The ink now dry on the pages that follow, I can express my gratitude to Victoria Bonnell, who worked long and hard to shepherd the book to completion. Professor Bonnell awakened me to the significance of cultural inquiries in the field of labor studies and offered a reservoir of erudition and counsel as my research unfolded. I can only hope that the results support the ideals of historical investigation that she has endeavored to pass on.
Reginald Zelnik's encouraging spirit and ability to convey his deep appreciation of European labor history were vital for my formulation of the study's direction and its comparative design. Neil Smelser lent his expertise on the British textile industry and challenged me to broaden the scope of my appraisal of social change in Europe. Both of these advisers gave generously of themselves to critique editions early and late of the developing manuscript. Michael Burawoy, Christiane Eisenberg, Jeffrey Haydu, Martha Lampland, William Reddy, Ron Rothbart, Andrew Scull, and Gay Seidman contributed expert criticism of my lettered efforts. The advice offered by Jane-Ellen Long, an erudite text editor for the University of California Press, helped improve the very substance of the book. I hope they will excuse me if in the end I have proven unqualified to incorporate all their wisdom.
In the conduct of research in Europe I burdened many librarians and archivists. In Germany their consideration could not have borne fruit without the instruction in traditional hand scripts I received from Franziska Bunte of Kalkum. She taught me that the droppings of nineteenth-century pens are intelligible signs. The staff of the Stadtbibliothek Mönchengladbach was gracious in organizing the borrowing of materials from so many cities. At the Stadtarchiv Mönchengladbach the librarian Marion Engbarth donated time to my questions philanthropically. I am obliged to Hans
Schmiedhofer for guidance in the lower Rhineland and for preparing delivery of rare books. The historians Karl Ditt, Alan Fowler, Colum Giles, Dermot Healey, Patrick Joyce, Reinhard Schüren, Fritz Soll, Joseph L. White, Jürgen Woelke, and Eduard Westerhoff generously shared their findings from prior historical excavations. For scholarly advice in Saxony and for arranging entrance to archives in the former German Democratic Republic I am indebted to Karin Zachmann, a fellow traveler in the field of textile history. Joanna Bornat, Paul and Thea Thompson, and Elizabeth Roberts kindly granted me access to their painstakingly assembled treasuries of oral history. I also wish to thank two able research assistants, Berit Dencker and Matias Valenzuela, for helping with the analysis of newspapers that appears in Chapter Eight.
I feel exceptionally fortunate to have received, both as student and as professor, the aid necessary for my full plan of research. My first investigations in Yorkshire and western Germany were sustained by the Social Science Research Council International Dissertation Research Program and by the German Academic Exchange Service. The International Research and Exchanges Board sent me to depositories in the former German Democratic Republic. Assistance from the Academic Senate of the University of California at San Diego, the Council for the International Exchange of Scholars Fulbright Fellowship Program, and the National Endowment for the Humanities Fellowship Program for University Teachers permitted journeys to London, Greater Manchester, and Berlin. For indispensable support during a long period of writing I am grateful to the Mabelle McLeod Lewis Memorial Fund and, at the University of California, Berkeley, to the John L. Simpson Research Apprenticeship Program and to the Allan Sharlin Memorial Fund. The Library of the University of California, San Diego, purchased for my work rare journals and factory codes that would otherwise have been unexaminable.
Finally, I am grateful to Robin Fiorelli for her forbearance of my departures and for the encouragement she continued to extend up to the book's last word.