1. APA. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, IV (DSM IV). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 1994.
2. USDHEW. Smoking and Health. Report of the Advisory Committee to the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service. US Department of Health, Education and Welfare, 1964. Public Health Service Publication No. 1103.
3. USDHHS. The Health Consequences of Smoking: Nicotine Addiction. A Report of the Surgeon General. US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, Center for Health Promotion and Education, Office on Smoking and Health, 1988. DHHS Publication No. (CDC) 88-8406.
4. Kessler D. A Statement on Nicotine-Containing Cigarettes before the Subcommittee on Health and the Environment. Committee on Energy and Commerce, US House of Representatives, March 25, 1994.
5. Kessler D. A Statement before the Subcommittee on Health and the Environment. Committee on Energy and Commerce, US House of Representatives, June 21, 1994.
6. Food and Drug Administration. Proposed rule analysis regarding FDA's jurisdiction over nicotine-containing cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products. Federal Register 1995 August 11:41453–41787.
7. Food and Drug Administration. Regulations restricting the sale and distribution of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products to protect children and adolescents. Federal Register 1995 August 11:41314–41451.
8. USDHHS. Preventing Tobacco Use among Young People. A Report of the Surgeon General. US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 1994.
9. Royal College of Physicians. Smoking and Health. A Report of the Royal College of Physicians on Smoking in Relation to Cancer of the Lung and Other Diseases. London: Pitman Medical Publishing Co., 1962.
10. Martini L, Ganong W. Neuroendocrinology. New York: Academic Press, 1966.
11. Medvei V. The History of Clinical Endocrinology. Pearl River, NY: Parthenon Publishing Group, 1992.
12. Grunberg N. The effects of nicotine and cigarette smoking on food consumption and taste preferences. Addictive Behaviors 1982;7:317–331.
13. Slade J. Nicotine delivery devices. In: Orleans C, Slade J, eds. Nicotine Addiction: Principles and Management (pp. 3–23). New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.
14. Armitage AK, Dollery, CT, George CF, Houseman TH, Lewis PJ, Turner DM. Absorption and metabolism of nicotine from cigarettes. Brit Med J 1975;4(5992):313–316.
15. Ellis C, Schachner H, Williamson D. Smoking device. US Patent 3,258,015. Assigned to Battelle, 1966.
16. Ellis C, Hughes W. Smoking devices. US Patent 3,356,094. Assigned to Battelle, 1967.
17. Slade J. Statement before the Subcommittee on Health and the Environment. Committee on Energy and Commerce, US House of Representatives, March 25, 1994.
18. R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Co. Chemical and Biological Studies on New Cigarette Prototypes That Heat Instead of Burn Tobacco. Winston-Salem, NC: R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Co., 1988.
19. Slade J. The tobacco epidemic: Lessons from history. J Psychoactive Drugs 1989;21:281–291.
20. Hilts P. Little smoke, little tar, but still lots of nicotine. New York Times 1994 November 27:1.
21. Litzinger E. Smoking article. US Patent 4,924,886. Assigned to Brown and Williamson Tobacco Corp., 1990.
22. Johnson R, Tang J-Y. Cigarette. US Patent 4,955,397. Assigned to Brown and Williamson Tobacco Corp., 1990.
23. Porenski H, Plotner R. Smoking article. US Patent 5,327,915. Assigned to Brown and Williamson Tobacco Corp., 1994.
24. Russell M, Jarvis M, Iyer R, Feyeraband C. Relation of nicotine yield of cigarettes to blood nicotine concentrations in smokers. Brit Med J 1980;280:972–976.
25. Benowitz N, Hall S, Herning R, Jacob P III, Jones R, Osman A-L. Smokers of low-yield cigarettes do not consume less nicotine. N Engl J Med 1983;309(3):139–142.
26. Warner K, Slade J. Low tar, high toll. Am J Pub Health 1992;82:17–18.
27. Henningfield J, Kozlowski L, Benowitz N. A proposal to develop meaningful labeling for cigarettes. JAMA 1994;272:312–314.
28. Freeman A. How a tobacco giant doctors snuff brands to boost their "kick." Wall Street Journal 1994 October 26:A1.
29. Djordjevic M, Hoffman D, Glynn T, Connolly G. US commercial brands of moist snuff, 1994: I. Assessment of nicotine, moisture and pH. Tobacco Control 1995;4:62–66.
30. Henningfield J, Radzius A, Cone E. Estimation of available nicotine content of six smokeless tobacco products. Tobacco Control 1995;4:57–61.
31. Connolly G. The marketing of nicotine addiction by oral snuff manufacturers. Tobacco Control 1995;4:73–79.
32. DeNoble V. Testimony before the Subcommittee on Health and the Environment. Committee on Energy and Commerce, US House of Representatives, April 28, 1994.
33. Jarvik M. Further observations on nicotine as the reinforcing agent in smoking. In: Dunn W, ed. Smoking Behavior: Motives and Incentives (pp. 33–49). Washington, DC: V. H. Winston and Sons, 1973.
34. Robbins L. Vietnam veterans' rapid recovery from heroin addiction: A fluke or normal expectation? Addiction 1993;88:1041–1054.
35. Viscusi W. Making the Risky Decision. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.
36. Gravelle JG, Zimmerman D. Cigarette Taxes to Fund Health Care Reform: An Economic Analysis. Washington, DC: Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service, 1994.
37. Schwartz J. Tobacco firm's inside debate revealed. Washington Post 1995 October 9:A8.