Like any book written by an anthropologist couple who did fieldwork in the same place at the same time, this book is inevitably a collaborative effort. And, like many anthropologist couples, we have developed an informal division of labor. James Carrier has concerned himself primarily with economics, in the broad sense of the term; Achsah Carrier has concerned herself primarily with kinship and exchange, also in the broad sense. Obviously, these two realms, especially when construed broadly, overlap to a great extent. It is for that reason that we have thought it proper to put both our names on the work and to use "we" instead of "I." Primary responsibility for the organization and writing of this book lay with James Carrier, while Achsah Carrier contributed extensive comments, long discussions, and some written passages, especially in chapters 1, 5, and 6.
Portions of this book are partial revisions of the papers in which we developed our understanding of Ponam economy and society. The most important of these are:
by Achsah Carrier: "Pluralism or integration: The place of Western medicine in Ponam theories of health and disease," in S. Frankel, ed., A continuing trial of treatment: Medical pluralism in Papua New Guinea (Dordrecht: D. Reidel, 1987), and "Ceremonial prestation and the spatial representation of social relations on Ponam Island, Manus Province, Papua New Guinea," MS.
by James Carrier: "School and community on Ponam," Papua New Guinea Journal of Education 15 (1979):66–77; "Knowledge and its use: Constraints upon the application of new knowledge in Ponam society," Papua New Guinea Journal of Education 16 (1980):102–126; "Labour migration and labour export on Ponam Island," Oceania 51 (1981):237–255; "Ownership of productive resources on Ponam Island, Manus Province," Journal de la Société des Oceanistes 37 (1981):205–217; and "Fishing practices on Ponam Island (Manus Province, Papua New Guinea)," Anthropos 77 (1982):904–915.
by James Carrier and Achsah Carrier: "Profitless property: Marine ownership and access to wealth on Ponam Island, Manus Province," Ethnology 22 (1983):133–151; and "A Manus centenary: Production, kinship and exchange in the Admiralty Islands," American Ethnologist 12 (1985):505–522.
Some of these papers we have pillaged extensively for this book. We want to acknowledge the permission for this granted to us by the copyright holders and to note that their permission does not extend to permission to reprint those passages elsewhere. Portions of "Labour Migration and Labour Export on Ponam Island" are included by permission of the editors of Oceania ; portions of "Ownership of Productive Resources on Ponam Island, Manus Province" are included by permission of the editors on Journal de la Société des Oceanistes ; portions of "Fishing Practices on Ponam Island (Manus Province, Papua New Guinea)" are included by permission of the editors of Anthropos ; portions of "Profitless Property: Marine Ownership and Access to Wealth on Ponam Island, Manus Province" are included by permission of the editors of Ethnology ; portions of "A Manus Centenary: Production, Kinship and Exchange in the Admiralty Islands" are included by permission of the American Anthropological Association.
Several of these papers are based on seminars at the University of Papua New Guinea Department of Anthropology and Sociology. We must content ourselves with a blanket acknowledgment of the helpful comments and criticisms made at those seminars. In addition, Robert Foster read an earlier version of this book and made a number of useful suggestions.
We also want to acknowledge the assistance and encouragement of the people and organizations who made this research possible. Dr. David Lancy, principal research officer of the Papua New Guinea Department of Education during our initial period of fieldwork (November 1978 to December 1979), gave important personal, intellectual, and financial support. The University of London Central Research Fund gave financial assistance to Achsah Carrier during our initial period of fieldwork. The University of Papua New Guinea Research Committee gave financial assistance to James Carrier during our return visits to Ponam in 1981, 1982, 1983, and 1986. The governments of Papua New Guinea and Manus
Province gave permission to carry out the research, and the Australian Archives and the Papua New Guinea Archives helped us with documents and the permission to cite them. Also, we owe thanks to V. E. King, who kindly allowed us permission to make use of the information in his 1978 thesis, "The End of an Era: Aspects of the History of the Admiralty Islands 1898–1908." His labors in the records of German firms and administrations made our task of discovering Manus history very much easier.
We owe our greatest debt to Ponam Islanders who, over the years that we have known them, have come to show us what is perhaps the greatest kindness: they have come to treat us as people like themselves. Although we owe debts of varying magnitude to a number of Ponams, we owe special debts to Gabriel Kalan Njoli and Cecelia Mokon, who stood as father and mother to Achsah Carrier and whose domestic arrangements we disrupted so shamelessly in our visits to Ponam between 1980 and 1986, and to Damien Selef Njohang and Martha Pilau, who stood as father and mother to James Carrier, and who were tireless hosts and answerers of questions. We are indebted also to the Mataungan Association of Ponam Island, in whose clubhouse we stayed during our initial period of fieldwork and who provided us with the material comforts that made our adjustment so much easier and our time there so much more productive than it might have been otherwise. Finally, we owe a great debt to Paul and Martha Songo and Tony and Pindramolat Kakaw, Ponams who befriended us in Port Moresby and who stimulated our thinking with their insightful concern with their home society.