtinuit ut pro una parte babeatur. ergo adverbium est: omnis enim pars orationis, cum desierit esse quod est, in adverbium migrat ; for the principle, see above at Chap. 4 n. 16. Here again the connection between the ars and the essence of the language, quod est , is plain.

[27] To select from only the first book a few examples in which auctoritas and usus are found abuti or confundere or corrumpere . For auctoritas , see 1.118, 185 (on the distinction between totus and omnis , never firm, and weakened further in the common speech of late antiquity [see Löfstedt, Late Latin 22]: Servius here urges against the improper usage of the text as a way of undermining a bad habit of common speech; cf. pp. 187-89 below), 334, 590. For usus , see 1.319, 410, 480, 697 (sane sciendum malo errore "cum" et "dum" a Romanis esse confusa —again touching upon an authentic feature of late Latin; see Adams, Text 77). For regula or ratio corrupted by consuetudo or contradicted by the license of the veteres or of current usage, cf. Diom. 348.24f. (cf. 349.6f., 15f.), 365.25f., 398.9, 400.3, 406.11-12.

[28] On how the scholars of the first century B.C. and first century A.D. balanced the components of the language, the general discussion of Barwick, Remmius 203-15, remains fundamental; also valuable, esp. for the Greek background, is Siebenborn, Sprachrichtigkeit esp. 108-15 and, a bit less satisfactory, 151-54, on natura . For an accessible and useful introduction, see Bonner, Education 204-8.

[29] "What we read" vs. "what we say": e.g., 2.487, 3.278, 7.605. Possumus uti or licenter utimur or pro nostro arbitrio utimur : e.g., 1.47, 96, 159, 177, 194, 343, 430, 451, 484; 2.610. Sphere of usage: cf. 1.251, 2.18, 6.79, 10.481. Warnings: cf. 2.513, VETERRIMA usurpatum est. ergo, ut supra diximus, hoc tantum uti si necesse sit licet , with 1.253, HONOS cum secundum artem [i.e., naturam ] dicamus "honor," "arbor," "lepor," plerumque poetae "r" in "s" mutant causa metri. . . . hoc quidem habet ratio: sed ecce in hoc loco etiam sine metri necessitate "honos" dixit. item Sallustius paene ubique "labos" posuit, quem nulla necessitas coegit. melius tamen est servire regulae [i.e., naturae ]. Compare the still stricter position of Pomp. 283.37ff.


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purposes of the commentary, Servius's manufacture of the language for his students' benefit can produce observations on Vergil's language that sound absurd to the modern ear, attuned as it is solely to the commentary's exegetic purpose. Neither tendency can be separated from the other, but the effects of the second are more easily seen in individual notes. We can therefore examine this second tendency and identify a few of the strategies Servius used in his instruction, before returning to consider the implications of the first.

We must accustom ourselves to hearing Servius with a student's ear when he says, for example:

10.526 PENITVS DEFOSSA TALENTA. . . . sane melius [i.e., rectius] "infossa" diceret quam "defossa," ad quod est metri necessitate conpulsus.

Or:

11.468 ILICET "confestim," "ilico": quod ne diceret, metri necessitas fecit. nam "ilico" dicimus.

These and other notes invoking the necessity or compulsion of meter (and anyone familiar with the commentary knows how common they are) were not intended, and would not have been understood, as purely or even primarily exegetic. They are not earnest but superficial attempts to judge or explain Vergil's own choices and technique; rather, the force of these observations is directed largely at the student, telling him what he should or should not do. That the words are Vergil's is virtually incidental. Freely paraphrased, these lessons would be understood to mean something like, "Don't get it into your head that you should do what Vergil has done here; your usage should be such only when all other options have been dosed."[30] The text serves as an instrument; the author, as dummy. Both are exploited to meet Servius's purpose.

[30] Cf. 2.513 and 1.253, cited in the preceding note; and esp. 1.3, p. 187 below. With the paraphrase offered in the text, compare what Pompeius says at, e.g., 269.22ff., ne dicas mihi ergo, "quoniam usus est Vergilius . . .,debeo et ego ita facere." nequaquam licet . Cf. n. 17 above.


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The exploitation recurs over a wide range of Servian rhetorical ploys. A similar and, again, essentially negative tactic involves the use of the phrase debuit dicere . For example:

1.16 HIC ILLIVS ARMA figura creberrima adverbium pro adverbio posuit, praesentis loci pro absentis: debuit enim dicere "illic."

Or:

9.467 CINGITVR AMNI "amne" debuit dicere: numquam enim bene [i.e., recte] in "i" exeunt nisi quae communis sunt generis, ut "docilis," "agilis." sed ideo ausus est ita ponere ablativum, quia, ut supra diximus [9.122], apud maiores "hic" et "haec amnis" dicebatur.

Again, debuit dicere is directed more at the student than at the text. Servius is not literally contending at Aeneid 1.16 that Vergil should have said illic ; he is making plain to the students what they should use. At stake is not so much a fault worthy of criticism or demanding correction in Vergil—figura provides the necessary protection against that—but a deviant usage the student should avoid.[31] Similarly, ausus est in the note on Aeneid 9.467 is not meant to describe Vergil's behavior, for his daring is immediately denied by the explanation that his words simply reflect the usage current apud maiores , of whom he is one. Rather, ausus est is directed at the student, to impress upon him what should be avoided as bold.[32]Debuit dicere urges against the bad example of the text and has the effective meaning in the commentary of debemus dicere .[33] Such notes drive

[31] But dearly debuit dicere could be construed as an adverse criticism of the author; cf. especially Aug. C. Faust . 22.25, quoted below, n. 77, and note Servius and DServ. at 1.273: where Servius offers GENTE SVB HECTOREA id est "Troiana." sed debuit dicere "Aeneia." diximus superius [1.235] nomina poetas ex vicino usurpare , explaining and defending as a poetic usage the deviation from what should have been said, the same idea appears in DServ. as GENTE SVB HECTOREA id est "Troiana." sed quidam reprehendunt quod "Hectorea" et non "Aeneia." mos est poetis nomina ex vicinis usurpare ; here quidam reprehendunt is probably a generalizing inference drawn from Servius's debuit dicere by the compiler of DServ. (the last clause is certainly no more than a finicky rewriting of Servius typical of the compiler). Debuit dicere seems to be located, like figura , in a gray area: although the practical or monitory purpose of the phrase dominates in its many appearances in the commentary, it would be wrong to deny out of hand that debuit dicere could connote some criticism of Vergil.

[32] Cf. 2.610 (concerning a point of usage similar to that in 9.467), where each of the three parts of Servius's statement, "tridente" debuit dicere; sed novitatem adfectavit, nulla cogente necessitate , is intended more as a warning for his pupils than as an objective interpretation or evaluation of the verse.

[33] Cf. 1.319, facere non debemus , referring to a Graeca figura .


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home their lessons through the use of the third person singular, segregating the author's usage from the Latin that Servius wants to teach.

In these examples, prescription proceeds obliquely, yet nonetheless dearly, as Servius plays his own views off against the text. But prescription is at work in another element of Servius's style, one that is not at all apparent on the surface of his language but is wholly implied in his role. It is a nuance that again requires us to hear Servius with the ear of his pupils and that, not incidentally, adds to the difficulty of teasing apart the strands of natura, usus , and auctoritas in Servius's weave.

We might look again at the notes on Aeneid 1.4 (for its last sentence) and 1.26:

de his autem haec tantum quae lecta sunt ponimus nec ad eorum exemplum alia formamus.

sermones . . . qui pathos habent ita ut lecti sunt debent poni. . . . integris autem et ipsis utimur et eorum exemplo aliis.

As noted earlier, we should accept the readings of Servius's manuscripts at 1.4, ponimus and formamus , against posita sunt and formata , the readings of Servius Danielis, which some editors have imposed on Servius.[34] The reason for following the manuscripts of Servius is simple. They bear witness to a constant feature of Servius's language, the use of the first-person-plural indicative in a prescriptive sense.[35] That is, ponimus , unless otherwise qualified, would tend to mean ponere debemus , or formamus to mean formare debemus , or utimur to mean uti debemus —compare the parallel uses of the verbs at 1.4 and 1.26, ponimus . . . formamus and debent poni . . . utimur. This thoroughly natural overtone is unmistakable as soon as one listens to Servius as a teacher of his native language and not simply as a descriptive, objective commentator in the modern vein. The nuance occurs throughout the commentary, as in some of the notes already cited.[36] It is found most easily, perhaps, in one of Servius's more striking

[34] See above at n. 10. The alteration of Servius's active forms to the passives in DServ. is comparable to the systematic alteration of Servius's formula of cross-reference, ut supra diximus , to the impersonal ut supra dictum est in DServ., revealing the hand of the compiler. Cf. Goold, "Servius" 107-8; Murgia, Prolegomena 100-101.

[35] This nuance was clearly understood by Thilo: see his remarks in Thilo and Hagen, eds., 1, lxxii.

[36] E.g., 11.468, nam "ilico" dicimus , where dicimus plainly serves the purpose for which debuit dicere is used elsewhere. The nuance is of course not peculiar to Servius. A striking example occurs at Pomp. 238.17-19, est verbum quod regit dativum, "maledico tibi." et hoc in usu pessime habemus: nemo dicit "maledixit me ille," sed dicimus "maledixit mihi" tantum modo. The sense of hoc in usu pessime habemus here becomes dear only once one realizes that Pompeius is saying, with notable compression, et hoc in usu pessime habemus: [multi enim "maledixit me ille" dicunt, sed vitiose. nam ] nemo dicit [= debet dicere ] "maledixit me ille ," sed dicimus [= debemus dicere ] "maledixit mihi. " The usage with the accusative does appear to have been vulgar; see TLL 8.164.13ff., and cf. CGL 3.112.19, 49.


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pieces of instruction, where he urges the obsolete pronominal form ipsus against the common but irregular ipse :

2.60 HOC IPSVM "ipsum" autem per "m," quia usurpatum est "ipse," et est naturale "ipsus," ut [Ter. Andr. 576] "ipsus mihi Davus." dicimus ergo "ipsus, ipsa, ipsum," ut "doctus, docta, doctum."

Here, as Servius stresses what is regular and natural, the meaning of dicimus slides entirely into the realm of what should be, leaving simple description behind.[37]

Beyond demonstrating how readily description is subordinated to prescription, this last example deserves attention for a related feature, the nonchalance with which Servius identifies a palpable archaism (ipsus ) with what "we [ought to] say." Or perhaps it is more accurate to say that ipsus would seem to us moderns a palpable archaism; for in Servius's language, both dicimus and naturale effectively deny that ipsus is an archaism at all. Rhetorically, as a means of confirming the lesson, naturale plays the more important role: by associating ipsus with nature, the epithet distinguishes the form from ambivalent usages like figurae and guarantees its simple, regular validity. There is, plainly, a fair amount of room for eccentric judgment in such matters as this, in part because the concept of natura is itself a bit vague about the edges and has its own eccentricities.

So much becomes apparent as soon as one tries to pin the concept down. The natura of the language cannot be defined historically in any straightforward way, as something that once came into being with specific characteristics, some of which have endured through the passage of time while others have become obscured or distorted. As we shall see just below, Servius does not believe that the farther back in time one probes the closer one comes to natura , or that the usage of the ancient authors, the maiores , reveals the language in a pure or more natural state. Yet the natura of the language is not timeless, an abstraction somehow outside history, for it can be affected in and over time: not only can natura be corrupted, and not only can usus change the nature of parts of speech,

[37] An obvious variant of the prescriptive indicative—what might be called the permissive indicative—is found in notes where such phrases as dicimus et . . . (et ) and utrumque dicimus in effect mean licet or possumus dicere et . . . (et ), and licet or possumus utrumque dicere : e.g., 1.484; cf. Serv. 418.33f. and 442.1f., with Pomp. 269.32-34.


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but Servius's treatment of archaism even implies at times that in its nature the ancients' language overlaps only partially with his own.[38] When the shift is imagined as having occurred, or whether it has ceased to occur, is not made dear, although, as we shall see, a primary agent of the change would appear to be the grammarian himself. At this moment, however, the points to be emphasized are these: to the extent that natura inheres in the grammarian's institution, in the form of rules (regulae , the guarantee of what is rectum ), it provides the grammarian with a stable place to stand; and like figurae , archaisms, where they are noted, implicitly involve usages that not only contradict the lesson Servius wishes to teach but also run against nature. In our attempt to gauge Servius's sense of his control of the language, therefore, it is important to understand what he has in mind when he deals with archaism in the opposition between antiqui and nos.

It is evident that when Servius identifies one of Vergil's usages as antiquum , an archaism, he does not mean that it was an archaism in Vergil's time (although it might have been that as well) but that he judges it to be obsolete when tested against his own complex sense of acceptable current usage. Vergil was himself one of the antiqui (maiores, veteres ) and was grouped as such, in a broad stroke characteristic of ancient scholarship, with the classical and preclassical authors; although Servius was generally aware of the chronological relationships among the various literary figures, the distinction drawn today between archaic and classical usage was not functional in his work.[39] Further, a necessary corollary derives from this repeated testing of Vergil's language for the obsolete: as in the identification of figurae , the identification of antique dicta has a prescriptive purpose. The basic relationship between the function of figurae and the function of archaism in the commentary can be stated fairly simply: as the demarcation of figurae is an attempt to deal with deviant usage synchronically, by applying the standards of correct usage to the author as though he were a contemporary, so the identification of archaism is an attempt to isolate such deviations diachronically, by constructing a temporal barrier between the author and the student.

Since the two approaches have such similar goals, we should expect them to be expressed in similar language. In fact, the associations that

[38] Corruption of natura : see the note at 2.195, p. 177. Change of the nature of parts of speech: cf. the comment at 5.603, n. 26 above. On the mutability of nature, see Barwick, Remmius 184 n. 1; Siebenborn, Sprachrichtigkeit 108-9; Blank, Ancient Philosophy 41ff.; and contrast Varro ap. Diom. 439.17f., above, n. 20.

[39] Lebek, Verba 18 n. 22, has well remarked the importance of understanding that "archaic" in a grammarian's comment means archaic relative to his own time and perception, and likewise the imprudence of accepting such distinctions at face value.


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form in Servius's mind as the two approaches melt one into the other can be seen in the trend of his own rhetoric of instruction. In the examples listed below, we can watch Servius's thought pass from the synchronic to the diachronic, with an intermediary blending of the two, from figurative use versus what "he should have said," through figurative use versus what "we now [ought to] say," to archaism versus what "we now [ought to] say." The examples also further illustrate the interchangeability of debuit dicere and the prescriptive indicative dicimus :

figura. . . . nam debuit dicere. . . . (1.16)

figurate dixit. . . . nam dicimus. . . . (6.435)

figura. . . . nam modo dicimus. . . .[40] (11.73)

antique dictum. . . . nam nunc dicimus, nec iungimus. . . . (6.544)

debuit dicere. . . . ideo ausus est . . . quia . . . apud maiores . . . dicebatur. (9.467)

archaismos. . . . debuit enim dicere. . . . (10.807)

The instability of the distinction is demonstrated by the progression of the notes and is especially evident in the last two. On Aeneid 9.467, as we saw above, debuit dicere and ausus est look to the present and are intended to have their impact on the student; but the explanation, quia . . . dicebatur , looks to the past: it effectively isolates Vergil's usage and at the same time negates any suggestion that he was in reality bold; his usage, a function of his being one of the maiores , appears bold only when measured against the current state of the language. In the comment on Aeneid 10.807, dum pluit in terris, ut possint sole reducto / exercere diem , the operation is even more striking:

DVM PLVIT hic distinguendum: nam si iunxeris "dum pluit in terris," erit archaismos: debuit enim dicere "in terras." tamen sciendum est hemistichum hoc Lucretii [6.630] esse, quod ita ut invenit Vergilius transtulit.

Here the text is in effect moved into the present and punctuated as though it were a contemporary work in order to arrive at what should have been said and avoid an archaism.[41] The blending of the two ap-

[40] Cf. 1.75, notanda . . . figura: frequenter enim hac utitur. nam quod nos . . . dicimus, antiqui dicebant. . . , concerning the use of the ablative for the genitive; see further p. 186.

[41] On the series of notes to which 10.807 belongs and with which it must be read to be understood, see further pp. 188f. and n. 55.


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proaches is inevitable and derives from the system Servius inherited, in which the categories of auctores (associated with figurative usage) and antiqui (the sources of archaic usage) had long since fallen together: auctoritas and vetustas are for Servius essentially one and the same[42] and are equally under constraint.

Like the subordination of description to prescription, this fusion of auctoritas and antiquitas , of figures and archaism, necessarily diminishes the precision of Servius's statements and the subtlety or consistency of his response to the text.[43] The fusion should not, however, obscure Servius's real sense that the antiqui used a language alien, in some fundamental ways, from his own. More than three centuries earlier, Quintilian had observed, "If we compare the language of the ancients with our own, almost everything we say nowadays is a figura " (Inst. 9.3.1). Servius would have agreed, although he would have altered quidquid loquimur to quidquid loquebantur in the second half of the statement.

The strain that shifts in usage produced is perhaps most evident when Servius is faced with a corruption in the received text. In such places we can see him struggling mightily but in vain to heave a line across the abyss: thus, commenting on Aeneid 9.486-87, nec te tua funere mater / produxi (as printed by Mynors, with Bembo's emendation), he attempts the following:

NEC TVA FVNERA MATER id est "funerea": nam apud maiores "funeras" dicebant eas ad quas funus pertinet, ut sororem, matrem. nam praeficae, ut et supra [6.216] diximus, sunt planctus principes, non doloris. "funeras" autem dicebant quasi "funereas," ad quas pertinet funus.

The first sentence here offers a wholly fictive explanation according to what "the ancients used to say"; the second introduces an irrelevancy recalled from an earlier comment; and the third simply restates the first by way of conclusion.

Most often, however, Servius's command of natura and his awareness of its changes provide a more useful (if still shaky) bridge. Consider, for example, his note on the difficult bit of phrasing at Aeneid 11.149-50, feretro Pallante reposto / procubuit super :

[42] The only important exceptions to this statement are the so-called neoterici , i.e., the post-Vergilian poets, especially Lucan, Juvenal, and Statius, who were auctores without being veteres. As exceptions, they caused Servius some difficulty; see Kaster, "Servius." The early collapse of auctoritas and vetustas into a single category was well noted by Barwick, Remmius 215.

[43] For treatment Of the same usage now synchronically, now diachronically, compare Servius's remarks at 3.359 with those at 12.519; similarly 8.168 (on the use of bina ) in conjunction with the notes at 1.93 and 313.


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FERETRO PALLANTE REPOST.O posito Pallantis feretro: nam antiptosis est.

Servius explains the phrase by invoking antiptosis, the use of one case in place of another (here, ablative for genitive). The explanation is evidently wide of the mark, but the reason for Servius's error is sometimes misunderstood. Perhaps naturally, the modern reader assumes that the technical term is used "as a joker card" to avoid the problem, and that "the ablative for Servius has the meaning of the possessive genitive."[44] Servius's own thoughts, however, move in precisely the opposite direction: Servius is certain of the nature and function of the ablative and genitive in his own language, and is also certain that in the language of Vergil and the antiqui these amounted to something very different. It is Vergil for whom the ablative had the meaning of the genitive, as Servius had occasion to remark early on:

1.75 PVLCHRA PROLE. . . . notanda tamen figura: frequenter enim hac utitur. ham quod nos per genitivum singularem dicimus, antiqui per septimum dicebant, ut hoc loco "parentem pulchra prole," id est, "pulchrae pro]is."

The belief is hardly unique to Servius and could only be reinforced by Vergil's repeated practice.[45]

That the manipulations of Vergil could appear more odd at a distance of four hundred years than they do at a distance of two thousand—quite as odd as the archaic usage (in our sense) of Ennius—is a quirk of language and history not always fully appreciated. Thus Richard Bentley, observing Servius's note on Aeneid 10.710, PASTVS pro "pastum." nam supra ait "quem": ergo antiptosis est , reacted with characteristic vigor to what he took to be a grammarian's sleight of hand: "What the hell is that antiptosis?"[46] Both Servius and Bentley were attempting to treat a passage where, again, the received text was corrupt:

[44] Williams, "Servius" 52.

[45] With Servius's interpretation of 11.149, cf. the alternative explanation of 2.554-55, hic exitus illum / sorte tulit , noted by DServ., quidam "exitus sorte" pro "sortis" tradunt, ablativum pro genetivo. Such interpretations were no doubt encouraged by the grammarians' belief that the Romans invented the ablative so that it could share the burden of the original, i.e., Greek, genitive; cf. Pomp. 171.18-20. For the recognition of archaism implied in claims of antiptosis, see especially Nonius Marcellus, Book 9, "De numeris et casibus," which is wholly concerned with instances of antiptosis and presents vividly the distance between the language of the antiqui and the perceptions of late antiquity.

[46] Quae malum illa antiptosis! in his comment at Hot. Epod. 5.28.


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aper, multos Vesulus quem pinifer annos defendit multosque palus Laurentia silva pastus harundinea.
(Aen. 10.708-10)

True to himself and to his sense of independence and authority, Bentley emended pastus to pascit or pavit (the former is printed by Mynors). Servius, also true to himself, interpreted the passage according to his own sense of the language and its changes, relying on an inference drawn from passages where Vergil does use the nominative in place of the accusative.[47] Bentley here was right, Servius wrong.[48] But we should understand that in such cases Servius is using the technical terms not to conceal his difficulties but to acknowledge the discontinuity between the Latin of the antiqui and his own. The technical term is simply an economical device provided the grammarian by his profession. Its meaning is condensed, its function in the commentary both expressive and effective: it simultaneously reveals to and impresses upon the student the distance that separates him from Vergil. Offering a guarantee that carries the weight of Servius's institutional authority, the technical term both conveys and enforces the lesson to be learned.

The examples in the last three paragraphs are extreme cases, finding Servius at or near the point of helplessness, and show his method at its worst, measured against modern expectations. But the extreme cases only highlight the normal practice. Servius's narrow historical perspective and his largely prescriptive concerns anchor him in the present moment, the nunc , of his teaching. His purpose is to anchor the student in the same rather strange slice of time. So one finds early in the commentary the following note, of a very common type transparent in its intentions:

1.3 MVLTVM ILLE. . . . "ille" hoc loco abundat. est enim interposita particula propter metri necessitatem, ut stet versus: ham si detrahas "ille," stat sensus. . . . est autem archaismos.

This comment, with, for example, that on Aeneid 5.540, PRIMVM ANTE OMNES unum vacat , or on 5.833, PRINCEPS ANTE OMNES unum vacat ,

[47] See DServ. on 2.377, delapsus ; cf. also the Grammatica Vergiliana attributed to Asper (Thilo and Hagen, eds., Servii . . . Commentarii 3.534) on 1.314, obvia. Cf. also Servius at 11.775, cassida , for the accusative used in place of the nominative; morphologically his description of Vergil's neologism is not far off.

[48] Note, however, that Servius was only more obviously wrong than the large majority of modern editors, who solve the problem by punctuating after Laurentia , thus producing for pastus a variety of colon whose disposition in the hexameter is thoroughly at odds with Vergil's practice, as Bentley himself was later to show in his comment on Lucan 1.231; see also Townend's valuable paper "Some Problems" esp. 339-43 for Vergil.


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should be understood as aimed at the tendency of the common language to add unnecessary words or to use synonymous pairs for intensification.[49] The note, with its concluding sentence, is meant to suggest, "This sort of excess baggage [abundat ] is obsolete: that is not the way we [ought to] speak or write nowadays." And it is with the message of this note in mind that one must read, as Servius's students would have heard, the long series of notes of the abundat or vacat type that follows.[50]

The purpose and net effect of such notes is to place the unwanted usage of the auctores firmly in the past:

1.176 RAPVITQVE IN FOMITE FLAMMAM paene soloecophanes est. nam cum mutationem verbum significat, ablativo usus est. sed hoc solvit aut antiqua circa communes praepositiones licentia, ut est [Georg. 1.442] "conditus in nubem," contra [Aen. 2.401] "et nota conduntur in alvo" . . . ; aut "rapuit" "raptim fecit" flammam in fomite, id est, celeriter.

The note regards the coordination of prepositions with the case system and is cast in effect in the form of a quaestio —Why is this not a solecism?—to which two solutions are offered. The second is specific, explaining that the ablative is correct by current standards because no change of place occurs.[51] The first is general and more interesting, the invocation of the antiqua licentia : the standard that today would mark the usage as a solecism does not apply to the antiqui , whose language did not draw the same distinctions Servius's does in the use of communes praepositiones.[52] The note, which has as a variant the type found on Aeneid 9.467,[53] is meant to fix the distinction in the minds of Servius's students even as it exempts the antiqui by drawing a line between the past and the present.

[49] For the text used to exemplify and so to undermine bad habits of common speech, see n. 27 and below, p. 189. On pleonastic intensification, see Löfstedt, Late Latin 21-24.

[50] Compare 1.12, TYRII TENVERE COLONI deest "quam," with the generalization concerning what amant antiqui dicere vs. nos exprimimus : the generalization is clearly meant to enforce the proper use of the relative pronoun; cf. the large number of other notes of the deest type, the complement of the vacat type.

[51] Cf. Servius at 2.401 (cited in his comment), and at 5.332, 6.51, or 10.305.

[52] The lesson is expanded at 1.295 to include the assertion that the natura of certain communes praepositiones has changed over time. For the antiqua licentia , see also 1.253, on the phrase in sceptra reponis , 6.203, on super arbore ; and Serv. 419.27-36, 443.7-10, Pomp. 275.19ff., 276.28ff. Cf. Chap. 4 at n. 101, on Pomp. 237.10-22, contrasting the confusiones antiquitatis (the product of a time when adhuc indefinita erat ista ratio ) with the regula of Donatus.

[53] Debuit dicere. . . . ideo ausus est . . . quia . . . apud maiores . . . dicebatur ; see pp. 180, 184 above.


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Yet the blurring of distinctions in this matter—and above all the haphazard use of in with the ablative and accusative—was much more characteristic of late Latin than of the ancients.[54] Once more the undesirable practice of common speech is put off on the antiqui. And to provide reinforcement, a series of scholia proceeds from this note, reminding the student that the lack of proper distinction belongs to the past, is obsolete, archaismos.[55] We have come a long way since then, the grammarian says: the movement of the language under the grammarian's guiding hand, toward greater refinement and regularity and away from ancient confusion or licence or harshness, is not doubted, and is a source of no little satisfaction.[56]

Servius's insistent and complacent didacticism makes his observations unreliable and sometimes bizarre, but not disingenuous. The distinction needs to be emphasized not only for a fair reading of Servius but, more important, for the reasons underlying it. When a usage is explained as arising metri necessitate , when Servius suggests what Vergil debuit dicere , when he comments on what "we say," when he distinguishes "what we say now" from archaism, the text of Vergil and the general state of the language are subordinated to Servius's sense of his own function and authority. Instead of being real objects that one tries to explain or describe historically, text and language become ciphers, assigned whatever validity or significance Servius chooses. The choice is complex and subjective, but it is not a matter of raw and conscious manipulation: it is expressed impersonally, through appeals to natura and the use of technical terms, the guarantees provided by his institutional niche; but Servius not only accepts those guarantees, and the authority they provide, as useful tools, he absorbs them into his personality. Servius believes what he says—about Vergil, the antiqui , the language, and nos —because he simply cannot believe otherwise. He has been fused with the institution he represents.

That the impersonal guarantees, rules, and authority have all been internalized is evident when we find the workings of Servius's mind displayed unself-consciously in that habit of projection we have already seen at work in Pompeius.[57] Like Pompeius, Servius most reveals himself when he explains someone else's actions and motives. To bring the

[54] Cf. Adams, Text 54-55.

[55] See 2.541, aut archaismos aut. . . , the general and specific, similar to 1.176; 6.639, archaismos , contradicting Donatus; 9.442, with additional reference to 9.347; 10.387; 10.838; and 10.807 (archaismos vs. debuit dicere ), the matter of punctuation discussed above, p. 184.

[56] Beyond the references in nn. 50-53 and 55, see, e.g., Diom. GL 1.374.5ff., 400.1ff., 427.15, 435.22ff. (and cf. 371.16ff., 381.12ff.); Mar. Vict. Ars 4.84 Mariotti (p. 85).

[57] See Chap. 4 pp. 166ff.


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chapter to a close, we can examine three passages that both betray this habit of mind and draw together several of the points remarked above—the use of the text as dummy, the nuance of the prescriptive indicative, and Servius's conception of his own status.

The first example is straightforward:

8.435 TVRBATAE pro "turbantis": nam timuit homoeoteleuton et fecit supinam significationem.

The note combines exegesis (it explains and justifies Vergil's use of the wrong participle) with prescription, and is thus a variation on the metri causa or debuit dicere type; whereas the latter sort is essentially negative, obliquely warning the student against a given usage, the comment on Aeneid 8.435 is largely positive. Servius projects his own values and concerns onto Vergil in order to inculcate the lesson in his students: as Servius is and as he would have his students be, so Vergil "was afraid of homoeoteleuton" (the collocation turbantisPalladis ), because homoeoteleuton represents a vitiosa etocutio , a flawed form of expression, to be avoided in polished speech or writing.[58]

This instance of projection does not require much comment, but it should be compared with our second example, where the same tendency is present in a more interesting if less obvious form. The scholium involves the normative force of dicimus. The person who serves this time as the medium of Servius's message is Valerius Probus:

10.444 AEQVORE IVSSO pro "ipsi iussi." et est usurpatum participium: nam "iubeor" non dicimus unde potest venire "iussus." sic ergo hic participium usurpavit, ut Horatius verbum, dicens [Epist. 1.5.21] "haec ego procurare et idoneus imperor et non invitus." ergo satis licenter dictum est, adeo ut huic loco Probus [hic corruptum] alogum adposuerit.[59]

[58] For criticism of homoeoteleuton as a vitiosa elocutio , see the notes at 4.504, 9.49 and 606; cf. Pomp. 304.10, antiquum est hoc totum, hodie nemo facit. siqui fecerit, ridetur. With the function of the phrase timuit homoeoteleuton at 8.435, cf. 3.663, 10.571, 11.464, 12.5 and 781, and Schindel, Figurenlehren 27. With timuit , cf. also Serv. 409.17f.; and Pompeius on the fear of Donatus, Chap. 4 pp. 167f.

[59] The text given is that of Thilo, who seems to have made the best of the general corruption in his manuscripts by treating the phrase hic corruptum (appearing only in M of the manuscripts he used) as an interpolated note originally intended to describe the state of Servius's text itself, where the nonsensical reading .a. longam in M (a longam or ad longam in the other manuscripts) occurs instead of alogum , an emendation of Burmann. Alternatively, hic corruptum could have found its way into the text at an earlier stage as a gloss on an original reading alogum.


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The didactic intent of the note concerns the form iubeor and could be paraphrased, "We do not [ought not] use the passive iubeor or forms derived from it. Look: Vergil did, and his use is so odd that Probus even marked the passage as flawed."[60] But Probus likely did nothing of the sort. This is not to say that Servius invented Probus's annotation, but that the concerns of the two men were probably not so congruent as Servius in the urgency of making his point came to suggest. Where Servius reacts to the question of morphology, Probus was probably reacting to the sense, the figure of thought—the epithet transferred in using aequore iusso in place of socii . . . iussi.[61]

Several considerations suggest that Servius has gone astray in referring to Probus. First, the thought rather than the verbal form seems to have attracted earlier comment. That is the concern of the (no doubt traditional) gloss that begins Servius's own note; moreover, this particular figure of thought seems to have stood prominently in collections of such passages: when Macrobius's Servius enthusiastically recites expressions allegedly coined by Vergil, it occurs near the head of the list (Sat. 6.6.3), where again it is the transfer of the epithet that is noted. Second, in contrast to the foregoing, there is the singularity of Servius's own teaching. His condemnation of iubeor (and so iussus ) is unique among the grammarians, but his citation of Horace's imperor suggests his train of thought clearly enough.[62]Iubeor is proscribed according to the principle that a verb governing the dative in the active voice (e.g., impero tibi, invideo tibi, obicio tibi; cf. Diom. GL 1.399.13-32 for a full account)

[60] For the alogus , see Isid. Orig. 1.20.17: alogus nota quae ad mendas adhibetur ; the alogus is listed among the critical signs, but is not glossed, in the Anecdoton Parisinum (GL 7.533-36). On this and the other notae said to have been used by Probus, see now Jocelyn, "Annotations" (I-III). My thanks to Prof. Jocelyn for showing me the proofs of "Annotations III," with his discussion of Aen. 10.444 (p. 472), in advance of publication: though he doubts (per litt. ) that we can establish anything at all about Probus's reasoning here, there is no great difference between us in the interpretation of Servius's remarks.

[61] So already Ribbeck, Prolegomena 151; but his prior assumptions regarding Servius's learning, derived from the portrait in Macrobius, made him unwilling to believe that Servius himself could have been concerned with the mere grammatical point. He therefore regarded the note as an interpolation; a similar conclusion was reached, for slightly different reasons, by Georgii, Antike Äneiskritik 454-55. Cf. also Scivoletto, "Filologia" 117.


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should be construed impersonally in the passive: imperatur mihi , not imperor. Since iubeo came to be used with the dative under the influence of impero , it should be governed, Servius reasons, by the same rule: iubetur mihi , not iubeor —a bit strict, but certainly unexceptionable Latin. Servius's prohibition of the passive participle iussus is a further, less-than-thoughtful regularization.

But that leads to the Final consideration. The attempt at regularity that inspired Servius's remarks on Aeneid 10.444 is unlikely to have appealed to Probus.[63] In line with his taste for older authors unfashionable in his day, Probus's views ran in the direction of anomaly. His opinion concerning "those rotten rules and cesspools of grammar" is on record and accords with Suetonius's portrait of the man as something of an anomaly in the world of the grammatici , with interests and practices that deviated from the norm.[64] It would seem certain that the licence that disturbed Probus concerned the idea, the nonsensical (inline image) collocation of aequor and iussum (the bidden plain).[65] But Servius seized upon the grammatical form; finding in one of his sources a reference (probably vague) to Probus's annotation, he instinctively assumed their concerns were identical and saw support for his own eccentric position on the question of what "we say." Servius's treatment of his scholarly predecessor is precisely the same as his treatment of Vergil.

Servius's capacity for misunderstanding or misrepresenting his sources has been remarked before,[66] although not for the reason involved here. The note on Aeneid 10.444 takes us beyond casual manifestations of carelessness or animus to a distortion that, like the nuance of dicimus , is built-in and automatic. Conditioned by Servius's devotion to his professional role, the distortion is virtually a reflex, and as such brings us close to the center of Servius's identity.

[63] Although Aistermann, De M. Valerio 11, connected the scholium at 10.444 (= frg. 36 = frg. 98) with the view attributed to a Probus in cod. Paris. lat. 7491 fol. 92 (= GL 4, xxiii-xxiv = frg. 97), the latter probably does not go back to Valerius Probus but represents an inference drawn from Probus Inst. art., GL 4.156.33-157.3, on verba neutralia.

[64] See Chap. 2 at nn. 84, 85.

[66] See Goold, "Servius" 134-40, concerned mostly with pure blunders; and cf. Zetzel, Latin Textual Criticism 105f., suggesting that Servius's notes at 3.535 and 636 are a malicious distortion of Donatus.


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We can perhaps take the last step by looking at our third example, another instance of projection, which seems to define Servius's view of his own status:

4.9 INSOMNIA TERRENT et "terret" et "terrent" legitur. sed si "terret" legerimus, "insomnia" erit vigilia: hoc enim maiores inter vigilias et ea quae videmus in somnis interesse voluerunt, ut "insomnia" generis feminini numeri singularis vigiliam significaret, "insomnia" vero generis neutri numeri pluralis ea quae per somnum videmus. . . . sciendum igitur quia, si "terret" dixerimus, antiqua erit elocutio: "insomnia" enim, licet et Pacuvius et Ennius frequenter dixerit, Plinius tamen exclusit et de usu removit.

Servius's note on the variant readings is set squarely amid a minor bog of Latin lexicography, the distinction between the feminine singular insomnia , "sleeplessness," and the neuter plural insomnia , "(disturbing) dreams."[67] The lexical point, however, is not the central problem here, but the final clauses of Servius's note, sciendum . . . removit. These must ultimately derive from the elder Pliny's Dubii sermonis libri VIII and are included by Servius to inform his students that the feminine singular insomnia would involve an archaic form of expression.[68] The precise moment when the usage became obsolete is pinpointed, in Servius's understanding, by the magisterial act of Pliny—exclusit et de usu removit.

The statement and the idea behind it are intriguing: why—and more to the point, how—did Pliny treat the word so that it was excluded and removed from use? How did he express himself? We cannot know for certain, and there is room for various conjectures concerning the distinction Pliny made.[69] It does seem most likely, however, that Pliny's differentiation of the two ambiguous forms, one feminine singular only, the other neuter plural only, was intended primarily to emphasize the

[67] See Getty, "Insomnia" (similarly DeRuyt, "Note"); and the lengthy rejoinder in Ussani, Insomnia esp. 77-113. The disposition in TLL s.vv. insomnia (-ae , 1935.75-1936.61) and insomnium (-i , 1937.70-1938.76) is the most sensible both in classifying the forms and in noting uncertainties.

[68] Della Casa printed insomniam , the reading of cod. F. of DServ., in her edition of the Dub. serm. (frg. 15, "insomniam" enim . . . removit ) and may have been correct: Servius normally accommodates the case of the word he quotes to the syntax of his sentence. Regardless of whether one reads insomnia or insomniam in Servius, however, the context makes it plain that he means the feminine singular.

[69] For example, Barwick, Remmius 206, suggested that the statement represented a preference for ratio , analogy, over vetustas. Yet the principle of analogy scarcely seems relevant to this problem: more significant are the examples Barwick adduced (p. 207) to show Pliny's special interest in consuetudo.


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distinction in meaning, which is the center of attention in Servius and other grammarians as well. In that case, the distinction was probably grounded in Pliny's sense of consuetudo —the usage current in his own day—set against vetustas.

Pliny, in other words, was probably attempting to do no more than clarify an existing situation. In the literary language, the feminine singular was an archaism well before Pliny's day; it is attested only in the older republican poets, of the second and early first century B.C. , and thereafter in the archaizing authors of the second century A.D.[70] The neuter plural though, appears to have been used regularly in the literary language of the first century A.D. , including that of Pliny himself, and to have enjoyed even greater currency in ordinary speech.[71] If it is reasonable, then, to believe that Pliny's remarks simply recognized and defined the status quo , we might even suggest how Servius found those remarks transmitted in one of his sources—probably something along the lines of the following: Plinius [or sic Plinius or Plinius ait ]:[72] "insomnia," licet et Pacuvius et Ennius dixerit, penitus tamen de usu recessit [or exclusa est or remota est ].[73]

The precise form of the notice is not crucial; in distinguishing the usage of the antiqui , Pliny no doubt used some such phrase as hodie non utimur or abolevit or in usu non est , the kind of phrase that abounds in Servius. The point is this: the magisterial act—exclusit et de usu removit —was probably not Pliny's at all, but the product of Servius's interpretation, the act of a Pliny created by Servius in his own image, with his own prescriptive use of such phrases as hodie non utimur in mind. The chain of events suggested above, it is fair to say, accurately reflects both Servius's method and his self-image. There is no question who, in Servius's mind, has the final say in the life of the language: the simple observation of another man concerned with the language is translated by Servius, removed in time and imbued with the sense of his own authority, into an act of verbal extinction. Ipse dixit.

The grammarian's control of the language was something very personal. He was, to be sure, following a professional tradition of long standing when he offered his students a version of "Received Standard

[70] For insomnia (-ae ), see TLL 1935.75-1936.61.

[71] See Getty, "Insomnia" 21-22; TLL s.v. insomnium , 1939.9-10.

[72] The formula "Plinius: . . ." is of the kind commonly used to introduce the views of an individual in, e.g., the Scholia Veronensia.

[73] Cf. Servius at, e.g., 7.626; 9.4; or 12.298, TORREM erit nominativus "hic torris," et ita nunc dicimus: nam illud Ennii et Pacuvii penitus de usu recessit ; and Pomp. 187.10-12, legimus in Capro. . . . etiam Naevius, Attius, Pacuvius, omnes isti utuntur hoc exemplo. tamen ista de usu remota sunt. The citation of Caper is particularly suggestive, since Caper in his turn used Pliny as a major source.


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Imperial" Latin,[74] expressed in the impersonal terms of his craft—natura, regula , and the like. But as he filtered that version through his own idiosyncratic preferences, choices, and distinctions, the grammarian presented and thought of himself as the maker of the lingua aetatis suae , superior to the claims of auctoritas or antiquitas. Those dissatisfied with the grammarian's personal control could circumvent it only by insisting upon a higher authority: that of God, for example,[75] or the more diffuse authority of the maiores. Macrobius's Servius took the latter course in the incident from the Saturnalia with which we began this chapter; and for his efforts, the grammarian there was roundly abused by the youth Avienus for purveying the obsolete.

I have already emphasized the radical difference in this regard between the figure Macrobius created and the man who speaks in the commentary. It remains to underline one additional point. When Avienus demands that the participants in the symposium use praesentia verba , the aetatis suae verba (Sat. 1.5.1-2), he is demanding in effect that they speak natural, regular Latin, the Latin covered by the nunc dicimus of the commentary.[76] In other words, despite the conflict between youth and teacher that Macrobius imagined, Avienus speaks much more in the manner we should expect of a student of the real Servius than of an opponent; were Avienus not meant to prove himself a basically decent sort, it would be easy to imagine him behaving like grammarians' pupils who delight in pointing out what Vergil debuit dicere.[77] Avienus's rudeness in his dash with Servius is part of his characterization, a prelude to the broader education he receives in the symposium.[78] But that Avienus should speak as he does at the outset is appropriate in another respect: his initial

[74] The phrase is Löfstedt's, Late Latin 48.

[75] See Gregory the Great's challenge in Ep. 5.53a: situs motusque et praepositionum casus servare contemno, quia indignum vehementer existimo, ut verba caelestis oraculi restringam sub regulis Donati. Cf. Smaragdus of St. Michel (s.IX): "I disagree with Donatus, because I hold the authority of Scripture to be greater," cited by Robins, Ancient and Medieval Grammatical Theory 71 (his translation).

[76] In addition to the remarks above, see Pomp. 186.34-187.16 for usus falling together with ars ; cf. the revealing comment of Porphyrio on Hor. AP 70-71: "cadentque / quae nunc sunt in honore vocabula, si volet usus": hoc est, ratio loquendi. [usus ] nihil enim aliud est quam regula sermonis Latini. Petschenig correctly secluded usus in the note; the whole scholium is clearly a comment on usus in Horace's verse. See also ps.-Acro ad loc. , and Brink's valuable note, Horace 2.158-59.

[77] Thus the pueri scorned by St. Augustine, C. Faust. 22.25 (PL 42.417), in a comparison with those who find fault with the prophets: similes sunt, qui in magnis ista reprehendunt, pueris inperitis in schola, qui cure pro magno didicerint nomini numeri singularis verbum numeri singularis esse reddendum, reprehendunt Latinae linguae doctissimum auctorem, qui dixit [1.212] "pars in frusta secant." debuit enim, inquiunt, dicere "secat." On debuit dicere as a criticism, see n. 31.

[78] See Kaster, "Macrobius" 242ff.


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deficiencies are precisely comparable to those of the plebeia grammaticorum cohors , whose inadequate knowledge and narrowly defined expertise Macrobius repeatedly criticized. In the Saturnalia , the members of that cohors are despised for shutting themselves off, as though in a box sealed by their ignorance of the culture's roots, whereas the idealized grammarian uses the language to bring past and present together. But the Servius of the commentary limits the language's scope and personally guards all approaches to it. He is in fact just another member of the troop, using the box—his institutional niche—as his position of strength.

In these last two chapters we have reviewed some of the elements that contributed to this position of strength: the accumulation of learning preserved in the tradition on which the grammarian could rely; the confidence in the rational ordering of the language's nature and in the greater sophistication, relative to the ancients, that it brought; the ability to apply one's own learning and ratio to decide between competing views, or even to add a new or more solid piece to the great edifice here or there; and the anxious need to protect the nature of the language—and, closely linked to it, one's own expertise—from assault. There was in all this a nice cooperation between the grammarian and his tradition. The tradition fortified the grammarian in the authority and security of his niche; the grammarian preserved the tradition and paid it the compliment of his improvements.

Such cooperation made for an enduring equilibrium. The grammarian was not about to criticize the tradition in any basic and general way or to be encouraged by his fellows to do so. The obvious urge to be right was independent of any drive to say what was both true and fundamentally new in the conception of the language or in the methods of discussing it. In its broad outlines and in much of its detail, the truth had already been found, in Diomedes' phrase, through "the brilliance of human talent" (GL 1.299.3). Such confidence perhaps led to what modern scholars often see as stagnation and a failure to evolve. But in the eyes of the grammarian, that stagnation was nothing other than the stability of lasting achievement; the failure to evolve, a satisfaction with what was already effective. It is worth remembering that even the most significant innovation in the late-antique ars —Priscian's treatment of syntax—is self-consciously presented as an infusion of earlier learning from a branch of the tradition that his Latin colleagues had previously neglected:[79] what had worked before would continue to work, but would work even better for the adjustment.

[79] Prisc. GL 2.2.2ff., on the incorporation of the work done by Apollonius Dyscolus and Herodian.


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From this point of view, grammar's failure to evolve is not attributable to some failure of nerve or intelligence but is a measure of its success. It remained as it was not because it was exhausted but because it worked so well and so smoothly. Perhaps the grammarians' satisfaction with the forms of analysis and the conceptual categories they had inherited over the centuries, and likewise their confidence in the familiar ordering of the language's nature, would have been shaken if they had had to confront more unruly data, derived, say, from the vulgar language of the market or of the suburban countryside. At very least, their thinking might have been modified and might have been forced to move in new directions. But of course those strata of the language not only received no sustained and systematic attention; they were effectively beneath interest. Indeed, they were not just beneath interest; they were what the inherited forms of analysis and conceptual categories, with their heavily normative emphasis, were meant to rise above. And that normative emphasis derived in turn from the embedding of the grammarians' position of strength in a larger structure of status and honor. So, after examining the grammarians' understanding of their skill and of their authority within the confines of their niche, we are reminded that this niche did not exist in a vacuum. In the next chapter we will ask how the grammarians' authority served them when they moved beyond the classroom to make their way in the world at large.


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GENTLEMEN AND SCHOLARS


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Chapter 6
The Social Relations of the Grammarians

cum . . . Servius a Symmacho rogatus esset quidnam de his existimaret: "licet," inquit, "in hoc coetu non minus doctrina quam nobilitate reverendo magis mihi discendum sit quam docendum, famulabor tamen arbitrio iubentis, et insinuabo."


When Symmachus requested his judgment on these matters, Servius said, "Although it is more fitting for me to learn than to teach in this gathering, to which reverence is due no less for its learning than for its nobility, I shall nonetheless obey the will and bidding of Symmachus, and speak."
—Macrobius, Saturnalia 1.4.4


Within his classroom, the grammarian was the master of his craft, a commanding figure, raised up by his texts, his tradition, and reason, just as he was exalted by the cathedra on which he sat. Still, he could enjoy this mastery for only a fraction of his waking hours, and each day he had to descend from his throne and lift the curtains at the school's threshold.[1] What happened when he stepped outside?

There was, to begin with, a significant carry-over of honor from the classroom. To be called magister was a mark of respect, a reminder that one was engaged in a splendida ars and was one of the better sort of person (inline image).[2] The grammarian, set apart from the mob by his expertise, belonged to the Kulturwelt and shared its pride.[3] As we saw in Chapter 2, that distinction was a target for some Christian writers in

[1] Grammaticarum scholarum liminibus appensa vela : Aug. Conf. 1.13.22; cf. De util. ieiun. 9, Serm. 178.8.


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their polemics against the traditional culture. The problem, to all appearances, did not much raze the grammarian, conscious of his prestige and unwilling to swallow embarrassment, whatever his religious affiliations.[4] Reputation, after all, was a commodity not to be trifled with: it provided the great name that would be boasted on one's epitaph; it was something on which one's native town could preen itself, whether one taught at home or abroad; it might even catch the ear of the emperor.[5]

Not surprisingly, therefore, grammarians could occasionally serve, like other men of standing, as public spokesmen or conduits of patronage. Early in the reign of Anastasius, probably in 491 or 495, Timotheus of Gaza directed to the emperor a composition concerned with the horrors of the collatio lustralis , an especially hated tax that bore most heavily upon merchants and small tradesmen. (Timotheus's action can be called disinterested, since teachers were not subject to the levy.) We might doubt Cedrenus's bald claim that Anastasius abolished the tax because of Timotheus's composition; other considerations aside, the chronology of his account is obviously confused. But it does appear that the tax was abolished not very long after Timotheus's plea.[6]

If Timotheus's intercession must remain a bit obscure, a more detailed case study is available from the fourth century in the person of Nicocles.[7] Having his origins in Sparta, Nicocles chose Constantinople as the place to make his career, and apparently he chose well. By 340 he was successful enough to promise to supply Libanius with forty students, when Libanius was only a budding private teacher of rhetoric in the new capital.[8] The offer highlights two elements in the relations between men at different levels of the teaching profession: not only the cooperative channeling of students from grammarian to rhetorician,[9] but also the use of such favors as a club—for Nicocles hoped simultaneously to oblige Libanius and, by establishing Libanius as a rival, to spite a sophist who

[4] Cf. "Prologue" p. 6, on Aetius's teacher at Anazarbus.

[6] See Cedren. 1.627.7-10 Bekker, where Anastasius is also said to have been swayed by a delegation of monks from Jerusalem; Suda T.621; and Part II no. 156.

[7] See, in addition to nn. 8-17 following, the full analysis of the sources in Part II no. 106.

[8] Lib. Or. 1.31.

[9] Cf. also Lib. Ep. 832, to Nicocles, Ep. 398.2, to Acacius (see Part II no. 1).


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had wronged him.[10] But Nicocles' moment as a man of consequence only came two decades later, during the reign of Julian. The stage had been set in late 347 or early 348, when the prince, released from his exile at Macellum, had been allowed by his uncle Constantius to continue his education in relative freedom at Constantinople. There he was taught by Nicocles and the sophist Hecebolius; and when Julian reached the throne thirteen years later and came east, Nicocles was not slow to exploit the friendship he could claim with the emperor for his tuition.[11] Doubtless because of Nicocles' favor, his brother Sozomenus appears as governor of Lycia early in 363.[12]

Others, too, were quick to see the potential in the situation. So Libanius evidently managed to forget an old grudge and make friendly overtures to Nicocles, who finds a place in Libanius's correspondence—and so in his network of useful connections—for the first time in 363. Nicocles is thanked for his efforts in spreading Libanius's fame, and Libanius promises to return the favor.[13] Letters of recommendation make their way from Antioch to Constantinople in behalf of a wandering poet or of men hoping to make a public career.[14] And perhaps most significant, Libanius attempts to enlist Nicocles' help in dissuading Julian from moving his court to Tarsus from Antioch.[15] As a known friend of the emperor, however, Nicocles was clearly not confined to serving Libanius's interests: when rioting at Constantinople had set the city prefect and the population against each other, Nicocles helped bring about a reconciliation; and he expected to represent the city in an embassy to Julian at Antioch concerning the same matter.[16]

But Julian went to Persia and died before the embassy occurred, and Nicocles' influence died with him.[17] Based on the loyalty of his extraordinary pupil, Nicocles' prominence was as unexpected as Julian's reign,

[10] Lib. Or. 1.31; cf. Ep. 557.1-2, regarding Nicocles' apparent participation in the conspiracy of sophists and grammarians to drive Libanius from Constantinople ca. 343 (Or. 1.44).

[12] Lib. Ep. 1383, with Bull. ép. 1979, 509 no. 4.

[13] Lib. Ep. 810.1-3.

[14] Poet: Lib. Ep. 816, including the none-too-subtle hint that Nicocles should pay him well; for the type, cf. Lib. Ep. 969, in behalf of Diphilus, 632, in behalf of Eudaemon of Pelusium; Aen. Gaz. Ep. 9, 10. Hopes for a career: see esp. Lib. Ep. 832, in behalf of Theodorus, a former pupil of both Nicocles and Libanius; 810, in behalf of Hyparchius (= PLRE I s.v., p. 449); with 1119.1-2, in behalf of Hercul(i)anus (= PLRE I s.v. Herculanus 1, p. 420).

[15] Lib. Ep. 1368.3.

[16] Lib. Ep. 1368.1.

[17] See esp. Lib. Ep. 1265, 1266, 1492, with pp. 214f. below.


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and as evanescent. Nor are there other examples to set beside it.[18] The case of Nicocles is perhaps finally the exception that proves the rule: like the story of the grammarians' origins and social status in Chapter 3, the story of their social relations and of the prestige and influence that they enjoyed in consequence of their profession is largely set within narrow horizons.

The varieties and causes of these restrictions are not far to seek. First and foremost, the grammarian's place on the threshold of liberal disci-plines[19] matched his liminal position of social mediocrity, the modest good standing beyond which the status and application of his expertise was not by itself sufficient to raise him. As we have already noted and as we shall see further, neither his origins nor his skills were commonly suited to set him squarely before the public eye. The grammarian Philtatius of Athens (if he was in fact a grammarian) might receive a statue as the city's thanks for putting his skills to public use by reestablishing the colometry of texts in one of the city's libraries; but that honor grew out of uncommon circumstances, reconstruction in the wake of barbarian devastation. It is unparalleled.[20] In more ordinary conditions, the grammarian might claim a moment as a quasi-public figure by stepping out of his professional role to become an encomiast.[21] But when the city needed the combination of standing and eloquence that made for an effective spokesman or ambassador, the choice fell naturally on the rhetorician.[22]

Moreover, the grammarian's place on the threshold of liberal culture made it difficult for him to develop a cluster of former students who had gone on to become influential men. The grammarian's role was pro-paedeutic: his students were parvuli ; the rhetorician's were perfecti.[23] In practical terms this meant that, though some of the grammarian's stu-

[18] Cf. Chap. 3 p. 130, on the status and rewards of imperial tutors in more ordinary circumstances, and p. 132, on Simplicius and Pamprepius and their careers as ex-grammarians dependent on a single powerful patron.

[19] Ennod. Dict. 10.4: liberalium disciplinarum limen. Cf. id. Opusc. 6.11.

[20] Olympiod. frg. 32. For the historical setting, see Thompson, "Athenian Twilight"; Frantz, "Honors." On Philtatius's service and the question of his profession, see Part II no. 119.

[21] See Chap. 3 pp. 123f., with nn. 131, 132.

[22] See esp. Lib. Or. 19-23, on the Riot of the Statues (cf. Or. 1.252-54); and, e.g., PLRE I s.vv. Eusebius 24 (p. 305, with pp. 219-20 below), Firminus 3 (p. 339; on his career, see also Basil Ep. 116, 117, and Kopacek, "Curial Displacements" 327ff.). For the sophist's intercession with the praetorian prefect, cf. Lib. Or. 1.109, Ep. 833.1-2; Theodoret. Ep. LII, to Isocasius.

[23] Pelag. Expos. in Rom. 6.14 (p. 52.1ff. Souter). In the analogy around which the passage is built, the Christians stand in the same relation to the Jews as the rhetorician's students do to the grammarian's.


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dents might begin careers with no further training,[24] most went on to the rhetorician's school. When they subsequently set about their life's business, their loyalty to their more recent teacher would account for a large part of the influence a rhetorician could claim, as Libanius's network of former students shows.[25] One can surmise that their loyalty to the grammarian, a more distant figure from their earlier years, was more attenuated and remote, less easily mobilized.[26]

Overshadowed by the rhetorician's inevitably greater visibility and prestige, the grammarian's institutional niche gave him his position of strength but also set his limitations. His expertise was esoteric enough to set him apart from the great majority of the population, but within the charmed world of the litterati it involved no extraordinary distinction, and little mystery. It was obviously not esoteric at all in the way of modern professions, encapsulated and set off by specialized training as they typically are from even the educated lay public. It was instead eminently accessible to all the educated. The grammarian did not, after all, claim to be a charismatic teacher (as the Christian bishop did) and was not by definition a literary artist as well as a teacher (as the rhetorician was), but was fundamentally and simply a man of ratio and memoria. The qualities and attainments that gave the grammarian his authority in the classroom, even if not directly transmissible, were nurtured in his pupils by his teaching and, if he taught successfully, ceased to be distinctive to him. Since the grammarian and the educated layman occupied largely common ground, the grammarian's knowledge was not different in kind—or even necessarily in quantity—from that of any well-bred litteratus. The talented amateur could stand forth as a questioner and critic (inline image) of the professionals on their own ground.[27] Nongrammarians could produce learned works rooted in inline imageinline image , whether tricked out in literary elegance like the great works of Macrobius and Martianus Capella or straightforward manuals much like the grammarians' own.[28]

[24] Cf. Chap. 1 at n. 62.

[25] See Petit, Étudiants esp. 154ff.

[26] Note that Julian was already nearly an adult, with much of his education behind him, when he formed his connection with Nicocles; see the appendix to Part II no. 106. The connection was as extraordinary in this regard as it was in others.

[27] Damasc. V. Isid. frg. 331 Zintzen = epit. Phot. 298, of Agapius.

[28] So the De metris of Fl. Mallius Theodorus, the De differentiis societatibusque Graeci Latinique verbi of Macrobius, or the handbooks of Charisius (cf. Part II no. 200) and Consentius (cf. Part II no. 203). Note, conversely, the works of general learning produced by grammarians on topics ranging from zoology and medicinal herbs (Part II nos. 61, 156) through a survey of the provinces and cities of the eastern empire (Part II no. 76) to humor (Part II no. 117). Cf. also the philosophical or theological writings of grammarians and ex-grammarians: Part II nos. 38, 81, 82, 118, 124, 135.


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It is useful to imagine some of the consequences that might follow from this embedding of the grammarian's profession in the shared life of the elite. To begin with, since the grammarian's knowledge was as fundamental to the distinctive literacy and the prestige of the nonprofessional elite as to his own, the conservatism of his doctrine would be reinforced. The common ground would exercise a strong gravitational pull: the profession would be less free than its modern counterpart to follow its own lead (for better or worse, toward new understanding or the merely faddish), to spin off in the direction of esoteric concerns, or to become fragmented (in the manner of many modern professions) in proliferating subspecialties and techniques. Or to put it another way, two kinds of self-interest would converge to stabilize doctrine: if the grammarian within his institutional niche was not about to challenge or renovate radically the tradition that fortified him, as was suggested at the end of the last chapter, neither would he be expected or encouraged to do so by the litterati outside that niche, whose own interests were scarcely less involved. The grammarian's audience did not usually speak the command, Astonish me!

The litterati would instead look for qualities other than searching criticism and innovation. When Augustine wants to illustrate the principle that the Word must be loved before it can be understood, he turns naturally to the example of the grammarian's audience, who expect the grammarian to confirm the greatness of the texts on which he comments and so to confirm the assumptions that they bring to the texts even before they have read them.[29] When the grammarians are criticized by the learned elite, as they are, for example, by Tiberius Claudius Donatus and by Macrobius, it is not for offering crambe repetita , nor conversely for extending their investigations to a level of expertise beyond the reach of educated laymen, but for superficiality, for falling short of the standards that the educated set.[30] It is not a conceptually fresh and independent approach that is desired, but more of the same; not brilliance, but application, industry, and affirmation. The expectations thus press perceptibly away from the exercise of purely intellectual gifts, and toward intellectual habits that express ethical qualities—qualities that inform a man's behavior overall, that reveal themselves in his personal relations no less

[29] Aug. De util. cred. 6.13, with which compare Servius's comment at, e.g., Aen. 7.647; and cf. Chap. 5 on the function, in part exculpatory, of figura, antiquitas , and the like.

[30] Ti. Claudius Donatus Interp. Vergil. 1.1.5ff. Georgii; Macrob. Sat. esp. 1.24.12-13, 5.18-22, with Kaster, "Macrobius" 235f., 252ff.


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than in his professional activities, and that lend themselves to personal judgments.

We have already seen an example of how such qualities were viewed by the learned elite, in the Saturnalia of Macrobius, where the traits desirable in a grammarian are displayed in a setting of generalized, shared expertise.[31] There the virtues of modesty (verecundia ) and diligence (diligentia ) are emphasized above all: they are displayed not only by the good grammarian, represented by Servius, but by all the invited participants; they are assumed to have been the controlling virtues of Vergil, as well, whose text is at the center of the discussion. The virtues in fact hold the world of the dialogue together, since they impel men to maintain their contacts with their culture's past at the same time that they allow harmonious and fruitful conversation to proceed. Each member has a special contribution to make out of his own learning; and the dignity of each man's learning corresponds to his place in a hierarchy of birth and age, from the linguistic expertise of the grammarian, the humblest of the group, through the religious knowledge of the great figure, Praetextatus. But at the same time individual knowledge is not stressed, and the express belief is that learning is distributed broadly throughout the gathering, so that one man is prepared to refine or to add to another's contribution without rancor or self-aggrandizement. It is thoroughly appropriate that when analogy is used, one of the conceptual foundations of the grammarian's skill, other members of the group in addition to the grammarian apply it and simultaneously extend it to ratify usages that the grammarian in his own work would not embrace; the sources of linguistic authority are broadened, just as authority in the dialogue as a whole is diffused throughout the group, not focused in one man.

The display of virtues and the diffusion of expertise and authority are part of Macrobius's ideal in his admiring portrait of the aristocracy of birth and letters at Rome. As we shall see, however, the ideal makes contact with facts of life that would affect the professional teacher wherever he taught. Not least important of these was the judgment of professional competence, which rested fundamentally with laymen. A professio at base was no more than a public statement made by men offering "their services . . . at their own discretion."[32] In a world without specialized training and certification, without formal and rationalized means of establishing standards within the profession comparable to the institutions that serve those purposes today (graduate or professional schools,' learned associations and journals, for example), no mechanisms

[31] See Chap. 2 pp. 60-62; Chap. 5 pp. 171f., 195.

[32] Lewis, Atti 516.


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were commonly available for reaching impersonal judgments, or judgments that at least aimed at being objective in principle. Inevitably—and in the circumstances, not unreasonably—one could claim to be competent because the community at large believed one was competent, and especially because respected and prominent members of the community said so. For private teachers, what mattered was the word of mouth passed by fathers willing to send their sons to one's school or by patrons suggesting they should. For teachers aiming at a publicly supported post, what mattered was the approval (probatio , inline image) of the town council or, correspondingly, of the senate at Rome or Constantinople.[33]

Even for the formal probatio , the teacher necessarily depended on the good opinion of others outside the profession: in the absence of a formal test, general reputation and the recommendation of well-placed supporters were paramount.[34] A rhetorician would make his name in part by displaying his literary talents in public contests: such opportunities for star turns and for building an independent reputation were part of the rhetorician's greater visibility;[35] in this respect as in others, the grammarian's trajectory was lower. His expertise did not lend itself to public displays from which stellar reputations could be won, and in fact


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the evidence for such displays of the skills and knowledge specific to his profession is virtually nonexistent.[36] Instead, his expertise lent itself to displays in private settings and accumulated its reputation less dramatically through contacts made face to face.

As a result, we commonly see the grammarians playing the part of private consultants, a role comparable to that at the beginning of their history, when they were typically attached as slaves or freedmen to the great houses of late-republican Rome. That the role remains, despite the general rise in the grammarians' social status, can be attributed to the nature of their expertise. The idealized picture of Macrobius's Servius, making his modest contribution to the discussion of the learned nobiles in the intimacy of the salon, where his mores are as much on display as his learning, is not far removed from the scenes glimpsed in life. Faustus in Africa receives the liber epigrammaton of Luxurius for vetting. Sidonius Apollinaris in Gaul relies on Domitius for a similar service and invites him to share the contubernium of his estate. In Syria, Libanius recalls the advice he received in conversations with Eudaemon. Diomedes dedicates his compilation to Athanasius, a work written in lieu of conversation (which he also promises when they are together again) and in answer to Athanasius's interest.[37] So, more generally, there is the typical claim that a work was undertaken at the suggestion or request of the dedicatee.[38] The stimulus professedly comes primarily from the outside rather than from the writer's desire or duty to make a professional

[36] Only Gell. NA 16.6.1-12 might be so interpreted, concerning quispiam linguae Latinae litterator [= grammaticus ; see ibid. 11], Roma a Brundisinis accersitus , who made himself available for public tests of his expertise (experiundum sese vulgo dabat ). The passage shows, however, that these occasions were later than and independent of his summons to the town. Contrast Pamprepius, given a post at Constantinople after reciting either a poem or a discourse on the soul (Malch. frg. 20 and Damasc. V. Isid. frg. 178 Zintzen, with Part II no. 114); or Ioannes Lydus, given a chair of Latin at Constantinople by Justinian after delivering an encomium of the emperor (De mag. 3.28, with Part II no. 92); or Phoebicius of Bordeaux, gaining his chair through the patronage of a son (Auson. Prof. 10.29-30), probably the rhetorician Attius Patera; and see further below.

[37] Faustus (Part II no. 58): Luxurius Anth. Lat. 1:1.287. Domitius (Part II no. 50): Sidon. Apoll. Carm. 24.10ff., Ep. 2.2. Eudaemon (Part II no. 55): Lib. Ep. 255. Diomedes (Part II no. 47): GL 1.299.2-10, 391.16-17. Cf. also Chap. 4 for the vignettes of consultation and questioning Pompeius inserted in his work, probably as a reflection of his own experiences.

[38] Besides Diomedes, see Don. Epist. praef. 15f. Hardie; Serv. De fin., GL 4.449.3, Cledon. Ars, GL 5.92.2ff.; Prisc. Inst., GL 2.2.24ff. and 194.2ff., De fig. num., De met. Terent., praeex., GL 3.405.8ff.; Eutych. Ars de verb., GL 5.447.8ff. This ancient convention was of course firmly rooted in belles lettres : see the examples collected by Gudeman, Tac. Dial. 41 n. 1; Janson, Prose Prefaces (esp. 116ff. for late-antique texts); Murgia, "Date" 124f.


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contribution to his field:[39] the work itself forms part of the grammarian's social relations, as a token or gift that tightens the bonds between the dedicator and the recipient.[40]

Several strands in these relations are brought together in the brief story that the grammarian Sacerdos sketches at the beginning of Book 3 of his Artes grammaticae.[41] Sacerdos dedicated his first book to the vir clarissimus Gaianus, a companion of long standing (contubernalis ), his contemporary and onetime fellow student. Gaianus's father, Uranius, learned of the book and was pleased by it—either, as Sacerdos charmingly remarks, because it was "not put together ineptly" or because it was dedicated to his son—and compelled Sacerdos to undertake a second book. Sacerdos gladly obeyed Uranius's commands and was subsequently commended by him to two other gentlemen of senatorial rank, whose commands Sacerdos then satisfied in his third book. What began as a perhaps well-calculated act of friendship, growing out of the intimacy of contubernium , thus developed into a series of relations that allowed the grammarian to increase the number of his patrons.

For Sacerdos, his long-standing comradeship (contubernium ) with Gaianus was evidently the key: it provided the initial opportunity to display his skills; and it acted as an implicit guarantee, a social code that could assure Gaianus's father and friends that Sacerdos—although certainly not a vir clarissimus himself—was still in some sense a gentleman, one of them, a decent and respectable sort to whom they could deign to give their attention.[42] It served the purpose, in other words, that is served in different circumstances by stressing mores. Recent research on patronage and public careers under the empire has properly emphasized the importance attached to personal qualities in, say, letters of recommendation, and has noted the weight given good character in appointments and promotions—a weight apparently at least equivalent to specialized competence and merit, as those qualities might be judged in technical or impersonal terms.[43] In connection with teachers and others in the liberal professions, we have already had occasion to remark the

[39] The only significant exception—and that only partial—is provided by Prisc. Inst. : besides noting the urgings and commands of Iulianus (see n. 38), Priscian speaks of the undertaking (GL 2.2.2f.) as a rem . . . officio professionis non indebitam. For still a different note—the grammarian's work presented as the fruit of gentlemanly leisure—see Serv. De met. Hor., GL 4.468.6, with Chap. 2 p. 66.

[40] Cf. also Chap. 2 p. 68 for comments on teachers' dedications to their pupils.

[41] GL 6.496.5ff. The significance of the passage, and especially the importance of contubernium , are well brought out by Champlin, Fronto 45.

[42] Cf. GL 6.497.1: quoniam iubere dignati estis.

[43] See Pedersen, Public Professionalism 30f.; and esp. Saller, Personal Patronage 95ff.; note also the implications of Campbell, "Who Were the 'Viri Militares'?," and of Brunt, "Administration." Personal or ethical criteria, though almost inevitably subjective in their application, were not therefore arbitrary in themselves; for they made sense (even if it was not our kind of sense) in their social setting, and a coherent account of them can be given. It seems necessary to stress this point, in view of a tendency simply to link or identify the subjective and the arbitrary—so, e.g., Frei-Stolba, reviewing Saller in Gnomon 55 (1983) 142, speaks of "durchaus subjektiven und willkürlichen Kriterien."


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importance of such personal criteria: the infrequency with which professional skills are singled out as the sole or primary grounds of commendation, and the regularity with which mores receive equal or greater emphasis, so that the distinction between technical attainments and personal qualities is blurred and the notion of competence embraces both.[44] This union of ethos and expertise derived from the learned elite's traditional and comforting assumption that not only were the good to be identified with the learned, but true learning must proceed from good character. Gellius's famous definition of humanitas , equating it with learning and education (eruditio institutioque ) on the one hand and with such ethical qualities as devotion and discipline (cura et disciplina ) on the other, generalizes what Ausonius surely had in mind when he described one grammarian of implacidi mores as also (and inevitably) doctrina exiguus .[45]

In everyday usage, the stress on good mores offered the assurance that the man so described would fit in and not disrupt the stately world of learned gentlemen. Here again the literary description of the good grammarian Servius, "at once admirable in his learning and attractive in his modesty" (Sat . 1.2.15) as he takes his place inconspicuously in the placid microcosm of the symposium, makes contact with the real world of social relations, since that description conforms to the terms used in letters of commendation.[46] Meeting the need to establish that their subjects are the right sort, such letters run heavily to the praise of personal attributes. Writing in behalf of Eudaemon of Pelusium, Libanius emphasizes his family's respectable standing (inline image) and virtuous restraint (inline image).[47] On another occasion, Libanius refers again to the same characteristics, using them to bracket the observation that Eudaemon is "one of the eloquent," and goes on to add that Eudaemon "is fairer in my eyes than a brother."[48] In a letter that can stand as a

[44] Chap. 2 pp. 65f., with nn. 137, 138, 140.

[46] See Chap. 2 n. 137.

[47] Lib. Ep . 108.2.


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concise example of the genre, written to Alexander of Heliopolis in behalf of an homonymous teacher, Libanius says, "As for the grammarian who shares your name, consider him a good man and one very well versed in literature, and enroll him among those who know how to be a friend."[49]

When Libanius promises this magnate of Heliopolis that the grammarian Alexander knows how to be a friend, he is promising in effect that Alexander will fit snugly into the man's network of connections and dependents: as a worthy recipient of his favor and protection, one prepared to make what return he could. Alexander was moving from Antioch to Heliopolis, and Libanius here is smoothing the way, enlisting a powerful patron for Alexander, passing him along in much the same way that Gaianus's father passed Sacerdos along to his friends, and probably in much the same terms. The patron could presumably be relied on, for example, to spread the word among his connections in order to guarantee Alexander a healthy number of students in his new position; in return, Alexander could be relied on, if needed, to put his knowledge at the patron's disposal, and in general to play the part of a friend by spreading the word of his patron's loyalty and influence.[50] The letter would thus ease Alexander into a position of genteel dependence as the lesser member of a patronage relationship—what has recently and well been described as the continuing, reciprocal, but asymmetrical exchange relationship between men of unequal social status.[51]

The importance of the relationship can be inferred in the case of Sacerdos. It is glimpsed directly in the case of Alexander or of Iulianus Pomerius, who enjoyed the protection of the potens Firminus at Aries late in the fifth century.[52] It is perhaps attested most warmly by Augustine, when he recalls the patronage of Romanianus at the early stages of his career. A dominant figure of Thagaste, Romanianus gave Augustine his protection and intimacy when Augustine returned home to teach: he entrusted Augustine with the education of his son, and he even helped

[49] Lib. Ep . 1256.3.

[50] Cf. Lib. Ep . 467, thanking a patron for his help at court and promising to make a return through his attentions to the man's son, his pupil; similarly Ep . 491.3.

[51] See Saller, Personal Patronage 1ff., after J. Boissevain. The lesser member of the pair could make his exchange concretely, e.g., by presenting a composition to his patron; or, something intangible but perhaps even more important, by publicizing the greater man's excellence whenever the opportunity arose. For a blending of both types of return, see Lib. Or . 1.111, a panegyric of the PPO Strategius Musonianus explicitly undertaken to repay an earlier favor.

[52] V. Caes . 1.8f., with Part II no. 124.


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Augustine in his ambition to seek a more prestigious position at Carthage, although Romanianus would have preferred him to remain in his patria .[53]

Such relations (and we shall examine other cases below) were crucial to the teacher's professional life—but not only to his professional life, a point that should be emphasized immediately. Just as the line between professional and personal qualities is blurred in the language of approbation and commendation, so the exercise of patronage ignores any distinction between the professional and the personal spheres of the teacher's life: it embraces both and confounds them. In 361 the grammarian Calliopius and his father were teaching Libanius's son at Antioch; Libanius wrote to Iulianus, the praeses Euphratensis , asking him to show favor to Calliopius's brother-in-law, for by doing so, Libanius said, Iulianus would dispose the teachers more favorably toward the son.[54] In 358, the grammarian Tiberinus, a native of Arabia teaching at Antioch, turned to Libanius when his son was the object of a lawsuit in his native province: Libanius wrote to the governor Maximus, told him that Tiberinus was "a good man and a teacher of the poets," and tried to engage his good will for Tiberinus's son, basing his appeal on Maximus's respect for culture, his respect for Tiberinus's native and adopted cities, and his respect for Libanius himself.[55]

The same years find Libanius exerting himself in behalf of the grammarian Cleobulus, who had been Libanius's teacher and whom Libanius therefore looked on "as a child does his father."[56] The extent of Libanius's efforts suggests that this was more than just a form of words. On two occasions we can see Libanius mediating between one or another of Cleobulus's relatives and a pair of imperial officials, seeking a staff position in one case and special favor in the other.[57] Particularly revealing is a group of eight letters that show the persistence of a good patron at work.[58] In 359 Cleobulus was being hounded with a suit that threatened a fine he could not afford if it went against him. He turned to a man he regarded as a friend (inline image) and protector (inline image), Themistius, who at the time was proconsul of Constantinople, but Themistius was unresponsive.[59] Libanius then entered the affair, sending a series of letters in the course of the year to Themistius, to Clearchus, who held an official

[53] Aug. C. Acad . 2.2.3.

[54] Lib. Ep . 678; cf. Chap. 2 p. 69; and cf. n. 50 above.

[55] Lib. Ep . 337. Cf. Ep . 431, promising the intervention of Libanius and others in a suit lodged against the grammarian Acacius, who had in the past sent some of his students on to Libanius: Ep . 398.

[56] Lib. Ep . 361.2; cf. Ep . 231.1. The documentation for what follows is discussed fully at Part II no. 32.

[57] Lib. Ep . 361, 82.

[58] Lib. Ep . 52, 67-69, 90, 91, 155, 231.

[59] See esp. Lib. Ep . 67.


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position of some sort, and to the physician Hygi(ei)nus, a friend of Themistius. Libanius's repeated petitions had no effect beyond causing his irritation to mount, and the suit finally went against Cleobulus. Changing his strategy to meet Cleobulus's need, Libanius appealed to his own relative Bassianus, who was also a former pupil of Cleobulus. Reminding Bassianus of "the labors of the good Cleobulus" in his behalf, Libanius called on him to reciprocate.[60] The appeal worked, and Bassianus gave Cleobulus the money to pay his fine, saving him from ruin.

These examples suggest the range of needs served by the teacher's patronal connections; and the case of Cleobulus perhaps best shows the real strength of the conventional pieties through which such connections were expressed: the stress on personal relationship, the pressure toward reciprocity and loyalty, the desire to show oneself a good man by helping, on a variety of fronts, the good man under one's protection. But the case of Cleobulus also clearly suggests the limits of the conventions: although Cleobulus thought he could call on Themistius as friend and protector, Themistius felt free to turn a deaf ear; and Libanius's influence was plainly too weak to move the greater man.

A similar lesson is still more vividly drawn in the case of Nicocles. We have already remarked what prominence Nicocles enjoyed during Julian's reign on the strength of his connection with his former pupil. But the death of his great protector exposed Nicocles to men ready to cut him down to size, or who at least were no longer inclined to pay him respect. Nicocles' isolation is seen in his relations with his former pupil Clearchus, who as vicarius Asiae turned on his old teacher after Julian's death to get his own back for some wrong he believed Nicocles had dealt him in the past.[61] The precise form of Clearchus's harassment is not clear, but it was sufficiently serious that Nicocles called on Libanius to mediate. Libanius first wrote a letter of rebuke to Clearchus, by turns warning him that Fortune is fickle—"The goddess delights both in raising up the fallen and in bringing down the proud"—and reminding him that he had once been Nicocles' "child" (inline image), that Clearchus's father had entrusted him, as Clearchus had entrusted his brother, to Nicocles.[62] The latter appeal, of the sort that had worked with Bassianus, had no effect. Although Clearchus's reply is not preserved, one can guess that it put Nicocles and Libanius alike in their places; for the tone of Libanius's second letter is dramatically different, fawning where he had earlier

[61] Lib. Ep . 1265, 1266, 1492. For vague reference to Clearchus's motives, see Ep . 1266.3; and cf. n. 64 below.


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been reproachful, and with a sneer for Nicocles: "Granted that Nicocles is otherwise worthless [inline image], he at least deserves respect [inline image] because he 'made you such as you are, godlike Achilles.'"[63] On the most charitable interpretation, the letter shows Libanius trying to salvage a bad situation by taking the tack least likely to offend Clearchus.[64]

Nicocles' vulnerability after Julian's death reminds us again of the perils of dependence on a single patron.[65] It was a lesson Pamprepius had a chance to learn early on, when he fell afoul of the magnate Theagenes at Athens and was forced to quit the city.[66] It was a lesson, too, that must gradually have impressed itself on Lollianus of Oxyrhynchus when in making his petition to the emperors he pinned his hopes on the only man of consequence he knew, the courtier he calls "Brother": the surviving draft of Lollianus's letter represents his third attempt to enlist "Brother's" help, and the presumption is strong that the man had simply ignored the first two, as Themistius ignored Cleobulus's appeal.[67]

But even a more differentiated network of relations did not guarantee success or peace of mind; most notably, one risked being squeezed between feuding patrons. So, for example, Diphilus had the misfortune to be the protégé of Libanius when the latter was on wretched terms with another of Diphilus's patrons, Eustathius, governor of Syria. Eustathius promised a favor to Diphilus, who was uncertain whether or not he should accept. (It was less than he had hoped for, and he was a bit put out as a result.) Diphilus turned for advice to Libanius, who persuaded him to take what had been offered. Eustathius thereupon reneged, in order, so Libanius says, to make fools of both of them: "For he thought it would be a terrible thing if Diphilus could spread the word to Palestine [the province where Diphilus taught] that I have enough power to benefit a friend."[68] Clearly, genteel dependence in any form was not without its drawbacks.

[64] Note that Clearchus, like Nicocles and Libanius, was a pagan; his persecution of Nicocles therefore cannot be ascribed to an antipagan reaction after Julian's death. For Nicocles' paganism and Libanius's allusions to a backlash, see Part II no. 106; for Clearchus, see von Haehling, Religionszugehörigkeit 118f.

[65] Cf. Chap. 2 p. 132, on Simplicius and Pamprepius.

[66] Malch. frg. 20, with Part II no. 114. To judge from his subsequent career (see n. 65), he did not take the lesson to heart.

[67] PCollYoutie 2.66 = POxy . 47.3366, B23. For the level of Lollianus's other connections, see Chap. 3 n. 138.

[68] Lib. Or . 54.56-57, with Part II no. 49. The incident concerns Diphilus qua poet, but that should not alter the general point made here.


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In the discussion so far we have been concerned almost exclusively with private patronage and mediation. But the presence of the governor Eustathius in the incident just noted and the desirability of an extended network of patrons raise another issue: the place of official patronage and state intervention in the lives of our grammarians. It is time, then, to shift our attention from private to ostensibly public connections: in the rest of the chapter we shall consider the involvement of imperial officials in the schools of the provinces, the apparent blurring of the distinction between municipal and imperial authority in scholastic matters, and the implications for the kinds of relationship we have examined in the pages above.[69]

Evidence for such involvement is not lacking; we should note first, however, that the most notorious piece of evidence is in fact of little consequence. I refer, of course, to Julian's law of 17 June 362, which was intended, as he subsequently made clear, to drive Christian teachers from the schools.[70] By this law, Julian commanded that all teachers be approved first by a decree of the town council, with the agreement of the best men of the town, and that the decree then be sent for his own review and judgment. The demand was unprecedented in two regards. First, it asserted explicitly that in the matter of education the local council merely acted as the emperor's proxy.[71] Second, and perhaps more striking, it extended the scope of the council's probatio to include not only teachers seeking municipally funded positions and immunities[72] but all teachers, public and private.[73] This amounted to a clear restriction of what had hitherto been a free professio .

But neither this broad limitation nor the principle of imperial review of local probationes (in any application of the term) appears to have outlived Julian's equally unprecedented sectarian purposes. The law, it is true, was incorporated in the Code; but in 438 it could only have been a dead letter, with little more meaning for the conduct of affairs than the old command of Constantine (CTh 16.10.1) that if the palace or any other public building were struck by lightning the haruspices should be consulted retento more veteris observantiae . In fact, we do not know of a single case before or after Julian's reign in which the normal probatio of a provincial

[69] The role of the state in late-antique education has often been discussed. In the notes below I have limited my citations to the most recent or most important secondary works. See also the survey in Walden, Universities 130ff.

[70] CTh 13.3.5, with Julian. Ep . 61c Bidez.

[71] Thus the initial decretum curialium and subsequent dispatch to the emperor is justified quia singulis civitatibus adesse ipse non possum .

[72] As was already customary; see above, n. 33.

[73] Plainly implied by the generalized command iubeo, quisquis docere vult, non repente nec temere prosiliat ad hoc munus, sed iudicio ordinis probatus decretum curialium mereatur optimorum conspirante consensu .


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curia was reviewed by the emperor or in which a private teacher needed to undergo such probatio .[74] And for private teachers' we have a text more eloquent than this silence. In 425 private teachers in Constantinople were prohibited from using the auditoria reserved for those the city senate appointed as public teachers and were compelled to do all their teaching in private houses.[75] Intended to limit the competition that publicly appointed teachers faced, the law is the most explicit attempt (beyond Julian's) to regulate private teachers;[76] but it shows no interest whatever in determining who might teach, merely where. If even so stringent a measure at the heart of the empire did not impose greater control than this, then we should assume a fortiori that there was still less regulation in the provinces. Private teachers, who probably made up the majority of the profession, would thus have stood entirely outside the state's concern.

The case of public teachers in the municipalities is, however, more complex; for although we find no general iudicium by the emperor of the sort Julian envisioned, there are a number of specific episodes that reveal the hand of imperial authority. Governors and other officials play important roles in appointments, either making recommendations or approving curial decrees.[77] Teachers at Athens are removed from their chairs by the governor, and others are installed in their places.[78] The emperor himself is called on to approve immunities already decreed to a rhetorician of Antioch by the town council.[79] Salaries, too, show the reach of the central government. Down to the end of the third century salaries drawn from imperial funds are attested only for the chairs of Greek and Latin rhetoric established by Vespasian at Rome and for the chairs of rhetoric and philosophy created at Athens through the benefaction of Marcus

[74] Note that the clause concerning imperial review (hoc enim decretum . . . accedant ) was dropped from the version of the law entered at CJ 10.53.7; and with the clause quoted in n. 73, contrast CTh 13.3.6 (an. 364), si qui erudiendis adulescentibus vita pariter et facundia idoneus erit, vel novum institual auditorium vel repetat intermissum , intended to cancel the effects of Julian's law.

[75] CTh 14.9.3.

[76] Restraint of competition: So correctly Speck in his review of Lemerle, BZ 67 (1974) 386-87, also noting that it is incorrect to speak of a monopoly given to the public teachers (against Lemerle, Premier humanisme 364; cf. also Jones, LRE 999).

[77] Lib. Or . 1.48, 82-83, 106 (cf. Ep . 1255.2-3); Aug. Conf . 5.13.23. These instances, and the others remarked in nn. 78, 79, 81, and 82, will be discussed below.

[78] Lib. Or . 1.25.


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Aurelius.[80] Beginning in 299, however, we find more such salaries in the provinces: they are received by Eumenius at Autun, by Eudaemon of Pelusium at Elusa, by Libanius and one of his rivals at Antioch; supplementary payments to teachers at Ancyra are arranged by the governor Maximus; salaries from the fisc are ordained by Gratian for grammarians and rhetoricians at the capital cities of the northern Gallic diocese, as they are a century and a half later by Justinian at Carthage.[81] Finally, state intervention in salaries could take still another form, as we see at Antioch around 360: there the teachers drawing municipal salaries were paid from the city's funds, but the funds were administered by imperial officials.[82]

Such evidence—combined with the continuing, indeed expanded, immunities granted to professores —has been taken to demonstrate imperial encroachment on a sphere of activity formerly belonging to the cities, an "étatisation" of education, in fact, that was part of a general characteristic of late antiquity, the increased centralization of power.[83] Now I do not propose here to deny that imperial authority seems to have been more intrusive in our period than previously; it is difficult to believe that it was not, but the range of evidence available from early and late empire alike does not provide the grounds for solid proof. I would, however, like to suggest that it is mistaken to think that any effective "étatisation" occurred, and I would like to show that such notions as encroachment and intrusion must be set in their historical context and must be modified.

[80] Suet. Vesp . 18, in a general account of Vespasian's benefactions; Dio Cassius 72.31.3, similarly for Marcus; Philost. V. soph . 2.2 (p. 566); Lucian Eun . 3, 8; with the comments of Parsons, PCollYoutie 2, pp. 445f. Note esp. the observation of Parsons that the notices for this earlier period in the Historia Augusta , when they are not uselessly vague (Hadr . 16.8), are either probably (Pius 11.3) or certainly (Alex. Sev . 44.4) anachronistic; on the last passage see also Nutton, "Archiatri " 216. Chairs of rhetoric, at least, seem to have been established at Constantinople soon after its founding, with pay from the emperor, presumably on the model of Rome; see Lib. Or . 1.35, 37, with Kaster, "Salaries" 39ff.

[81] Eumenius: Pan. Lat . 5.14.14 Galletier; see Chap. 3 n. 87. Eudaemon: Lib. Ep . 132. Libanius: Ep . 28, 740, 800. Libanius's rival: Or . 1.110. Maximus at Ancyra: Lib. Ep . 1230.2. Gratian: CTh 13.3.11; see Chap. 3 pp. 116f. Justinian: CJ 1.27.1, 42; see Chap. 3 pp. 117f.

[82] Lib. Or . 31.19; see Liebeschuetz, Antioch 152f., though caution is needed concerning some details of his discussion and the scope of his conclusions; Kaster, "Salaries" 57f. Note, however, that there is no evidence that the emperors or their subordinates ever attempted to set the amount that a city could pay its teachers from municipal funds; cf. Kaster, "Reconsideration" 102 n. 9.

[83] See esp. Marrou, Histoire 434ff., esp. 441f., with, e.g., Wolf, Schulwesen 41f., Riché, Education 7, Kirsch, "Cura " 284-86.


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When we look more closely at our evidence, we see, first, that some distinctions are needed, since not all the evidence points in the same direction. Take, for example, perhaps the most drastic and commonly noted case, Libanius's report (Or . 1.25) that in 339 or 340 the provincial governor at Athens simply removed the three sophists who held the public chairs in the city and saw to their replacement by three other professors. This episode plainly has little to do with the control of education as such, but it has a great deal to do with the maintenance of public order, which was a governor's oldest and most critical responsibility: in their self-absorbed rivalries the teachers had allowed their students to run riot, and the governor decided to control the disturbances by removing their most conspicuous cause.[84] Other evidence clearly involves extraordinary circumstances. Thus, it is true that the inline image of Nicomedia asked the governor of Bithynia to confirm their decree inviting Libanius to assume the town's chair of rhetoric. But it is also true that the governor's authority met a special need at that time; for Libanius was removing himself from Constantinople, where he had been brought under a charge of magic by his rivals, and Limenius, the proconsul of Constantinople, had written to Nicomedia in an attempt to deter the town from making the appointment. The council evidently thought it prudent to meet that attempt by adding the governor's support to their decree; and it is noteworthy that when the town council of Nicaea passed a similar decree for Libanius, at just about the same time and in the same circumstances, it had not bothered to involve the governor.[85]

Similarly, it is true that the immunities voted by the town council for Eusebius, a teacher of rhetoric at Antioch, required the confirmation of the emperor,[86] although the regular approval of immune status had been established as a council's responsibility since the reign of Antoninus Pius, more than two centuries earlier. But again, the case of Eusebius was clearly not at all regular. Eusebius was evidently not a full-fledged sophist of the city, qualified to stand among the statutory number of teachers who might receive immunity; rather, he was merely the assistant of Libanius, who as a sophist of the city of course enjoyed immunities of his own. In other words, Eusebius stood extra numerum : in voting him immunities the council had gone beyond its customary powers, and the

[85] Lib. Or . 1.48, with Martin and Petit, Libanios 1.218f. ad loc. ; and cf. Norman, Autobiography 161 ad loc .

[86] See n. 79 above.


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grant of extraordinary immunities required imperial confirmation.[87] In fact, the entire episode in which Eusebius was involved under Theodosius recalls nothing so much as the case of the sophist Claudius Rufinus nearly two hundred years earlier, under Septimius Severus and Caracalla. Both teachers—Eusebius certainly, Rufinus probably—received extraordinary grants of immunity to begin with; both voluntarily undertook a single liturgy for their cities (Eusebius an embassy) after they had received their grants; in both cases the towns subsequently attempted to impose further liturgies once a chink in the armor of immunity had been opened; and both men succeeded (Eusebius with Libanius's patronage) in having the immunity reaffirmed by the emperors.[88]

Against these special cases there is much evidence that attests both the cities' ordinary freedom to appoint or depose their public teachers[89] and the laxity of imperial control. A governor might be asked to lend his authority to a council's decree in delicate circumstances, as in the case of Nicomedia's invitation to Libanius; but then again he might not, as in the case of Nicaea. A governor might be called upon to confirm a special honor for a sophist[90] or to intervene so that a dilatory council would pass its decree inviting a sophist to assume a chair.[91] But when a sophist

[88] For Rufinus (= PIR C.998), see CIG 3178 = IGR 4.1402 = Syll .[3] 876 (Smyrna), with Bowersock, Greek Sophists 41, and Nutton, "Two Notes" 54. Eusebius's tale is most easily followed in Lib. Ep . 907.3-5. For Libanius's patronage, see Ep . 870 and 904-9, enlisting the aid of officials and other influential men at Constantinople; Ep . 918-21 and 960, thanking some of the same men, and others, for their help.

[89] See the references at n. 33 above.

[90] Lib. Or . 54.48; cf. n. 79 above.


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can reject a praetorian prefect's request that he move from one city to another and can selectively respect letters from the emperor himself according to his own convenience or will, we are clearly not witnessing the iron-fisted exercise of central authority.[92]

This is obviously not to say that the provincial governors and other officials were of no consequence; the instances already noted suggest quite the opposite. But these and other cases available for inspection also suggest the need for a more delicate and differentiated view. First, we might note that what has broadly been regarded as encroachment can often on closer examination be seen to be the result of invitation, a teacher's or a town's willing exploitation (whether benign or malign) of an official's formal authority or informal influence. For instance, a teacher knew that he could appeal to the governor if an action of the council displeased him.[93] He might even petition to bring the emperor's authority directly to bear on the inline image.[94] In their squabbles with one another, too, the teachers were not slow to make an ally of the local imperial authority. So Eunapius retails at length how the proconsul of Achaea was drawn into the rivalries that centered on Prohaeresius, after the sophist's competitors at Athens had bribed an earlier governor to secure his exile;[95] Prohaeresius's enemies probably arranged his conviction on some trumped-up charge, in much the same way as Libanius's rivals at Constantinople tried to suppress him by bringing a charge of magic with the

[92] Lib. Or . 1.74, Libanius refuses the prefect's invitation to return to Constantinople from Nicomedia but accedes to an invitation from the emperor; Ep . 405, 432, 438, 439, Libanius later refuses to heed letters from the emperor demanding his return to Constantinople when he wishes to remain in Antioch; cf. Or . 1.100; and see Kaster, "Salaries" 41ff.

[93] See the generalization at Lib. Or . 25.49, a passage that also plainly stresses the council's freedom in its ordinary dealings with its appointed teachers. Such intervention in council business as Libanius posits here Was hardly new; cf. Bowersock, Greek Sophists 38; Burton, "Proconsuls" 104f.; and esp. C. P. Jones, Roman World 99ff., 111ff., with the references at p. 112, nn. 69, 70.

[94] So Lollianus of Oxyrhynchus, PCollYoutie 2.66 = POxy . 47.3366, with Part II no. 90. As Parsons correctly concluded (PCollYoutie 2, pp. 441ff.), there would seem to have been no precise precedent in law or in fact for Lollianus's specific request that the emperors compel the council of Oxyrhynchus to make the arrangements necessary for the payment of his salary. For appeals to the emperor, see also the cases of Eusebius and Claudius Rufinus at n. 88 above.


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aid of the proconsul Limenius.[96] As we have just seen, the latter case caused the town council of Nicomedia to take the unusual step of seeking a governor's approval for their decree of appointment; for a similar initiative by a town council—but undertaken in more placid circumstances and more informally—we can recall an episode in the career of Augustine, the request by the curia of Milan that Symmachus, then prefect of Rome, provide a man to fill their chair of rhetoric.[97]

Little in these dealings is fundamentally new, or peculiar to late antiquity; and this touches on a second point worth emphasizing, the continuity apparent from the early empire to the late. Consider the example just mentioned. It is true that in his official capacity as city prefect Symmachus would have been unusually well informed about the teachers of Rome, in consequence of the law of 370 that made the prefect and the magister census responsible for keeping track of all students arriving in the city.[98] But his action apparently had little to do with his official powers, which of course had no connection with Milan; further, it must be remembered that, his official position aside, Symmachus was at the time one of the most prominent orators and men of letters at Rome—just the sort of man whose judgment would be valued in such a matter. This personal standing is surely adequate in itself to explain the request of Milan's council; the episode, in fact, is reminiscent of the request Pliny once made of Tacitus to send a suitable teacher from Rome for the position that Pliny was trying to establish at Comum.[99]

In other cases, of course, the official status of the man making a recommendation was evidently more pertinent to the matter at hand, but here too it is difficult to find a clear break from precedent to set the late-antique experience apart. Libanius, for instance, recalls that the proconsul of Achaea, Strategius Musonianus, was responsible for a decree of the inline image at Athens inviting Libanius to take up a chair of rhetoric in the city.[100] It is not clear whether Strategius formally introduced the motion for curial action or informally (but no less influentially) recommended Libanius to the council's attention. From what Libanius says,

[96] Lib. Or . 1.43ff. For the governor's involvement in teachers' quarrels, cf. perhaps also Himer. Or . 46.1-2, in a speech "against his enemies and against the proconsul Basilius," produced in the midst of what Himerius calls a war that the entire people is waging against him at Athens.

[97] Aug. Conf . 5.13.23.

[98] CTh 14.9.1.

[99] Plin. Ep . 4.13.10. Note, however, that Pliny, writing as a private person, offers no guarantee that the man Tacitus sends will get the position, but stresses that he is leaving the choice open to the parents.

[100] Lib. Or . 1.82-83, 106.


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the former seems marginally more likely,[101] but the distinction does not much matter for the point being made here; a governor's ability to make formal proposals for curial vote is attested already in the reign of Plus.[102] And with Libanius's anecdote we may compare a letter of Fronto to his son-in-law, Aufidius Victorinus, governor of Germania Superior at the time, in which Fronto asks him to use his influence to secure a public appointment for a rhetorician in one of the cities in his province: although Fronto is careful to note that he has not heard the man speak but is relying on the judgment of others, he says nothing to suggest that the request itself is extraordinary, and he takes it for granted that Victorinus would simply have this sort of favor within his power.[103] In another connection, we have already seen that the emperor might grant extraordinary immunities to a favored teacher; here again, the record extends back to the second century.[104]

Such continuity is of course most apparent in the formal measures that fixed the regular immunities of teachers from the end of the first century onward. These measures, moreover, raise a final point concerning the actions of the state; for where those actions can be seen to take on a broad pattern, as opposed to the particular actions of individual officials, or where they sketch a general tendency that might be termed "policy," their chief characteristics are reticence and a rather spotty internal consistency.

As they are first attested for the principate in Vespasian's grant of A.D. 74, these immunities grant freedom from taxation and from the quartering of soldiers.[105] They were, however, considerably expanded within

[102] Implied by Forsch. Eph . 2 no. 19 = Abbott and Johnson, Municipal Administration no. 98 = Inschr. Eph . 1a (IGSK 11:1) 21; see Burton, "Proconsuls" 105.

[103] Fronto Ad amic . 1.7 (p. 169 van den Hout): velim, domine, ut adiuves eum, quo facilius in civitate aliqua istius provinciae publice instituendis adulescentibus adsciscatur . Compare Lib. Ep . 1366.1-3, quoted at n. 91 above.

[104] See above, pp. 219f., on Eusebius of Antioch, with Philost. V. soph . 2.10 (p. 589), 2.30 (p. 623) (Marcus Aurelius to the sophist Hadrian; Caracalla to Philostratus of Lemnos).


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the next two generations, so that by the time Hadrian early in his reign confirmed his predecessors' acts, the list included a wide range of exemptions from potentially time-consuming or expensive offices and munera .[106] The grants were continued throughout the third century[107] and con-Armed under Constantine, who declared that the favored teachers and their possessions in their cities were exempt from all public service (omnis functio ) and extended the exemption to their wives and children.[108] They were later reconfirmed under Gratian, Valentinian II, and Theodosius in 382,[109] under Honorius and Theodosius II in 414,[110] and again under Theodosius II and Valentinian III in 427.[111]

Throughout their history these immunities were regarded as the favors (beneficia ) grateful emperors bestowed as a return for and to facilitate the exercise of the teachers' serviceable skills.[112] As practitioners of necessariae artes , the teachers were useful (inline image) to the cities in which they worked, like the physicians with whom they are commonly paired in the laws or like the navicularii and negotiatores who sustained the grain supply

[107] Implied by CJ 10.53.2 (Gordian), 10.47.1 (Diocletian and Maximian), beyond the writings of Ulpian and Modestinus.

[108] CTh 13.3.1 (an. 321/124) + 13.3.3 (an. 333) = CJ 10.53.6; cf. CTh 13.3.10 (an. 373 [Seeck]) for medici et magistri urbis Romae and their wives. Teachers' sons of curial status were declared liable for curialia munera in 383; thus CTh 12.1.98, ipsos quin etiam filios magistrorum, qui ex curiali stirpe descendunt, simili modo obnoxios esse decernat (if magistri here = "teachers"); but see also CTh 13.3.16 (an. 414) ad fin .

[109] CTh 11.16.15 (on the exemption of certain functionaries and officials from sordida munera ), which includes the clause circa ecclesias [om. CJ 10.48.12], rhetores atque grammaticos eruditionis utriusque vetusto more durante ; cf. CTh 11.16.18 (an. 390).

[110] CTh 13.3.16-17.

[111] CTh 13.3.18.

[112] Beneficia divorum retro principum : see CTh 13.3.3. The grounding of immunities in the recipients' utility is especially well emphasized by Kuhn, Städtische und bürgerliche Verfassung 1.83, the introduction to what is in many ways still the best general survey of the subject; and by Herzog, "Urkunden" 981ff.


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of Rome.[113] Indeed, the teachers could speak of their very profession as a inline image or munus , and reasonably enough.[114] Immunity from further personal and financial obligations in theory left them free to devote themselves to maintaining the stable, civil life of their cities by producing a class of men honesti and docti . Secondarily—a point emphasized far more in modern accounts than by the emperors and the jurists—they might contribute to the well-being of the empire as a whole by educating the men who would become worthy members of the bureaucracy.[115]

The granting of these immunities is commonly regarded as the centerpiece of the emperors' educational policy—Hochschulpolitik, politique universitaire , or the like—and there may in fact be little harm in speaking of "policy" (rather than, say, "the expression of partially articulated attitudes and impulses"), as long as we recognize that this policy ran heavily to laissez-faire and involved some noteworthy contradictions. For example, despite the fact that the immunities touched both imperial and municipal burdens,[116] the choice of immune teachers was left to the cities; in this respect, the occasional involvement of provincial governors is perhaps less surprising than the fact that their involvement was not regular and formal. Or again, the exemptions were meant to encourage teachers to devote themselves to their own civitates , since their enjoyment of immune status was conditioned on teaching there;[117] but exception was made for those who came to teach at Rome, encouraging the best or

[115] On the former point, see Chap. 1 above. The latter motive (on which see, e.g., Walden, Universities 265ff.; Marrou, Histoire[6] 446f.; Nellen, Viri 15ff.; Klein, "Kaiser Julians Rhetoren- und Unterrichtsgesetz" 90ff.; Nixon, "Latin Panegyric" 95f.) is mentioned in a measure in support of teachers for the first time in the sixth century, and then concerning only the teachers at Rome (Cassiod. Var . 9.21.8). Although the emperors, their ministers, and their panegyrists were hardly unaware of the schools' usefulness in this regard (cf. CTh 14.9.1 [an. 370] ad fin ., Eumen. Pan. Lat . 5.5.3f. Galletier, Anon. Pan. Lat . 7.23.2, Prisc. De laud. Anast . 248ff.), the modern emphasis seems to confuse results with intentions; it must certainly be wrong to project the intention back, for example, to Vespasian's funding of chairs of rhetoric at Rome (so, e.g., Steinmetz, Untersuchungen 85). The emphasis in the codes and jurists falls on the teachers' services to their own localities, through which they gain the beneficia of the emperors.

[116] See Neesen, "Entwicklung" 204f.

[117] See esp. Dig . 27.1.6 (Septimius Severus and Caracalla ap . Mod.), 9.


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at least the most ambitious teachers to leave their homes for the capital and its greater prestige.[118]

Perhaps most important, the policy might jeopardize the cities it was meant to help, by removing from the list of potential liturgists members of the upper classes whose contributions would matter most for the cities' well-being. As G. W. Bowersock has rightly emphasized, it was for this reason that Pius circumscribed his predecessors' more extravagant gestures by establishing that each city's council could designate only a small number of teachers and physicians to receive immunity.[119] Yet even this impulse toward consistency and restraint is joined by a contradictory measure, for which Pius himself was responsible: those who were exceptionally learned (inline image) would be entitled to immunity even beyond the number of teachers with ordinary immune status.[120] Since a claim of exceptional learning would be based on the testimony of influential friends,[121] and since those best placed to secure such testimony would be the most prominent and wealthy among the learned, the measure would provide a loophole for the very men whose services would most benefit their cities.[122] It is therefore not surprising to find from the second century onward that cities could be altogether reluctant or inconsistent in recognizing immune status—especially of those extra numerum —and that immunity could be revoked and at times might drive a wedge between the teachers and their towns.[123] Nor is it surprising that the provision of immunity needed to be repeated and reconfirmed so often by the emperors.[124]

The immunities, an indirect subvention of teachers by the state, represent something less than a consistent and dearly thought-out policy;

[118] So another ruling by Septimius Severus and Caracalla; see Dig . 27.1.6 (Mod.), 11, with Nutton, "Two Notes" 61ff.

[120] Dig . 27.1.6 (Mod.), 10.

[121] See the case of Aelius Aristides (well analyzed by Bowersock, Greek Sophists 36ff.), who rounded up letters from Pius, Marcus Aurelius, and a former prefect of Egypt while making his case before a succession of provincial governors.

[122] On this exemption, see esp. Nutton, "Two Notes" 52ff.

[123] See Bowersock, Greek Sophists 34ff.; the case of Eusebius, pp. 219f. above; and Lib. Ep . 293, 723.

[124] Remarked by Marrou, Histoire 435.


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but the other, direct, state support—salaries granted from the imperial fisc to provincial teachers—was still less coherent. As was noted above, such salaries are more visible in the late empire; but the central government appears at the same time to have been unsystematic in its grants, which at least throughout the fourth century seem to have been treated as an exceptional privilege. This point is perhaps especially to be emphasized in view of a common belief that imperial officials normally had a voice in selecting teachers precisely because they administered a generalized system of state salaries.[125]

If we look at the known cases, we see two circumstances in which imperial funds were applied to provincial teachers. First, there were occasions when emperors wished to support teachers in a specific region: thus, Gratian's measure for the provincial capitals in the northern diocese of Gaul when the imperial court was resident at Trier;[126] or Justinian's for Carthage when teachers were made part of the imperial apparatus after the reconquest.[127] Beyond that, we find what amount to ad hoc or ad hominem grants. Eumenius at Autun receives a salary from the fisc as a sign of the favor he enjoyed with the imperial masters he had lately served as magister epistularum and with the understanding that he was to apply the money to revive the school of Autun as his own benefaction to the city;[128] the salary thus provided a way of rewarding a faithful client—ut intelleges meritis tuis etiam nostram consuluisse clementiam —and of channeling imperial funds to the city through a prominent citizen who would gain in prestige thereby. At Ancyra, the governor Maximus provides supplements for the teachers' (presumably local) income; the supplements, it is important to note, are mentioned as extraordinary benefactions deserving special praise, along with the literary contests, prizes, and public works Maximus also provided.[129] Imperial salaries in kind (inline image) were granted to Eudaemon at Elusa and Libanius at Antioch; the latter case, which is the better known, shows clearly that the grant depended on the personal relations between the

[125] On this Mitsprachrecht see, e.g., Wolf, Schulwesen 42; Kirsch, "Cura " 284.

[126] CTh 13.3.11 (an. 376). Even this measure does not seem to suppose that the selection of teachers would be taken out of the cities' hands, and the clause ut singulis civitatibus . . . nobilium professorum electio celebretur (see Kaster, "Reconsideration" 107f.) may well suppose the opposite.

[127] CJ 1.27.1, 42 (an. 534). With these localized measures contrast the generalized grant of imperial salaria to churches, confirmed at CJ 1.2.12, 2 (an. 451); cf. Theodoret. HE 1.11, with Jones, LRE 898f.

[128] Pan. Lat . 5.14.14 and 11. 3 Galletier. There is no suggestion that other cities in the region enjoyed similar benefits.


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recipient and the official in charge (in this instance, the praetorian prefect) and that the salary could be bestowed, diminished, and restored according to the favor or hostility of the official of the moment.[130]

It is possible, of course, that such subsidies became more widespread over time. Nearly all our precise evidence dates from the fourth century; and if, as has sometimes been argued, the cities exerted ever less control of their revenues and contributed less to the maintenance of their services,[131] the imperial government may have picked up more of the slack. Some indirect evidence points in this direction. Procopius reviles Justinian for abolishing all the imperial salaries for teachers and physicians that his predecessors had established;[132] although this is a patent distortion by a notoriously hostile source, the charge should suggest that a significant number of such salaries did exist.[133] Much the same seems to be implied by a law of 531 that grants a privilege to memoriales, agentes in rebus , and all others qui salaria vel stipendia percipiunt publica , mentioning teachers of liberal studies in that number.[134] Still, it would certainly be mistaken to suppose that the cities withered, and the state extended its support, uniformly and universally. In this regard, as in virtually all aspects of life in antiquity, the fact of local variation must be kept in mind. We know that even as some cities did decline, others maintained a good measure of independent prosperity in the late fifth century and well into the sixth.[135] Just so, we know that some cities continued to provide their teachers' salaries in the same period.[136]

Much of the aid that the imperial government provided was no doubt well intentioned, and a good bit of it no doubt gave welcome additional

[131] See Jones, LRE 733f.; and esp. Liebeschuetz, Antioch 153ff.

[132] Anecd . 26.5.

[133] Procopius's statement plainly contradicts the known directives of Justinian, for teachers at Carthage in 534 (CJ 1.27.1, 42) and at Rome in 552 (Nov . "App." 7.22; the conflict with the latter was already noted by Nutton, "Archiatri " 211 n. 144). If it has any basis in fact, the charge probably grows out of some attempt to limit such salaries for economy's sake.

[134] CJ 3.28.37, le-f.

[135] See Roueché, "New Inscription" esp. 183ff.


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support to local institutions: so, for example, A. H. M. Jones may well have been correct to suggest that Gratian's measure of 376 enabled some towns of northern Gaul to boast endowed chairs where they had had none before.[137] But imperial intervention cannot have resulted in imperial control in any substantive sense. There was certainly no control of curriculum; nor did the state attempt to make the professions of grammar and rhetoric hereditary, as it did for so many occupations and statuses. And whatever form the imperial presence took—making itself felt, say, by subsidizing teachers or in a governor's influence—and whether that presence was invited or provoked, novel or traceable through long-standing precedent, it was typically no more than sporadic or indecisive or formless.[138] It is difficult to discover in the evidence examined above an éatatisation of education newly developed in late antiquity, and it is still more difficult to think that such éatisation could have come about in the absence of a bureaucratic structure—a specialized, formalized, rationalized mechanism of the central administration—through which the state could effectively assume responsibility for organized education. No such structure existed at any time in antiquity. In late antiquity, when a governor spent vast amounts of his time hearing cases and overseeing tax collection, and when a governor typically held office for no more than a year, he could scarcely have spared much time to supervise education, and any supervision that a given governor might have cared to exercise could have had little long-term impact. The question whether imperial officials became more intrusive is therefore finally secondary.

It is secondary because in the circumstances such involvement could not help but be—as to all appearances it was—haphazard and particular, circumscribed by the same kinds of personal connections as those discussed earlier in this chapter. Whether one was dealing with local or imperial authorities, with a principalis in the town council or with the aloof and powerful governor, those dealings would not go far unless one were well supplied with patrons. Our analysis of the state's role thus brings us back full circle. One can surely speak of a mingling of authority, municipal and imperial, formal and informal. But as virtually all the evidence surveyed in the preceding pages shows or implies, it was an authority exercised unpredictably or ad hoc , harnessed or combatted by mobilizing personal relations.

[137] See Jones, LRE 998, with Kaster, "Reconsideration" 108f.

[138] Cf. the remark of Speck in his review of Lemerle, BZ 67 (1974) 392, concluding his discussion of the so-called university of Constantinople: "Staatlich institutionalisierte und gefördete Bildung aber blieb in der Spätantike ein Versuch, der sich nur partiell und vorübergehend durchsetzen konnte."


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A teacher receiving an imperial salary in kind at Elusa desires the privilege of commuting the salary to cash: we find his case being put by his friend Libanius, who approaches an influential private citizen of the town and asks him to do what he can to secure the favor.[139] A teacher about to move from Antioch to Heliopolis has the way prepared, again by Libanius: letters solicit the favor of Domninus, the governor of Phoenice, and the local potens Alexander, himself a former governor of Syria now living in retirement in his home town.[140] The differences in the formal status of one's supporters are finally less significant than the general and enduring patterns of patronage and personal connections, which remain the same regardless of the circumstances in which they are found. In the fourth century, Augustine begins his career at Thagaste, and then moves on to Carthage, with the help of his local supporter, Romanianus, as he later makes his way from Rome to Milan with the support of the city prefect Symmachus.[141] In the fifth century, Pamprepius's lot at Athens is linked to his relations with the magnate Theagenes; when he is driven from Athens to Constantinople after falling out with Theagenes, he gains a public salary as a grammarian at the capital through the patronage of Illus, whose official career thereafter largely determines the course of Pamprepius's fortunes.[142] In the sixth century, Ioannes Lydus begins his career by being drawn into the imperial service by a cousin and by a home-town acquaintance who is praetorian prefect at the time; when he later grows dissatisfied with the service, he is appointed to a chair of Latin grammar by Justinian himself—a connection perhaps mediated by another patron, Gabriel, to whom Lydus presently dedicates his first works when Gabriel is the city prefect.[143] This last detail is worth savoring. It calls to mind another small piece of information that we owe to Lydus: the notice that Suetonius dedicated his Caesares to his patron Septicius Clarus when the latter was prefect of the praetorian guard.[144] These two dedications to patrons by sometime imperial servants and antiquarians bridge more than four hundred years in the life of the empire, reminding us how much that life remained cast in the same mold.

[139] Lib. Ep . 132, to Eutocius of Elusa, in behalf of Eudaemon of Pelusium.

[140] Lib. Ep . 1255, to Domninus; 1256, to Alexander. On the latter, see also above at n. 49; and for Alexander's governorship, see PLRE I s.v. Alexander 5, pp. 40f.

[141] See nn. 53 and 97 above. Note esp. the role of Augustine's Manichaean friends in arranging a display before Symmachus, Conf . 5.13.23: ego ipse ambivi per eos ipsos manichaeis vanitatibus ebrios . . . at dictione proposita me probatum . . . Symmachus mitteret .

[142] See Part II no. 114.

[143] See Part II no. 92.

[144] Ioan. Lyd. De mag . 2.6. On Suetonius and Septicius, see Syme, Tacitus 501, 778f.; Wallace-Hadrill, Suetonius 6; and more guardedly Baldwin, Suetonius 36ff.


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PART II
PROSOPOGRAPHY


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This prosopography primarily surveys the grammarians known between A.D. 250 and A.D. 565, and is the product of a fresh review and analysis of the sources for the period. To control my findings in Part I, I have here set the chronological limits a generation or two on either side of the period with which the body of the book is concerned. Thus the grammarians of the fourth and fifth centuries hold center stage in Part I, but the earliest figure in the prosopography is Lollianus signo Homoeus (no. 90), who taught as municipal grammarian of Oxyrhynchus in the reign of Valerian and Gallienus (253-60), and the latest is Flavius Cresconius Corippus (no. 37), still active, although apparently not as a grammarian, early in the reign of Justin II (ca. 566). Consequently, the prosopography also straddles the lower and upper limits of PLRE I and II, which cover the period A.D. 260-527.

Although the grammarians are the focus of this compilation, it seemed prudent to include other teachers of letters below the level of rhetorician (i.e., those commonly called "primary" teachers: inline image, inline image, magistri ludi , etc.), both because the grammarians would not be uniformly distinct from the latter group either pedagogically (see esp. Kaster, "Notes") or socially, and because information on the second group is collected nowhere else. I have also included a number of persons called simply inline image; since from the contexts in which they are found it seems possible that they were secular teachers of letters (not, e.g., Christian teachers or rabbis, nor craftsmen in inline image ), they too appear to merit inclusion. But because the title is so vague and could well be applied to anyone from a teacher of elementary letters to a philosopher or physician, I have placed them in the second section of the register.

The prosopography is in two sections. The first contains the men known or likely to have been teaching as grammarians in the period, as


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well as the so-called primary teachers; the second section, "Dubii, Falsi, Varii ," contains those whose chronology, profession, or (in a few cases) existence is less certain, or those who have incorrectly been treated as grammarians by one or another standard reference work, or those who are termed simply inline image. Cross-references to the persons entered in the second section are given in the first, which accordingly also serves as an index to the whole collection.

It has not always been possible to decide neatly to which section an individual belongs, or whether he should be included at all, and in more than one case there is room for disagreement. But a line must be drawn somewhere, and a number of names that might have found their way into the second section have been omitted, either because there is no good evidence that they taught as grammarians,[1] or because they cannot be shown to belong to our period,[2] or for both reasons.[3] I have made an exception for Georgius Choeroboscus (no. 201), the important grammarian who is assigned to the sixth century in some standard reference books but who can now be dated securely to the first half of the ninth century.[4]

[1] For example, Lactantius Placidus, the commentator on Statius; Eugraphius, author of a rhetorical commentary on Terence; or, in Greek: Demo, the allegorical commentator on Homer; Eucleides; and Eulogius Scholasticus.

[2] For example, the scholiasts to Dionysius Thrax: Diomedes, Gregorius, Heliodorus, Melampus, Porphyrius, and Stephanus.

[3] For example, the lexicographer Methodius, of uncertain profession, dating to some time after s.V 2/2 and before s.IX 112.


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An asterisk (* ) appears in the margin before 51 entries, signifying that the person is not found in PLRE I or II although he certainly or probably falls within the period A.D. 260-527; in another 34 cases, a plus sign (+) denotes an individual who certainly or probably falls outside the chronological limits or otherwise fails to satisfy the criteria of PLRE I or II. Some in this latter group will presumably appear in PLRE III.

The prosopography has a threefold purpose: to simplify the main exposition; to avoid unnecessary duplicate references elsewhere in the book; and to serve as a useful repertory for other students of late-antique education. I have therefore presented and discussed the primary sources as extensively as seemed necessary in each case. For the same reasons, I have attempted to offer a guide to the most recent or most important secondary literature. References to the latter are found at the top or in the body of each entry; though not intended to be exhaustive, they should reliably mark the trail for readers interested in compiling a complete bibliography.

The headline for each entry regularly notes the person's profession and other indications of status, the place of his activity, and his date; omission of any of these items implies that the information is not available. Most abbreviations for imperial office or rank (PVR, PPO, v.c ., etc.) appear as in PLRE ; and as in PLRE , names are alphabetized on the Latin principle, so that "IOANNES," for example, precedes "ISOCASIUS" and "URBANUS" follows "VICTOR." Other abbreviations used are either conventional or, it is hoped, self-evident. Note that the shortened form "gramm." most frequently means "grammarian" or "grammarians"; less usually, "grammatical." An arrow inline image between professions, ranks, or place names indicates sequence in a career; a virgule (/) similarly placed indicates different stages in a career for which a precise sequence cannot be determined. An en dash (-) placed between two dates signifies inclusiveness; a virgule (/) similarly placed signifies indeterminacy: 336-61 means "from 336 through 361"; 336/61 means "sometime between 336 and 361."

Readers who wish to study the teachers in specific areas of the empire will want to consult the geographical-chronological lists in Appendix 5.


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Grammatici, inline image, Magistri Ludi, and the Like

1. ACACIUS. Gramm. Constantinople? s.IV med.

Seeck, Briefe 46f.; PLRE I s.v. 5, p. 6.

Recipient of Lib. Ep . 398 and perhaps of Ep . 431 (both an. 355). That A. was a teacher is evident from Ep . 398.2: inline imageinline image. That he was a gramm. is likely since some of his pupils went on to study with Libanius; cf. ibid., continuing from the sentence above: inline image (cf. Seeck, Briefe 47).

Seeck, Briefe 47 and 320 (followed by Festugière, Antioche 105 n. 7), locates A. in Constantinople, because Ep . 398 stands just before a series of letters addressed to correspondents in Constantinople and its environs (Ep . 399-402, 404) and because Libanius had recently been teaching in Constantinople, until 354. But Ep . 398 stands just after an equally long series of letters addressed to correspondents in Bithynia, Ep . 394-97. (PLRE I is wrong to state that the letter "falls within" a group of letters addressed to Constantinople.) A. could therefore have been active in Nicomedia, where Libanius had also taught successfully for a number of years. The matter seems incapable of resolution: note that five of Libanius's students are known to have come from Bithynia, ten from Constantinople; cf. Petit, Étudiants 114. Libanius's more recent tenure in the capital might, however, tip the balance in favor of Constantinople. See also below.

Seeck, Briefe 47, identifies A. with the Acacius of Ep . 431, whom one Daphnus subjected to trial before the PPO Strategius Musonianus at Antioch in the autumn of 355. The nature of the case is obscure: Libanius says only that Daphnus had posted a surety in the case despite Musonianus's attempt to discourage him and was awaiting Acacius's arrival,


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and that Acacius was being aided by the intervention of Clematius, Apodemius, and Libanius himself. Clematius is evidently Clematius 2 (PLRE I p. 213), an agens in rebus (?) at the time, who returned to Constantinople shortly thereafter; Seeck (RE 1.2819.21ff.; cf. PLRE I s.v. 1, p. 82) identified Apodemius with the agens in rebus instrumental in the death of Gallus and active in Gaul earlier in 355. Apodemius may therefore have traveled to Antioch with Clematius, who had come from Italy by way of Constantinople. If so, and if the gramre. A. (above) was the recipient of Ep . 431, the route of Clematius and Apodemius would favor locating the gramre. in Constantinople.

2. ADAMANTIUS. Lat. gramm. Sardis? Before 580; s.V ex. / s.VI init.?

RE 1.343-44 (Goetz); PLRE II s.v. 3, p. 7; cf. Sch.-Hos. 4:2.220.

A doctor . . . elocutionis Latinae (GL 7.165.14f.); father of Martyrius (q.v., no. 95). The latter is called Sardianus in the subscr. to one ms of his work and might be dated to s.VI 1/2-med. If the epithet is accurate, A. was possibly of Sardis also; if the dating of Martyrius is correct, then A. should be dated to s.V ex. / s.VI init.

A. provided the inspiration for his son's treatise on b and v: GL 7.165.13f., hoc commentario nostro acceptis seminibus ab Adamantio meo patre . He was confused with his son by Cassiodorus, whose use of Martyrius's treatise provides a term. a. q . for the pair.

See further s.v. Martyrius, no. 95.

AEGIALEUS: see no. 179.

+ AETHERIUS: see no. 180.

3. AGATHODAEMON. Gramm. Egypt? s.IV ex. / s.V 1/3.

PLRE II s.v., p. 33.

A inline image: inscr. Isid. Pel. Ep . 3.303; 5.55, 334, 439, 454; cf. also a reference to his students in Ep . 5.55 and Isidore's reflections on the effectiveness of his inline image in Ep . 5.334. Recipient of several letters from Isidore of Pelusium involving moral exhortation (Ep . 3.303; 5.55, 454) and discussion of style (Ep . 5.439). Ep . 5.444, a protreptic letter with a literary conceit, may be to the same man: it is addressed simply inline imageinline image, without the title inline image; cf. also Ep . 1.270, 435, similarly inscribed. The recipient of the latter two epistles was a Christian (1.270, inline image vs. inline image) critical of the ascetic life (1.435).

His school's location cannot be determined. It was evidently in the same place as that of Ophelius (q.v., no. 109), with whom A. received Ep . 5.439; it therefore presumably was in a good-sized town, since a small town would not likely have two inline image. His name suggests Egyptian origin; cf. Ganschinietz, RE Suppl. 3.58.33ff.


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AGROECIUS: see no. 181.

ALBINUS: see no. 182.

ALETHIUS: see no. 183.

4. ALEXANDER. Gramm. inline image. s.IV 2/3.

Seeck, Briefe 56; PLRE I s.v. 7, p. 41.

The subject of Lib. Ep . 1255, 1256 (both an. 364); called inline image in Ep . 1256.3. As is clear from Ep . 1255.1, inline imageinline image, this is Libanius's normal use of inline imageinline image to mean inline image (see Appendix 2). A. had already taught for a long time in Antioch (Ep . 1255.1, inline image) and was returning in 364 to his inline image (Ep . 1255.2), which must have been Heliopolis in Phoenice; cf. Ep . 1256, to Alexander of Heliopolis (= Alexander 5 PLRE I, p. 40). He appears to have received an official appointment as teacher in Heliopolis: Ep . 1255.3, to Domninus, cons. Phoenices , inline imageinline imageinline image. A. is also commended to Alexander (see above; Ep . 1256.3), a local power at Heliopolis who had shown himself well disposed toward the literary culture and its teachers during his governorship of Syria in 363: cf. Lib. Ep . 838, 1361, 1366, 1390, and esp. 1370, on Gerontius's appointment to the chair of rhetoric at Apamea.

5. ALEXANDER. inline image. s.V 1/3.

PLRE II s.v. 7, p. 56.

Addressee of Nil. Ancyr. Ep . 2.49, inline image, on the theme "the wisdom of the world is folly in the eyes of God." The letter is among those whose inscr. may have been derived entirely or in part from their contents: cf. Alan Cameron, "Authenticity" 185f.; and s.v. Asclepius, no. 18. For other letters addressed inline image, see Ep . 1.129, 2.120-23, all possibly to A.; compare esp. the themes of Ep . 2.49 and 2.120.

6. ALYPIUS. Gramm. Seleucia (Isauria). s.V med.

PLRE II s.v. 3, p. 62.

Gramm. (inline image; cf. Appendix 2) teaching at Isaurian Seleucia. When near death he was cured after incubation in the shrine of St. Thecla, with whom he communicated by quoting a verse of Homer, Il . 1.365: [Basil. Sel.] Vie et miracles de Sainte Thècle 2.38 Dagron. On the source (contemporary with Basil, but not by him), cf. Dagron, "Auteur."

A.'s son, Olympius (q.v., no. 108), was also a gramm.; see also s.v. Solymius, no. 259.


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7 ALYPIUS. Gramm. inline image. s.V 4/4 / s.VI 1/4.

PLRE II s.v. 6, p. 62.

A inline image; recipient of Procop. Gaz. Ep . 13 with Stephanus and Hierius (qq.v., nos. 141, 75): Ep . 13 tit. With the other two men A. had gone from Gaza to Antioch (Daphne): Ep . 13.1ff.; cf. s.vv. Hierius, Stephanus. Procopius's phrasing suggests that the two Greek gramm. (A. and Stephanus) and the one Latin gramm. (Hierius) constituted the entire corps of gramm. at Gaza; cf. esp. Ep . 13.11ff.: inline image [viz., Solon] inline imageinline image ;

8. AMMONIANUS. Gramm. Egypt; probably Alexandria. s.V med.

RE 1.1861 (Cohn); PLRE II s.v., p. 70.

Gramm.: Suda A.1639, inline image; O.391, inline imageinline image; cf. Damasc. V. Isid . epit. Phot. 60 = frg. 111 Zintzen = Suda A.1639, quoted at Appendix 1.3e. Relative of the philosopher Syrianus (and so of Aedesia, wife of Hermias and mother of Ammonius and Heliodorus; cf. Damasc. V. Isid . frg. 124), whom he resembled spiritually and physically: Damasc. V. Isid . frg. 111. His name and relation to Syrianus make it clear that he was Egyptian, presumably of Alexandria. If Asmus was correct in making him the teacher of Isidore ("Rekonstruktion" 454f.; Leben 37f.), he will have been active (again, presumably at Alexandria) ca. s.V med.

He is said to have owned an ass that was mad for poetry: Damasc. V. Isid . epit. Phot. 60 = frg. 111; cf. Suda O.391.

9. AMMONIUS. Gramm. Bordeaux. s.IV 1/3.

PLRE I s.v. 1, p. 54.

The name "Ammonius" appears in the tit. of Auson. Prof . 10: Gramrnaticis Latinis Burdigalensibus [cf. Prof . 8] Philologis / Ammonio Anastasio / Grammatico Pictaviorum . It is supplied thence by all editors at v. 35, where some name is plainly missing, to designate the teacher who precedes Anastasius (vv. 42ff.) in the catalogue. It has been suggested (Booth, "Notes" 243) that Ammonio Anastasio in the tit. is the name of one man, viz., Anastasius (q.v., no. 11), in which case the name of the teacher commemorated in vv. 32ff. would be lost beyond retrieval. Note, however, that Ammonius Anastasius would itself be an unusual name and that the only grammatici Ausonius commemorated who have two or more names—Pomponius Maximus Herculanus and Acilius Glabrio, the former a curialis , the latter possessing claims to nobility (see s.vv., nos. 70, 64; the second name of Leontius [q.v., no. 89] Lascivus was a playful supernomen and so is irrelevant here)—were both probably of higher status than the teacher of


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vv. 32-41: see below. It is probably best to retain the traditional solution noted above; for a survey of other solutions to the problems the tit. of Prof. 10 presents, see Booth, "Notes" 243.

A. was a grammaticus (v. 31) Latinus (tit.) who taught rudibus pueris / prima elementa (vv. 36-37); cf. s.v. Crispus (no. 40) and Appendix 4. He had famam tenuem because he was doctrina exiguus (see preceding) and because he had mores implacidi (vv. 38-41). He was active probably very early in s.IV and in any event before the time of Ausonius's own tenure at Bordeaux, which began ca. 336/37; see further s.v. Concordius, no. 35. His name points to a non-Gallic—specifically, Egyptian—background.

10. AMMONIUS. Gramm. inline image. s.IV ex.

RE 1.1866.8ff. (Cohn); Chr.-Sch.-St. 2:2.1080; PLRE I s.v. 3, p. 55.

A inline image: Soc. HE 5.16.10, 15. Active at Alexandria, whence he fled with the gramm. Helladius (q.v., no. 67) to Constantinople after the desecration of the Serapeum at Alexandria in 391: Soc. ibid. = Phot. Bibl. cod. 28 (1.16 Henry) = Nic. Call. HE 12.25.

A. was a pagan and a priest of the ape: Soc. HE 5.16.11, inline image (for which cf. John Chrysost. Ad pop. Ant. hom. 10.3, In Gen. serm. 1.2; Zach. Schol. Vie de Sévère p. 35.4). The ape meant is probably the inline imageinline image, sacred to Hermes-Thot as god of the moon and, esp. appropriate here, of inline image; cf. Horapollon Hieroglyph. 1.14 Hopfner (Fontes historiae religionis Aegyptiacae 4.582.8f.), with Hopfner, Tierkult 26ff. The historian Socrates, who was a pupil of both Ammonius and Helladius at Constantinople, heard A. indignantly recount the events of 391: HE 5.16.15.

A. is probably not the author of an epic poem on Arcadius's victory over Gainas in 400 (cf. Soc. HE 6.6.37, with Alan Cameron, "Wandering Poets" 480 n. 63, 483 n. 81): "Ammonius" is among the commonest of names; and Socrates dates the poem to 438, rather late for A., who can hardly have been born much later than ca. 370. He is certainly not the author of the lexicon De adfinium vocabulorum differentia surviving under the names of Ammonius and of several others (cf. most recently Nickau, ed., Ammonius lxvi-lxvii); and he is probably not the reviser, who quotes Luke 7.3.

11. ANASTASIUS. Gramm. inline image. s.IV 1/3.

PLRE I s.v. 1, p. 59.

Anastasius: Auson. Prof. 10.42; on the names Ammonio Anastasio in the corrupt tit. of Prof. 10, see s.v. Ammonius, no. 9. Grammaticus (ibid. tit., v. 45) Latinus (ibid. tit.). A native of Bordeaux (v. 46; cf. 51-53), where he apparently taught for some time (v. 53: it was only in senio , when he moved to Poitiers, that he suffered his reverses). He moved to Poitiers


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out of ambitio : vv. 47-48; cf. tit., Anastasio grammatico Pictaviorum. His ambition must have been frustrated, since Ausonius says that he lived ibi et tenuem / victum habitumque colens having lost the gloriolam exilem / et patriae et cathedrae , vv. 49-53.

He was active at Bordeaux probably very early in s.IV and in any event not later than s. IV 1/3; see s.v. Concordius, no. 35. His name suggests that he was a Christian or at least born of Christian parents.

+ 12. ANATOLIUS. Gramm. Alexandria. s.VI med.

RE 1.2073 (Cohn).

Gramm. who enhanced his reputation (inline image) at Alexandria by applying a line of Homer, Il. 18.392, to Hephaestus, praefectus Augustal. 546-51: Olympiodorus Comm. in Alc. 1 2.80ff. Westerink; for the date of Hephaestus's prefecture, see Stein, Histoire 2.754 n. 1; for a comparably literary play on the name of the same Hephaestus, see Ioannes Lydus (q.v., no. 92) De mag. 3.30. A. is very likely the gramm. Anatolius at whose request Cosmas Indicopleustes composed the seventh book of the Christ. topogr. not long after 547: 7.97.12f., inline imageinline image; cf. Westerink, Anonymous Prolegomena xiv; Alan Cameron, "Last Days" 11f.; Wolska, ed., Christ. topogr. vol. 3 p. 167 n. 2; for the date, cf. Wolska, ed., Christ. topogr. vol. 1 p. 16. In view of the subscription and of the highly polemical character of Christ. topogr. 7, A. must have been a Christian.

13. ANAXAGORAS. Gramm. s.V 1/3.

PLRE II s.v., p. 86.

Addressee of Nil. Ancyr. Ep. 1.195 (inline image), 196. The second letter purports to answer a question concerning the interpretation of Proverbs 1.9, which is quoted in the first letter.

ANTIOCHUS: see no. 184.

* 14. APOLLINARIUS. Gramm. and presbyter. inline image. Born not after 290, probably before; dead probably before 362.

RE 1.2842 (Jülicher); Leitzmann, Apollinaris 1ff., 43ff.; cf. Barnes, "More Missing Names" 140.

Father of Apollinarius the heresiarch: born in Alexandria (Soc. HE 2.46) probably ca. 280, certainly no later than 290. The birth of the son, who died 383/92, is to be dated ca. 310; cf. below.


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A gramm.: Soc. ibid., inline image, and 3.16; Soz. HE 6.25.9 (cf. Jer. De vir. ill. 104, on the younger A., magis grammaticis in adulescentia operam dedit , perhaps confusing him with his father). He taught at Berytus and then at Laodicea: Soc. HE 2.46. At Laodicea he married, had a son (Soc. ibid.), and served as presbyter in the church (Jer. ibid.; Soc. ibid.; Soz. HE 6.25.11). His son taught rhetoric (Soc. ibid. and 3.16) and was early on reader (Soc. HE 2.46; Soz. ibid.) and later bishop of the church at Laodicea.

Under the bishop Theodotus, the two Apollinarii associated with the pagan sophist Epiphanius (= PLRE I s.v. no. 1, pp. 280f.), teacher of the younger A. at the time: inline image, Soz. HE 6.25.9; Sozomen's chronology is consistent with a date of birth for the younger A. of ca. 310, since Theodotus is known to have been bishop at least 325-30. The association led to their temporary excommunication: so Soz. HE 6.25.12; according to Soc. HE 2.46, the break did not come until later (see below). But their association continued under the bishop George, who may have excommunicated them a second time—that is, Soc. and Soz. differ: according to Soz., there were two excommunications, under Theodotus (ended by the repentance of father and son), and under George (for which only the younger A. is mentioned); according to Soc., the warnings of Theodotus were ignored, and the excommunication did not occur until the time of George, when both Apollinarii were affected.

According to Soc. (HE 3.16) both Apollinarii turned to the task of adapting Scripture to use in the schools after Julian's school law of 362; according to Soz. (HE 5.18), only the younger A. was involved in this venture. Sozomen is probably correct; the elder A. would have been near eighty at the time, if indeed he was still alive. Neither A. had anything to do with the hexameter paraphrase of the Psalter that survives under the name of Apollinarius; cf. Golega, Homerische Psalter 5ff.

15. APOLLONIUS. Gramm. Athens. 260/68.

PLRE I s.v. 1, p. 85.

Participant in a memorial celebration of Plato hosted by Longinus and attended by, int. al. , Porphyrius, Nicagoras the sophist (omitted from PLRE I; but cf. s.v. Nicagoras 1, p. 627), Demetrius the inline image (= PLRE I s.v. 1, p. 247), Prosenes the Peripatetic (= PLRE I s.v., p. 751), and Callietes the Stoic (= PLRE I s.v., p. 173): Euseb. Praep. ev. 10.3, from Porphyr. inline image. 1. He is represented as speaking at length on the subject of plagiarism in various authors—Ephorus, Theopompus, Menander, et al.

ELIUS APRILICUS: see no. 185.


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AQUILA: see no. 186.

16. ARCADIUS. Gramm. Antioch. Aet. incert. : s.II ex. / s.VI 1/2.

RE 2.1153-56 (Cohn); Chr.-Sch.-St. 2:2.1077f.; Hunger 2.13, 15, 19; PLRE II s.v. 3, p. 130.

Called inline image in the Suda , A.3948; included in the catalogue of gramm. in Kröhnert, Canones 7, under the heading inline imageinline image. The notice in the Suda attributes to him the following works: inline imageinline imageinline image. The inline image is cited in the epitome of Steph. Byz. inline image s.v. "Aktion ; the other citations of A. in the inline image probably derive from the same source (see below). The citations of A. in Choerobosc. Schol. in Theodos. (GG 4:1.196.33, 205.28f.) derive from the inline image, if one can judge from their content and from the section of the scholia in which the citations occur. A. is not the author of the epitome of Herodian's Kaqpros . (ed. M. Schmidt [Jena, 1860]) attributed to him in two late Paris mss; cf. Lentz, GG 3:1, cxxx-cxxxv; Egenolff, Orthoepischen Stücke 5f.; Galland, De Arcadii qui fertur libro 12ff.; Cohn, RE 2.1154.4ff.; see also s.vv. Aristodemus, Theodosius, nos. 188, 152.

Evidence for precise dating is absent, but a date sometime in the period s.II ex./s.VI 1/2 seems secure. Although A. is not the author of the epitome of Herodian, the titles of the works attributed to him suggest that he was an epigonus of Herodian and of Herodian's father, Apollonius Dyscolus. (Kröhnert, Canones 46, placed A. before Herodian; for what reasons it is not clear.) A. is cited several times in the epitome of Steph. Byz.: in addition to the citation s.v. "Aktion , see also s.vv. inline imageinline image. If these are not interpolations—and it seems unlikely that they all are: see esp. s.vv. inline image —they would provide a likely term. a. q. of s.V ex./s. VI 1/2; for the date, see s.v. Stephanus, no. 144. I suspect but cannot prove that A. lived closer to the end than to the beginning of the period defined by those termini : he is cited in the company of Orus (q.v., no. 111) at both places in Choeroboscus, and with Eudaemon (presumably of Pelusium, q.v., no. 55) in the second; he is cited again with Eudaemon at Steph. Byz. s.v. inline image.

* ARETHUSIUS: see no. 187.

* ARISTODEMUS: see no. 188.

17. ASCLEPIADES. Gramm. or philosopher, or both. Alexandria. s.V 2/3-3/4.

Cf. RE 2.1631 no. 35 (Freudenthal); PLRE II s.v. 2, pp. 158f.


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Son of the gramm. Horapollon, father of the gramm. and philosopher Fl. Horapollon (qq.v., nos. 77, 78), he is said by the latter to have taught all his life at Alexandria (PCairMasp. 3.67295.i.15) and to have been linked with his brother by the "Muse of philosophy" (ibid. i.18f.). As son and father of these two Horapollones, he should have his floruit placed ca. s.V 2/3-3/4; he was dead at least by the time (early in the reign of Anastasius) that the document represented by PCairMasp. 3.67295 was drafted; cf. i.15. On the suggestion that he was dead by 485, see below.

His brother was perhaps the philosopher Heraiscus; see further s.v. Fl. Horapollon. A. himself is perhaps to be identified with the Asclepiades referred to by Damascius as a philosopher and as the author of several works on the pharaonic religion and on Egyptian history; cf. V. Isid. epit. Phot. 93-94, frgs. 161, 164, 165, 174 Zintzen; Dub. et solut. 125 quater , 1.324.2ff. Ruelle. But note, in addition to the remarks s.v. Fl. Horapollon, that Maspéro ("Horapollon" 180) concluded that A. must have been dead by 485/87 since he is not found among the philosophers at Alexandria named in the account of Zach. Schol. Vie de Sévère pp. 14ff., though Heraiscus and Fl. Horapollon are mentioned there. If Maspéro is correct, A. cannot be the egyptianizing philosopher Asclepiades, who is known to have survived Heraiscus (Damasc. V. Isid. frg. 174).

18. ASCLEPIUS. Gramm. s. V 1/3.

PLRE II s.v. 3, p. 163.

Addressee of Nil. Ancyr. Ep. 3.24, inline image, on the folly of inline image. The letter presents as its central questions inline imageinline image;—cf. Isaiah 33.18, inline image; (and cf. Isaiah 19.11f.). It is among those letters of Nilus whose inscr. may have been derived from their contents; on this problem, cf. Alan Cameron, "Authenticity" 185f.; cf. also s.v. Alexander, no. 5. Of course, Nilus's variation on Isaiah may have been motivated by A.'s profession.

19. ASMONIUS. Gramm.? s.IV 2/4-2/3.

RE 2.1702f. (Goetz); Sch.-Hos. 4:1.142; PLRE I s.v., p. 117.

Author of an ars dedicated to Constantius: Prisc. GL 2.516.6, Asmonius in arte, quam ad Constantium imperatorem scribit. The quotation concerns a question of verbal morphology; thus, the work was either a general ars grammatica or an ars de verbo. He also wrote on meter (Prisc. De metr. Terent., GL 3.420.1), drawing on Iuba; cf. Goetz, RE 2.1702f. Although Prisc. does not call A. grammaticus (vel sim. ), the composition of an ars , esp. one dedicated to a person outside his own family (contrast s.v. Fl.


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Sosipater Charisius, no. 200), makes it likely that A. was a gramm. by profession.

ASTYAGIUS: see no. 189.

AUDAX: see no. 190.

20. AUR. AUGUSTINUS. inline image. inline image. 13 Nov. 354 - 28 Aug. 430.

RE 2.2363-67 (Jülicher); Sch.-Hos. 4:2.398-470; PLRE II s.v. 2, pp. 186ff.

Born 13 November 354: Beat. vit. 1.6, with Possid. V. Aug. 31; Prosper Chron. 1304, Chron. min. 1.473. Son of Monica and Patricius, a curialis of Thagaste (Numidia) of modest means: Conf. 2.3.5; Possid. V. Aug. 1. In his education and early secular career he enjoyed the patronage of Romanianus of Thagaste; cf. esp. C. Acad. 2.2.3; and, most recently, Gabillon, "Romanianus." Educated by his "first teacher" at Thagaste (Conf. 1.9.14ff.) and then at Madaurus (Conf. 2.3.5) in grammar and rhetoric; his teacher of grammar was perhaps Maximus (q.v., no. 96). After his studies had been interrupted for lack of funds in his sixteenth year (Conf. ibid.), his rhetorical training was continued at Carthage (Conf. 3.1.1ff.).

A. dates his activity as teacher and Manichee from his nineteenth year (= 372/73; Conf. 4.1.1). He taught first at Thagaste (Conf. 4.4.7); his general statement at Conf. 4.2.2, docebam in illis annis artem rhetoricam , could suggest that he taught rhetoric at Thagaste; but Possidius says grammar: V. Aug. 1, nam et grammaticam prius in sua civitate et rhetoricam in Africae capite Carthagine postea docuit. Possidius's assertion is confirmed by Paulin. Nol. Ep. 7.3 and 8.1, to Romanianus and Licentius, respectively. A. was the first teacher of Licentius; see Kaster, "Notes" 333.

Soon after beginning his career at Thagaste, A. went to Carthage, where he taught rhetoric: Conf. 4.7.12ff.; cf. Conf. 5.7.1;3; C. Acad. 2.2.3. He apparently had a municipal appointment there: Conf. 6.7.11, publica schola uterer. In 383 he went to teach in Rome (Conf. 5.8.14, 5.12.22), and in 384 Symmachus recommended him for the post of public rhetorician in Milan: Conf. 5.13.23; cf. below. He was converted to Christianity in August of 386 and resigned his teaching post in the autumn of the same year; he was baptized on Easter 387: Conf. 8.6.13ff.; cf. also s.vv. Nebridius (no. 104); Verecundus (no. 159); Anonymus 5 (no. 171), 6 (no. 172).

Early in his teaching career he formed a liaison with a concubine who bore him a son, Adeodatus (Conf. 4.2.2, 9.6.14); Adeodatus was with A. in Milan (Beat. vit 1.6) and was baptized with him (Conf. 9.6.14ff.). While


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A. was at Milan, he was joined by his mother (Conf. 6.1.1), at whose urging he contracted an honorable marriage (Conf. 6.13.23). He sent away his concubine, the mother of Adeodatus, because she was regarded as an impedimentum to his marriage (Conf. 6.15.25); but since the girl to whom he was betrothed was still two years under marriageable age (Conf. 6.13.23), A. took another concubine for the interim (Conf. 6.15.25). The marriage was never realized.

Besides Licentius, his pupils included Alypius (at both Thagaste and Carthage: Conf. 6.7.11) and his fellow civis Trygetius (Beat. vit. 1.6). To the period before his conversion belongs the lost De pulchro et apto , written during his tenure at Carthage and dedicated to Hierius, Romanae urbis orator (Conf. 4.14.20f.; cf. PLRE I s.v. Hierius 5, p. 431); while at Carthage he also won a literary contest (Conf. 4.3.5; cf. 4.1.1). During his tenure at Milan he delivered panegyrics of Valentinian II (Conf. 6.6.9) and the consul Bauto (1 Jan. 385; C. litt. Petil. 3.25.30) and entertained hopes of a provincial governorship (Conf. 6.11.19). Among the works written at Milan while A. was awaiting baptism (cf. Retract. 1.1-6) was a treatise on grammar, which A. later lost (ibid. 1.6). The gramm. treatises now extant under his name (GL 5.494ff.) are supposititious.

He became presbyter of Hippo in 391 and bishop in 395; he died 28 August 430 (Possid. V. Aug. 31; Prosper Chron. 1304, Chron. min. 1.473). For further details, see esp. H.-I. Marrou, Saint Augustin ; Brown, Augustine.

21. DECIMUS MAGNUS AUSONIUS. inline imageinline image. Ital.inline image. inline image. Ca. 310 - ca. 394; dead not before 393.

RE 2.2562-80 (Marx); Sch.-Hos. 4:1.21-43; Jouai, Magistraat ; Stroheker, Senatorische Adel 150ff. no. 51; Hopkins, "Social Mobility"; Étienne, Bordeaux 335ff.; Booth, "Academic Career"; PLRE I s.v. Ausonius 7, pp. 140f.

Decimus Magnus Ausonius: Decimi Magni Ausonii , inscr. of Mosella and some mss of the Caesares ; cf. Decii Magni Ausonii , inscr. of the Ordo urb. nob. The only evidence for "Decimius" is his son's name, Decimius Hilarianus Hesperius: cf. Green, "Prosopographical Notes" 26 n. 32.

Born at Bordeaux (Praef. 1.7 et saep. ) ca. 310 (hardly before); son of the physician Iulius Ausonius and Aemilia Aeonia: cf. esp. Par. 1, 2; Epiced. in patrem. A. was educated first at Bordeaux (Prof. 10.11ff., 8.9-12, 3.1f.), then at Toulouse in the school of his uncle (and soon imperial tutor) Aemilius Magnus Arborius: cf. esp. Prof. 16 and Par. 3.7-14. He is sometimes thought to have been taught at Bordeaux by Ti. Victor Minervius (cf. Prof. 1.9-11, 25f.), but Minervius was perhaps rather a patron than a


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teacher; cf. Booth, "Notes" 247 n. 37. After completing his education he perhaps tried, but failed, to gain the chair of rhetoric vacated by his uncle at Toulouse ca. 330(?: see Booth, "Academic Career" 330ff.).

When A. began to teach as gramm. at Bordeaux, he managed also, if less earnestly, to appear as an advocate in the courts; cf. Praef. 1.17-18, nec fora non celebrata mihi sed cura docendi / cultior. Despite PLRE I, p. 140, it is. not certain that he practiced at the bar before turning to teaching; nec . . . non celebrata . . . sed . . . cultior suggests two concurrent activities, with the second more zealously pursued (cultior ). This would probably have been ca. 336/37; see below concerning his tuition of Gratian. His marriage, to Attusia Lucana Sabina of Bordeaux (Par. 8.1; Par. 9), probably belongs to this same period.

As gramm. he first taught the elements to the youngest pupils but soon advanced to the upper level of grammatical instruction: Epist. 22.67-72 (on the distinction, see Appendix 4; for a different reconstruction of this stage of A.'s career at Bordeaux, see Booth, "Academic Career" 332ff.). After some time, A. advanced to the teaching of rhetoric (Epist. 22.73-76; Prof. 24.5-6); he was succeeded as grammaticus by Acilius Glabrio (q.v., no. 64).

His tenure at Bordeaux lasted thirty years (Praef. 1.23-24), during which his pupils included his nephew Herculanus (also a gramm.; cf. s.v., no. 70), the teacher Tetradius (q.v., no. 263), and Paulinus of Nola (Paulin. Nol. Carm. 10.93ff.).

He was then summoned to the imperial court to be Gratian's tutor, first in grammar, then in rhetoric (Praef. 1.24-27). The summons is often dated ca. 365 (summary: Jouai, Magistraat 47 and n. 4), when Gratian (b. 18 April 359) would have been six. A more likely date is 366, when Gratian was seven (see Booth, "Academic Career" 332 n. 12), or 367, when Valentinian's court was installed at Trier (see Étienne, Bordeaux 342f.; Matthews, Aristocracies 51).

Subsequently he was made comes and QSP , 375-76: comes et quaestor, Praef. 1.35. That he became quaestor while Valentinian was still alive, therefore before 17 November 375, is stated in Grat. act. 2.11 and Epist. 22.90; that he was still quaestor in 376 is shown by Symm. Ep. 1.13 (cf. also Epist. 13 tit., and see s.v. Harmonius, no. 65). In 377-79 he was PPO Galliarum and PPO Galliarum, Italiae et Africae ; the latter post he held jointly with his son Hesperius: cf. Epist. 22.91, praefectura duplex ; see also Grat. act. 2.11, cum teneamus duo. He was consul prior in 379: prior, Praef. 1.27-28; cf. Epist. 22.93. For details, see Jouai, Magistraat 146ff.; PLRE I s.vv. Iulius Ausonius 5, Decimius Magnus Ausonius 7, Decimius Hilarianus Hesperius 2 (with Green, "Prosopographical Notes" 24); Matthews, Aristocracies 51ff., 69ff.


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It is unclear whether he was involved in the education of Valentinian II (b. 371), as is sometimes assumed: A. himself is silent; and it is perhaps the natural inference from Dom. 1 praef., de palatio post multos annos honoratissimus, quippe iam consul , that soon after his consulship he returned to the villula inherited from his father near Bordeaux. He was again at Trier under Maximus in 383: Epist. 20 tit. Of his correspondence with Symmachus, no piece can be dated later than the consulship. His correspondence with Paulinus, Epist. 23-31, shows him alive in 393.

For a stemma of the family, see Jouai, Magistraat at end; Étienne, Bordeaux 365; PLRE I stemma 8, pp. 1134-35 (with Étienne, "Démographie"; cf. Bordeaux 362ff.). On the property of Ausonius and his family, see Hopkins, "Social Mobility" 240ff.; Étienne, Bordeaux 362ff.; with Chap. 3 pp. 102-3.

AUXILIUS: see no. 191.

* BABYLAS: see no. 192.

* 22. BONIFATIUS. Gramm. Rome. s.IV ex. / s.V init.

Bonifatius sc [holasticus ?] grammaticus: CIL 6.9446 = 33808 = ILCV 726 = ICVR , n.s., 1.1549. With the restoration suggested by Henzen at lines If., BONIFATIO SC [HOLASTICO ] GRAMMATICO , compare the styles inline image and inline image cited s.v. Philagrius, no. 117. B. taught at the forum Traiani at Rome in the late fourth or early fifth century: lines 6-7, Traiani qu<a>eren atria m [--- / tota Roma flebit et ipse [--- (cf. Marrou, "Vie intellectuelle" 97ff., revised and reprinted in Patristique 70ff.). The epitaph was set up by B.'s wife, Aeliana. B. was a Christian.

* CABRIAS: see no. 193.

23. CALBULUS. Gramm. Africa? s.V ex. / s.VI init.?

Sch.-Hos. 4:2.72f.; Szövérffy, Weltliche Dichtungen 1.178, 187; PLRE II s.v., p. 250; Prosop. chrét. I s.v., p. 182.

Calbulus grammaticus (Anth. Lat. 1:1.378 inscr.), author of two poems in the codex Salmasianus, one (no. 379) on the Holy Cross, the other (no. 378) on the sacrament of baptism (vv. 1-10) and the baptistery itself, which C. had evidently donated: vv. 11-13, marmoris oblati speciem, nova munera, supplex / Calbulus exhibuit. fontis memor, unde renatus, / per formam cervi gremium perduxit aquarum. For comparable donations, cf. s.vv. Clamosus, nos. 29, 30.

The headings that set off the verses of Anth. Lat. 1:1.378 suggest that the lines were originally found on the four sides and the circumference


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of the baptistery, which was evidently designed for immersion baptism and so must have been a considerable structure: a parte episcopi , vv. 1-4; descensio fontis , 5-6; ascensio fontis , 7-8; econtra episcopum , 9-10; et in circuitu fontis , 11-13. C. was therefore a Christian, presumably active at an episcopal see. The inclusion of the verses in the cod. Salmas. suggests that he lived in Africa not later than s.VI init.; but see the caution of Clover, "Carthage" 20f., and see Averil Cameron, "Byzantine Africa" 43 n. 132; C. is firmly dated to the reign of Hilderic (523-30), as a contemporary of Luxurius, by Szövérffy, Weltliche Dichtungen 178 and 187, though for what reason is not clear.

For C.'s provenance, cf. the name "Cambulus" in a Christian inscr. from Carthage(?), CIL 8.1167; this perhaps derives from "Calbulus," being an example of regressive dissimilation of the type inline image (see Schopf, Konsonantischen Fernwirkungen 96) and the assimilation inline image .

24. CALCIDIUS. Gramm. Africa. s.V 2/2 / s.VI.

Sch.-Hos. 4:2.199, 202; PLRE II s.v. Chalcidius, pp. 282f.

Calcidius grammaticus , dedicatee of the Expositio sermonum antiquorum of Fulgentius the mythographer (i.e., Fabius Planciades Fulgentius or Fabius Claudius Gordianus Fulgentius) according to the inscr. in the majority of the mss: see esp. Wessner, ed., "Fabii Planciadis Fulgentii expositio" 130ff.; Pizzani, ed., Fabio 18ff. C. is also found incorrectly in the inscr. of one ms of Fulgentius's Expositio Vergilianae continentiae. (According to Pen-nisi, Poeti 287-90, C. is a phantom generated by the corruption of Catus presbyter to Calcidius grammaticus. ) He is addressed as domine in the prefatory epistle to the Exp. serm. antiq. (p. 111.1 Helm).

He should presumably be placed with Fulgentius in Africa (cf. Fulg. De aet. mund. et hom. 131.5ff. Helm), not before s.V 2/2 (cf. the citation of Martianus Capella in Exp. serm. ant. 45, p. 123.4ff. Helm), regardless of the question concerning the identity of the two Fulgentii, the mythographer and the bishop of Ruspe (467-532). C. did not know Greek, unless a convention of the genre motivates the scruple of Exp. serm. ant. 16 (p. 116.14ff. Helm), unde et Demostenes pro Philippo ait—sed ne quid te Graecum turbet exemplum, ego pro hoc tibi Latinum feram—ait enim . . . ; cf. Terent. Maur. GL 6.389, vv. 2127f., plurimus hoc pollet Siculae telluris alumnus: / ne Graecum immittam versum, mutabo Latinum.

25. CALLIOPIUS. inline image. epist. inline image. Born not later than ca. 340; still alive in 390.

Seeck, Briefe 102; Bouchery, Themistius 272ff.; Wolf, Schulwesen 34, 69-70; Petit, Étudiants 85-86; PLRE I s.v. 3, p. 175.


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Recipient of Lib. Ep. 18 (an. 388); subject of Ep. 625, 678 (both an. 361), 951 (an. 390).

An Antiochene of distinguished, presumably curial, family: Ep. 18.2, inline image . His father was a teacher; see below and s.v. Anonymus 3, no. 169. C. was a brother-in-law of Seleucus (cf. s.v., no. 253) and so brother of Alexandra: Ep. 625.4, 678.2. If Seleucus has been correctly identified, C. will have been the uncle of John Chrysostom's protégée Olympias; see PLRE I stemma 6, p. 1132, and s.vv. Olympias 2, Alexandra, Seleucus 1.

At one time a student of the sophist Zenobius; cf. Ep. 625.4, inline imageinline image; with Ep. 18.2, inline imageinline image. The latter does not mean that he was a fellow pupil of Libanius (C. was probably younger), only that C., like Libanius, was a student of Zenobius. He is therefore unlikely to have been born later than ca. 340, since Zenobius died in 355; cf. below.

He served as a teacher in Libanius's school (Ep. 625.4, inline imageinline image) and with his father taught Libanius's son, Cimon (Arabius): Ep. 625.6, 678.2. Since Cimon is unlikely to have been more than seven years old in 361, Calliopius and his father must have been lower teachers in Libanius's school, of the type Libanius elsewhere calls inline image (= inline image; cf. Appendix 2, and note the reading inline image, probably a scribal inference from the context, found in one of the mss at Ep. 625.4; cf. also Wolf, Schulwesen 34).

C. subsequently, ut vid. , practiced as an advocate; cf. Ep. 18.2, inline imageinline image . N.B. inline image: looking back from the year 388—and from the eminence of C.'s position in the bureaucracy—Libanius passes over C.'s more humble teaching thirty years earlier and chooses the semi-public activity of the advocate to mark the start of his career (cf. below). Compare the references to C.'s oratorical ability,. inline image, at the end of Ep. 18.

C. was mag. epist. in 388: Ep. 18.2, inline imageinline image. C. is represented as being responsible for mediating between Libanius and Tatianus (PPO Or. , an. 388), possibly with the help of Themistius, in 388: see Ep. 18, though the text is not clear; cf. Boucher, Themistius 272ff. He was in Constantinople in 390; cf. Ep. 951.

C. was one of the Eastern opponents of Latinity and esp. of the attraction of Eastern students to Rome: Ep. 951.1. The opening conceit of Ep. 18, inline image, suggests that C. was a pagan, as was his brother-in-law, Seleucus.

Note that the reconstruction above depends upon Seeck's identification of the Calliopius of Ep. 625 and 678 with the Calliopius of Ep. 18 and 951 (Briefe 102). But the appearance of the lowly inline image of 361


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as the man of affairs and mag. epist. of 388 has not unreasonably caused the identification to be questioned; cf. Wolf, Schulwesen 70. Three points are worth making.

First, if the Calliopius of Ep. 18 and 951 is to be found among the other Calliopii of Libanius's correspondence, the teacher of Ep. 625 and 678 is the most likely candidate. Seeck's Calliopius III is absolutely ruled out; Calliopius IV, virtually so. Calliopius I and II (= PLRE I s.v., nos. 1, 2) are possible but unlikely; their careers were already in full bloom in the late 350s and early 360s, and the men were probably too old, if not dead, by 388. C., however, need not have been more than twenty-one in 361, and would have been in his prime in the 380s; cf. above.

Second, the references to the school of Zenobius in the letters from both periods provide a direct link; and the earlier letters' mention of the marriage connection with Seleucus, a man of substance and standing, indirectly confirms the praise of the social standing of C.'s family found in the later Ep. 18, inline image.

Third, the fact that Libanius emphasizes C.'s advocacy as the beginning of his career (see above) might well mean that C. did not teach long: unlike Ausonius, who preferred the classroom to the bar (see s.v., no. 21), C. may have taught only until the opportunity arose to turn his rhetorical education to forensic use. Ausonius's career also provides another comparison: one would not have predicted the QSP of the mid-370s from the grammaticus of the late 330s.

CALLIOPIUS: see no. 194.

+ CARMINIUS: see no. 195.

* 26. CASSIANUS. Schoolmaster and martyr. Forum Cornelii. s.IV init.

Cassianus: Prudent. Perist. 9 tit., vv. 6, 94, 106. Schoolmaster: cf. Perist. 9.21-24, praefuerat studiis puerilibus et grege multo / saeptus magister litterarum sederat, / verba notis brevibus conprendere cuncta peritus / raptimque punctis dicta praepetibus sequi; 35-36, agmen tenerum ac puerile gubernat / fictis notare verba signis inbuens. Since vv. 23-24 and 35-36 clearly refer to shorthand, and since magister litterarum by itself never means "teacher of shorthand," we should probably conclude that C. taught both regular letters and shorthand in his school. Compare the Christian Protogenes, who opened a school at Antinoopolis in which he taught both shorthand and inline imageinline image: Theodoret. HE 4.18.

C. was martyred at Forum Cornelii (mod. Imola), evidently during the Great Persecution; cf. vv. 29-30, ecce fidem quatiens tempestas saeva premebat / plebem dicatam Christianae gloriae. After refusing to sacrifice (v. 32), C. was handed over to his students, who stabbed him to death with their stili :


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vv. 13ff., 37ff. For the instrument, cf. Evag. HE 3.10 (PG 86:2.2613f.), Theoph. Chron. p. 128.17ff. de Boor, on the death of Stephanus of Antioch; Greg. Naz. C. Iulian. 4.89, on the death of Marcus Arethusius; and see s.v. Felix, no. 216.

The passio first appears in Prudentius (Perist 9), who visited C.'s martyrium (vv. 5ff.); a passio based on Perist. 9 and composed before Bede's time is found at Mombritius, Sanctuarium[2] 1.280. There was a basilica Cassiani at Imola by s.V med. according to Agnellus, Lib. pontif. eccl. Ravennae 52 (MGH SS. rer. langob., p. 314).

On the medieval tradition concerning C., cf. LThK 3.969 (Sparber); Bibliotheca Sanctorum 3.911 (Gordini); Delehaye, Passions[2] 288ff.

CATO: see no. 196.

ARRUNTIUS CELSUS: see no. 197.

* CHABRIAS: see no. 198.

CHALCIDIUS: see no. 24.

+ IOANNES CHARAX: see no. 199.

FL. SOSIPATER CHARISIUS: see no. 200.

+ GEORGIUS CHOEROBOSCUS: see no. 201.

27. CHRESTUS. Gramm. inline image. 358.

RE 3.2449 (Seeck); PLRE I s.v., p. 202.

Latin gramm. brought from Africa to Constantinople to fill the place of Evanthius (q.v., no. 54) on the latter's death: Jer. Chron. s.a. 358. Otherwise unknown.

With three exceptions, all the mss of Jer. ad loc. , including the codex Bodleianus (s.V.), give the man's name as C (h )restus (Chretus L); of the exceptions, two omit the name entirely, one (B, written sometime between 627 and 699) reads Charistus. On the basis of the last, Usener emended the name to "Charisius" (see s.v., no. 200). This conjecture is not impossible, given what little we know of Charisius's life; but uter in alterum abiturus erat ? "Charistus" looks very much like the idiosyncratic result of a scribal error or a botched interlinear correction, with the name "Charisius" failing in the attempt to drive out the unknown "Chrestus"; the reverse corruption is more difficult to imagine. Usener's conjecture should be rejected.

28. CITARIUS. Gr. gramm. and poet. inline image. s.IV 2/3.

PLRE I s.v., p. 205.


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Citarius: Auson. Prof. 13 tit., v. 1. A Greek gramm.: Prof. 13 tit., Grammatico Burdigalensi Graeco ; cf. vv. 1f., dignus / grammaticos inter qui celebrere bonos , a comparison with Aristarchus and Zenodotus; cf. also s.v. Harmonius, no. 65. From Sicily: v. 7, urbe satus Sicula ; the tit. specifies Syracusano. He came to Bordeaux a peregrinus.

As an amicus of Ausonius (v. 12; cf. v. 1), C. must have been active at Bordeaux during Ausonius's own tenure, ca. 336-67. He was also a poet; Ausonius compares his carmina favorably with the poetry of Simonides (vv. 5-6).

C. married well soon after his arrival in Bordeaux: v. 9, coniugium nanctus cito nobilis et locupletis. He died before becoming a father (v. 10).

On the grounds of C.'s poetic talents, PLRE I suggested identification with the Citherius rhetor who composed an epitaph preserved in Anth. Lat. 1:2[2] 484b. But, apart from the fact that the name and titulatur are against the identification, one would expect a poet compared with Simonides to have written in Greek; note above that he is compared qua Greek gramm. with Aristarchus and Zenodotus.

* 29. CLAMOSUS. Schoolmaster. Parentium (Histria). s.IV 3/4 / s.V init.

Clamosus, magister puerorum , commemorated with his wife, Successa, in a mosaic of the basilica primitiva at Parentium, in Histria, for donating 100 feet of pavement: ILCV 719 = Inscr. Ital. 10:2.58, [Lu ]picinus et Pascasia p (edes ) CCCC f (ecerunt ). Clamosus mag (ister ) puer (orum ) et Successa p (edes ) C. Felicissimus cum suis p (edes ) C ; photograph in Inscr. Ital. 10:2, p. 27; Molajoli, Basilica[2] 16, fig. 9.

That C. was a schoolmaster is shown by the analogous style of Philumenus (q.v., no. 120), viz., inline image; likewise by Martial 5.84.1f., puer . . . clamoso revocatur a magistro. From the latter, Diehl (at ILCV 719) concluded that "Clamosus" was not C.'s "verum et proprium nomen" but a suprenomen , or name assumed from his profession; cf. SEG 13.472 (s.II, Ostia), the epitaph of the sophist P. Aelius Samius Isocrates, with the comments of J. and L. Robert, Bull. ép. 1949, 233; cf. also Bull. ép. 1970, 422 no. 63, a sophist Menecrates inline image; and cf. s.v. Arethusius, no. 187. The name indicates that C., and so presumably his instruction, had some contact with the classical tradition.

A term. p. q. is provided by a coin of Valens found under the mosaic; a term. a. q. is provided by another mosaic, Inscr. Ital. 10:2.62, bearing the names of Lupicinus and Pascasia (cf. above) found in the annex added to the basilica primitiva probably in s.V init.; cf. Degrassi, Instr. Ital. 10:2, p. 26; Molajoli, Basilica[2] 11ff. If the mosaic is to be dated to s.IV 3/4 / s.V init., then C. must be the father of, not identical with, the Clamosus (q.v., no. 30) commemorated in a similar mosaic of the basilica praeeuphrasiana (s.V med.).

For the donation, cf. s.v. Calbulus, no. 23.


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* 30. CLAMOSUS. Schoolmaster. Parentium(Histria). s.V med.

Clamosus, magister puerorum , commemorated with his wife, Victorina, in a mosaic of the basilica praeeuphrasiana at Parentium, in Histria, for donating 111 feet of pavement: Inscr. Ital. 10:2.74, [C ]lamosus magister puerorum et Victorina f (ecerunt ) p (edes ) CXI ; photograph in Inscr. Ital. 10:2, p. 35; Molajoli, Basilica[2] 22, fig. 24. The construction of the basilica should be dated to s.V med. or not long after; cf. Degrassi, Inscr. Ital. 10:2, p. 31; Molajoli, Basilica[2] 17ff. The name of C.'s wife, Victorina, and the date suggest that C. is the son of, not identical with, the Clamosus (q.v., no. 29), husband of Successa, commemorated in a similar mosaic of the basilica primitiva (s.IV 3/4 / s.V init.). On C.'s name and the style magister puerorum , cf. s.v. Clamosus; cf. also Appendix 1.1c.

ARRUNTIUS CLAUDIUS: see no. 202.

31. CLEDONIUS (ROMANUS ?). Gramm. and senator. Constantinople. s.V med. - 2/2?

RE 4.10 (Goetz); Sch.-Hos. 4:2.207-8; PLRE II s.v. 2, p. 302.

Cledonius, styled Romanus senator, Constantinopolitanus grammaticus , inscr. cod. Bern. 380. It is possible, however, that the inscr. should be punctuated Cledonius Romanus', senator Constantinopolitanus, grammaticus ; cf. CIL 9.1654 = ILS 6497: M. Rutilius Aelianus, decurio Beneventanus, grammaticus. That C. taught is suggested by a lesson his Ars introduces with an anecdote from the classroom: GL 5.14.3ff., et quia praetermittendum mihi non visum est quod eventus admonuit, quodam tempore, dum ars in Capitolio die competenti tractaretur, unus e florentibus discipulis Iohannes a grammatico venia postulata intendens in alterum sciscitatus est, qua differentia dici debeat . . . . But given the state of the text (see below), the episode may be an interpolation; note esp. the shift from first person, mihi , to third person, a grammatico venia postulata. His location can be deduced from his style, Constantinopolitanus. If the anecdote cited above is genuine, the Capitolium referred to will be that of Constantinople; cf. CTh 14.9.3 (an. 425); Ioann. Lyd. De mag. 3.29.

C. must be dated after s.IV med., since he comments on Donatus (q.v., no. 52), and in fact after s.V 1/4, since he appears to have used the commentary of Servius (q.v., no. 136) on Donatus: cf. Holtz, "À l'école de Donat" 526; a date after 425 is also consistent with the reference to the Capitolium as the site of instruction (see above, with CTh 14.9.3). Since C. styles himself senator , and since the title senator had come to be reserved for illustres by 530 at the very latest, and possibly as early as the reign of Zeno or even of Leo (Jones, LRE 529), we should conclude either that C. was an illustris or—far more likely—that he cannot be dated later than s.V 2/2. In any case, he must be dated earlier than cod.


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Bern. 380 (s.VI - s.VII, CLA 7.864); the state of the text therein (see below) suggests that C. composed the work considerably before this copy was made.

C. composed a commentary on the two artes of Donatus (GL 5.9-79; also ed. H. Bertsch, "Cledonii ars grammatica," diss. Heidelberg, 1884). The work as now preserved is defective at beginning and end, with lacunae throughout; the relation between the lemmata of Donatus and the text of C. is often confused, and there are obvious interpolations. The work was written at the prompting of, and was dedicated to, a certain man of learning whose name is lost with the beginning of the preface, GL 5.9; a later hand added the phrase ad Fidum to the inscr. in cod. Bern. 380, a guess based on the phrase o fide omnibus et in omnibus fide in the preface, GL 5.9.6.

32. CLEOBULUS. Gramm. inline image. Born not after 300; dead not before 360.

RE 11.672 (Seeck); Bouchery, Themistius 128ff., 135, 154ff.; Wolf, Schulwesen 34f., 71-73; Petit, Étudiants 85, 86; PLRE I s.v. 1, pp. 215f.

Mentioned in or subject of Lib. Ep. 361 (an. 358), 52, 67-69, 82, 90, 91 (all an. 359), 155 (an. 359/60?), 231 (an. 360).

C. had come from Egypt to Antioch: Ep. 361.2; cf. 361.4, his sister's son in Egypt seeking a position on the staff of the praef. Aegypt. Parnasius. He was a poet (Ep. 361.2, inline image) and teacher (inline image, Ep. 361.2, 52.3, 91.1, 231.1; cf. 82.2, inline image). As a teacher, C. took on few pupils because of his physical frailty (Ep. 361.2), but had had Libanius as a student (Ep. 68.1; cf. Ep. 361.2, and esp. the conceit that opens Ep. 82.1-2, to Libanius's former pupil Ambrosius: teachers are pleased to ask former pupils for favors, and pupils are glad to help; Cleobulus asks me for help; I ask you), as a result of which Libanius regarded him as a child does his father (Ep. 361.2; cf. 231.1, the same feeling imputed to Bassianus). C. had also been the teacher of Bassianus (Phoenix to the latter's Achilles, Ep. 155.2; cf. 231.1) before Bassianus studied rhetoric with Libanius, and Bassianus owed his very knowledge of inline imageinline imageto C. (Ep. 155.3)—i.e., C. had taught Bassianus Homer. C. therefore was a gramm. (see also s.vv. Didymus and Anonymus 2, nos. 46, 168; for the analogy with Phoenix, cf. s.v. Nicocles, no. 106). By the late 350s C. was perhaps one of the gramm. teaching in Libanius's school; cf. Ep. 69.2 inline image; Ep. 155.2; Petit, Étudiants 84. The evidence, however, is not decisive.

As Libanius's teacher, C. must have been active at Antioch in the early to mid-320s and so is unlikely to have been born much later than 300; a slightly later date would be possible, however, if C. is identical


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with Anonymus 2: his instruction of Libanius would then date to the early 330s. He was still active in the period 358-60 and was by then old enough to have a nephew seeking a position on the staff of the praef. Aegypt (see above); note, however, that Libanius does not mention extreme old age as an added cause of sympathy when requesting assistance for C. in his lawsuit (see below). He is therefore perhaps unlikely to have been born much before 300.

C. is said to have had means sufficient to avoid base (inline image) employment but insufficient "to bear unjust penalties": Ep. 52.3; on the latter part of this statement, see below. He is also said to have had enough influence to protect his rights: Ep. 52.4, inline imageinline image. He was a inline image of Themistius: Ep. 68.1, 91.4; cf. 68.3, inline imageinline image ; for Themistius as his inline image, see 68.5. He was also known to Aristophanes (Ep. 361.3; on the latter's career in this period, see PLRE I s.v., pp. 106f.) and was patronized by Libanius.

All ten letters involving C. find Libanius interceding with one person or another in C.'s interest or his family's. Two letters concern his kin: Ep. 361 intercedes with Parnasius, praef. Aegypt. , in behalf of C.'s nephew, who was seeking a post on Parnasius's staff; Ep. 82 seeks favor with Libanius's former pupil Ambrosius (holding an inline image of uncertain description) for C.'s relative (inline image) Antiphilus, who is described as inline imageinline image, i.e., already a member of the officium of Ambrosius. It is not known whether the nephew of Ep. 361 is the Antiphilus of Ep. 82. The remaining letters concern C. himself and should be treated together: thus Bouchery, Themistius 156.

One group (Ep. 52, 67-69, 90, 91), all of 359 and all, ut vid. , addressed to Constantinople, concern a suit being brought against C. by one Severus, who is described in Ep. 52.1 as long a thorn in Libanius's side; he cannot easily be identified with any other Severus in the correspondence. In Ep. 52.2 and 91.2 Severus is said to be acting in collusion with Alexander (= Alexander 9 PLRE I, p. 41); an otherwise unknown pair, Antipater and Parmenio, are said in Ep. 52.3 to promise trouble in the future. Against Severus, Libanius attempts to enlist the aid of Clearchus (Ep. 52, 67, 90), evidently an official—his exact post is unknown, but it was such that Libanius could ask him to threaten Severus with prison in Ep. 52.2—and of Themistius, then procos. Const. (Ep. 67, 91; in Ep. 69 the physician Hygi(ei)nus is asked to use his influence with Themistius), to save C. from having to pay insupportable fines (Ep. 52.3, and above).

The nature of the suit is unknown, but it may have involved an inheritance; cf. the reference to inline image in Ep. 52.2. Libanius says that the matter had had a promising beginning from C.'s point of view but had deteriorated (Ep. 67.3). As the correspondence drags on through 359 Clearchus and Themistius are evidently unresponsive, and Libanius


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becomes increasingly impatient in his pleas; see esp. the letters to Clearchus. Although the disposition of the suit is not stated, the course of the correspondence and the absence of any concluding letters to Clearchus and Themistius thanking them for assistance (contrast the case of Bassianus, below) suggest that the suit went against C.

Further, Libanius writes not long thereafter to his relative and fellow Antiochene Bassianus, asking him to help his former teacher C.: Ep. 155, late 359 or early 360; the last letters to Clearchus and Themistius belong to autumn 359. The nature of the favor sought is not stated, but from the letter thanking Bassianus for his aid (Ep. 231, early autumn 360), it appears to have been a subvention of money: Ep. 231.1, inline imageinline image [=Bassiana] inline imageinline image; cf. at ibid. 3 a reference to inline imageinline image. Bassianus thus saved C. from ruin: Ep. 231.2, inline imageinline image. We can surmise that C. needed the money to pay the fines Libanius had feared.

+ 33. COLUTHUS. Gramm. Egypt? s.VI init.?

RE 1.1177f., s.v. Akoluthos (Crusius).

Recipient of a poem in cod. Barb. 310 (olim 246), PLG[4] 3.362ff., where the inscr. runs inline image. Weil, "Vers," realized that the gramm. (cf. v. 13, inline image) in whose honor this poem was composed (cf. vv. 41f., inline imageinline image , and passim ) must be named inline image: cf. esp. vv. 15-16, inline image; v. 71, Kypris called inline image. The poem was thus written for 3 December, the tenth day of the festival of the Brumalia.

Bergk incorrectly printed the poem as an adespoton in PLG[4] ; it follows without break or distinction the other anacreontic pieces of Georgius the gramm. (q.v., no. 63) in cod. Barb. (cf. Matranga, "Praefatio" xxxiii-xxxiv) and should be attributed to that author; cf. Nissen, Byzantinische Anakreonten 13, 16; Anastasi, "Giorgio" 211f. The authorship provides a probable date of s.VI init. (see s.v. Georgius), and C.'s name points to Egypt. From the latter fact flowed Weil's suggestion ("Vers") that C. is the epic poet Col(l)uthus of Lycopolis; but given that no name is more common in Egypt (cf. Crum, "Colluthus") and that the poet is nowhere called inline image, the identification must remain uncertain. At vv. 27-30 C. is called the pride or honor (inline image) of Homer, a compliment that would be as suitable for a inline image, i.e., a learned (v. 29, inline imageinline image ) expositor of Homer, as for an epic poet. The identification has been accepted most recently by Anastasi, "Giorgio" 214f.


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* 34. COMINIANUS. Gramm. s.IV init.

RE 4.606 (Goetz); Sch.-Hos. 4:1.141-42, with an important misprint corrected at p. 177 n. 5.

C. is known by name only from Charisius (q.v., no. 200), who cites him nine times (see below); in the Middle Ages Charisius himself is frequently cited under the name of Cominianus; cf. s.v. Iulius Romanus, no. 249, and see Hagen, Anecd. Helv. = GL 8, clv-clvi. In his first four citations Charisius calls him Cominianus grammaticus or Cominianus disertissimus grammaticus (GL 1.147.18 = 187.8 Barwick, 175.29-30 = 225.23B., 180.11 = 232.9B., 181.15 = 233.24-25B.), which might suggest that grammaticus was part of the titulatur of his work; contrast the case of Iulius Romanus, of whom Charisius uses only the vague title disertissimus artis scriptor at GL 1.232.7 (= 301.17B.), and that only once. His work, a brief and spare treatment of the basics (see below), was probably meant for the schools; cf. the judgments of Keil, GL 1, xlviii; Tolkiehn, Cominianus 169f.; Barwick, Remmius 16. Tolkiehn, Cominianus 2 and n. 3, suggested that Charisius refers to C. as magister noster at GL 1.159.9-10 (= 245.8-9B.), but the conjecture has little to recommend it.

A term. a. q. is provided by Charisius (s.IV med.); C. perhaps knew the work of Sacerdos (q.v., no. 132; on Dosith. GL 7.393.12 = Exc. Bob., GL 1.534.34 = Diom. GL 1.318.7, and likewise on Dosith. GL 7.407.18 with Charis. GL 1.253.26 = 332.8-9B. = Diom. GL 1.399.12, see Tolkiehn, Cominianus 107f., 157). He should probably be placed toward the beginning of s.IV.

From the excerpts of Charisius it is evident that C.'s work was a basic handbook, treating the parts of speech (GL 1.147.18ff. = 187.8-185.10B., on the ablative, i.e., the noun; 175.29ff. = 225.23-226.7B., on the conjugations, i.e., the verb; 180.11ff. = 232.9-30B., on the participle; 180.27ff. = 233.2-25B., on the adverb; 224.24ff. = 289.19-290.11B., on the conjunction; 230.4ff. = 298.2-299.13B., on the preposition; 238.19ff. = 311.4-9B., on the interjection) and the vitia orationis (GL 1.265.2ff. = 349.18-350.23B. "De barbarismo"; 266.15ff. = 351.13-352.31B. "De soloecismo").

35. CONCORDIUS. Gramm. inline image. s.IV 1/3.

PLRE I s.v. 1, p. 219.

Concordius (Auson. Prof. 10.18), a grammaticus Latinus (ibid. tit.) qui profugus patria / mutasti sterilem / urbe alia cathedram (ibid. 19-21). Despite the reserve of PLRE —"whether from or to Bordeaux is not dear"; cf. also Étienne, Bordeaux 252—this almost certainly means that Concordius left his unprofitable chair at Bordeaux. If instead C. came to Bordeaux, it


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would be strange for this to be signaled by so offhand a reference as the perfunctory urbe alia —at very least, nostra , or some metrically compatible equivalent, would seem to be called for; cf. Prof. 13.7, of Citarius (q.v., no. 28). Further, at Prof. 20.1-2, Ausonius states that it has been his lex thus far (i.e., Prof. 1-19) to celebrate only tires, whether they taught at home or abroad; here cives means those who have a communis patria with Ausonius: so Prof. 19.3, addressing the rhetorician Sedatus, a native of Bordeaux who went to teach at Toulouse. One may point to Citarius (above), Patera, and his father, Phoebicius (Prof. 4 and 10.22ff.), who shared that patria , and were cives , by virtue of their move to Bordeaux (note that the number of such transplants is strikingly small; the number of natives who appear from the Prof. to have gone away to teach is twice as large, even if C. is not counted); nonetheless, in the fifteen other places in the Prof. where patria is used, including twice more in Prof. 10, the word, with or without a modifier, can only refer to Bordeaux: cf. praef. 2; 1.4, 6; 6.4, 22; 10.34, 52; 16.4, 17; 17.16; 18.4; 19.3, 8; 25.2; and esp. 23.6-10, where profugus and patria are also used in close proximity, of a teacher who went from Bordeaux to Spain. There must, then, be a strong presumption that patria at 10.19 also refers to Bordeaux. C. therefore was probably a native of Bordeaux who went elsewhere to teach; accordingly, he is possibly identical with the L. Terentius Iulianus signo Concordius, a v.p., magister studiorum, grammaticus Latinus who died at Trier (see s.v., no. 87).

All the gramm. of Prof. 10 likely belong to a period well before Ausonius's tenure at Bordeaux, i.e., before ca. 336/37. Macrinus and Phoebicius, the only two of the six who can be dated, certainly belong to that period. (The former was Ausonius's first teacher; the latter was Attius Patera's father; see s.vv., nos. 93, 122.) Further, none of the six is spoken of as an amicus —in contrast, e.g., with the grammaticus Graecus Citarius (q.v., no. 28), who appears to have been Ausonius's contemporary at Bordeaux; cf. also Iucundus in Prof. 9 and s.v., no. 86—and the tone of the poem as a whole is impersonal: Ausonius emphasizes his officium in recalling these teachers out of loyalty to Bordeaux; cf. vv. 1-10, 32-34. One senses that Ausonius is using Prof. 10 to dispose of a group of teachers from before his time, whom he did not know well if at all. It may be significant that there is not even the qualifying phrase nostro . . . in aevo , which is found in poems about teachers who belonged to the Bordeaux of Ausonius's earliest years; cf. Prof. 8.7, 12.7.

CONSENTIUS: see no. 203.

36. CORINTHUS. Gr. gramm. Bordeaux. s.IV 1/4.

PLRE I s.v., p. 229.


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Corinthus (Auson. Prof. 8.1), grammaticus Graecus at Bordeaux (ibid. tit.); cf. vv. 1-4, Corinthi / . . . / Atticas musas . . . / grammatic [i ]. With Spercheus (q.v., no. 139), C. was one of Ausonius's teachers primis . . . in annis ; cf. vv. 1-4 with 9-10, and see s.v. Romulus, no. 250. Therefore he was active at least in the second decade of s.IV.

With Spercheus (q.v.) and Menestheus (q.v., no. 99), the other two Greek gramm. celebrated in this poem, C. is said to have possessed sedulum . . . studium docendi, / fructus exilis tenuisque sermo (vv. 5-6). Ausonius's tardior sensus and puerilis aevi / noxius error (vv. 13-16) prevented him from fully appreciating and profiting from their efforts.

See further s.v. Romulus.

+ 37. FL. CRESCONIUS CORIPPUS. Gramm. and inline image. inline image. s.VI init. - 3/4; dead not before 566/67.

RE 4.1236-46 (Skutsch); Sch.-Hos. 4:2.78ff.; Averil Cameron, "Byzantine Africa" 36ff.

Fl. Cresconius Corippus: the first two names are known only from the lost codex Budensis, reported by J. Cuspinianus; cf. Partsch, ed., MGH AA 3:2, xlvii n. 2. Poet and gramm. from Africa: cod. Matrit. Caion. 14 Num. 22, incipit liber primus Corippi Africani grammatici ; cf. Laud. Anast. 36ff. and the typically African name "Cresconius." C. claimed to have his origins in the back country: Iohan. praef. 25f., quid <<quod ego> ignarus, quondam per rura locutus, / urbis per populos carmina mitto palam? (cf. vv. 28, 37). He presented the first book (praef. 39) of his poem on the victories of the mag. mil. Ioannes Troglita, Iohannidos seu de bellis Libycis libri VIII (ed. Diggle and Goodyear [Cambridge, 1970]), at Carthage (praef. 35) not long after 548. He migrated sometime later to Constantinople, where in 566/67 he composed the panegyric of Justin II, In laudem Iustini Augusti minoris (ed. Averil Cameron; also ed. Stache). Perhaps shortly before, in 565/66, he wrote a brief panegyric (now standing as part of the introduction of the Laud. Iust. ) on Anastasius, QSP (Laud. Anast. 17, 31, 41) and magister (sc. officiorum , ibid. 26, 44; cf. 31f.).

On the date: Anastasius's tenure as mag. off. must be dated to 565/66; cf. Averil Cameron, ed., Laud. Iust. p. 123. Consequently, if the Laud. Anast. is to be regarded as contemporary with the Laud. Iust. (as usually), we must assume that the references to Anastasius as magister are retrospective, since Theodorus was already mag. off. on the occasion of the poem on Justin (see below). Alternatively, since C. stresses Anastasius's tenure of a double office (v. 32, gemino . . . honore ) and addresses him indifferently as both quaestor and magister (see Laud. Anast. 17, 31, 41; 26, 44), we may conclude that Anastasius was holding both offices at the time of the poem and that the panegyric of Anastasius was originally


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composed slightly earlier than the Laud. Iust. ; cf. Averil Cameron, ed., Laud. Iust. p. 123. The second alternative seems more likely; see further below.

C. appears to have been commended to Anastasius by an imperial letter (sacri apices ) during a time of personal difficulty and to have held a palatine office under him; cf. Laud. Anast. 36-48:

 

generaliter orbi

 

quam providens, miseri specialiter Afri

 

in te oculos atque ora ferunt: agit Africa grates

 

et vestram iam sentit opem, gaudetque quod ampla

40

semper Anastasii referunt solacia cives:

 

me quoque gaudentem, quaestorum maxime, redde.

 

quod labor indulsit, quod fessis provida Musis

 

alma per insomnes meruit vigilantia noctes,

 

hi sacri monstrant apices. lege, summe magister,

45

et causam defende meam. tibi sanctio vestrum

 

commendat famulum. vestro de fonte creatur

 

rivulus iste meus, sub cuius nomine gesto

 

principis officium.

On vv. 42-48, an awkward and obscure passage on any reading, I align myself with the interpretation presented by Averil Cameron, ed., Laud. Iust. pp. 125f. (and, in part, by Stache, ed., Laud. Iust. pp. 2f., on v. 48, principis officium ), although I believe that sacri apices (v. 44) must refer to a letter of Justin, not of Justinian (see now Averil Cameron, "Career" 536ff.). An alternative interpretation, which would equate both sacri apices and principis officium with the panegyric of Justin itself, and which consequently would deny an office to C. (see Baldwin, "Career"; and, on sacri apices , see Stache, ed., Laud. Iust. pp. 61f.), has been refuted by Averil Cameron, "Career" 536ff. Note also that if the remarks above concerning the date of the Laud. Anast. are correct, any argument that sacri apices , etc., refer to the Laud. Iust. would be weakened significantly, since the two poems would not be contemporary. Since C. claimed to be an old man at the time (Laud. Iust. praef. 37; Laud. Anast. 48), his birth should be placed toward the beginning of s.VI.

In addition to Anastasius (Laud. Iust. 1.15-17) C. names, as those who have urged him to compose the panegyric on Justin, Thomas (PPO Afr. ; ibid. 18-21), Magnus (CSL ; ibid. 22-24), Theodorus (mag. off. ; ibid. 25-26), and Demetrius (a secretis ? ibid. 26; cf. Averil Cameron, ed., and Stache, ed., ad loc. ). He speaks vaguely of some personal misfortune, which he begs Justin to relieve at Laud. Iust. praef. 41ff.; Stein, Histoire 2.693, connected C.'s plea with the woes caused in Africa by the revolt


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of the sons of Coutsina in 563. The panegyric of Anastasius includes a plea for patronage at vv. 36ff.; see above.

C. was a Christian; cf. RLAC 3.425 (Krestan).

CORONATLIS: see no. 204.

38. CRESCONIUS. Gramm. and Donatist. Africa. s.V init.

PLRE II s.v. 1, p. 329; Prosop. chrét. I s.v. 4, pp. 230ff.; cf. Weissengruber, "Augustins Wertung."

Cresconius, a grammaticus , the object of Augustine's tract Contra Cresconium grammaticum et Donatistam ; for the name and style, cf. also Retract. 2.52.1. C. Cresc. is probably to be dated ca. 405/7, and in any case not before 405; cf. Retract. ibid., hos autem quattuor libros quando scripsi, iam contra Donatistas dederat leges Honorius imperator. At C. Cresc. 3.47.51 the laws are called recentissimae ; at C. Cresc. 1.1 Augustine says that C.'s rebuttal of the C. litt. Petil. (see below) had taken some time to reach him.

A layman, C. had responded to Augustine's attack on Petilianus, the Donatist bishop of Cirta. Some of his arguments, to the extent that they can be reconstructed from the C. Cresc. , bore the stamp of his profession; cf. Weissengruber, "Augustins Wertung" esp. 104ff.

The Cresconius mentioned in a catalogue from the library of Lorsch as the author of several poems of Christian content—In Evangel., De diis gentium, De principio mundi vel de die iudicii et resurrectione carnis —was identified with C. by Manitius, Geschichte der christlich-lateinischen Poesie 314; but the Christian Cresconii of North Africa in this period are legion.

39. CRISPINIANUS. Gramm. Rome. Born not after ca. 336; dead not before 372.

AE 1969-70, 71 (p. 22) = Ferrua, "Nuove iscrizioni" 187 no. 4 = Inscr.; Martindale, "Prosopography" 247.

Crispinianus (Inscr. 3), a grammaticus (Inscr. 4), according to the funerary inscription of his daughter, Crispina. The inscription is dated 372 (Inscr. 5, Modesto et Harintheo coss. ), when the girl was nearly sixteen: Inscr. 2-3, quae vixit annos XV menses VIII dies XII. C. cannot therefore have been born much later than ca. 336. He was a Christian: the inscription was found in the catacombs of St. Felicitas and has a Christian monogram and chrismon. He was probably a widower: the mother of Crispina is not mentioned, and Inscr. 4 shows pater . . . curavit , not, e.g., parentes curaverunt.

40. CRISPUS. Gramm. Bordeaux. s.IV med.

PLRE I s.v. 3, p. 232.

Crispus: Auson. Prof. 21 tit. and vv. 1, 13. A gramm. who taught both Greek and Latin: ibid. tit., Crispus et Urbicus grammatici Latini et Graeci.


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Evidently he taught at Bordeaux: the locality is not stated; but since Staphylius is noted as the single exception to Ausonius's lex commemorandi in the Prof. (cf. Prof. 20.1-4 and s.vv. Concordius, Staphylius, nos. 35, 140), and since C. and Urbicus are not specifically said to have been Burdigalenses teaching elsewhere, they must be understood to have taught at Bordeaux.

No clear indication of C.'s date is given. Since Ausonius is very well informed about C. (contrast s.v. Thalassus, no. 148) but gives no sign that C. was of the generation of his own teachers (cf. s.vv. Corinthus, Macrinus, Spercheus, nos. 36, 93, 139), he was presumably active after Ausonius's school days and contemporary with Ausonius's tenure at Bordeaux, ca. 336-67.

C. taught primaevos fandique rudes the elementorum prima . . . signa novorum (vv. 4-6), presumably in both languages. He was therefore a gramm. who gave the youngest students their elementary lessons in letters; cf. Appendix 4 and s.vv. Ammonius, Ausonius, nos. 9, 21. He was also a poet, thought to fortify himself with wine to produce passages rivaling Vergil and Horace: vv. 7-9 (reading locis in v. 8 with V and Evelyn-White, against iocis , Heinsius's conjecture printed by Schenkl and Peiper).

With his colleague Urbicus (q.v., no. 165; cf. vv. 25, 27, ambo , and see below), C. is credited with fluency in speech (loqui faciles ) and learning in omnia carmina and in mython plasmata et historiam (vv. 25-26)—i.e., all the appurtenances of the grammarian's craft—and is said to have been of libertine birth (v. 27, liberti ambo genus ). It is, however, almost certainly incorrect to say with PLRE I that C. "declaimed in prose and verse." The statement is evidently based on vv. 13-15, concerning Urbicus: nam tu Crispo coniuncte tuo / prosa solebas et versa loqui / impete eodem. (On the exercise involved, see s.v. Urbicus.) But Crispo coniuncte tuo probably means no more than "when you were the colleague of your friend Crispus"; and making C. a partner in these performances destroys the clearly articulated structure of the poem, whereby the individual qualities of each man are first celebrated separately—vv. 1-9 for Crispus, including his tipsy excellence as a Latin poet; vv. 10-24 for Urbicus, including his inferiority in Latin and his special excellence in Greek—before the two are finally brought together, with a change of meter and the emphatic triple ambo , for the enumeration of their shared qualities in vv. 25-25. Thus vv. 10-12, et tibi . . . carmen sicinline image, clearly mark the part of the poem set aside for Urbicus—in fact, his part is called a carmen in itself—and the statement that Urbicus was Grais celebris (v. 11) is continued and expanded by nam (v. 13), which introduces the lines that explain Urbicus's special glory. C. should not be allowed to steal his thunder.


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+ 41. AUR.? CYRUS. Gramm. (and poet?); decurion? Antaeopolis? s.VI 1/2; probably dead by 539?

PCairMasp. 2.67134 (= Pap. 1), 2.67135 (= Pap. 2), 2.67139 (= Pap. 3), 3.67326 (= Pap. 4), 3.67327 (= Pap. 5).

Aur. Cyrus: Pap. 2.1; elsewhere Cyrus; on the identification on which the authenticity of the name "Aurelius" depends, see below. Mentioned as inline image "of blessed memory" in a receipt his heirs issued to Apollos of Aphrodito (Antaeopolite nome), father of the poet Dioscorus of Aphrodito, for rent on land at Piase in the territory of the village Phthla (Pap. 4). He is likely to be identical with Aur. Cyrus, decurion (inline image) of Antaeopolis, known from similar receipts he or his heirs issued to the same Apollos or to his heirs for rent on land in the same place (Pap. 1, 2, 5; cf. also Pap. 3, viv 4, another receipt); but apart from the difference in style, inline imageinline image , note that a Christodorus acts as agent in Pap. 4, whereas the comparable party in Pap. 1, 2, and 5 is a different man, the inline image Victor.

C. is perhaps the poet Cyrus of Antaeopolis, whose works—an iambic encomium of the dux Mauricius (for the type, cf. Heitsch, Griechische Dichterfragmente XLII.9 [Dioscorus]), other inline image, and letters—were known to Photius, Bibl. cod. 279 (8.188 Henry). The identification would, however, be ruled out if the dux Mauricius turned out to be Fl. Mauricius, v.c., comes et dux in the Thebaid in 367/75 (= PLRE I s.v. 2, p. 570), as suggested by Baldwin, "Some Addenda " (1982) 104f.

C. was dead before 547: in Pap. 4, C. is already dead, and Apollos is still alive; but Apollos was dead in 547 (Bell, "Egyptian Village" 26). C. was dead by 539, the probable date of Pap. 5, if he is identical with Cyrus the decurion. If Maspéro's restoration of the name "Flavius" for Apollos at Pap. 2.2 is correct, Cyrus the decurion would still have been alive after 536: Apollos still bore the name "Aurelius" in 536 (PFlor. 3.283.4), and the name "Flavius" is otherwise attested for him only in 541 (PCairMasp. 3.67126.3); on the change, cf. Bell, "Egyptian Village" 26; Keenan, "Names" (1974) 298f. But Maspéro's restoration is very doubtful.

+ 42. DAMOCHARIS. Gramm. and poet; procos. Asiae ? (very unlikely). inline image. s.VI 2/3.

RE 4.2067 (Reitzenstein); Chr.-Sch.-St. 2:2.980; cf. RE Suppl. 14.110 (Eck).

The author of several epigrams (Anth. Gr. 6.63, 7.206; 9.633, 16.310) from the Cycle of Agathias; he was a contemporary of the latter and of


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Paul the Silentiary, who composed an epigram on his death (7.588). He was dead, therefore, before ca. 568: for the date, see Cameron and Cameron, "Cycle "; differently Baldwin, "Four Problems" 298ff., "Date" 334ff.

A inline image of or from Cos: thus the lemma of 7.588, inline imageinline image; the corrector of the codex Palatinus added inline image (viz., inline image) to the lemma inline image of 7.206 (the addition was omitted by Planudes). But note that since Agathias is not otherwise known to have taught, it is not evident in what respect D. would have been his pupil; all other details in the lemma of 7.588 are derived from the poem itself. (On such descriptions of teacher-pupil connections, see also s.vv. Romanus, Timotheus, nos. 129, 156.) inline image appears in the lemmata of 7.206 and 9.633; the name only is found at 6.63 and 16.310. D.'s acquaintance with Agathias and Paul is probably evidence of a move from Cos to Constantinople.

D. is almost certainly not to be identified with the homonymous proconsul of Asia known from an inscription on a reused base from Ephesus (inline imageinline image: see Miltner, "Bericht" 84ff. = id., "Vorläufiger Bericht" 347 = Inschr. Eph. 4 [IGSK 14] 1302, with the remarks of J. and L. Robert, Bull. ép. 1959, 382, and 1960, 347; since the base was originally set up for the proconsul of Asia L. Artorius Plus Maximus [= PIR2 A.1187; PLRE I s.v. Maximus 43, p. 589], it can hardly have been reused before s.IV 2/2) or with the benefactor of Smyrna known from Anth. Gr. 16.43, inline image (the second epithet suggests that he too was a governor; cf. Robert, Hellenica 4.62f.), who was honored for his efforts in rebuilding Smyrna after an earthquake. Damocharis the proconsul and Damocharis the benefactor were considered identical by Malcus, "Proconsuln" 132f., and more tentatively by Eck, RE Suppl. 14.110 (cf. also Bull. ép. 1959, 382); they were identified with D. by Cameron and Cameron, "Cycle " 11, and by Merkelbach, "Ephesische Parerga," who adduces Inschr. Eph. 4.1303, inline image [---, as the beginning of a fourth epigram concerning D. Note, however, that it is at least slightly curious that Paul should make no mention of this distinction of his friend in Anth. Gr. 7.588. Further, pace Cameron and Cameron—"There would be nothing at all strange in a poet and grammarian serving as a provincial governor" ("Cycle " 11, citing Alan Cameron, "Wandering Poets" 497f.)—the examples of gramm. flourishing in the imperial service are not plentiful: there is only one example of a gramm. tout court serving as a provincial governor during the period covered by this prosopography; cf. s.v. Fl. Simplicius, no. 137, and Chap. 3 p. 131. Last, the style of the draping of the pallium on the statue of the


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proconsul Damocharis that surmounts the inscription at Ephesus suggests a date not later than s.V; see McCail, "Cycle " 89. A date for the proconsul "bis spätestens um 400" was suggested by Malcus, "Proconsuln" 133.

43. DANAUS. Gramm. Oriens (probably: province uncertain; see below and s.v. Diphilus, no. 49). Born not after ca. 348; dead not before 390.

PLRE I s.v., p. 242.

Father of the gramm. Diphilus (q.v.); mentioned in Lib. Or. 54.55 (an. 359), Ep. 969 (an. 390). Danaus: Or. 54.55; Ep. 969.1, 4. A gramm.: Or. 54.55, inline image. Since his son is said to be inline image (Or. 54.55; cf. Ep. 969.1), with the further specification inline imageinline image (Ep. 969.1), both father and son must have been gramm.; and inline image in Or. 54.55 must mean inline image, as it usually does in Libanius; cf. Appendix 2. Since his son was professionally active at least by 388, and almost certainly earlier, D. cannot have been born much later than ca. 348; he was still alive, and apparently was still active, in 390 (Ep. 969; see further s.v. Diphilus).

His son was a native of the province governed by Heraclianus in 390 (Ep. 969.4), probably in Oriens; on the difficulty of identifying the province, see s.v. Diphilus. D. would therefore have been active in that province at the time of his son's birth. There is no evidence that he moved; the statement in PLRE I that D. was teaching in Palestine is an error. Rather, his son is said to be teaching in Palestine (Ep. 969.4, Or. 54.55; cf. ibid. 57); but that was not the province of his birth, and there is no indication that the father followed the son, who was obviously very mobile (see s.v.). The evidence associates D. only with the province of his son's origin.

D. had taught many pupils (Or. 54.55) and evidently was of some renown: the opening sentence of Ep. 969 suggests that Heraclianus was expected to know of D. and his teaching; and see ibid. 4. He is perhaps identical with Danaus the dedicatee of an epitome of Herodian's inline imageinline image made by Aristodemus (q.v., no. 188): Suda A.3915, inline imageinline image.

+ FABIUS? DEMETRIUS: see no. 205.

44. DEUTERIUS. Gramm., rhetorician, poet, vir spectabilis. Milan. 503-6(-12?).

RE Suppl. 3.334 (Kroll); Sch.-Hos. 4:2.142f., 145; Sundwall, Abhandlungen 72ff. (for the dates of the documents noted below), 115; PLRE II s.v. 3, pp. 356f.


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Gramm. (Ennod. Carm. 1.2 tit., MGH AA 7.170; and see below) and poet (Ennod. Epist. 1.19.3, p. 26) who also taught rhetoric (see below). Styled vir spectabilis : Ennod. Carm. 1.2 tit., p. 170, Deuterio v.s. grammatico ; cf. Dict. 8 tit., p. 78, Deuterio v.s. (I. Sirmond: Deutericium cod. Bruxell., om. cett.). He taught at Milan when Ennodius was deacon there, ca. 496-513. The compositions that certainly or probably refer to him or that he received all date from spring 503 through the middle of 506; Dict. 13, which may also allude to him (see below), dates from early 512. Besides being mentioned in connection with the education of various wards of Ennodius (see below and Riché Education 25), he received Epist. 1.19 (p. 26; spring 503) from Ennodius and suggested that the latter compose a declamation on the cuckolded Diomedes: Dict. 24, pp. 167f., Dictio ex tempore quam ipse Deuterius iniunxit ; cf. Carm. 2.90.7-8, p. 168, exactam . . . vocem, / extortis . . . dictis (both spring 506). He is also mentioned in connection with Carm. 1.2, an encomium of and appeal to Eugenes (or Eugenetes), QSP (p. 170; spring 506), Dictio data Deuterio v.s. grammatico nomine ipsius Eugeneti v.i. mittenda , and he is the subject of Carm. 2.104 (pp. 182f.; mid-506).

D. appears as the teacher in Ennodius's declamation Dict. 9 (pp. 112ff.), Praefatio quando Arator auditorium ingressus est , composed when Arator, ward of Ennodius, began his rhetorical studies. D. is named at 9.11, and so he must be the venerabilis magister addressed at 9.5; on the nature of the studies, see below. D. is also named as the teacher in the tit. of Dict. 8, composed for Ennodius's nephew Lupicinus on a similar occasion, Praefatio dicta Lupicino quando in auditorio traditus est Deuterio v.s. ; the quando clause is found only in the oldest ms, cod. Bruxell. (s.IX), where D.'s name and style appear as Deutericium (see above). D. is addressed or referred to as doctissime hominum (8.5), doctor optimus (8.12), venerabilis magister (8.13); cf. doctor optime in Epist. 1.19.2 (p. 26), to D. He is therefore probably the doctorum optime, optime magister , and sire. addressed in the following contemporary declamations of Ennodius on similar themes: Dict. 7 (pp. 6ff.), Dictio . . . in dedicatione auditorii quando ad forum translatio facta est; Dict. 10 (pp. 118ff.), on Ennodius's nephew Parthenius, Gratiarum actio grammatico quando Partenius bene recitavit (cf. 10.4, a reference to another declamation, not preserved, on Parthenius's entry into school); Dict. 11 (pp. 132f.), on Ennodius's ward the son of Eusebius, Dictio quae dicta est quando Eusebii filius traditus est ad studia ; and perhaps also the later Dict. 13 (pp. 309f.; early 512), on Paterius and Severus.

It would appear from these declamations that D. taught both gramm. and rhetoric. The latter is clearly involved in Dict. 7-9; cf. Dict. 7.8, where D. is praevius eloquentiae morumque doctor , and 7.4, on the student who one day citaturus reum causidicus inter atria iam probata dictionem metuendus incipiet. In Dict. 8 and 9, Lupicinus and Arator are no longer pueri but adulescentes (cf. 8.4, 10, 12; 9.9, 10, 20), i.e., of an age for the school of


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rhetoric; and Dict. 9.6 refers to D.'s school as a palestra , a metaphor usually associated with oratory (but cf. Sidon. Apoll. Carm. 23.212). But a stage of education earlier than rhetoric—viz., grammar—must be supposed in Dict. 10, 11, and 13: note Dict. 10 tit., Gratiarum actio grammatico ; and cf. 10.4, where Parthenius is said to have only recently crossed the liberalium disciplinarum limen. Similarly, in Dict. 11 and 13 the students are in the very early stages of their liberal education: cf. Dict. 11.6, [Eusebii filius ] cui saporem vitae labris primoribus contingenti gustum deprecor libertatis infundi ; 11.7, [idem ] cuius prosapiem splendidam tempus postulat scientiae te radiis adornare ; 13.4, Paterius et Severus . . . eruditionem originariam in ipsis vitae praestulantur exordiis.

It also appears that D. taught both subjects concurrently: the works that allude to rhetorical instruction, Dict. 7-9 (spring 503, early 504, and after Easter 504, respectively; D. is named in Dict. 8 and 9), belong to much the same period as two of the works that allude to grammatical instruction, namely, Dict. 10 (after Easter 504; later than Dict. 9, but not much, since Parthenius is said in 10.4 to have begun his studies only recently—i.e., probably in autumn 503) and Dict. 11 (505); Carm. 1.2 tit., in which D. is styled grammaticus , belongs to spring 506. It does not seem likely that D. would have descended from a chair of rhetoric to a chair of grammar. The combination is also suggested by Carm. 2.104 (pp. 182f.), a satirical poem of mid-506 that backhandedly attests D.'s involvement with both grammar and rhetoric (vv. 5-10). Cf. also s.vv. Iulianus Pomerius, Staphylius, nos. 124, 140.

Since D. was already of an age to be bald (Carm. 2.104.10) and plagued with bad eyesight (Epist. 1.19.2ff.) in the first years of s.VI, he probably is not the Deuterius scholasticus mentioned as a discipulus of the Roman rhetorician Securus Melior Felix in the subscription to Martianus Capella, whether that subscr. is dated to 534 (cf. Jahn, "Subscriptionen" 352-54) or to 498, as is more likely correct (see Alan Cameron, "Martianus").

45. DEUTERIUS. Gramm. Rome. s.IV 2/2 / s.VI.

PLRE II s.v. 5, p. 357.

Teacher of poetry and so presumably a gramm.: ILCV 729 = Anth. Lat. 2:3.1964.1, priscorum interpres vatum doctorq [ueinline image - x]. A Christian (ibid.). Not identical with Deuterius (q.v., no. 44) the gramm. and friend of Ennodius, D. is conceivably the Deuterius scholasticus mentioned as a discipulus of the Roman rhetorician Securus Melior Felix in the subscription to Martianus Capella (an. 498); see the preceding entry ad fin.

46. DIDYMUS. Gramm. inline image. Born not later than ca. 300; dead by 357.

Seeck, Briefe 251; Wolf, Schulwesen 32; PLRE I s.v. 1, p. 252.


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The father of Libanius's pupil Rhetorius: Ep. 317, 318 (an. 357); cf. Ep. 404 (an. 355).

Didymus (Ep. 318.2), a teacher (Ep. 318.2, inline image). At Ep. 317.1 Libanius says that D. had taught him inline image as Libanius had taught Rhetorius inline image; D. was therefore a grammarian. Cf. Wolf, Schulwesen 32; and s.vv. Cleobulus, Anonymus 2, nos. 32, 168.

As Libanius's teacher, D. must have been active by the early to mid-320s and so is unlikely to have been born much later than ca. 300; a slightly later date is possible, however, if D. is identical with Anonymus 2: his instruction of Libanius would then date to the early 330s. His son, a student of Libanius at Nicomedia (Ep. 317.1), i.e., in 343/48, was probably born ca. 328/33. D. was dead, evidently recently, in 357 (Ep. 317, 318; see below) but not, apparently, before spring 355 (cf. Ep. 404).

A native of Egypt, where he had retained a small parcel of land (Ep. 317.2, 318.3, and below), D. was teaching at Antioch probably by the 320s (see above) but subsequently taught at Constantinople; cf. Ep. 318.2, inline imageinline image. In context "the great city" is presumably Constantinople (cf., e.g., Ep. 454); it is certainly neither Antioch nor Alexandria. There is no firm evidence for when the move to Constantinople took place; if D. is Anonymus 2 (q.v.), then not before 334. The move may have occurred even later in his career: at Ep. 404.2, Libanius says that Rhetorius, who was at the time probably in Constantinople, used to make frequent trips to Antioch when Libanius himself was not there; this refers presumably to the period after Rhetorius's schooldays and before Libanius's return to Antioch, i.e., to any time between the mid- to late 340s and 354. The trips were perhaps visits to his father.

Two letters, Ep. 317, to Clematius governor of Palestine, and 318, to Sebastianus dux Aegypti , were given to Rhetorius when he was traveling to Egypt to claim his patrimony; they were intended, respectively, to ease his journey and to facilitate his mission. It should be noted that although the estate is said to be small (Ep. 317.2, 318.3), a mere "solace for a poor man" (Ep. 318.3; cf. ibid., Rhetorius one of inline image), Rhetorius had been able to receive a full literary education; cf. esp. Ep. 318.2.

* DIOCLES: see no. 206.

DIOGENES: see no. 207.

47. DIOMEDES. Gramm. s.IV 2/2 / s.V.

RE 8.827-29 (Goetz); Sch.-Hos. 4:1.169-72; PLRE I s.v., p. 257.


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Diomedes: GL 1.299.1, Diomedes Athanasio salutem dicit ; "Diomedes" in Rufinus, Priscian, Cassiodorus (see below). Not called a gramm., but his activity as a teacher is suggested by the arrangement of the material in his Ars (see below).

The dating of D. depends on one's view of his sources. The direct use of Charisius and Donatus (qq.v., nos. 200, 52) that has been detected would produce a term. p. q. of s.IV med.; cf. Sch.-Hos. 4:1.169-72; Goetz, RE 5.827-29. But D. appears to have used Donatus's main source, not Donatus himself (see esp. Barwick, Remmius 10f.); and though Barwick's arguments that D. drew directly on Charisius, not on the main source of the "Charisius-group," have had considerable influence (see Barwick, Remmius 8f.; id., "Zur Geschichte" 335f.; and cf. Holtz, Donat 81, 85; De Nonno, Grammatica xvii), the matter should be regarded as still sub iudice (see esp. I. Mariotti, ed., Mar. Vict. pp. 60f.; Ballaira, "Sulla trattazione" 183ff.).

D. certainly wrote before s.V med. or s.VI, when he is cited by Rufinus (q.v., no. 130), GL 6.555.5-10 = 1.515.3-8, 6.568.12-18 = 1.469.3-8; cf. 6.565.4, 573.26. (He is also cited five times by Priscian—GL 2.470.13, 485.20, 499.19, 515.16, 535.12—each time in company with Charisius, and once by Cassiodorus, Inst . 1.30.2.) Note also the abstract form of address or "Ehrenprädikat," excellens facundia tua , that occurs in the preface to his work: GL 1.299.4, hanc [sc. artem ] cun cognovissem excellentem facundiam tuam plurimi facere ; cf. Symm. Ep . 1.79, eruditio tua , addressing Ausonius's son Hesperius; Aug. Ep . 187.3, 229.2, eruditio tua , addressing in the latter the vir inlustris Darius (an. 429/30); Prisc. GL 3.405.14f., sapiens eloquentia vestra , addressing his dedicatee, Symmachus. Such phrasing points to a date in the second half of s.IV rather than in the first half (if not in s.V): see also the datable examples of the Greek counterparts, e.g., inline image, below; and cf. O'Brien, Titles 44, 162, on eruditio ; Zilliacus, Untersuchungen 46, 51ff.; id., "Anredeformen" 167ff.

Author of an ars grammatica in three books, D. describes his efforts as a matter of arranging and setting out what humanae sollertiae claritas expolivit, GL 1.299.2ff. (cf. Charisius GL 1.1.4f., artem . . . sollertia doctissimorum virorum politam et a me digestam ; D.'s method of compilation is, however, much less straightforward than Charisius's). The work is divided into three books according to the age of the audience: GL 1.299.10, secundum trina aetatis gradatim legentium spatia . Therefore it was composed with an eye to the schools. The material of Book 1, described (GL 1.420.2f.) as sermonis universi membra, quae prima legentibus artis grammaticae studia praecipua esse videbantur , includes the parts of speech, the case system with exercises, and the verbal system; Book 2 presents basic definitions de voce , etc., which are thus placed out of the order normal in such artes , and the vitia et virtutes orationis ; Book 3 considers meter.


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The Ars is dedicated to one Athanasius; the abstract form of address, excellens facundia tua , may indicate that he was a member of a learned profession—esp. a rhetorician or advocate—or belonged to a branch of the imperial service that recruited heavily from the learned professions, e.g., assessors to provincial governors: cf. inline image or inline imageinline image in Greg. Naz. Ep. 148 and Basil Ep . 77, letters to the assessors Asterius and Helpidius; Isid. Pel. Ep . 5.125 and Nil. Ancyr. Ep . 3.153, letters to inline image; SB 12.11084 (s.V 2/2), a letter sent by one advocate or rhetorician to another, with Maehler, "Menander" 306. Compare also the use of inline image applied especially to advocates in the papyri, e.g., "your brotherly brilliant learnedhess," POxy . 8.1165.2, inline imageinline image; see Preisigke, WB Abschn. 9, p. 198 s.v.; and add POxy . 16.1883.7, a inline image and inline image; 1884.10, 14, an inline image; 1886.12, the same; PSI 8.872.3, the same; Fest. Berl. ägypt. Mus . 459, a inline image: none of these documents is earlier than s.V. The locutions need not be tied to a specific profession, however: cf. for inline image Basil Ep . 1 and 7, the philosopher Eustathius and Gregory Nazianzen; for inline image, PSI 4.297.1, a physician.

48. DIOSCORIUS. inline image, PPO (?)(Or . ?), cons .(?), patricius (?) inline image. s.V 2/4-2/2.

PLRE II s.v. Dioscorus 5, pp. 367f.

Dioscorius: SudaD .1208 (cf. 2.732.25f. Adler); Const. Porph. De cer . 1.87, below. Also Dioscorides (in the genitive, inline image, presumably an error for inline image): Suda N.395. A inline image from Myra in Lycia (SudaD .1208, N.395), said to have been the brother of the rhetorician Nicolaus of Myra (N.395) and to have taught the daughters of Leo I (Ariadne and Leontia) in Constantinople (D .1208).

According to the Suda , he was PVC and PPO (D .1208, inline imageinline image) or "prefect, consul, and patricius" (N.395, inline imageinline image ). It is uncertain which of these titles is authentic.

D. is probably the, inline image, who delivered an encomium of Leo and Anthemius at Constantinople on the occasion of the latter's accession in 467 (Const. Porph. De cer . 1.87, p. 395.15f. Reiske). The style, "ex-prefect of the city," allows for the possibility that the prefecture was honorary. In fact, it may have been not only honorary but a reward precisely for his tuition of Leo's daughters, which must have occupied D. in the years just preceding 467; D. probably would not have become tutor of Ariadne and Leontia before the early or mid-460s, since Leontia was not born until after Leo's accession in 457: Ariadne married in 466/67; Leontia, for the first time, in 470/71. For another ex-teacher at Leo's court in this same period, see s.v. Isocasius, no. 85.


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If D. received the consulship, it must have been honorary, since no Dioscorius is known to the consular fasti . D. cannot be Fl. Dioscorus, cons. ord . (West) in 442 (= PLRE II s.v. 6, p. 368), although he may have been confused with him; cf. below. If honorary, the consulship could not have been received before the reign of Zeno and would possibly have been purchased; cf. Jones, LRE 533.

If the name "Dioscorius" is correct, D. presumably cannot be the bearer (or bearers) of the name "Dioscorus" who was (or were) PPO Or . under Leo and Zeno; cf. Seeck, Regesten 418-19; RE 5.1086.36ff. Attribution of the praetorian prefecture to D. in the Suda may be the result of a confusion with Dioscorus; for the error compare Chr.-Sch.-St. 2:2.1075 n. 3, where D. is called "Dioskoros" and is said to have been a poet, evidently out of confusion with the poet Dioscorus of Aphrodito (s.VI 2/3-3/4; there is no evidence D. was a poet). PLRE II s.v. Dioscorus 5, pp. 367f., assumes that the correct form of D.'s name was "Dioscorus" and identifies him with the PPO Dioscorus.

49. DIPHILUS. Gramm. and poet. inline image; also Cilicia and Antioch (origin uncertain and movements varied; see below). Born not after ca. 368; dead not before 390.

PLRE I s.v., p. 261.

Diphilus, son of the gramm. Danaus (q.v., no. 43): Lib. Or . 54.55, Ep . 969.1, inline image. Gramm.: see the texts quoted s.v. Danaus. Poet: Or . 54.55-57, Ep . 969.1, 3.

D. was a native of the province governed by Heraclianus in 390; see s.v. Danaus and below. Since D. was professionally active by 388 at the latest (see below), he cannot have been born later than ca. 368.

Our glimpses of D.'s career are limited to 388 and the summer of 390, and are provided by Lib. Or . 54.55-57, composed not long after March or April 389, and Ep . 969, respectively. The reconstruction below differs from Seeck, .Briefe 171, which was followed by Festugière, Antioche 105 n. 7, and by PLRE I s.vv. Danaus, Diphilus, Heraclianus 3. For full discussion, see Kaster, "'Wandering Poet.'"

Already established as a gramm. in one of the provinces of Palestine, D. embarked on a tour of the cities of Cilicia, where Eustathius, cons. Syriae , had promised to arrange "audiences and the income from them" for D.'s poetry; but Eustathius did not keep his promise. The tour was a failure, and D. returned from Cilicia in despair (Or . 54.55).

Shortly before the Olympic Games, in July or August of 388, D. was in Antioch or its environs. Eustathius again promised to help D. by making a place for him as a poet in the games and again broke his promise (Or . 54.56-57).


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In the summer of 390, D. was still teaching in Palestine and was still trying to promote his career as a poet. Libanius commended him as an encomiast to one Heraclianus, the governor of D.'s native province (Ep . 969); we do not know that D. was now successful. The province governed by Heraclianus in 390 is also unknown; it was certainly not one of the Palestines, nor was it Syria or Phoenice. If it was in Oriens, as seems most likely, then it was perhaps Arabia or Cilicia; but the question must remain open. See Kaster, "'Wandering Poet'" 156f.

50. DOMITIUS. Gramm. Clermont-Ferrand. s.V 3/4.

Sch.-Hos. 4:2.268; PLRE II s.v. 2, p. 371.

Friend of Sidonius Apollinaris: cf. sodalis and amici in Carm . 24.3, 9. Taught in Clermont-Ferrand (see below) in the 460s: Ep . 2.2 belongs to the period of Sidonius's retirement, 461-67 (ca. 465, according to Loyen, ed., Sidoine vol. 2 p. 246); Carm . 24, to 469 (cf. Loyen, ed., Sidoine vol. 1 p. xxx). D. taught Terence (Ep . 2.2.2) and therefore was presumably a gramm.

The place of his instruction is not specified but is almost certainly Clermont. Sidonius, writing from his estate, Avitacum, in the Auvergne, refers to D.'s discomfort in the anhelantes angustiae civitatis , which in context should refer to the civitas Arvernorum , i.e., Clermont; cf. Fournier, "Noms" 553ff. This is all the more likely if Avitacum is Aydat, some 19 km SW of the city; cf. Stevens, Sidonius 185ff. Further, Sidonius's Carmina make their first stop at D.'s home (Carm . 24.10f.), after which they are imagined as following a southerly route from Brionde (Carm . 24.16), ca. 58 km SSE of Clermont, to Narbo (Carm . 24.90ff.); cf. Loyen, Sidoine . . . et l'esprit 64 n. 2.

D. was invited by Sidonius to escape the heat of late spring in the city where he was teaching (Ep . 2.2.1) and join him at Avitacum: ibid. 3, contubernio nostro aventer insertus . He received the collected poems of Sidonius (Carm . 24.10ff.); he is described as a demanding critic (vv. 12-15). Possibly he had been the teacher of Sidonius's brother-in-law Ecdicius; cf. Loyen, Sidoine . . . et l'esprit 65. It is not dear whether he was a public or private teacher; for argument that D. had a municipally funded chair, see Riché, "Survivance" 421ff.

51. DONATIANUS. Gramm. Aet incert. ; perhaps not before s.IV 2/2.

Cf. RE 5.1532 (Goetz); Sch.-Hos. 4:1.169; PLRE I s.v. Donatianus 6, p. 268.

Scholar to whom the Donatiani fragmentum is attributed (GL 6.275.10-277.15); according to the fragment, he was a teacher: GL 6.275.11, ars grammatica accepta ex auditorio Donatiani. The heading also suggests that


275

the fragment is from an inline image treatise; as such, it is the only identifiable representative of the type in Latin (for the type in Greek, cf. s.vv. Ioannes Charax, Georgius Choeroboscus, nos. 199, 201). The fragment bears a marked resemblance to sections of Charisius: cf. GL 6.275.16-276.8 with 1.116.30-117.5 (= Iulius Romanus); GL 6.276.10-277.9 with 1.52.6-53.6; GL 6.277.9-15 with 1.53.30-54.5. If it depends on Charisius (q.v., no. 200) and not on Charisius's sources, then it must not be dated before s.IV 2/2.

D. is perhaps, though not very probably, Ti. Claudius Maximus Donatianus (q.v., no. 208).

TI. CLAUDIUS MAXIMUS DONATIANUS: see no. 208.

52. AELIUS DONATUS. inline imagev. c., orator (unlikely). inline image. s.IV med.

RE 5.1545-47 (Wessner); Sch.-Hos. 4:1.161-65; PLRE I s.v. 3, p. 268; Holtz, Donat 15ff.

Aelius Donatus: Comm. Terent . cod. Dresden. Reg. Dc132 fol. 1r , 4r ; likewise in the subscr. to the commentary on Phorm . in cod. Cors. 43 E 28 fol. 294r (cf. Warren, "On Five New Manuscripts" 32) and in the codex Cuiacianus reported by J. Gronovius, on which see now Reeve, "Textual Tradition" 324ff.; cf. also APLI [< AELI ?] DONATI in the subscr. to the commentary on And ., cod. Paris. lat. 7920 fol. 51r , and AFRI DONATI in the subscr. ad loc . found in cod. Vat. lat. 2905 fol. 76v ; FL . [<? EL . = AEL .] DONATVS in the salutation of the prefatory epistle to the Vergilian commentary. Claudius Donatus (in confusion with Ti. Claudius Donatus): tit. in cod. Oxon. Lincoln. 45. Elsewhere simply Donatus. Note that the name "Aelius" is thus not unequivocally attested before s.XV, though it probably lurks beneath the form APLI DONATI found in cod. Paris. lat. 7920, of s.XI; and apart from the form FL ., which has been assumed to be a corruption of AEL (IVS ), in the Comm. Verg . epist. praef. (above), the only evidence for "Aelius" is found in the same mss of the Comm. Terent . that carry the very suspect style v.c., orator , on which see below.

Styled grammaticus urbis Romae in numerous codd. of the Ars (see Holtz, Donat 354ff.); grammaticus at Jer. Chron . s.a. 354, Victorinus rhetor et Donatus grammaticus, praeceptor meus, Romae insignes habentur , and praeceptor meus also at Jer. C. Rufin . 1.16, Comm. Eccles . 1; grammaticus excellentissimus or clarissimus grammaticus or honoratissimus grammaticus or grammaticus in some codd. of the Comm. Terent . (see Wessner, ed., 1, x-xxiv). Also styled v.c., orator urbis Romae in cod. Paris. lat. 7920 fol. 51r (subscr. to the commentary on And .), cod. Cors. 43 E 28 fol. 294r , and cod. Cuiacian. according to Gronovius (the latter two in subscr. to the commentary on Phorm .); orator Urbis in cod. Vat. lat. 2905 fol. 76v (subscr. to the commentary on


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And .). Also Donatus V.C.D . at "Sergius" Explan., GL 4.486.8; the meaning is obscure (see below).

Active at Rome at least in the mid- to late 350s and doubtless in the early 360s: see Jer. Chron . s.a. 354, C. Rufin . 1.16, Comm. Eccles . 1; cf. Booth, "Date." The name "Donatus" suggests that D. may have been of African origin; see Syme, "'Donatus'" 589ff. = Roman Papers 3.1106ff.; cf. Holtz, Donat 19f. If he did pursue a career as a rhetorician, which is unlikely despite the titulatur (see below), he did not do so before 366, when Jerome's schooldays at Rome ended. Jerome clearly knew D. only as a grammarian.

Author of an ars grammatica , in the form of an Ars minor on the parts of speech, in one book per interrogationem et responsionem , and an Ars maior , in three books: GL 4.355-402; Holtz, Donat 585-674. The work was the subject of numerous commentaries, including those by Servius, GL 4.405-48 (with "Sergius" GL 4.486-562); by Cledonius, GL 5.9-79; and by Pompeius, GL 5.95-312 (qq.v., nos. 136, 255, 31, 125). Cf. also Schindel, Figurenlehren ; with Holtz, "À l'école de Donat."

D. also compiled a variorum commentary on the works of Vergil, from which only the prefatory epistle dedicating the work to a certain L. Munatius, the V. Verg ., and the preface to the Buc . survive independently; the commentary was an important source for Servius, Macrobius, and others. It is now generally agreed that considerable fragments of the commentary are embedded in the interpolated version of Servius discovered by P. Daniel; see s.v. Servius and Chap. 5 n. 2. D. also wrote a commentary on Terence; cf. Priscian GL 3.281.14f., 320.13. For the commentaries on Terence and Vergil, see Jer. C. Rufin . 1.16; "Sergius" GL 4.486.8f. The Terentian commentary that now passes under Donatus's name issues from a later process of abridgement and reconstitution; cf. Sabbadini, "Commento" 4ff.; Wessner, ed., 1, xliv-xlvii. On the transmission of the Comm. Terent ., see now Reeve and Rouse, "New Light"; Reeve, "Aelius." For the suggestion that Donatus wrote works on rhetoric now lost, see Sabbadini, "Scolii" 339f.; contra , Keil GL 4, xxxvi-xxxvii; Holtz, Donat 251 n. 34, correctly.

The different styles in D.'s titulatur should properly denote two different periods of his teaching career: as a gramm. (grammaticus urbis Romae ); and, presumably later, as a rhetorician, when he would also apparently have been honored with the clarissimate (v.c., orator urbis Romae ). For orator or rhetor urbis Romae , cf. PLRE I s.vv. Hierius 5 (p. 431), Magnus 10 (p. 535); Marius Victorinus, Expos. in Rhet. Cic . tit.; the rhetor Felix in the subscriptions to Martianus Capella and Horace edited by Jahn, "Subscriptionen" 351ff. (Note that the heading v.c., grammaticus in PLRE I is misleading, since the evidence for D.'s possession of the clarissimate is—except for the puzzle in "Sergius"—connected only with his


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supposed status as orator .) Since the style grammaticus urbis Romae is associated with the mss of the Ars , whereas v.c., orator urbis Romae appears only in certain mss of the Terentian commentary—including the oldest, cod. Paris. lat. 7920, of s.XI—the natural inference was drawn by Sabbadini, "Scolii" 337ff., who dated the Ars to the time of Donatus's activity as a gramm., and the Terentian commentary to a subsequent period, when D. would have been v.c., orator urbis Romae .

The evidence of Jerome, however, tells decisively against that inference. First, Jerome preserves a comment D. made while teaching Terence in the classroom as a gramm.: Comm. Eccl . 1, on Eun . prol. 41, nihil est dictum, quod non sit dictum prius: unde praeceptor meus Donatus, cure istum versiculum exponeret, "pereant" inquit "qui ante nos nostra dixerunt. " Given the fortunes of the commentary, the absence of the witticism from the surviving text does not prove that Jerome is reporting a viva voce remark, but Jerome's tenses and the nature of the remark—more risqué and personal than the ordinary fare of a commentary—make it likely that Jerome is recalling a piece of oral instruction that had stuck in his mind. Moreover, Jerome also makes it plain that the commentaries on Vergil and Terence were both already in circulation when he was a puer ; cf. C. Rufin . 1.16, puto quod puer legeris Aspri in Vergilium et Sallustium commentarios, Volcatii in orationes Ciceronis, Victorini in dialogos eius, et in Terentii comoedias praeceptoris mei Donati, aeque in Vergilium, et aliorum in alios . The puer here of course is Rufinus, but since he and Jerome were nearly exact contemporaries, the remark will apply to Jerome's own pueritia as well—that is, to the very time when, as puer , Jerome was a student of D. the grammaticus ; cf. Chron . s.a. 354, and, for Jerome's use of puer to denote the time of his own grammatical studies at Rome, In Abacuc . 2.3.14 and Comm. Galat . prol. Plainly, then, D. both lectured on Terence and published his commentary when still a gramm., not as a rhetorician; and this is only what we should expect, since Terence was traditionally associated with the grammarian's school, not the rhetorician's.

Consequently, either the style v.c., orator urbis Romae is genuine and was somehow preserved apart from the original Comm. Terent ., which it could not have adorned, ultimately to find its way anachronistically into one branch of the commentary's tradition; or else the title represents a later misunderstanding or invention. No mechanism for the first alternative immediately suggests itself, but later fictions concerning D.'s life are not unknown; cf. the V. Donati edited by Hagen, Anecd. Helv . = GL 8, cclx-cclxi. The mysterious V.C.D . in "Sergius" GL 4.486.8f., hic enim Donatus V.C.D. Vergilianum carmen vel [et Ribbeck] Terenti comoedias mirifice commentavit , may be part of this same problem if V.C.D . has its origin in v.c.o . or v.c. or ., i.e., v (ir ) c (larissimus ) o (rator ); cf. the style in the tit. of the Exempla elocutionu ; of Arusianus Messius, v (iri ) c (larissimi ) or (atoris ). But


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V.C.D. may be a fusion or confusion of v (ir ) c (larissimus ) and v (ir ) d (isertissimus ); cf. s.v. Rufinus, no. 130. Note also the reference of "Sergius" to D.'s commentary on Vergilianum carmen , not carmina , implying that D. commented on only one of Vergil's compositions; the reference might further suggest that "Sergius" is not a well-informed witness for D.'s life and work. The question of D.'s correct titulatur does not permit an unequivocal solution; that D. became an orator and gained the clarissimate must, however, be regarded as at best unlikely.

TI. CLAUDIUS DONATUS: see no. 209.

53. DOSITHEUS. Gramm. (magister ). s.IV, perhaps 2/2.

RE 5.1606-7 (Goetz); Sch.-Hos. 4:1.177-79; PLRE I s.v., p. 271.

Dositheus magister (Ars tit., GL 7.376.2), usually taken to be the man responsible for both the composition of the Latin Ars and its translation into Greek. The dependence of the Ars on the common source of the "Charisius-group" (cf. Barwick, Remmius 4ff.) suggests that it was not composed much before s.IV med. It is possible but less likely that D. also drew directly on Cominianus (q.v., no. 34); cf. Tolkiehn, Cominianus 79ff. The name "Sacerdos" (q.v., no. 132) is used in examples in a way that might refer to a contemporary; cf. esp. GL 7.407.18f., bene apud Sacerdotem studetur . But these examples were probably already found in D.'s source; note GL 7.393.12f. = Exc. Bob., GL 1.534.34 = Diom. GL 1.318.7. If the citation of Donatus's Ars at GL 7.424.9ff. (= 4.391.27ff. = 652.6-13H.) belongs to the treatise as originally written, then a term. p. q . of s.IV med. would be established (cf. Tolkiehn, "Apex"); but the citation could be a later addition. A sure term. a. q . is lacking. D.'s origin and place of activity are unknown; there is some slight reason to think that he was a Greek-speaker from Asia Minor; cf. Tolkiehn, ed., Dosithei ars xii.

D. composed an Ars grammatica in Latin, originally with word-for-word (interlinear?) translation in Greek. The work was presumably intended for speakers of Greek who were learning Latin.

He was possibly a Christian; cf. Tolkiehn, Cominianus 96. The suggestion of Baldwin, "Some addenda " (1976) 119, that D. was an acquaintance of the emperor Julian and was the recipient of Iul. Ep . 68 Wright (= 200 Bidez) would have little to recommend it even if the letter were not of doubtful authenticity. The suggestion of Tolkiehn, ed., Dosithei ars xii, that D. is to be identified with the homonymous ecclesiastical writer of Cilicia does not have much more chance of being correct.

54. EVANTHIUS. Lat. gramm. Constantinople. s.IV 1/2; died 358.

RE 6.847 (Wessner); Sch.-Hos. 4:1.179-80; PLRE I s.v. 2, p. 287; cf. Cupaiuolo, "Antiche edizioni" 42f.


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Evanthius, eruditissimus grammaticorum : Jer. Chron . s.a. 358; cf. Rufin. GL 6.554.4, 565.5. Died at Constantinople in 358 (Jer. ibid.); succeeded by Chrestus (q.v., no. 27).

Rufinus, GL 6.554.4ff., cites Evanthius in commentario Terentii de fabula , quoting two brief passages that now stand in the introduction to the Terentian commentary that has come down under the name of Donatus: GL 6.554.5-6 = Comm. Terent . ed. Wessner 1.17.16-18; 6.554.6-9 = 19.6-9. It is clear, then, that Evanthius wrote a commentary on Terence that included or was introduced by a general discussion of the genre, but it is uncertain how Evanthius's work is related to the original commentary of Donatus (q.v., no. 52) or to the abridged and reconstituted version that survives.

55. EUDAEMON. Gramm. (or sophist?); poet; advocate. inline image. Born not after ca. 337, probably well before; dead not before 392.

RE 6.885 (Cohn); Chr.-Sch.-St. 2:2.1075 n. 3, 1077, 1081 n. 3; Seeck, Briefe 131; Wolf, Schulwesen 37, 39; Hunger 2.13, 18; PLRE I s.v. 3, pp. 289f.

The recipient or subject of Lib. Ep . 315 (an. 357 not later than summer), 108 (an. 359/60), 132 (an. 360 init.), 164, 167 (both an. 360 spring), 255 (an. 360/161), 632, 633 (both an. 361 summer), 826 (an. 363), 1057 (an. 392); cf. Suda E.3407.

From Egypt (Ep . 132.1, 255.3), specifically, from Pelusium (Ep . 108.2; Suda E.3407); of good birth but modest estate (Ep . 108.2; sim. 164.1). Since he was an advocate by 357 (see below), he will not have been born much after 337. In fact, he was probably not too far from Libanius's age, since the latter speaks of him as "better than a brother in his behavior toward me" (Ep . 164.2); were E. much younger, we would expect Libanius to have chosen "son" as the appropriate image of familial piety: cf. Ep . 1428.2 and s.v. Eudaemon (no. 210) ad fin . If so, he was perhaps born ca. 314/24; this rough date would be consistent with his father's old age in 359/60 (Ep . 108.2). E. cannot have been much older than Libanius (314-93), since he was alive in 392 (Ep . 1057). He was active as a poet before he arrived at Elusa (Ep . 132.1-2, quoted below) and still at the time of our latest notice of him: Ep . 1057; cf. also Ep . 108.4, inline imageinline image; 255.9ff. (an obscure passage); 632.4; 633; 826.4; Suda E.3407, inline image.

His teaching career and movements are problematic; as attested by Libanius, they can be presented tentatively in the following stages.

E. received his education in poetry, i.e., his grammatical education, in Egypt but did not receive his rhetorical education until he went to Elusa:


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Ep . 132.1-2, inline imageinline image [i.e., in Egypt] inline imageinline imageinline image. The letter is addressed to Eutocius, a principalis of a city that is not named, doubtless Elusa; cf. Seeck, Briefe 151; and below.

By 357 he was active with his cousin Eunomus as an advocate (inline image) in Elusa; cf. Ep . 315.5, commending to the governor Clematius inline imageinline imageinline image. Cf. inline image also at Ep . 132.1, 164.2, the latter again involving Eunomus. Note that if the suggestions above concerning E.'s chronology are valid, we must assume either that he had first come to Elusa sometime before 357, or that a fair amount of time had intervened between his grammatical studies in Egypt and his rhetorical education in Palestine, or some combination of the two; for he would have been of quite mature age by 357.

His activity as advocate at Elusa can be traced through the spring of 360; cf. Ep . 164.2, commending him to Cyrillus the governor of Palaestina Salutaris. Ep . 167, addressed to E., presumably at Elusa, on a private matter unrelated to his profession, belongs to the same period. By that time he had also gained a teaching position there; cf. Ep . 108.1 (late 359 or early 360), inline image. (Since E. was still in Elusa in spring 360, Seeck, Briefe 214 and 362, must be wrong in saying that this letter, which introduces E. to the comes Or . Modestus and requests his favor for E.'s family, was received by Modestus at Pelusium. The letter, like Ep . 100, 101 and 105, was probably sent to Modestus when the latter was still in Palestine; it anticipates his trip to Egypt.) E.'s post at Elusa carried an imperial salad: in Ep . 132.3 (an. 360 init.) he is a inline image, and Libanius enlists the aid of Eutocius in winning E. the privilege of converting his salary in kind (inline image) to cash.

E. cannot have stayed at Elusa much beyond spring 360, for by the time we next hear of him (Ep . 255; late 360 or early 361) he has had time to go to Egypt, return to Antioch to respond to a suit, become an intimate of Libanius, advising him on numerous questions, do some teaching at Antioch, and leave again, probably for Constantinople. For the summons from Egypt and the suit, see Ep . 255.3; for his friendship with Libanius and his advice, ibid. passim . For his teaching at Antioch, see ibid. 4, inline image; and cf. ibid. 6, inline image, inline image, inline imageinline image referring to the participation of the teachers of Antioch in the ceremonial adventus of the governors; cf. Liebeschuetz, Antioch 208f. Regarding his departure from Antioch, Seeck, Briefe 375, assumed that E. received Ep . 255 at


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Elusa; but since we know that E. soon visited Constantinople, and since Ep . 251-53 are also addressed to recipients there, to assume that E. went to the capital directly from Antioch and there received Ep . 255 seems better than to add one more trip—in the opposite direction—to an already crowded itinerary; see immediately below.

Sometime toward the end of 360 or the beginning of 361 E. traveled to Constantinople, only to return to Egypt by the summer of 361; cf. Ep . 632, 633, Libanius commending E.'s poetic talents to the praef. Aegypt . Gerontius and urging E. to exploit the connection. For the sojourn at Constantinople, see Ep . 633.2.

His whereabouts and activity thereafter cannot be traced, although he is referred to again, as poet only, in 363 (Fp . 826) and 392 (Ep . 1057).

Here is clearly a duster of difficult questions, an answer to any one of which different from that proposed above would materially alter the reconstruction. Most noteworthy is the flurry of activity that took E. within a year from Elusa to Egypt to Antioch to Constantinople and back to Egypt, a sequence especially disconcerting since it means that E. could only have taught in Antioch for a few months; this is the necessary conclusion from Ep . 255. It should be remembered, however, that Libanius had a similarly brief tenure at Nicaea (implied by Lib. Or . 1.46-48). The alternative date for Ep . 255, an. 357/58 (Foerster), might avoid some of the difficulty but in fact raises more problems than it solves. The most difficult question, however, derives from data that are indisputable. E. certainly taught at Elusa and Antioch; cf. the texts cited above. But was he a gramm., or a teacher of rhetoric?

Libanius offers no sure indication, but his emphasis on E.'s activity as a inline image (meaning "advocate" everywhere in these letters) might suggest that he taught rhetoric. The Suda , however, terms E. a inline image—though this description is by no means decisive, given the source. More compellingly, the Suda states that he wrote a inline image and an inline image. Note that these works, esp. the latter, concern the very topics on which Libanius consulted E. while the two were together in Antioch: Ep . 255.6-7; see esp. ibid. 7, where Libanius praises at some length E.'s judgment concerning the proper vocative forms of inline image.

Answers to the question of E.'s metier accordingly differ depending on whether one prefers to draw one's conclusions from Libanius—so, apparently, PLRE I, which states that he was a sophist at Elusa; similarly, e.g., Liebeschuetz, Antioch 155 n. 6—or from the Suda : thus Cohn, RE 6.885; Chr.-Sch.-St., 2:2.1075 n. 3, 1077; Wolf, Schulwesen 37, 39. Seeck, Briefe 131, calls him a gramm., referring to the Suda and to Ep . 132, 255, 1057, although Ep . 132 and 1057 offer nothing useful, and Ep . 255 is inconclusive. I am inclined to think that E. taught gramm. at Elusa and Antioch,


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although I would not be surprised to learn that he taught rhetoric. One should also bear in mind that our detailed evidence, such as it is, for E.'s activity covers only four years, 357-61, in the middle of what would seem to have been a long and busy life, during which E. could have appeared in a number of different professional guises.

The inline image significantly influenced later gramm.; for details, see RE 6.885. E. is probably the Eudaemon included in the catalogue of gramm. in Kröhnert, Canones 7; cf. ibid. 38ff. That he composed a completely unattested work inline image is a modern conjecture.

EUDAEMON: see no. 210.

56. EUGENIUS. Gramm. and poet. Augustopolis inline image. s.V 212 / s.VI init.

RE 6.987-88 (Cohn); Chr.-Sch.-St. 2:2.1075f.; PLRE II s.v. 2, p. 416.

Eugenius son of Trophimus: Suda E.3394. From Augustopolis in Phrygia (Salutaris): Suda ibid. and praef. Taught as a gramm. in Constantinople in the reign of Anastasius when already elderly: Suda E.3394; cf. Stephanus (q.v., no. 144) of Byzantium s.v. inline imageinline image . He is credited in the Suda (E.3394) with works metrical, inline imageinline imageinline image; orthographical inline image [cf. s.v. Horapollon, no. 77], inline image; lexicographical, inline image (cf. Suda praef.; this is probably the inline image cited by Stephanus s.v. inline image); and poetical inline imageinline image. Named as a source in the preface to the Suda , but the authenticity of the preface is doubtful; see Adler RE , 2. Reihe, 4.681.7ff.

FL. EUGENIUS: see no. 211.

EUSEBIUS: see no. 212.

* EUTROPIUS: see no. 213.

* EUTYCHES: see no. 214.

57. EUTYCHES. Lat. gramm. Constantinople(?). s.VI l/2.

RE 6.1529 (Goetz); Sch.-Hos. 4:2.238-40; PLRE II s.v. 2, pp. 445f.

Eutyches: in genitive, Eutychis, Euticis , or sim. in some early mss of the Are and in mss of Cassiodorus De orth . at GL 7.147.12, 199.4 (the form Euticis is presumably the starting point for the nominative Eutex in the commentary of Sedulius, Anecd. Helv . = GL 8.2.1ff.); Euticii in most early


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mss of the Ars (see Jeudy, "Manuscrits"), hence Eutitii duo (sc. libri ) in the catalogue of gramm. in cod. Bern. 243, Anecd. Helv . = GL 8, cxlix; cf. also GL 8.1.13ff.

Called grammaticus in some mss of the Ars . More reliable evidence of the profession is E.'s dedication of the Ars to a pupil, Craterus: GL 5.447.9, meorum dilectissime discipulorum Cratere ; cf. also ibid. 1ff., cum semper novas quaestiones doctoribus auditorum acutiora commovere solent ingenia . . . , inexcusabilis quodam modo respondendi necessitas praeceptoribus iure videtur inponi . It is tempting, incidentally, to see in E.'s dedicatee a member of the family of Craterus (= PLRE II s.v., p. 328) and his son Phocas (PPO Or . 532, = Phocas 5 PLRE II, pp. 881-82), the former possibly the rhetorician and advocate who is the subject of Anth. Gr . 7.561-62, 9.661 (cf. McCail, "Cycle " 88), the latter known as a patron of Latin studies (cf. s.v. Speciosus, no. 138). E.'s pupil could not, however, have been Phocas's father, whose schooldays must on any reckoning have fallen before E.'s time. Perhaps he was a son of Phocas?

E. was a pupil of Priscian, presumably at Constantinople: GL 5.456.29ff., Romanae lumen facundiae, meus, immo communis omnium hominum praeceptor . . . grammaticus Priscianus . it is likely that E. taught there as well. As a pupil of Priscian, E. should be dated to s.VI l/2-med. Cassiodorus is clearly mistaken in placing him among the orthographi antiqui he names at Inst . 1.30.2; cf. Cassiod. De orth . praef., GL 7.147.12, where E. is implicitly distinguished from Priscian, the modernus auctor .

Author of an Ars de verbo or de discernendis coniugationibus in two books (GL 5.447-88). Book 1 is entitled "De coniugationibus verborum"; Book 2, "De finalitatibus." There is an extant commentary by Remigius of Auxerre; and one by Sedulius Scottus, Anecd. Helv . = GL 8.1-38 (cf. ibid. lxxiii-lxxix), with a new edition by B. Löfstedt, CC CM 40C, pars 3.2 (Turnhout, 1977). A lost work De aspiratione was excerpted by Cassiodorus, De orth., GL 7.199-202.

Cf. also s.v. Ter(r)entius, no. 262.

EUTYCHIANUS: see no. 215.

FABIUS: see s.v. Flavius, no. 61.

58. FAUSTUS. Gramm. (and poet?). Africa, perhaps Carthage. s.VI init. - 1/2.

PLRE II s.v. 3, p. 451.

Friend of the poet Luxurius (q.v., no. 235) and a gramm.: Anth. Lat . 1:1.287 (= 1 Rosenblum), 4, tantus grammaticae magister artis . At F.'s urging Luxurius undertook the publication of his liber epigrammaton (ibid. 1ff., 19f.), and Luxurius sent him the poems to review and approve before


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their wider circulation (ibid. 10ff.; and see s.v. Luxurius). Connection with Luxurius (cf. s.v.) suggests F.'s place and date, but note that although Luxurius was probably a man of Carthage, it need not follow that F. should be placed there as well. It is conceivable that he was the teacher of Luxurius, but, pace Riché (Education 38), Anth. Lat . 1:1.287.5, [versus ] quos olim puer in foro paravi , does not have that meaning; and Luxurius seems to address F. rather as a friend and peer than as an older man and onetime teacher: cf. ibid. 1, amice ; 3, nostro Fauste animo probate conpar .

F. is possibly the Faustus whose poetry is quoted in a glossary of s.XII (cf. Rosenblum, Luxorius 44 n. 44; Happ, "Zur Lisorius-Frage" 200), although he is by no means the only possible candidate from this period; cf. Ennod. Carm . 2.3 (MGH AA 7.80).

59. FELICIANUS. Gramm. Carthage. s.V 2/2.

Sch.-Hos. 4:2.58f., 66; Szövérffy, Weltliche Dichtungen 1.178f.; PLRE II s.v., p. 458.

Teacher of the poet Dracontius, who praises F., no doubt with a touch of encomiastic exaggeration, as the man responsible for recalling Latin letters from their exile under the Vandals: Rom . 1.13f., qui fugatas Africanae reddis urbi litteras, / barbaris qui Romulidas iungis auditorio . When still his pupil, ut vid ., Dracontius addresses him in Rom . 1 (tit., Praefatio Dracontii discipuli ad grammaticum Felicianum ) and Rom . 3 (tit., incipit praefatio ad Felicianum grammaticum, cuius supra in auditorio ; cf. ibid. 14-20). These are the coveting or dedicatory pieces for Rom . 2, Fabula Hylae , and 4, Verba Herculis . (For classroom compositions of the sort implied by the tit. of Rom . 1 and 3, where note esp. Dracontii discipuli and in auditorio , see s.v. Ioannes of Gaza, no. 83.) As products of the time when Dracontius was still a schoolboy, Rom . 1-4 must antedate by some years Rom . 7, written by Dracontius in prison ca. 490, when he was already of a mature age.

Cf. Kuijper, "Varia" 7ff.; Díaz de Bustamente, Draconcio 37ff.

+ FELIX: see no. 216.

60. IUNIUS FILARGIRIUS. Gramm. Milan. Not active before s.V 1/4?

RE 10.1077-79 (Tolkiehn); Sch.-Hos. 2.108f.; PLRE II s.v. Iunius Philargyrius, p. 874.

Iunius Filargirius: I. Filargirius, subscr. Explan. 1 in Buc . codd. NP, subscr. Explan. 2 in Buc . cod. P; I. Filagirius, subscr. Explan. 2 codd. P[2] NL; I. Filargius in Manitius, Handschriften 267; Iunilius or Iunilius Flagrius, Scholia Bernensia ; cited as "Iunilius" in a commentary on Orosius: cf. Lehmann, "Reste" 200. For the name "Philargyr(i)us," cf. Thilo, "Bei-


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träge" 135; Ferrua, "Nuova regione" 178; and Pape and Benseler, Wöirterbuch ; Preisigke, Namenbuch ; Foraboschi, Onomasticon s.v. The form "Filagrius" was urged by Heraeus, "Drei Fragmente" 391 n. 1.

A gramm. (grammaticus , subscr. Explan. 1 and 2 ) at Milan: Iunilii Flagrii Mediolanenses [sic], subscr. to Buc . in Schol. Bern . (printed as inscr. to Georg . by Hagen; see below); cf. Iunilius Flagrius Valentiano Mediolani , inscr. of Georg . in Schol. Bern . Author of a commentary on the Bucolica and Georgica of Vergil, dedicated to a certain Valentinianus: so subscr. to the Buc . in Explan. 2; Valentiano , inscr. of Georg . in Schol. Bern ., above. Note that even if the form "Valentinianus" is correct, the absence of appropriate ornament in the dedication makes it unlikely that one of the three emperors of that name is meant, as has sometimes been supposed. The commentary is preserved in two different recensions: recension a, ed. H. Hagen, in Thilo and Hagen, eds., Servii . . . commentarii 3:2, contains Explan. 1 and 2 on the Buc ., and the Brevis expositio (transmitted without attribution) on the Georg. ; recension b is the Scholia Bernensia ad Vergili Bucolica atque Georgica , ed. H. Hagen, Jahrbuch für classischen Philologie Suppl. 4.5 (Leipzig, 1867); cf. Barwick, "De Iunio"; Funaioli, Esegesi .

F.'s use of the variorum commentary of Donatus (cf. Funaioli, Esegesi 233ff.) provides a term. p. q . of s.IV med.; his apparent use of Servius, a term. p. q . of s.V 1/4. Funaioli believed F. to be ignorant of Servius; but as C. E. Murgia has emphasized to me, Funaioli's treatment of the evidence was often arbitrary: note esp. that Servius's introduction to the Georg . (ed. Thilo and Hagen, Servii . . . commentarii 3.128-29.16) is repeated almost verbatim in both recensions and is attributed to "Iunilius" in recension b; so Schol. Bern . p. 841.3, hucusque Iunilius . For an attempt at more exact dating, see Funaioli, Esegesi 399f. A reliable term. a. q . is lacking; on the identification of the Adamnanus mentioned in Explan. 1 (Ecl . 3.90) with the homonymous abbot of Iona (679-704), cf. Lehmann, "Reste" 197f., and Wessner's review of Funaioli, PhW 51 (1931), 209.

Cf. also s.vv. Titus Gallus, Gaudentius, nos. 222, 223.

+FILOCALUS: see no. 217.

FIRMIANUS: see no. 218.

FLAVIANUS: see no. 219.

61. FLAVIUS? (FABIUS?). Lat. gramm. inline image. s.III ex. / s.IV init.

PLRE I s.v. 1, p. 349.

Flavius: "Flavius" and "Fabius" appear in the mss of Jer. De vir. ill ., as does "Flavus"; cf. "Flavum" in the mss of Jer. C. Iovin. ; and Barnes,


286

"More Missing Names" 144. Latin gramm. invited by Diocletian to teach at Nicomedia: Jer. De vir. ill . 80. Since he is said to have been summoned with Lactantius, he was presumably from Africa.

F. wrote a treatise De medicinalibus in hexameter verse: Jer. De vir. ill . 80; C. Iovin . 2.6.

Perhaps a Christian; cf. Jer. C. Iovin . 2.6, noster . But since F. here is named fourth in a list that begins with three Greeks—Aristotle, Theophrastus, Marcellus of Side—noster may instead mark him as a Latin writer.

* FLAVIUS: see no. 220.

ATILIUS FORTUNATIANUS: see no. 221.

* 62. FL. FORTUNATUS. Schoolmaster. Aquileia. s.IV 212 / s.VI.

Fl. Fortun[atus], called [magiste ]r litterar [um ] on a Christian epitaph from Aquileia; see Brusin, "Nuove epigrafi" 40f. = AE 1968, 191-98 n. (p. 72). His religion and the name "Flavius" suggest a date not before s.IV 2/2. His use of the Flaviate is noteworthy as evidence of incomplete social differentiation between magistri litterarum and grammatici , and might suggest a date of s.V or VI; cf. Chap. 3 pp. 109-11.

TITUS GALLUS: see no. 222.

GAUDENTIUS: see no. 223.

+ 63. GEORGIUS. Gramm. Egypt? Palestine (Gaza)? (very uncertain). s.VI 1/2?

Nissen, Byzantinische Anakreonten 13ff.; Anastasi, "Giorgio" 209ff.; Hunger 2.93f.

A inline image, author of nine surviving anacreontic poems, PLG[4] 3.363ff.: 1-6, exercises in ethopoeia on the theme of the rose, for the Rosalia; 7-8, epithalamia; plus the poem in honor of the Brumalia of the gramm. Coluthus, on the attribution of which cf. s.v. Coluthus, no. 33. Two other poems listed in the index of cod. Barb. 310 (olim 246) have not survived; cf. Nissen, Byzantinische Anakreonten 13; Anastasi, "Giorgio" 207ff. An Italian translation of the poems, with brief, largely textual notes, is given by Anastasi, "Giorgio" 234ff.

G. appears to have been at one time a pupil of the gramm. Coluthus (q.v.); cf. PLG[4] 3.364, vv. 65-68. The place of G.'s activity cannot be identified with certainty; for some evidence that he might be claimed by Egypt or Gaza, see Nissen, Byzantinische Anakreonten 19; Anastasi, "Giorgio" 215ff., and cf. ibid. p. 227, where G. has become a representative of the "Egyptian School." He is probably to be dated roughly contemporary with Ioannes (q.v., no. 83) of Gaza, with whom he shares in


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the anacreontic pieces certain features distinct from the earlier technique of Gregory Nazianzen and Synesius; cf. Nissen, Byzantinische Anakreonten 19ff.; Anastasi, "Giorgio" 217ff. That dating would be established more firmly if the gramm. Coluthus were certainly the poet of Lycopolis; on the identification, see s.v.

It does not seem possible to determine whether G. is the same man as Georgius inline image, author of two unpublished encomia of St. Barbara (BHG 218a-b). G. cannot be Georgius Choeroboscus (q.v., no. 201); cf. Chr.-Sch.-St. 2:2.1079 n. 10.

GEORGIUS CHOEROBOSCUS: see s.v. CHOEROBOSCUS, no. 201.

64. ACILIUS GLABRIO. Gramm. and advocate. Bordeaux. s.IV 1/2.

RE 7.1372 (Seeck); PLRE I s.v. 2, p. 397.

Acilius Glabrio: Auson. Prof . 24 tit.; GlabrioAquilini , ibid. 4 Schenkl (Aquilini V: Acilini Heinsius, Advers . lib. 4, cap. 5, p. 601, followed by most edd.). The quantity of the second syllable of Aquilini is incorrect; Acilini as the genitive of his father's name ("Glabrio, son of Acilinus," Evelyn-White in his Loeb translation) is difficult, since if the iun (iori ) of the tit. is correct, G. was possibly the son of an homonymous father, and the name Acilin (i )us does not in any event seem to be otherwise attested. Pastorino (Opere 196) conjectured that an imagined Trojan ancestor of the family, Acilinus, was meant; but the family traced its origin back to Anchises and Aphrodite, i.e., through Aeneas (see below).

A grammaticus (ibid. tit., v. 6) and advocate (ibid. 7, inque foro tutela reis ) at Bordeaux (ibid. tit.); coeval with and a fellow student of Ausonius, therefore born ca. 310: ibid. 5, tu quondam puero conpar mihi, discipulo mox (discipulo Scaliger: discipulos V: discipulus Corpet, edd.). The reading adopted by modern editors, discipulus , would on its most natural and usual interpretation make G. a pupil of Ausonius—although that would have G. still or again studying grammar well into his twenties, the earliest time at which he could have had Ausonius as his teacher, since Ausonius began teaching ca. 336/37. This is not impossible—cf. Libanius aged twenty reading Aristophanes with a gramm., Or . 1.9—but it would certainly have been unusual. Scaliger's discipulo is much to be preferred: note that the line is articulated naturally by the caesura and diaeresis around conpar mihi , which should thus be construed in common with both the preceding and the following phrase. Pastorino seems to have recognized the chronological problem but solved it by reading discipulus and punctuating tu quondam puero conpar mihi discipulus; mox / meque dehinc facto rhetore grammaticus , where the strong punctuation after discipulus and before mox/meque dehinc is plainly intolerable; he also ignores his own text when he calls G. "one of [Ausonius's] own first pupils," Opere 19.


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G. became grammaticus when Ausonius was made rhetor (ibid. 6), i.e., sometime after ca. 336 and before ca. 367; see following. He died when both his parents were still living (ibid. 13). It is not likely that both parents would still have been alive later than ca. 360 if G. was born ca. 310; and G. almost certainly died well before 360, not long after becoming a gramm., since his premature death receives special emphasis: ibid. 11f., mox dolor . . . / . . . funere praereptus ; cf. v. 1, doctrinae vitaeque pari brevitate caducum .

He claimed descent from the Acilii Glabriones: ibid. 3-4, stemmate nobilium deductum nomen avorum / . . . Dardana progenies . For the alleged Trojan origin of the family from Anchises and Aphrodite, cf. Herodian 2.3.4, with PIR2 A.69, PLRE I s.v. Glabrio 1, p. 396. He was a landowner: ibid. 7, cultor in agris . Ausonius praises him for his character, good counsel and discretion (ibid. 9-10). He left a wife and children (ibid. 13).

* GORGON(I)US: see no. 224.

GRILLIUS: see no. 225.

65. HARMONIUS. Gr. and Lat. gramm. Trier. 376.

RE 7.2389 (Seeck); PLRE I s.v. 2, p. 408.

Harmonius (Auson. Epist . 13.26, 27), colleague (ibid. 26) of the gramm. Ursulus (ibid. tit.; cf. s.v. Ursulus, no. 166), said to rival the great gramm. of Rome (Claranus, Scaurus, Asper, Varro: ibid. 27-28; cf. s.v. Nepotianus, no. 105) and of Greece (Crates, Zenodotus, Aristarchus: ibid. 28-30). He taught both Greek and Latin poetry: ibid. 30-31, Cecropiae commune decus Latiaeque camenae, / solus qui Chium miscet et Ammineum . The reference to Chian wine, like the comparison with Zenodotus and Aristarchus, presumably means that he taught Homer; if Ammineum involves a specific reference, presumably Vergil is meant: see Georg . 2.97-98, where the wine of Chios (rex ipse Phanaeus ) is said to rise in deference to the Aminneae riles .

H. was at Trier (Auson. Epist . 13 tit.) when Ausonius was QSP (ibid. tit., with v. 3), probably not long after 1 January 376: Ausonius was certainly quaestor in January 376; and since Epist . 13 seems to allude to only one Augustus (cf. ibid. tit., with v. 2), Valentinian (d. 17 Nov. 375) was probably already dead at the time it was written.

66. HARPOCRAS. Gramm. Egypt, probably Alexandria. s.V 3/3.

PLRE II s.v. 3, p. 528.

Egyptian gramm. in the reign of Zeno: Suda A.4010 = Damasc. V. Isid . frg. 313 Zintzen. Since he was an intimate of Ammonius Hermiou (ibid.), and since he associated with Isidore, Heraiscus, and Fl. Horapollon (q.v., no. 78; see below), he was presumably active at Alexandria.


289

He escaped arrest during the persecution of the philosophers under Zeno; Heraiscus and Horapollon were tortured in an attempt to make them disclose the whereabouts of H. and Isidore: Damasc. V. Isid . frg. 313, 314 Zintzen.

HARPOCRATION: see no. 226.

HELLADIUS: see no. 227.

67. HELLADIUS. inline image. ord. pr . inline image. s.IV 3/4-s.V 1/4.

RE 8.102-3 no. 3 (Gudeman), 103-4 no. 8 (Seeck; cf. Briefe 167); Chr.-Sch.-St. 2:2.1075, 1080; PLRE I s.v. 4, p. 412; cf. ibid. II s.v. 2, p. 534.

A gramm. in Alexandria at the time the pagan temples were desecrated, in 391, when he killed nine men with his own hands: Soc. HE 5.16 = Nic. Call. HE 12.25; Suda E.732 (inline image). He fled with Ammonius (q.v., no. 10) from Alexandria to Constantinople, where the two later had the historian Socrates among their pupils: Soc. ibid. = Phot. Bibl . cod. 28 (1.16 Henry). He is usually identified with the Greek gramm. Helladius who taught in Constantinople and received the comitiva ordinis primi and the rank of ex-vicar on 15 March 425; cf. CTh 6.21.1. The law (ad fin . = CJ 12.15.1) establishes that the same honors are to be given thereafter to other teachers who will have satisfied certain conditions, including twenty years' tenure. It is not evident, however, that the last condition is applicable to, and therefore useful in dating the service of, the teachers honored in 6.21.1; cf. s.vv. Syrianus, Theofilus, nos. 147, 154.

H. was active in Alexandria by 391, when he was still young and sturdy enough to work the mayhem noted above; he was possibly of an age to retire by 425. The Suda , E.732 and praef., dates him to the reign of Theodosius II, referring to the latter part of his career.

Author of an alphabetical lexicon known to Photius in seven volumes, concerned mostly with the diction of prose: Phot. Bibl . cod. 145 (2.110 Henry); cf. Suda praef., E.732. The preface to the Suda names him as a source, but the authenticity of the notice is doubtful; see s.v. Eugenius, no. 56. H. also produced an inline image, a inline image, an inline image, and an encomium of Theodosius (presumably Theodosius II).

H. was a pagan, priest of Zeus-Ammon at Alexandria: Soc. HE 5.16; cf. s.v. Ammonius, no. 10.

* 68. FL. HER... Gramm.(?) Hermopolis. s.V 2/2.

Fl. Her..., son of ...philos, gramm.(?), the first of three witnesses to a lease at Hermopolis dated 452, 467, 482, or 497; see BGU 12.2152 with p. 36 n. 1 for the date. At line 17, inline image


290

figure
, the editor suggests the restoration
figure
, "wie in Z. 19," i.e., as the papyrus shows for Fl. Pythiodorus (q.v., no. 128), another witness to the lease. If the restoration is correct in line 17, this is the only documented case of more than one gramm. at the same time in the same place in Egypt outside Alexandria. The signature of the third witness, a presbyter, is preceded by a Christian monogram; the signatures of the two gramm. are not.

H. is conceivably the Hermias of Hermopolis who wrote inline imageinline image in iambics, Phot. Bibl . cod. 279 (8.187 Henry); but note also that the gramm. Heraclammon (q.v., no. 69) is also a candidate, since he seems to have been at Hermopolis at some indefinite time after 391; and cf. s.vv. Hermias, Anonymus 7, nos. 71, 173.

* 69. HERACLAMMON. Gramm. Hermopolis. s.IV ex. / s.V; after 391.

Heraclammon inline image, registered as the recipient of 20 artabae of wheat (inline image) in an account of six months' payments in kind, inline imageinline image (i.e., inline image), made to various persons, mostly trades-men: PRossGeorg . 5.60. The term. p. q . and probable place are indicated by the recto of the papyrus, which contains fragmentary records of the exactor of the Hermopolite nome, the first of them carrying the date 391. The payment is among the largest recorded in the account—e.g., five times larger than the payment to the veterinarian Isidorus, line 4; twice as large as the payment to the physician Heraclammon, line 3—and is exceeded only by a payment of 22 artabae to an inline image. The account does not specify the services for which the payments are made, nor is it dear whether the payments come from a private or from a public source. For payments in kind made to teachers from public resources, see s.v. Lollianus, no. 90; for such payments by private individuals, see PGiss . 80 (s.II; Hermopolite nome?), POsl . 3.156 (s.II; the Fayûm), and perhaps POxy . 24.2421 (payment to the inline image Sarapion, on which see s.v., no. 133). For payments to teachers in six-month installments, cf. Cassiod. Var . 9.21.6.

He is conceivably the gramm.(?) Fl. Her... (q.v., no. 68) at Hermopolis, s.V 2/2.

70. POMPONIUS MAXIMUS HERCULANUS. Gramm. Bordeaux. s.IV 2/4.

RE 8.549 (Seeck); PLRE I s.v. Herculanus 3, p. 420.

Pomponius Maximus Herculanus: Auson. Par . 17 tit.; Maximus, Par . 17.11; Herculanus, Prof . 11 tit., v. 1. Son of Pomponius Maximus, an important curialis of Bordeaux (Par . 15), and his wife, a sister of Ausonius who must be Iulia Dryadia (Par . 12). He was first a pupil of Ausonius (Prof . 11.1), in whose school he later taught as a gramm. (Prof . 11.3,


291

particeps scholae ; tit., grammaticus ). Had he lived long enough, H. would have succeeded to Ausonius's chair of grammar (Prof . 11.3; on the implications see Appendix 4); but because of H.'s early death the chair instead went to Acilius Glabrio (q.v., no. 64).

He died very young, in tempore puberis aevi (Par . 17.9), evidently as the result of a youthful indiscretion: Prof . 11.4-5, lubricae nisi te iuventae praecipitem flexus dare / Pythagorei non tenentem tramitis rectam viam . Whatever this was, it apparently involved some disgrace: Par . 17.6-7, verum memorare magis quam / functum laudare decebit ; cf. s.v. Marcellus, no. 94. His birth, education, brief career, and death are all probably to be assigned to the second quarter of s.IV.

71. HERMIAS. Gramm. s.IV ex. / s.V 1/3.

PLRE II s.v. Hermeias 2, p. 547.

Hermias inline image, recipient of Isid. Pel. Ep . 3.350 (inline image, inline image on the deceit of poets. H. is possibly Hermias of Hermopolis, whose inline image of Hermopolis and other poems in iambics were known to Photius in a volume containing the works of several poets of s.IV / s.VI, Bibl . cod. 279 (8.187 Henry). Note, however, that Photius does not style this poet inline image as he does Serenus and Horapollon (qq.v., nos. 134, 77). Cf. also s.v. Fl. Her..., no. 68.

+ 72. HERMOLAUS. Gramm. Constantinople. s.VI 2/37

RE 8.891 (Gudeman); cf. RE , 2. Reihe, 3.2374.59ff. (Honigmann); Chr.-Sch.-St. 2:2.1084; Hunger 2.37.

According to the Suda , E.3048, a gramm. of Constantinople who produced an epitome—not certainly the extant epitome—of the inline image of Stephanus (q.v., no. 144) of Byzantium and dedicated it to the emperor Justinian. The last piece of information has often been doubted on the grounds that it would be strange for an epitome to be produced so soon after the original work. But if the epitome is placed ex hypothesi toward the end of Justinian's reign, it could be separated by one generation or more from the work of Stephanus, which is itself difficult to date; cf. s.v.

The dedication has also been doubted because it would be strange for a gramm. to dedicate to the emperor an epitome of another man's work. But if one could dedicate an anthology to an empress (cf. s.v. Orion, no. 110), one could presumably dedicate an epitome to an emperor; for the dedication of epitomes or extracts of grammatical works, cf. s.vv. Aristodemus, Ioannes Charax, Theodoretus, nos. 188, 199, 265. It has also been suggested that the reference to Justinian is an error for Justin or should be understood to mean Justinian II (both notions refuted by Müller, "Zu Stephanos" 347f.), or that the dedication to Justinian was Stephanus's own, mindlessly copied by H. into his epitome and then


292

falsely attributed to H. himself; cf. Honigmann, RE , 2: Reihe, 3.2375.10ff. But even if the latter, unlikely, series of events took place, we still have a probable date for H.'s epitome no later than the reign of Justinian, since the notice in the Suda is likely to have been drawn from the inline imageinline image of Hesychius Illustrius, who was active under Justinian and was possibly H.'s contemporary. It is best to accept the notice as it stands.

*AUR . HERODES: see no. 228.

HESPERIUS: see no. 229.

73. HESYCHIUS. Gramm. Alexandria. s.V /s. VI.

RE 8.1317-22 (Schultz); Chr.-Sch.-St. 2:2.1083; Latte, ed., 1, vii-li; Hunger 2.35f.; PLRE II s.v. 15, p. 555.

Compiler of the lexicon inline image surviving in abridged and interpolated form in cod. Marc. gr. 622 (s.XV). H. styles himself inline image in the salutation of the prefatory epistle, addressed to one Eulogius. H. is probably to be dated to the fifth or sixth century: cf. Latte, ed., 1, vii-viii, expressing a slight preference for the former date and rejecting identification of the dedicatee with Eulogius Scholasticus, whose date (s.V 2/2 at the earliest) can in any event only be determined very approximately; cf. Reitzenstein, Geschichte 358. Both H.'s religion (see following) and, e.g., the abstract form of address in the epistle, inline imageinline image (1.2.46f. Latte), urge against a significantly earlier date.

Although the biblical glosses found in the lexicon are interpolated, H. was certainly a Christian; cf. his name and the closing formula of the epistle, inline imageinline image (1.2.48f.).

74. HIERAX. Schoolmaster. Alexandria. s.V init.

PLRE II s.v. 2, p. 556.

According to Soc. HE 7.13.7ff., a schoolmaster: inline imageinline image, "teacher of common [or: "vulgar"] letters." The phrase inline image means inline image, i.e., litterae communes or viles , as opposed to liberal studies, for which see Socrates' usual phrasing, inline imageinline image or inline image, at, e.g., 2.46, 5.25.1, 7.17.2; cf. LSJ s.v. inline image II.3 and Kaster, "Notes" 326 n. 9. The phrase does not mean "teacher of prose," as if inline image meant inline image, i.e., sermo pedestris : since the teacher of poetry was the gramm., we would expect the teacher of prose—according to the traditional distinction of skills—to be the rhetorician. But from Socrates it is clear that H. was not anything so grand as a teacher of rhetoric, and the phrase is in any case not so used elsewhere.


293

The leader of a claque for Cyril, bishop of Alexandria, H. was set upon by Jews in the theater and tortured there by the praef. Aug . Orestes not long after Cyril became bishop (an. 412).

75. HIERIUS. Lat. gramm. inline image. s.V 4/4 / s.VI 1/4.

PLRE II s.v. 8, p. 559.

The recipient of Procop. Gaz. Ep . 13 jointly with Alypius and Stephanus (qq.v., nos. 7, 141): inline imageinline image (sc. inline image). H. taught Latin at Gaza: Ep . 145.1, inline imageinline image . Later, apparently, he taught at Antioch (Daphne), where he had gone with the Greek gramm. Stephanus and Alypius: Ep . 13; cf. s.vv. Alypius and esp. Stephanus.

He was commended in Ep . 145 by Procopius to Eudaemon, a provincial governor (so PLRE II s.v. 5, p. 407, correctly). Eudaemon has otherwise been identified as a teacher of law (Garzya and Loenertz,. eds., Procopii . . . epistolae 104) or an advocate (Seitz, "Schule" 15). But the description of Eudaemon as one who administers justice for a fortunate people (inline imageinline image) and ensures the rejuvenation of a formerly withered inline image rather conforms to the conventional praise of a governor; cf. Ep . 145.5ff., with Robert, Hellenica 4.62ff., 99ff.; and esp. Ševcenko, "Late Antique Epigram" 30f. The commendation to Eudaemon might indicate that H. combined legal or forensic expertise with his knowledge of Latin.

* HIEROCLES: see no. 230.

+ 76. HIEROCLES. Gramm.(?) s.VI 1/3(?); possibly s.V med.

RE 8.1487-89 (Kiessling); Hunger 1.531, 2.399.

Hierocles, compiler of the inline image, a list of provinces and cities of the eastern empire perhaps drawn up early in the reign of Justinian, ca. 527/28; cf. Honigmann, ed., 1f.: only one of Justinian's foundations is recorded, and his reorganization of the provinces is ignored. Note, however, that the list in its present form is dependent on a register drawn up in the reign of Theodosius II. Accordingly, it is possible that H. himself composed the latter register, to which additions were made unsystematically by a later hand; see Jones, CERP[2] 514ff.

H. is styled inline image by Constantine Porphyrogenitus (De them . 1, p. 85.36; 4, p. 89.6f. Pertusi), who can be shown to have known a different (longer) version of H.'s work than is now preserved; see Jones, CERP[2] 514; cf. Kiessling, RE 8.1488.39ff. The style is not otherwise attested.


294

HIERONYMUS: see no. 231.

* HIERONYMUS: see no. 232.

HOËN(1)US: see no. 233.

77. HORAPOLLON. Gramm. Phenebythis inline image. s.IV ex. / s.V 1/3.

Maspéro, "Horapollon" (fundamental[*] ); PLRE I s.v., p. 442; ibid. II s.v. 1, p. 569; cf. RE 8.2313-14 (Roeder).

From Phenebythis, a village of the Panopolite nome: SudaW .159; cf. s.v. Fl. Horapollon, no. 78. He taught as a gramm. in Alexandria—"in Alexandria and in Egypt," Suda ibid.—and then in Constantinople under Theodosius (Suda ibid.: this was probably Theodosius II; see below). Credited by the Suda with a inline image, of uncertain character but probably on the morphology of temple names: cf. Suda E.3394 = Eugenius (q.v., no. 56), with Reitzenstein, Geschichte 313 n. 1. The Suda also mentions H.'s commentaries on Sophocles, Alcaeus, and Homer; if he is the Horapollon inline image mentioned by Photius at Bibl . cod. 279 (8.187 Henry), he wrote inline image and a inline image of Alexandria in verse. The latter genre points to a date early in the Byzantine era; this may, however, be the work of Fl. Horapollon or of a third man of the same name.

H. is probably not Horapollon Neiloios, author of the Hieroglyphica . It has been suggested that H. was the Egyptian inline image known for his poetic talents at Constantinople in 377 (Them. Or . 29.347A; cf. PLRE I s.vv. Horapollon, Andronicus 5; and Alan Cameron, "Wandering Poets" 487f.); but if H. was the grandfather of Fl. Horapollon (see below and s.v.), that date is almost certainly too early for him to have been active at Constantinople even as a inline image. The identification is questioned in PLRE II s.v.

Said to have been inline image and comparable to the most brilliant gramm. of old (SudaW .159), H. is probably the Horapollon of the catalogue of gramm. in Kröhnert, Canones 7. His inline image, even if concerned only with morphology, and his probable family relations suggest that he was a pagan.

In all likelihood the father of Asclepiades (q.v., no. 17) and another son (Heraiscus?), and the grandfather of the gramm. and philosopher Fl. Horapollon active under Zeno and Anastasius (see following and s.v. Fl. Horapollon). His floruit therefore should probably be placed in s.V 1/3. Accordingly, he will have taught at Constantinople under Theodosius II (see above). Note esp. that, in the legal petition he drafted in the reign of Anastasius, Fl. Horapollon says he has spent his career in Alexandria (see s.v.); he therefore cannot be identified with H., who taught in Alexandria and then under Theodosius in Constantinople.


295

Confusion of the two Horapollones goes back at least as far as the Suda , W .159, where excerpts from Damasc. V.. Isid . concerning Fl. Horapollon (3.615.6-18 Adler) are appended to the notice of H. drawn from the inline image of Hesychius Illustrius (3.615.1-6 Adler). The two Horapollones are treated as one man by Chr.-Sch.-St. 2:2.1076f., following Reitzenstein, Geschichte 312; similarly FGrH IIIc 630; Alpers, Attizistische Lexikon 93 n. 41, 96 n. 52; and, ut vid ., Hunger 2.18.

78. FL. HORAPOLLON. Gramm. and philosopher; v.c . Phenebythis and Alexandria. s.V 3/3.

PLRE II s.v. 2, pp. 569f.

Fl. Horapollon: PCairMasp . 3.67295 (= Pap.) ii.24; elsewhere Horapollon. Son of Asclepiades (q.v., no. 17): Pap. i.1, 15, 26; and see below. He styles himself v.c .: Pap. i.1, inline image. It is not clear how H. would have gained the rank, but the context in which it appears, a legal petition, shows that it must be intended as a formal designation of his status. He taught as a distinguished gramm. at Alexandria: Zach. Schol. Vie de Sévère pp. 14.2, 15.4-10. He associated there with a number of Neoplatonist scholars: ibid. pp. 15.10ff., 16.10-12, 22.14f., 23.6f.; Damasc. V. Isid . frg. 314, 317 Zintzen (see further below). His pupils perhaps included Timotheus (q.v., no. 156) of Gaza; for the evidence, see s.v. Timotheus. He calls himself inline image , Pap. i.1 (cf. ibid. ii.24), and says inline image [i.e., Alexandria] inline imageinline image, Pap. i.13-14; cf. inline image, Steph. Byz. s.v. inline image. The evidence is not contradictory, pace Maspéro, "Horapollon" 178 n. 1. We may conclude that "philosopher" and "philosophical" are used in a broad, nontechnical sense not uncommon in the period (cf., e.g., Ioannes Lydus's characterization of his cousin, the exceptor Ammianus, as inline image at De mag . 3.28; cf. also s.vv. Isocasius, Nicocles, Manippus, nos. 85, 106, 236), so that H. would be a gramm. as a matter of profession, but a philosopher—i.e., a lover of wisdom and learning—in his general interests and personal associations; cf. esp. Zach. Schol. and Damasc. as cited above (and see below). For such associations, see s.v. Asclepiades, no. 17; and for a gramm.-philosopher(?), cf. s.v. Ioannes Philoponus, no. 118. Or else we may conclude that H. taught gramm. in the 480s but later came to teach philosophy. For the dates, see below.

An Egyptian (SudaW .159, 3.615.6 Adler); he owned inherited property in Phenebythis in the Panopolite nome (Pap. i.1 and passim ) and taught at Alexandria (Zach. Schol.; Pap. i.13, 16, 29). He was teaching by ca. 485; Zach. Schol. Vie de Séoère pp. 14-39 sets the struggle for the soul of H.'s pupil Paralius of Aphrodisias during the episcopacy of Peter Mongus


296

(482-90) and shortly after the arrival of Zach. and Severus in Alexandria (ibid. p. 14.1), therefore in 485/86; cf. SudaW .159, inline image. H. was still active under Anastasius; cf. Pap. ii.17, with i.29. Maspéro was probably correct in suggesting that the original document was composed closer to the beginning than to the end of Anastasius's reign, but his attempt at more precise dating (491/93: "Horapollon" 190) is not compelling.

Suspected of trafficking with demons and magic (Zach. Schol. Vie de Sévère p. 15.10f.), H., along with the Neoplatonist philosophers Asclepiodotus, Heraiscus, Ammonius Hermiou, and Isidore, was mocked by his pupil Paralius, who was then beaten by H.'s other students. The affair came before the prefect, a crypro-pagan, through whose collusion H. and the others escaped (ibid. pp. 22-27). At Easter 486(?) the Christian population of Alexandria cursed H., calling him "Soul Destroyer," inline image, inline image and rioted (ibid. p. 37). For the date of the episode, cf. above.

H. is said to have been tortured during the persecution of the pagans under Zeno: Damasc. V. Isid . frg. 314 Zintzen, in connection with Heraiscus, Isidore, and Harpocras (q.v., no. 66). Nonetheless, he was not thought to be a true philosoper. Heraiscus (his uncle and father-in-law? see below) foretold that H. would "desert to the others and abandon the ancestral ways"—i.e., he would become a Christian—and this proved correct (ibid. frg. 317). The prophecy, if of the type found, e.g., at Eunap. V. phil . 6.9.17, may have been confirmed after Heraiscus's death; H.'s conversion could then be dated after 487/91 and sometime before 526. Regarding the lower limit, 487/91, note that Heraiscus was still alive when Zach. and Severus were in Alexandria (485-87) but died while Zeno was still emperor; cf. Damasc. V. Isid . frg. 334 Zintzen. For the upper limit, note that Damascius can have written the V. Isid . no later than, and perhaps well before, 526; V. Isid . epit. Phot. 64 refers to Theoderic, inline image.

H. was very possibly a Christian by the time he drafted the document represented by Pap.: cf. the Christian formula in i.15, inline imageinline image, though inline image is obviously uncertain; cf. also the monogrammatic cross at the end of i.30, though since the document as preserved is a later copy the monogram may not be original; and cf. an oath inline image in ii.15f. (not decisive). If he was Christian, we have in Pap. an example of the flexible, subjective use of the term inline image noted above; for after conversion H. would have ceased to be a philosopher in the sense recognized by, e.g., Damascius.

H.'s chronology, his ancestral property in Phenebythis, his claim in Pap. i.14f. that his vocation to teach was received inline imageinline image, and the name "Horapollon" itself make it virtually certain that H.


297

was a descendant of the gramm. Horapollon (q.v., no. 77), probably his grandson; see Maspéro, "Horapollon" 176ff. His father, Asclepiades (q.v., no. 17), had been a teacher all his life (Pap. i.15, when he is already dead), linked with his brother (H.'s uncle and father-in-law) by the "Muse of philosophy." The brother was perhaps Heraiscus; cf. Maspéro, "Horapollon" 179ff. The identification of Heraiscus is not certain: for Asclepiades and Heraiscus, cf. Damasc. V. Isid . frg. 160-65,174 Zintzen, with Asmus, Leben 60.10ff., and Zintzen, ed., Damascii . . . reliquiae p. 135. But frg. 160, the crucial link, might refer instead to Ammonius and Heliodorus, the sons of Hermias; cf. Tannery, Mémoires 1.114ff.; Präichter, RE 8.422.36ff.; and s.v. Asclepiades. For a stemma, see PCairMasp . 3, p. 48 = PLRE II, p. 1326, where a change should be made to indicate the possibility that Asclepiades and his brother were born of the same father but different mothers; cf. Pap. i.18.

H. married his cousin (Pap. i.18), who abandoned him and attempted at law and through other means to acquire some of his property (Pap. i.20ff.).

H. is not certainly known to have left any writings. He is perhaps the Horapollon inline image of Phot. Bibl . cod. 279 (8.187 Henry), author of inline image and a inline image of Alexandria in verse; or he may be Horapollon Neiloios, author of the Hieroglyphica . Both identifications are uncertain. For an attempt to identify both of the latter with H. and to place the works in the egyptianizing milieu of s.V, see esp. Maspéro, "Horapollon" 181ff., whose assertions and argument are to be treated with some caution; sim. Rémondon, "Égypte" 63ff.

See also s.v. Horapollon.

79. HYPERECHIUS. Gramm. inline image? s.V 3/4.

RE 9.281 (Funaioli); Chr.-Sch.-St. 2:2.1073; PLRE II s.v., p. 581.

Gramm. of or from Alexandria in the reign of Marcian according to Suda Y.273; he was still active in the reign of Leo, by whom he was banished: Suda A.267, 3.248.27f. Adler = ?Malch. frg. 2a, FHG 4.114. His banishment by Leo may mean that he was active at Constantinople, in which case inline image in Suda Y.273 will indicate his origin and possibly the site of his earlier activity. The statement of Ioannes Tzetzes, Chil . 10.48ff. (pp. 388f. Leone), that H. was the teacher of "Eudocia, daughter of the great Leo," is likely a garbled invention; see s.v. Orion, no. 110.

Grammatical work of several kinds is attributed to him in the Suda (Y.273): inline imageinline image . A trace of his doctrine inline image may be preserved in Choerobosc. Schol. in Theodos., GG 4:1.292.6ff.: inline image, inline image (NC) vs. inline image (V).


298

80. IOANNES. Gramm. (or rhetorician?). The Auvergne? Ca. 476/80.

RE 9.1747 (Seeck); Sch.-Hos. 4:2.269; PLRE II s.v. 30, p. 601.

A teacher, recipient of Sidon. Apoll. Ep . 8.2, ca. 476/80, in which he is praised (8.2.1) as the [litterarum ] quodammodo Jam sepultarum suscitator, fautor, assertor , who has postponed the obliteration of the literary culture under the barbarians; for the date, see Loyen, ed., Sidoine vol. 3 p. 216. Sidonius's assertion that I. should be honored as "a second Demosthenes, a second Cicero" may mean that he was a rhetorician. The comparison may, however, be inspired primarily by l.'s status as a figure of resistance rather than by his specific metier; and Sidonius's reference to a competens lectorum turba issuing from his school (8.2.3) may suggest that the aims of his instruction were modest. It is also possible in this period that I. taught both gramm. and rhetoric (cf. s.v. Deuterius, no. 44) or that, in the reduced circumstances Sidonius sketches, the traditional distinction between the stages of gramm. and rhetoric was somewhat effaced.

With the praise of I., compare Dracontius's praise of the gramm. Felicianus (q.v., no. 59).

81. IOANNES. inline image. Antiochenae parochiae . s.V 4/4.

RE 9.1806 (Jülicher); PLRE II s.v. 36, p. 603.

Ioannes: Gennad. De vir. ill . 94 = Marcellin. Chron . s.a. 486, Chron. min . 2.93.14-16 (the first sentence of Gennadius, through confitentes naturas ). Presbyter and former gramm. (ex grammatico presbyter ) in the district under the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of Antioch (Antiochenae parochiae ): Gennad. ibid. He wrote against Monophysitism and against certain anti-Nestorian pronouncements of Cyril of Alexandria that were providing aid and comfort to the Theodosiani.

Placed by Marcellinus s.a. 486; according to Gennadius, he was still alive at the time of the composition of the De vir. ill .—i.e., before ca. 480?

Not to be confused with the Neo-Chalcedonian Ioannes (q.v., no. 82), the gramm. of Caesarea.

82. IOANNES. inline image. Caesarea (Palestine?). s.VI 1/4.

PLRE II s.v. 74, pp. 611f.

figure
: Ephraem. Ant. PG 86:2.2109B = loan. Damasc. Parall. Rupef., PG 96.481C; Eustath. mon. Epist. de duabus naturis, PG 86:1.912A, 913B, 933A; also in two excerpts in the Catena on the Gospel of John (see below). Also
figure
: Severus of Antioch passim in the C. impium grammaticum (cf. Leont. Byz. C. monophys., PG 86:2.1841B-1845D, 1848A); John of Beith-Aphthonia, Vie de Sévère, PO 2.248ff.;


299

Ephraem. Ant. in Conc. Constant . III, Actio X , Mansi 11.436A (for the same work of Ephraem, see above; inline image is here incorrectly identified with Ioannes Philoponus [q.v., no. 118] in Mansi; cf. Helmer, Neuchalkedonismus 162 n. 334); Eustath. mon. Epist. de duabus naturis, PG 86:1.908A, 912D. Also inline image in the inline image, tit.; inline image in the inline image, tit.; inline image and inline imageinline image, titt. of the two homilies against the Manichaeans.

From Caesarea: inline image, Anast. Sinait. Viae dux 6, PG 89.101D; cf. 104A, 105D; cf. also Leont. Byz. C. monophys., PG 86:2.1845C. Also inline image, vel sim ., an apparent confusion with Ioannes Khozibites, in Leont. Byz. C. monophys., PG 86:2.1848D; cf. Conc. Lateran., Secretarius V , Mansi 10.1116D. It is not known which Caesarea is meant; cf. Moeller, "Représentant" 103 n. 1, suggesting Caesarea of Cappadocia; Helmet, Neuchalkedonismus 160, Caesarea of Palestine. The latter is more likely.

Not long before 518, I. wrote a defense of the Council of Chalcedon, for which Severus, Monophysite bishop of Antioch, made him the object of the C. impium grammatium ca. 520. On the date of the apologia, cf. Lebon, Monophysisme 137ff. On the circumstances of its composition, see Richard, ed., pp. vi-xii; contra , Halleux, "Synode." The Syriac version of Severus's polemic is published with Latin translation by Lebon, CSCO Scr. Syr., 4th set., vols. 4-6. Lebon's Latin translations of extracts from I.'s apologia as quoted by Severus and some fragments preserved in Greek are published by Richard, ed., 6ff., along with the following works attributable to I. with varying degrees of certainty: two Christological tracts, inline image (cf. Helmet, Neuchalkedonismus 172ff., 255f.) and inline image (cf. above); two comments on the Gospel of John from a Catena in cod. Valicallan. E 40; and four works of anti-Manichaean polemic, viz., two homilies attributed to I. by Richard, ed., p. xli, on the basis of the titt. (cf. above), a inline imageinline image (on the attribution, compare Richard, ed., pp. xlv-liv, with Aubineau ap . Richard, ed., pp. 112ff.), and inline imageinline image.

Not to be confused with the anti-Monophysite writer Ioannes ex grammatico presbyter of the Antiochena parochia or with Ioannes Philoponus (qq.v, nos. 87, 118).

+ 83. IOANNES. Gramm. and poet. Gaza. s.VI 1/2?

RE 9.1747-48 (Thiele); Chr.-Sch.-St. 2:2.977; Downey, "John of Gaza"; Hunger 2.93f., 110.

Gramm. of Gaza: inline image inscr. and subscr. of the inline image and inscr. of the anacreontic pieces; inline image, lemma of Anth. Gr .


300

15.1. Poet: six brief poems in anacreontic meter are extant, PLG[4] 3.342ff. (a seventh, listed in the index of cod. Barb. 310, olim 246, is lost), as well as the inline image, a verse description in two books of a painting of the cosmos in the Winter Baths of Gaza; the inline image is preserved only in the codex Palatinus between Books 14 and 15 of the Anthology (cf. Anth. Gr . 15.1), ed. P. Friedländer, Johannes 135ff. The baths and painting in question were located in Gaza, according to the inscr. and subscr. of the inline image and a marginal note at the beginning of the poem; a note added to the subscr. says inline image, apparently referring to the representation of the cosmos that has been discovered at Antioch, on which see Downey, "John of Gaza" 205ff. Since the work at Antioch is a mosaic (s. IV 1/2, on archaeological grounds), whereas I. appears to have described a painting (cf. P. Friedländer, Johannes 220ff.), and since l.'s description differs in several respects from the Antiochene piece, the two must have been different works; the mosaic at Antioch was perhaps the model for the painting at Gaza.

Beyond the title inline image, the lemmata of two of the anacreontic pieces show that I. was a teacher; see Nissen, Byzantinische Anakreonten 13ff. These ascribe the poems to the spring festival Rosalia—inline imageinline image—and place the poems in the context of I.'s school: no. 5, inline imageinline image (cf. the address to the inline image vv. 37ff.); no. 4, inline imageinline image, apparently referring to the students' recitation of display pieces of the type (also in anacreontics) found in Pack[2] 1945 = PLaur . 2.49 Hermopolis (s.V). For students' compositions, cf. the titt. of Dracont. Rom . 1, 3; and cf. s.v. Felicianus, no. 59. For school festivals or holidays at Gaza, cf. Choric. Apol. mim . 104 (p. 368.8ff. Foerster-Richtsteig).

The evidence does not allow us to date I. precisely. A term. p. q . of 526/36 for the inline image has been deduced from certain passages in Choricius; cf. Seitz, "Schule" 33f.; P. Friedländer, Johannes 111. But this is by no means certain: the baths, with the paintings, may well have been older, and it is not necessary to tie l.'s poem to their construction or dedication; cf. Downey, "John of Gaza" 211 n. 25. The influence of Nonnus found in the inline image, however (cf. P. Friedländer, Johannes 112ff.; Wifstrand, Von Kallimachos zu Nonnos 19, 24, 62, 73), suggests a date ca. s.V ex. / s.VI 1/2, and the metrical technique of the anacreontic pieces may point in the same direction; see Nissen, Byzantinische Anakreonten 19ff.; and cf. s.v. Georgius, no. 63.

If the latter dating is correct, I. would have been a contemporary of Choricius (cf. above) and could be the unnamed encomiastic poet referred to at Choric. Laud. Summ . 2 (p. 70.6ff.); cf. ibid. 21 (p. 75.14f.). Two of the anacreontic pieces apparently derive from comparable occasions, when I. produced poems for prominent men: cf. the lemma of no. 2, inline image


301

inline imageinline image; and the lemma of no. 3, inline imageinline image. Identification with the gramm. Ioannes, author of Anth. Gr . 9.628 and possibly 629, from the Cycle of Agathias, has also been suggested; cf. Cameron and Cameron, "Further Thoughts"; and cf. s.v. Ioannes, no. 84.

+ 84. IOANNES. Gramm. Alexandria(?) Before ca. 568.

Ioannes inline image: according to the lemmata, author of Anth. Gr . 9.628 (on the Horse Baths at Alexandria, if the lemma can be trusted) and 629, both from the Cycle of Agathias, thus earlier than ca. 568; for the date, see Cameron and Cameron, "Cycle " 6ff.; differently Baldwin, "Four Problems" 298ff., and "Date." Anth. Gr . 9.629 recurs in the codex Palatinus after 9.680, where it is attributed to John Barbucallus, i.e., John the Poet. If that is an error, and if the two Johns are distinct (cf. Cameron and Cameron, "Cycle " 12), I. may be the poet and gramm. Ioannes (q.v., no. 83) of Gaza, as suggested by Cameron and Cameron, "Further Thoughts." But the difficulty involved in establishing the latter's date (cf. s.v.) and the number of gramm. with this most common of names make the identification necessarily uncertain.

IOANNES CHARAX: see s.v. CHARAX, no. 199.

IOANNES LYDUS: see s.v. LYDUS, no. 92.

IOANNES PHILOPONUS: see s.v. PHILOPONUS, no. 118.

85. ISOCASIUS. inline image. inline image. s.V 2/4-3/4.

RE 9.2146 (Seeck); PLRE II s.v., pp. 633f.

Originally from Aegeae in Cilicia: John Malalas 369.18f. Dindorf; Chron. Pasch . 1.595.7f. Dindorf; and cf. below. He later was a citizen of Antioch: Malal. 369.19; Chron. Pasch . 1.595.8f.; cf. Theoph. Chron . p. 115.9ff. de Boor; Cedrenus 1.612.21 Bekker. According to the acta of the synod of Ephesus of 449 (ed. J. Flemming, Abhandlungen der Königlichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen, Philologisch-historische Klasse , n.s., 15.1 [1917] 127.14ff.), he was at Antioch by 441/42, when, although still a pagan, he allegedly helped contrive the ordination of the bishop Domnus (441/42-449).

According to the author of the Vie et miracles de Sainte Thècle , he was a gramm. before becoming a sophist: [Basil Sel.] Vie et miracles 2.39 Dagron, inline image [on the term here, see Appendix 2.2a-b] inline imageinline image . A nonbeliever, he fell ill at Aegeae, where a cure was revealed


302

to him by incubation at the shrine of St. Thecla. He persisted in his inline image nonetheless; cf. above and below. The author of the Vie et miracles alleges a certain Eudocius of Tarsus, a man inline imageinline image, as his source.

As a inline image, presumably at Antioch, I. received five letters from Theodoret of Cyrrhus: Ep . XXVII, XXVIII, XXXVIII, XLIV, LII ed. Azéma, vol. 1; for the date of Ep . XLIV, perhaps before 446, cf. Azéma, ed., p. 108 n. 1. Theodoret sent him pupils (Ep . XXVII, XXVIII; cf. XLIV), and a woodcarver to decorate his home (Ep . XXXVIII), and requested that he intercede with the court of the praetorian prefect in behalf of a young heir burdened by taxes (Ep . LII). I. is also called inline image at Malal. 369.18, Chron. Pasch . 595.6, Theoph. Chron . p. 115.9ff. de Boor, and Cedrenus 1.612.21f.; he is called inline image at Malal. 370.1f. and Chron. Pasch . 595.9f.

Said to have held many offices with honor (Malal. 370.1; Chron. Pasch . 595.9), I. was QSP under Leo (Malal. 369.17f.). While quaestor he was denounced as a pagan: Malal. 369.17ff.; placed s.a. 467 in Chron. Pasch . 595.6ff.; in the eleventh year of Leo, 467/68, by Theophanes, Chron . p. 115.9f. de Boor; in the tenth year, 466/67, by Cedrenus, 1.612.21. Arrested at Constantinople and stripped of his office, he was sent for interrogation to Theophilus, governor of Bithynia, at Chalcedon: Malal. 370.2ff.; Chron. Pasch . 595.11ff. Through the intervention of Iacobus, comes and archiatros (= Iacobus 3 PLRE II, pp. 582f.), his case was returned for hearing at Constantinople before the senate and PPO : Malal. 370.5ff.; Chron. Pasch . 595.14ff.; cf. Theoph. Chron . p. 115.10ff. de Boor; Cedrenus 1.613.1 says inline image, incorrectly. When I. was questioned by the prefect Pusaeus (= PLRE II s.v., p. 930), his humility and candor won him the favor of the multitude and his freedom: Malal. 370.16ff.; Chron. Pasch . 596.3ff. After being forcibly baptized (Malal. 371.2ff.; cf. Chron. Pasch . 596.12), he was sent back "to his own country," presumably to Antioch: Malal. 371.4; Chron. Pasch . 596.12; Theoph. Chron . p. 115.17f. de Boor; Cedrenus 1.613.7.

86. IUCUNDUS. Gramm. Bordeaux. s.IV 1/2 or 2/3.

PLRE I s.v., p. 467.

Iucundus (Auson. Prof . 9 tit., v. 4), grammaticus (ibid. tit., v. 2) at Bordeaux (tit.). He was the brother of another gramm. of Bordeaux, Leontius (q.v., no. 89) Lascivus: Prof . 9 tit. I. probably taught as a contemporary of Ausonius, who calls him amicus and sodalis (cf. s.v. Citarius, no. 28), therefore between ca. 336 and ca. 367. His brother was older than Ausonius and was perhaps dead by 355/60; cf. s.v. Leontius.

I. was thought unqualified for the chair he occupied (vv. 1-2), an opinion with which Ausonius evidently agreed: vv. 5-6, quamvis impar vs.


303

meritos . . . viros ; compare the language used to describe I.'s brother's attainments in Prof . 7.9-19 (below, s.v. Leontius).

* 87. L. TERENTIUS IULIANUS signo CONCOR[DIUS]. Gramm.; v.p . Trier. s.III / s.IV.

L. Terentius Iulianus qui et Concor[dius], commemorated on an epitaph at Trier; cf. Cüppers and Binsfeld, "Zweiseitig beschriftete Grabplatte"; Schillinger-Häfele, "Vierter Nachtrag" 453. Styled v (ir ) p (erfectissimus ), magister s [t ]udiorum, grammaticus Latinus (lines 7-8); the end of his signum and his rank, v.p ., restored by Schillinger-Häfele, in tacit correction of Cüppers and Binsfeld, "Zweiseitig beschriftete Grabplatte" 136 n. 5. For his status as teacher, cf. lines 4-5 in the text of Schillinger-Häfele, doctor Rom [ani n ]ob [ilis ] eloqu [i ]i . I. is dated to s.III by Cüppers and Binsfeld, "Zweiseitig beschriftete Grabplatte" 138; the stone is dated to s. IV by Schillinger-Häfele.

Despite the fact that I. seems to have possessed the perfectissimate, the style magister studiorum, grammaticus Latinus is probably a designation of his condicio (for condicio , cf. Gesta apud Zenophilum, CSEL 26.185.9f., and below s.v. Victor, no. 161, professor . . . Romanarum litterarum, grammaticus latinus ; for magister studiorum , cf. s.v. Annius Namptoius, no. 103) rather than a reference to the equestrian secretariat a studiis or magister a studiis or magister studiorum . Cf. Schillinger-Häfele, "Vierter Nachtrag" 453; the form of the title magister studiorum is securely attested only for the last man known to have held the secretariat, C. Caelius Saturninus (under Constantius I?); cf. PLRE I s.v. Saturninus 9, p. 806.

I. was presumably not a Christian; cf. D (is ) M (anibus ) in line 1 and the absence of Christian formulas throughout. If I. was active at the beginning of s.IV, and if the restoration of his signum is correct, he is possibly the Concordius (q.v., no. 35) who Ausonius says left Bordeaux to teach elsewhere.

88. IULIUS. Gramm. Antioch. Died 355/56.

RE 10.107 (Seeck); Chr.-Sch.-St. 2:2.1075 n. 4; Seeck, Briefe 193; Petit, Étudiants 86; PLRE I s.v. 1, p. 481.

Iulius, a gramm. whose death is mentioned in Lib. Ep . 454.4 (an. 355/56), inline image; Libanius normally uses inline image in the sense of inline image (cf. Appendix 2). Since Libanius seems to be informing his uncle Phasganius of matters affecting his own school—ibid., inline imageinline image—I. probably taught in that establishment; cf. s.vv. Calliopius, Cleobulus, nos. 25, 32; for gramm. having a place in Libanius's school, see Petit, Étudiants 85ff.


304

* LEONTIUS: see no. 234.

89. LEONTIUS signo LASCIVUS. Gramm. Bordeaux. Born before 310; dead probably by 355/60.

RE 12.2052 (Tolkiehn); PLRE I s.v. Leontius 17, p. 502.

Leontius . . . cognomento Lascivus , Auson. Prof . 7 tit.; Leontius, ibid. vv. 3, 16; Lascivus, vv. 5-8, an incongruous nickname that tickled his friends' fancy. Brother of Iucundus (q.v., no. 86): Prof . 9 tit. A gramm. (Prof . 7 tit.) whose achievements in letters (ibid. vv. 9-12) were sufficient for a "meager chair," posset insertus numero ut videri / grammaticorum . The phrasing seems to suggest that he was something of a marginal figure; cf. the case of his brother Iucundus, s.v. Since he was the brother of Iucundus (Prof . 9 tit., Burdigalensis ) and a companion of Ausonius's iuventa (see below), and since he is not said to have taught elsewhere, he must in accordance with Prof . 20.1-2 have taught at Bordeaux.

L. was older than Ausonius (Prof . 7.14), who calls him meae semper socius iuventae . If this is limiting—i.e., socius when Ausonius was a iuvenis , but not later—the term. a. q . of his death would be ca. 355/60, when Ausonius was forty-five or fifty years old, the lower and upper limits, respectively, in the traditional reckoning of when one ceased to be a iuvenis ; cf. Cens. Die nat . 14.2; Isidore of Seville Etym . 11.2.1-8. He probably did not begin to teach at Bordeaux much before ca. 325; Ausonius does not suggest that the association extended back to his pueritia or that L. had been his teacher. His teaching career would therefore have fallen mainly in s.IV 2/4, and he would have been Ausonius's companion during the first two-thirds (ca. 336/37-ca. 355) of the latter's tenure at Bordeaux.

Identification of L. with the Leontius whose name can be made out in a fragmentary verse inscription (epitaph?) found in the vicinity of Bordeaux, CIL 13.911 (Loupiac), is very uncertain.

+ 90. LOLLIANUS signo HOMOEUS. Gramm. Oxyrhynchus. 253/60.

PCollYoutie 66, ed. Parsons (page numbers below refer to the discussion of Parsons there) = POxy . 47.3366 = Pap.

Lollianus inline image: Pap. A5, B35, C44. Son of Apolloni...: Pap. B35. Municipal gramm. (inline image, Pap. A5-6, B29; cf. A12, C53) of Oxyrhynchus, with an appointment from the inline image: Pap. B28-29. The documents that concern him date from the reign of Valerian and Gallienus (Pap. A2-3, C41-42), perhaps 258 or 259; cf. Parsons, p. 419.

L. drew a municipal salary (inline image), which was set in cash but paid spottily in kind (Pap. B29-30). Because of the irregular payments, L. requested the use of public lands (an orchard), the rents on which would serve as his salary (Pap. B31-34, C61-68); Parsons, pp. 413f., compares


305

the similar arrangement proposed at Antioch by Libanius in behalf of his assistants (Or. 31). L.'s salary was 2,000 dr . (per annum?), whereas the orchard was expected to bring in 2,400 dr. ; cf. Pap. B34, C65. L. addressed his appeal not to the inline image but directly to the emperors—Pap. A and C are drafts of his petition—with vague reference to the precedent for imperial intervention allegedly established by earlier emperors in such circumstances; cf. Pap. A12-16, C50-56(?). On the procedure L. followed and the doubtful strength of his argument from precedent, cf. Parsons, pp. 416f., 441ff. At the same time, L. wrote a letter (= Pap. B) to an unnamed friend at court whom he calls "brother" (Pap. B23), asking him to use his influence to secure a favorable decision and an unambiguous response; cf. Pap. B36-37. Note that this was the third letter L. had written to the "brother" on this matter; cf. Pap. B23. The would-be patron had perhaps ignored the two prior requests.

L. was married, with children (Pap. B22-23, 28). He calls himself inline image: Pap. B36, inline image. The term is evidently still used at this date in the general sense, "educated man," "scholar"; for similar usage in a comparable context, see PSI 13.1337.23, with Claus, "S XOL AS TIKOS " 43f. The draft of the letter to his patron (Pap. B) may be in L.'s own hand.

91. LUPERCUS. Gramm. Berytus. Born or floruit shortly before 268/70.

RE 13.1839-41 (Gudeman); Chr.-Sch.-St. 2:2.889; PLRE I s.v. 1, p. 519.

Lupercus, gramm. of Berytus, whose birth or floruit (inline image) is placed shortly before the reign of Claudius inline image (i.e., Claudius Gothicus) by the Suda , L .691. His works, listed in the Suda (ibid.), include a inline imageinline image, a work on a standing literary puzzle inline imageinline image, presumably on Phd . 118a, and a number of technical works of philology: three books on inline image, one on inline image, a inline imageinline image (on the quantity of the iota?), inline image (noted as a source in the preface to the Suda , though the authenticity of the notice is doubtful; see s.v. Eugenius, no. 56), a inline image, and thirteen books on the three genders, "in which [inline image; the antecedent is controversial] he surpasses the renown of Herodian" (SudaL .691 ad fin .). For a critical review of the catalogue, see Gudeman, RE 13.1840.5ff.

Despite those words of praise, his influence on later gramm. appears to have been minimal; for later references to him, see Gudeman, RE 13.1840.54ff. and 1841.29ff. His works may, however, have been extant as late as s.XIII ex., when "the sixth of the books of Lupercus" was cited by Planudes (if it is his hand) in a scholium on Plutarch; cf. Paton, "Simonides."

LUXORIUS: see s.v. LUXURIUS, no. 235.


306

LUXURIUS: see no. 235.

92. IOANNES LYDUS. Praefectianus, palatinus , and inline imageinline image. Born 490/91; died 557/61.

RE 13.2210-17 (Klotz); RE Suppl. 12.521-23 (Carney); Chr.-Sch.-St. 2:2.1041-44; Stein, Histoire 2.729ff., 838ff.; Carney, Bureaucracy 2.3ff.; Bandy, Ioannes ix-xxxviii; Hunger 1.250f., 2.427f.; PLRE II s.v. Ioannes 75, pp. 612ff. (The accounts of Klotz and Chr.-Sch.-St. are worthless for L.'s career; some of their errors are repeated in the more recent study of Tsirpanlis, "John Lydos." The best brief account remains that of Stein.)

figure
: Suda I.465; Leo Tactic. epilog . 67, PG 107.1092B; Const. Porph. De them . L p. 63.78 Pertusi; anon. ap . Cramer Anecd. Oxon . 3.187.4ff.; cod. Vat. 1202 chartac. (excerpt of De ostent .). Also
figure
, Theophylact. Simocatt. Hist . 7.16, p. 186.21 Bekker. Also
figure
: Justinian ap . Ioan. Lyd. De mag . 3.29; Hephaestus ibid. 3.30. The inscr.
figure
appears in some mss (cf. De ostent . ed. Wachsmuth, p. xiv; De mens . ed. Wünsch, pp. xvi-xvii) and in Phot. Bibl . cod. 180 (2.187 Henry). The second name is probably that of I.'s father, i.e.,
figure
; cf. Chr.-Sch.-St. 2:2.1041.

Bureaucrat, antiquarian, and poet. Born 490/91 (see below) in Lydian Philadelphia: De mag . 3.26, inline imageinline image; cf. ibid. 3.58, 59; De ostent . 53; De mens . 4.2. Cf. inline image: Suda I.465; Phot. Bibl . cod. 180 (2.187 Henry); some mss of L.'s works (see the edd.); Const. Porph. De them . I, p. 63.78 Pertusi.

L. left his birthplace in 511, when he was in his twenty-first year: De mag . 3.26, inline imageinline image . He intended to obtain a place as memorialis in the palatine service at Constantinople: ibid., inline imageinline image. While awaiting an appointment, he read Aristotle and Plato with Agapius, a pupil of Proclus (ibid.). He soon received a position, though not the one he had expected. Under the influence of his patron and fellow Philadelphian the PPO Zoticus, L. was "forced" probably late in 511 or very early in 512 to become an exceptor , a shorthand clerk, in the praetorian officium (ibid.); his cousin Ammianus was already enrolled among the exceptores . This shift from his initial ambition was not of great consequence for the early part of his career, in which L. can be seen now to have combined and now to have chosen between posts in the central (palatine) administration and in the officium of the praetorian prefect, i.e., in the inline image and in the inline image. Within a year, still during Zoticus's prefecture, L. made a brilliant start in the civil division of the judicial branch in the praetorian officium (ibid. 3.27), being chosen by the assis-


307

rants of the ab actis to become one of the three

figure
. (On the gradations within the officium , see Jones, LRE 587ff.; Morosi, "Officium " 103ff.) At the same time he drafted suggestiones to the senate and served as an exceptor in the sacred consistory, where he was soon being groomed for the palatine secretariat a secretis: De mag . 3.27,
figure

figure

figure
.

L. derided, however, to withdraw from the

figure
and to concentrate all his energies in his service as praefectianus (ibid. 3.28). His progress there can be traced through his service as chartularius to the commentariensis ; cf. ibid. 3.17, where the text must be corrupt: although as chartularius to the commentariensis L. would have had a higher rank than in his initial post with the ab actis , the passage as it stands appears to date this service to a time when L. could have been oily about fifteen years old; cf. Stein, Histoire 2.838 n. 4. L. also describes his dealings with the prefect Phocas (an. 532), although it cannot be said in what capacity: De mag . 3.73; cf. s.v. Speciosus, no. 138. But L. came to hate the
figure
and resolved to devote himself entirely to his books (ibid. 3.28). This decision was probably made sometime during the second prefecture of John the Cap-padocian (532-41), who is the object of much abuse on L.'s part. The passage in which L. states his reasons is obscure:
figure
figure

figure
. A comma should be placed before (so now the text of Bandy) rather than after the
figure
, and the passage should be understood as follows: "When in all respects public affairs [
figure
] had been brought to such a state as this account has recorded, and when in addition fortune was showing disfavor to men of literary attainments—something that had not happened before—I came to hate the service." The passage would thus be in line with L.'s other complaints about the state of the service under John, particularly the loss of prestige suffered by men with literary training; cf. esp. De mag . 2.17, 21; 3.65-66, 68.

Nonetheless, L. gained or retained the favor of Justinian, who allowed L. to deliver an encomium of him (ibid. 3.28), presumably in verse: cf. Justinian's praise of L.'s

figure
, ibid. 3.29. Further, Justinian invited L. to compose a history of his campaign at Daras (ibid. 3.28) and appointed L. to a post as a Latin gramm. in the Capitoline school. On the appointment and status, see ibid. 3.29, Justinian's directive to the praetorian prefect:
figure

figure


308

figure
(see further below). For Latin as the language of his instruction, cf. Justinian's reference to L.'s labors with
figure
(ibid.).

Justinian's actions cannot be dated with great precision—after 532, or after 540 (cf. Carney, Bureaucracy 2.10 n. 13), depending on which campaign at Daras is meant; probably before 543: see below on the dedication to Gabriel the city prefect. But L. gives the impression that they came in quick succession. The last guaranteed that L. could devote himself to his books while remaining nominally enrolled in the inline image, retaining his seniority and claims to promotion; cf. again Justinian's statement at De mag . 3.29, inline imageinline image [= the PPO ] inline imageinline imageinline image; see also L.'s own remarks ibid. ad fin ., inline image [sc . inline image] inline image [cf. s.v. Cledonius, no. 31] inline image. The post as gramm. was evidently no mere sinecure; cf. L.'s own statement, ibid. 3.29, inline image; see also the reference to his pupils made by the prefect Hephaestus when L. retired from the inline image, ibid. 3.30, inline imageinline image . It is therefore likely that he was in effect an absentee praefectianus for all or part of the latter years of his career, a suggestion borne out by L.'s statement (ibid. 3.30 init.) that toward the end of his service he received the salary but not the fees associated with the inline image. Such payment was the regular lot of the absentee; cf. Jones, LRE 605.

It seems clear in any case that L. was eventually promoted through all the grades of the officium ; cf. L.'s references to his reaching retirement, De mag . 3.30, inline imageinline image and inline imageinline image; with Hephaestus's reference to his service, ibid., inline imageinline image . L. finally retired from the inline image after forty years and four months (ibid. 3.30 ad fin .; cf. also 3.67)—i.e., probably ca. April 552—as cornicularius , with the ranks of tribunus et notarius (vacans ) and comes ordinis primi ; cf. esp. ibid. 3.4, 24-25; and Stein, Histoire 2.731. The latest references in the De mag . suggest that he died sometime between 557 and 561; cf. Stein, Histoire 2.839f.

Probably beginning before his retirement (see above and following), L. composed the De mensibus and the De ostentis , and, after his retirement, the De magistratibus . The three were read and excerpted by Photius, Bibl . cod. 180 (2.187ff. Henry); the first two are listed in the Suda , I.465, which refers to inline image but not specifically to the De mag . The Suda , ibid., says that L. dedicated these (inline image) to


309

figure
, presumably the city prefect Gabriel (cf. De mag . 3.38), himself a poet (cf. Anth. Gr . 16.208), whose prefecture of 543 (Stein, Histoire 2.441 n. 4) was celebrated by Leontius Scholasticus in Anth. Gr . 16.32. Gabriel's prefecture thus provides a term. a. q . for when L. came to hate the
figure
and devoted himself to his books. In addition to the encomium of Justinian (see above), L. wrote a brief encomium of his early patron, Zoticus, for which he was rewarded at the rate of one solidus per line (De mag . 3.27).

L. remarks (ibid.) that during the brief prefecture of Zoticus, while still an exceptor , he was able to make no less than 1,000 solidi . As chartularius in the scrinium of the ab actis , L. received a salary of 24 solidi per year. The opportunity for extraordinary income was considerable; cf. his use of the euphemism inline image, ibid., and his remarks ibid. 3.24-25. At the prompting of L.'s cousin Ammianus, Zoticus had provided L. with a wife, who in turn provided a dowry of 100 lb. of gold (De mag . 3.28, inline image). If it could be inferred from De mag . 3.26 that all L.'s prior education had taken place in Philadelphia, then that city could be added to the list of places in the East where instruction in Latin was available.

From L.'s works Photius, Bibl . cod. 180 (2.181 Henry), concluded that he was a pagan, probably incorrectly; cf. esp. De mag . 3.73 fin . and 3.74, L.'s concern to demonstrate the inline image of Phocas; and cf. the judgment of Carney, RE Suppl. 12.523.5ff., with Bureaucracy 2.49f. n. 11. Bandy, Ioannes xvi, claims that L.'s "appointment to the university required a religion test"; but it is not clear what that statement means or on what evidence it is based.

93. MACRINUS. Gramm. Bordeaux. s.IV 1/4.

PLRE I s.v. 1, p. 529.

Macrinus (Auson. Prof . 10.11), Latin gramm. (ibid. tit.; cf. vv. 5-10) at Bordeaux (ibid. tit.), the first teacher of Ausonius (ibid. 12-13); since Ausonius was born ca. 310, M. was active in s.IV 1/4.

MANIPPUS or MARSIPUS: see s.v. MANIPPUS, no. 236.

94. MARCELLUS. Gramm. inline image. s.IV med.?

RE 14.1492 (Ensslin); PLRE I s.v. 4, p. 551.

Marcellus (Prof . 18 tit., v. 1), son of Marcellus (ibid.); a gramm. (ibid. tit., vv. 7-8, 13-14) who taught at Narbo (ibid. 4-8) after leaving his patria , i.e., Bordeaux (cf. Prof . 20.1-2; and cf. s.v. Concordius, no. 35). There is no indication of his date, though like all the other subjects of the Prof . he was dead by the time the poems were composed. If Ausonius speaks of


310

the scandal (see below) from firsthand knowledge, then M. presumably dates to s.IV reed.; but that is not certain.

Driven from Bordeaux by his mother, M. was received at Narbo, where he married the daughter of the nobilis Clarentius, who is said to have been impressed by M.'s indoles egregia (ibid. 5-6). He acquired grammatici nomen divitiasque (ibid. 7-8); but because of his pravum ingenium he was ruined in a scandal, which Ausonius forbears to retail (ibid. 9-12; cf. s.v. Herculanus, no. 70). Ausonius places him inter grammaticos praetenuis nmeriti (ibid. 14).

NONIUS MARCELLUS: see no. 237.

MARCIANUS: see no. 238.

95. MARTYRIUS. Lat. gramm. Sardis? Before 580; s.VI l/2-med.?

RE 14.2041-43 (Wessner); Sch.-Hos. 4:2.219; PLRE II s.v. 6, p. 732.

M.'s treatise on b and v bears the attribution Adamantii sire Martyrii in the mss used by Keil; Cassiodorus calls him both "Adamantius Martyrius" (De orth., GL 7.147.8, 167.1, 178.10, 193.8; Inst . 1.30.2; cf. also Manitius, Handschriften 267) and "Martyrius" (De orth., GL 7.143.9ff., 185.9). From the preface to the treatise, GL 7.165.13f., hoc commentario nostro acceptis seminibus ab Adamantio meo patre , it is clear that the author was Martyrius, son of Adamantius (q.v., no. 2).

He is styled grammaticus in an explicit (GL 7.178.14) in cod. Monac. 766, the copy of an antiquissimus codex made by Politian in 1491; cf. Keil, GL 7.136. This is not solid evidence in itself, but note that his father was a doctor . . . elocutionis Latinae: GL 7.165.14f. He is called Sardianus in the same explicit (see also below); he clearly knew Greek.

M. is to be dated certainly after Herodian, to whom he refers at GL 7.166.13f. His use of the name "Valentinianus" in an example at GL 7.173.1 (bracketed by Keil), like his own name, suggests a date not earlier than s.IV / s.V. At GL 7.175.9ff. he refers to the opinion of a certain Memnonius on the correct spelling of berna (vs. verna ): illustris memoriae audivi Memnonium, omnis hominem facundiae iudicem, se dicentem de hoc reprehensum a Romano quodam disertissimo . Bücheler, "Coniectanea" 330f., identified this Memnonius facundiae iudex with the father of Agathias, Memnonius inline image —mspecifically, Myrina: Anth. Gr . 7.552, with Agathias, Hist . praef. 14, p. 6.10 Keydell; cf. also Michael the Grammarian, Anth. Gr . 16.316. The identification is attractive, esp. if M.'s designation as Sardianus is correct. The treatise could then be dated sometime after 534/35: Agathias was born ca. 531/32 (for the date, see McCail, "Earthquake" 241ff.; Averil Cameron, Agathias If., with 138f.); Memnonius survived his wife, who died when Agathias was three years


311

old (Anth. Gr . 7.552.3-8), i.e., 534/35; but the Memnonius known to M., illustris memoriae . . . Memnonius , was dead by the time M. wrote. Against the identification one can adduce the evident belief of Cassiodorus that "Adamantius Martyrius" was one of the orthographi antiqui : so Inst 1.30.2; cf. De orth . praef., GL 7.147.8ff., where M., along with the other men listed there, is implicitly distinguished from Priscian, the modernus auctor . But Cassiodorus may be no more reliable concerning M.'s date than he is concerning his name; cf. esp. s.v. Eutyches, no. 57, for Cassiodorus's error concerning the date of Priscian's pupil; and cf. s.v. Phocas, no. 121. M. can at any rate be dated before ca. 580, the date of the De orth . and of the revision of the Inst .

M.'s treatise on b and v was excerpted by Cassiodorus (GL 7.167-99) and has been transmitted independently (GL 7.165-99).

96. MAXIMUS. Gramm. Madaurus. s.IV 2/2-ex.

RE 14.2571 (Wendel); PLRE I s.v. 28, p. 585; Prosop. chrét . I s.v. 3, pp. 733f.

Maximus, gramm. of Madaurus who corresponded with Augustine: inscr. and subscr. of Aug. Ep . 16, 17. The letters are to be dated ca. 390, by which time M. was a senex: Ep . 16.4; cf. ibid. 1, seniles artus . The beginning of their correspondence precedes the extant letters; cf. Ep . 16.1. It has sometimes been suggested that M. had been Augustine's gramm. at Madaurus in the late 360s; cf. Conf . 2.3.5. The suggestion is plausible, although obviously not capable of proof.

After expressing allegiance to a civic-spirited paganism and a belief in a number of numina worshiped as the membra of a single, highest god (Ep . 16.1; cf. 17.1), M. goes on to condemn the cult of martyrs (Ep . 16.2; cf. 17.2) and the exclusivity and secrecy of Christian worship, which he compares unfavorably with the public cult of pagans (Ep . 16.3; cf. 17.4). The charges are commonplace in the polemics of this and earlier periods, as are the rebuttals Augustine presents point by point in his heavily sarcastic reply, Ep . 17. The correspondents do show some individuality, however, in their concern with and view of local African martyrs (Miggines, Sanames, Namphamon, Lucitas). For a full study of these letters, with text and translation, see now Mastandrea, Massimo .

* 97. MELLEUS. Schoolmaster. Centum Cellae. s.IV 2/2 / s.VI.

Melleus, a magister ludi , Christian, dead aged 30: CIL 11.3568 = ILCV 718 (Centum Cellae).

98. MEMNON. Teacher of letters. s.V 1/3.

PLRE II s.v., p. 753.


312

A inline image, addressee of Nil. Ancyr. Ep . 2.326, on repentance. The first and last sentences correspond in reverse order to the first two sentences of John Chrysost. Hom. in seraphim 6.4, PG 56.140; cf. Heussi, Untersuchungen 54ff.

99. MENESTHEUS. Gr. gramm. Bordeaux. s.IV 2/4.

RE 15.852 (Ensslin); Martindale, "Prosopography" 249; cf. PLRE I s.v. Spercheus, p. 851.

Menestheus (Auson. Prof . 8.3), Greek gramm. (ibid. tit., vv. 1-8) at Bordeaux (ibid. tit.). Third in the list of Greek gramm., he did not teach Ausonius (ibid. 1-3, with v. 9); Spercheus (q.v., no. 139), M.'s father (ibid. 2-3), did. M. therefore was probably not yet active in the second decade of s.IV but belonged to the next generation of teachers; cf. ibid. 7, nostro . . . in aevo . His career accordingly should be placed ca. s. IV 2/4. Like all the other subjects of the Prof ., M. was dead by the time the poems were composed.

With the two other Greek gramm. celebrated in this poem, M. is said to have possessed sedulum . . . studium docendi, / fructus exilis tenuisque sermo (ibid. 5-6).

On the teachers of Prof . 8, cf. also s.v. Romulus, no. 250.

100. METRODORUS. Gramm. Constantinople. s.V / s.VI?

PLRE II s.v., p. 762.

Metrodorus inline image , author of Anth. Gr . 9.712, on a lawyer Ioannes; according to the poem's lemma, Ioannes was inline image. Ioannes' name, his profession, and the place combine to suggest a date of s.V / s.VI.

M. may be the gramm. Metrodorus (q.v., no. 101) of Tralles and Constantinople (s.VI 1/3-1/2); he is probably not to be identified either with Metrodorus the author or collector of Anth. Gr . 14.116-46 or with Metrodorus the author of Anth. Gr . 9.360. The latter was imitated in Epigr. Bob . 26 and therefore must be dated before ca. 400; cf. Weinreich's review of Munari, Gnomon 31 (1959), 245f.

+ 101. METRODORUS. Gramm. inline image. s.VI l/3-1/2.

Gramm.: Agath. Hist . 5.6.4 Keydell, inline image; cf. Appendix 2 ad fin . on the phrasing. From a talented family of Tralles—M.'s father, Stephanus, was a physician there (Alexand. Trail. Book 4, inline image, vol. 2 p. 139 Puschmann); M.'s brothers were the lawyer and advocate Olympius, the physicians Dioscorus and Alexander, and the architect Anthemius: Agath. Hist . 5.6.3ff. According to Agathias, he was a gramm. of some renown and with Anthemius was summoned by


313

the emperor to Constantinople, where they remained the rest of their lives: Hist . 5.6.5f., inline imageinline imageinline image [= M.] inline imageinline image. Although it is not clear which emperor is meant, M.'s floruit should probably be placed in the first third or first half of s.VI since Anthemius was apparently already at Constantinople when Justinian commissioned him to rebuild St. Sophia in the wake of the Nika Revolt of 532 (cf. Agath. Hist . 5.9.2; Procop. De aed . 1.1.20ff.) and was long dead when an earthquake damaged St. Sophia in 557: Agath. Hist . 5.9.4, inline imageinline image . On the latter date, see Averil Cameron, Agathias 142.

M. is perhaps the otherwise unknown gramm. Metrodorus listed in the catalogue of gramm. in Kröhnert, Canones 7, under the heading inline imageinline image, or he may be Metrodorus inline image the author of Anth. Gr . 9.712 (see s.v., no. 100); he may even be both. He cannot be identified confidently with Metrodorus the author or compiler of Anth. Gr . 14.116-46; he is certainly distinct from Metrodorus the author of Anth. Gr . 9.360, who is datable before ca. 400: see s.v. Metrodorus, no. 100, ad fin .

+ "METRORIUS": see no. 239.

102. MUSAEUS. Gramm. and poet. s.V 2/2-3/3.

RE 16.767-69 (Keydell); Chr.-Sch.-St. 2:2.972; Hunger 2.109; PLRE II s.v., p. 768.

Author of inline image, in hexameters; styled inline imageinline image in three mss of s.XIV, but not in the oldest, cod. Barocc. 50, of s.X / s.Xl init.; cf. Kost, ed., p. 16.

Later than Nonnus, by whose poetry he was influenced; before the epic poet Col(l)uthus, who probably used him; therefore to be dated s.V 2/2-3/3: cf. Keydell, RE 16.767.34ff.; Gelzer, "Bemerkungen" (1967) 133ff., (1968) 11ff.; Kost, ed., pp. 15f., who dates him to 470/510.

Presumably a Christian, since he appears to have known Nonnus's paraphrase of the Gospel of John (cf. Kost, ed., at vv. 19, 42, 138-39, 233, 242, 255, 293, 295), the ps.-Apollinarian Psalter (cf. Golega, Homerische Psalter 104), and the poetry of Gregory Nazianzen (cf. Kost, ed., at vv. 17 [p. 159], 173, 274).

He is perhaps the Musaeus who received Procop. Gaz. Ep . 147, 165; the identification is proposed most forcefully by Gelzer, "Bemerkungen" (1967) 137ff.; cf. also Minitti Colonna, "De Musaeo" 65ff. It remains no more than plausible.


314

103. ANNIUS NAMPTOIUS. Magister studiorum , jurisconsult, flamen perpetuus, curator rei publicae . Thuburbo Maius (Africa Proconsularis). 361.

PLRE I s.v., p. 615; Bassignano, Flaminato 169, 170, 172f.; AE 1916, 87, 88 (= 20 bis ) = ILAfr . 273a, b = lnscr. a, b.

Annius Namptoius: Inscr. a; Annius Namptoivius, Inscr. b. Styled fl (a )-m (en ) p (er )p (etuus ), iurisconsultus, magister studiorum, cur (ator ) rei p (ublicae ). Mention of the proconsulship of Clodius Hermogenianus Olybrius (= PLRE I s.v. 3, p. 640) dates Inscr. b. to 361; mention of Constantius as emperor dates the inscr. to sometime before November of that year (Constantius died 3 Nov. 361).

The date makes it impossible for magister studiorum to refer to the imperial secretariat a studiis . N. presumably was a local teacher of liberal studies, with some legal expertise as well (cf. iurisconsultus ; Lepelley, Cites de l'Afrique 2.200 n. 11, has suggested that N. was a professor of law at Carthage). The style magister studiorum is not common, but it is found in the nearly contemporary law of Julian on the schools: CTh 13.3.5 (an. 362), magistros studiorum doctoresque excellere oportet moribus primum, deinde facundia ; cf. CJ 3.28.37, 1e (an. 531), magistri studiorum liberalium . See also esp. s.v. L. Terentius Iulianus, no. 87: magister studiorum, grammaticus Latinus .

Since the positions of flamen perpetuus and curator r.p . are otherwise unexampled in this period for a man of N.'s profession, his holding them is especially noteworthy. On the former title, cf. Bassignano, Flaminato 10ff., 371ff.; on the latter, see Lucas, "Notes"; Jones, LRE 726ff.; Burton, "Curator." The two titles together imply that N. was a curialis .

Similarly unusual is the scale of the undertaking (reconstruction of baths) recorded in Inscr. a and b. Note also that, if N. was a teacher, he appears either not to have received or else to have declined immunity. For the relationship in this period among the cura civitatum , curial status, and the munera , see CTh 12.1.20 (an. 331), with Lucas, "Notes" 62ff.

104. NEBRIDIUS. Assistant gramm. inline image. s.IV 2/2; dead by 390?

RE Suppl. 7.550f. (Ensslin); PLRE I s.v. 4, p. 620; Prosop. chrét . I s.v., pp. 774ff.

Friend and correspondent of Augustine: Conf . 4.3.6; 6.10.17, 16.26; 7.2.3, 6.8; 8.6.13; 9.3.6; Ep . 3-14 (author of Ep . 5, 6, 8; recipient of the rest). He taught as assistant (Conf . 8.6.13, subdoceret ) to the gramm. Verecundus (q.v., no. 159) at Milan; he could have held a better position but did not have the ambition (ibid.). He is almost certainly not the proscholus grammatici Augustine refers to at Serm . 178.7.8 (see below).


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A near contemporary of Augustine, N. followed him to Milan ca. 385: Conf . 6.10.17, 8.6.13. He died not long after Augustine's baptism in 387; at the time of his death, probably no later than 3390, he was back in Africa: Conf . 9.3.6; cf. Ep . 5, 10.1.

His family possessed a substantial estate in the vicinity of Carthage: Conf . 6.10.17, rus optimum .

An intimate of Augustine at the time of the latter's spiritual odyssey, N. had no patience for astrology or Manichaeism: Conf . 4.3.6, 6.16.26, 7.23, 6.8; cf. Ep . 33, and Ep . 4-14 passim . Not yet a Christian at the time of Augustine's baptism, he had become one, and had converted his entire family in Africa, by the time of his death: Conf . 9.3.6.

The PLRE regards as probable the identification of N. with a pagan gramm.'s anonymous assistant (proscholus ) at Milan (= Anonymus 5, no. 171), the hero of an editing tale Augustine sets during his tenure there: Serm . 178.7.8 (PL 35.964), nobis apud Mediolanum constitutis . This is very likely incorrect. The proscholus is described as plane Christianus , but N. was not yet a Christian during Augustine's time in Milan (see above); Augustine resigned his chair of rhetoric in autumn 386, was baptized at Easter 387, and left Milan soon after (see s.v., no. 20). Further, the proscholus is described as a pauperrimus homo who had taken his position out of desperation—tam pauper ut proscholus esset grammatici —but this is quite at odds with what we know of N.'s circumstances, esp. his family's rus optimum near Carthage (see above); note that at Conf . 8.6.13 Augustine says N. did not take his position out of cupiditas commodorum . Unless Augustine is embellishing his story, then, N. was not the proscholus involved. The identification could be ruled out at once if Clarke, Higher Education 27 n. 105, were correct in drawing a sharp distinction between the positions of subdoctor and proscholus ; but the distinction was not everywhere so clear. Cf. also Heraeus, Kleine Schriften 93f.

See further s.vv. Verecundus, Anonymus 5, 6, nos. 159, 171, 172.

NEPOS: see no. 240.

105. NEPOTIANUS. inline image and provincial governor. Bordeaux. s.III ex.-s.IV 2/2.

RE 16.2513 (Ensslin); Green, "Prosopographical Notes" 23; PLRE I s.v. 1, p. 624.

Nepotianus: Auson. Prof . 15 tit., v. 4. A gramm. and rhetorician: ibid. tit., grammatico eidem rhetori . The phrase should mean "gramm. and also [i.e., subsequently] rhetorician," not "gramm. and at the same time rhetorician," as in, e.g., Marrou, Histoire6 597 n.1; such simultaneous tenure of teaching positions is unparalleled in the period for Bordeaux. For the


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same use of idem , applied by Ausonius to himself to indicate serial—not concurrent—tenure of teaching positions, see Epist . 22. 73. N.'s teaching career was therefore probably comparable to Ausonius's. Cf. Prof . 15.10 and 12, where N. is said to have had a rhetorical style second to none and to have rivaled the gramm. Scaurus and Probus; for the latter compliment, cf. s.vv. Harmonius, Staphylius, nos. 65, 140. He is also said to have been a master of logic: ibid. v. 11, disputator ad Cleanthen Stoicum .

N. became a provincial governor: ibid. v. 18, honore gesti praesidiatus inclitus ; the province is not specified. The governorship probably capped his teaching career, as commonly in such cases; since N. was a native of Gaul, his province was more likely in the West than in the East. He is perhaps Nepotianus the praeses of Tripolitania known from AE 1952, 173 (Lepcis Magna; = Caputo, "Flavius" 234ff.); cf. Guey, "Note"; PLRE I s.v. Nepotianus 4, p. 624. If so, his official style thereafter would have been Fl. Nepotianus, v.p., ex comitibus et praesidibus , the Flaviate presumably being acquired simultaneously with the governorship; cf. Keenan, "Names" (1973).

An intimate and adviser of Ausonius, who speaks more warmly of N. than of any other gramm. (cf. esp. Prof . 15.1-8, 14-17), N. was evidently a friend of Ausonius's mature years; he would therefore probably have been a colleague in his teaching at Bordeaux. Ausonius's use of sodalis points in the same direction; cf. s.vv. Citarius, Iucundus, nos. 28, 86. Consequently, his governorship, on the assumption that it followed his teaching, has a likely term. p. q . of ca. 336/37, when Ausonius's tenure began at Bordeaux. By that time N. was probably not younger than forty: since he had died, aged ninety (ibid. v. 19), by the time Ausonius wrote the Prof .—which was probably completed not very long after 385/86 (the execution of Euchrotia is referred to at Prof . 5.35ff.)—N. was born probably not much later than ca. 295. If, however, both his death and the Prof . are put as late as possible, his birth could be pushed to ca. 304; but even then, pace Caputo, "Flavius" 240f., a date for his governorship later than the death of Valentinian (Nov. 375) is scarcely conceivable; cf. also Appendix 4.

If N. was born ca. 295, he was about fifteen years older than Ausonius. He was probably not a full generation older: Ausonius speaks of him as an older friend or alter ego and does not use metaphors appropriate to a father figure; cf. s.v. Staphylius, no. 140, ad fin . He was not, as is sometimes claimed, one of Ausonius's teachers during his schooldays at Bordeaux, from ca. 317 through the mid-320s.

N. was survived by two sons (Prof . 15.20), one of whom was perhaps the homonymous bishop of the Arverni in this period; cf. Greg. Tur. Hist. Franc . 1.46, with Green, "Prosopographical Notes" 23.


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106. NICOCLES. Gramm. inline image. s.IV 2/3-3/3.

RE 17.352-56 no. 9 (Laquerer), no. 10 (Stegemann); Seeck, Briefe 221f.; Wolf, Schulwesen 37ff.; PLRE I s.v., p. 630; Bradford, Prosopography s.v. 11, p. 306.

Mentioned in Lib. Or . 1.31, 15.27, EP . 557 (the last an. 357); subject or recipient of Ep . 810, 816, 832, 1368, 1383, 1411, 1119 (all an. 363), 1196, 1211, 1265, 1266 (all an. 364), 1487, 1492, 1533 (all an. 365); cf. Soc. HE 3.1.10.

Confusion about N.'s profession has been the rule for at least a century: e.g., rhetorician in Sievers, Leben 50; sophist and philosopher in PLRE I s.v.; rhetorician in Bowersock, Julian 27; philosopher, rhetorician, and grammarian in Bradford, Prosopography 306. Yet despite his wide interests (see below), and despite the fact that Libanius—our only firsthand source; see below—nowhere calls N. a gramm., that is doubtless what he was. The following are the most revealing passages, which deserve to be presented in some detail.

Or . 1.31: Libanius had dealings with N., one of the teachers (inline imageinline image) at Constantinople, ca. 340. At that time N. promised to supply Libanius with forty pupils on the spot and presented the arrangement as a matter of mutual advantage: inline image—"Don't put a spoke in your wheels or mine," in Norman's translation. N.'s design in this was to foil a sophist who had betrayed him. By channeling the students to Libanius, N. would hurt his enemy both directly—since he would have fewer pupils—and indirectly, by giving him a rival in Libanius. The promise itself, the arrangement it sketches, and its darker motive make sense only if N. was a gramm., not another sophist; cf. Norman, Autobiography 156 ad loc .

Or . 15.27: when speaking of N.'s stint as Julian's teacher, Libanius specially mentions his expertise in Homer. This again suggests that N. was a gramm.; thus the inference of Soc. HE 3.1.10, inline imageinline imageinline image Just as Socrates certainly depends on Lib. Or . 18.11ff. for knowledge of Hecebolius's position and the general shape of Julian's education (cf. Baynes, "Early Life"), so he must depend on Or . 15.27 for knowledge of N.'s position and his Spartan origin. For allusion to N. as teacher of Homer with Julian, see also Ep . 1368.4: inline imageinline imageinline image.

EP . 832: Libanius commends to N. a certain Theodorus, who had been one of Libanius's first pupils at Antioch (cf. Ep . 831.1)—although, as Libanius says, there is no need to introduce them, because N. had


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previously taught Theodorus: inline image, with the common metaphor of teacher as (foster) father; for another instance of the metaphor involving N., cf. Ep . 1266.5; and in general see Petit, Étudiants 31ff. Since Theodorus was evidently N.'s pupil before going to Libanius's school at Antioch, the natural inference is that he learned gramm. with N. and subsequently learned rhetoric with Libanius.

Ep . 1492.2: in a letter to Clearchus, another of N.'s foyer pupils (cf. Ep . 1266.5), Libanius, quoting Il . 9.485, says that N. had been Phoenix to Clearchus's Achilles—a metaphor that Libanius uses once elsewhere, to describe the relationship of the gramm. Cleobulus with his student Bassianus; cf. Ep . 155 and s.v. Cleobulus, no. 32, with Kaster, "Notes" 332, 333 n. 40.

By way of negative demonstration, Ep . 810.2 may be added. Libanius says that N.'s high opinion of his oratory could not be flattery, for N. would not grovel before "a king's lot, much less a sophist": inline imageinline imageinline image. The passage should imply that N. was no more a sophist than he was a king.

As a "friend of the Muses" (Ep . 816.1), N. could claim attainments that certainly extended beyond grammar. In rhetoric, he was a connoisseur of Libanius's speeches (Ep . 810.2, just quoted) and was capable of serving on an embassy to the emperor (Ep . 1368.1). He also prided himself on his reputation for philosophy; cf. esp. Ep . 1119.2, with Ep . 1383.5,

figure
. Though this interest in philosophy may have influenced his teaching of Homer (see the appendix at the end of this entry), Libanius says N.'s love of
figure
was manifest in a non-technical or nonprofessional way—N. was wise like Socrates, in his conversation and his way of life: Ep . 1487.1-2,
figure
figure

figure
. (Cf. the description of Libanius attributed to Julian at Or . 1.131.) Neither rhetoric nor philosophy was central to his professional life as it can be more narrowly defined; he was certainly a gramm. His