Analysis of JSTOR
The Impact on Scholarly Practice of Access to On-line Journal Archives
Thomas A. Finholt and JoAnn Brooks
Innovations introduced over the past thirty years, such as computerized library catalogs and on-line citation indexes, have transformed scholarly practice. Today, the dramatic growth of worldwide computer networks raises the possibility for further changes in how scholars work. For example, attention has focused on the Internet as an unprecedented mechanism for expanding access to scholarly documents through electronic journals (Olsen 1994; Odlyzko 1995), digital libraries (Fox et al. 1995), and archives of prepublication reports (Taubes 1993). Unfortunately, the rapid evolution of the Internet makes it difficult to accurately predict which of the many experiments in digital provision of scholarly content will succeed. As an illustration, electronic journals have received only modest acceptance by scholars (Kling and Covi 1996). Accurate assessment of the scholarly impact of the Internet requires attention to experiments that combine a high probability of success with the capacity for quick dissemination. According to these criteria, digital journal archives deserve further examination. A digital journal archive provides on-line access to the entire digitized back archive of a paper journal. Traditionally, scholars make heavy use of journal back archives in the form of bound periodicals. Therefore, providing back archive content on-line may significantly enhance access to a resource already in high demand. Further, studying the use of experimental digital journal archives may offer important insight into the design and functionality of a critical Internet-based research tool. This paper, then, reports on the experience of social scientists using JSTOR, a prototype World Wide Web application for viewing and printing the back archives of ten core journals in history and economics.
The Jstor System
JSTOR represents an experiment in the technology, politics, and economics of online provision of journal content. Details of JSTOR's evolution and development
are covered elsewhere in this volume (see chapter 7). At the time of this study, early 1996, the faculty audience for JSTOR consisted of economists, historians, and ecologists-reflecting the content of JSTOR at that time. This paper focuses on reports of JSTOR use shortly after the system became officially available at the test sites. Respondents included historians and economists at five private liberal arts colleges (Bryn Mawr College, Denison University, Haverford College, Swarthmore College, and Williams College) and one public research university (the University of Michigan). The core economics journals in JSTOR at the time of this study included American Economic Review, Econometrica, Quarterly Journal of Economics, Journal of Political Economy, and Review of Economics and Statistics. The core history journals included American Historical Review, Journal of American History, Journal of Modern History, William and Mary Quarterly, and Speculum. In the future, JSTOR will expand to include more than 150 journal titles covering dozens of disciplines.
Journal Use in the Social Sciences
To understand JSTOR use requires a general sense of how social scientists seek and use scholarly information. In practice, social scientists apply five main search strategies. First, social scientists use library catalogs. Broadbent (1986) found that 69% of a sample of historians used a card catalog when seeking information, while Lougee, Sandler, and Parker (1990) found that 97% of a sample of social scientists used a card catalog. Second, journal articles are a primary mechanism for communication among social scientists (Garvey 1979; Garvey, Lin, and Nelson 1970). For example, in a study of social science faculty at a large state university, Stenstrom and McBride (1979) found that a majority of the social scientists used citations in articles to locate information. Third, social scientists use indexes and specialty publications to locate information. As an illustration, Stenstrom and McBride found that 55% of social scientists in their sample reported at least occasional use of subject bibliographies, and 50% reported at least occasional use of abstracting journals. Similarly, Olsen (1994) found that in a sample of sociologists, 37.5% reported regular use of annual reviews. Fourth, social scientists browse library shelves. For instance, Lougee et al. and Broadbent both found that social scientists preferred to locate materials by browsing shelves. Sabine and Sabine (1986) found that 20% of a sample of faculty library users reported locating their most recently accessed journal via browsing. On a related note, Stenstrom and McBride found that social scientists used departmental libraries more heavily than the general university library. Finally, social scientists rely on the advice of colleagues and students. For example, various studies show that colleagues have particular value when searching for a specific piece of information (Stenstrom and McBride; Broadbent; Simpson 1988). Also, students working on research projects often locate background material that social scientists find useful (Olsen; Simpson). Simi-
larly, faculty report a valuable but infrequent role for librarians in seeking information (Stenstrom and McBride; Broadbent; Lougee et al.).
Computer-based tools do not figure prominently in the preceding description of how social scientists search for scholarly information. Results from previous studies show that the primary application of digital information technology for social scientists consists of computerized searching, which social scientists do at lower rates than physical scientists but at higher rates than humanists (Lougee et al. 1990; Olsen 1994; Broadbent 1986). Lougee et al. and Olsen both report sparse use of on-line catalogs by social scientists. Evidence of the impact of demographic characteristics on use of digital resources is mixed. For example, Lougee et al. found a negative correlation between age and use of digital information technology, while Stenstrom and McBride (1979) found no correlation. Finally, in a comparison of e-mail use by social scientists and humanists, Olsen found higher use rates among the social scientists, apparently correlated with superior access to technology.
In terms of journal access, previous studies indicate that economics faculty tend to subscribe to more journals than do faculty in other social science disciplines (Simpson 1988; Schuegraf and van Bommel 1994). Journal subscriptions are often associated with membership in a professional society. For example, in their analysis of a liberal arts faculty, Schuegraf and van Bommel found that 40.9% of faculty journal subscriptions-including 12 of the 15 most frequently subscribed-to journals-came with society memberships. Stenstrom and McBride (1979) found that membership-related subscriptions often overlapped with library holdings. However, according to Schuegraf and van Bommel, other personal subscriptions included journals not held in library collections. In terms of journal use, Sabine and Sabine (1986) found that only 4% of faculty in their sample reported reading the entire contents of journals, while 9% reported reading single articles, and 87% reported reading only small parts, such as abstracts. Similarly, at least among a sample of sociologists, Olsen (1994) found that all respondents reported using abstracts to determine whether to read an article. Having found a relevant article, faculty often make copies. For instance, Sabine and Sabine found that 47% of their respondents had photocopied the most recently read journal article, Simpson found that 60% of sampled faculty reported "always" making copies, and all the sociologists in Olsen's sample reported copying important articles.
Goals of this Study
The research described above consists of work conducted prior to the advent of the World Wide Web and widespread access to the Internet. Several recent studies suggest that Internet use can change scholarly practice (Finholt and Olson 1997; Hesse, Sproull, and Kiesler 1993; Walsh and Bayma 1997; Carley and Wendt 1991). However, most of these studies focused on physical scientists. A key goal of this study is to create a snapshot of the effect of Internet use on social scientists,
specifically baseline use of JSTOR. Therefore, the sections that follow will address core questions about the behavior of JSTOR users, including: (1) how faculty searched for information; (2) which faculty used JSTOR; (3) how journals were used; (4) how the Internet was used; and (5) how journal use and Internet use correlated with JSTOR use.
The population for this study consisted of the history and economics faculty at the University of Michigan and at five liberal arts colleges: Bryn Mawr College, Denison University, Haverford College, Swarthmore College, and Williams College. History and economics faculty were targeted because the initial JSTOR selections drew on ten journals, reflecting five core journals in each of these disciplines. The institutions were selected based on their status as Andrew W. Mellon Foundation grant recipients for the JSTOR project.
Potential respondents were identified from the roster of full-time history and economics faculty at each institution. With the permission of the respective department chairs at each school, faculty were invited to participate in the JSTOR study by completing a questionnaire. No incentives were offered for respondents, and participation was voluntary. Respondents were told that answers would be confidential, but not anonymous due to plans for matching responses longitudinally. The resulting sample contained 161 respondents representing a response rate of 61%. In this sample, 46% of the respondents were economists, 76% were male, and 48% worked at the University of Michigan. The average respondent was 47.4 years old and had a Ph.D. granted in 1979.
Design and Procedure
Respondents completed a 52-item questionnaire with questions on journal use, computer use, attitudes toward computing, information search behavior, demographic characteristics, and JSTOR use. Respondents had the choice of completing this questionnaire via a telephone interview, via the Web, or via a hard-copy version. Questionnaires were administered to faculty at the five liberal arts colleges and to the faculty at the University of Michigan in the spring of 1996.
Journal Use Journal use was assessed in four ways. First, respondents reported how they traditionally accessed the journal titles held in JSTOR, choosing from: no use; at the library; through a paid subscription; or through a subscription received with membership in a professional society. Second, respondents ranked the journals they used in order of frequency of use for a maximum of ten journals. For each of these journals, respondents indicated whether they had a personal subscription to the journal. Third, respondents described their general use of
journals in terms of the frequency of browsing journal contents, photocopying journal contents, saving journal contents, putting journal contents on reserve, or passing journal contents along to colleagues (measured on a 5-point scale, where 1 = never, 2 = rarely, 3 = sometimes, 4 = frequently, and 5 = always). Finally, respondents indicated the sections of journals they used, including the table of contents, article abstracts, articles, book reviews, reference lists, and editorials.
Computer Use Computer use was assessed in three ways. First, respondents described their computer systems in terms of the type of computer (laptop versus desktop), the computer family (e.g., Apple versus DOS), the specific model (e.g., PowerPC), and the operating system (e.g., Windows 95). Second, respondents reported their level of use via a direct network connection (e.g., Ethernet) of the World Wide Web, e-mail, databases, on-line library catalogs, and FTP (measured on a 5-point scale, where 1 = never, 2 = 2-3 times per year, 3 = monthly, 4 = weekly, and 5 = daily). Finally, respondents reported their level of use via a modem connection of the Web, e-mail, databases, on-line library catalogs, and FTP (using the same scale as above).
Attitudes toward Computing Attitudes toward computing were assessed by respondents' reported level of agreement with statements about personal computer literacy, computer literacy relative to others, interest in computers, the importance of computers, confusion experienced while using computers, and the importance of programming knowledge (measured on a 5-point scale, where 1 = strongly disagree, 2 = disagree, 3 = neutral, 4 = agree, and 5 = strongly agree).
Information Search Behavior Information search behavior was assessed in three ways. First, respondents indicated their use of general search strategies, including: searching/browsing on-line library catalogs; searching/browsing paper library catalogs; browsing library shelves; searching/browsing on-line indexes; searching/browsing paper indexes; browsing departmental collections; reading citations from articles; and consulting colleagues. Second, respondents described the frequency of literature searches within their own field and the frequency of on-line literature searches within their own field (both measured on a 5-point scale, where 1 = never, 2 = 2-3 times per year, 3 = monthly, 4 = weekly, and 5 = daily). Finally, respondents described the frequency of literature searches outside their field and the frequency of on-line literature searches outside their field (measured on the same 5-point scale used above).
Demographic Characteristics Respondents were asked to provide information on demographic characteristics, including age, sex, disciplinary affiliation, institutional affiliation, highest degree attained, and year of highest degree.
JSTOR Use Finally, JSTOR use was assessed in two ways. First, respondents reported whether they had access to JSTOR. Second, respondents described the
frequency of JSTOR use (measured on a 5-point scale, where 1 = never, 2 = 2-3 times per year, 3 = monthly, 4 = weekly, and 5 = daily).
The data were analyzed to address five core questions related to the impact of JSTOR: (1) how faculty searched for information; (2) which faculty used JSTOR; (3) how journals were used; (4) how the Internet was used; and (5) how journal use and Internet use correlated with JSTOR use.
Table 11.1 summarizes data on how faculty searched for information. The proportion of faculty using the search strategies did not differ significantly by institution or discipline, with the exception of three strategies. First, the proportion of Michigan economists who reported browsing library shelves (46%) was significantly less than the proportion of five-college historians who used this strategy (86%). Second, the proportion of Michigan economists who reported searching card catalogs (14%) was significantly less than the proportion of five-college historians who used this strategy (39%). And finally, the proportion of Michigan economists who reported browsing departmental collections (48%) was significantly greater than the proportion of five-college historians who used this strategy (4%).
Who Used JSTOR
Overall, 67% of the faculty did not use JSTOR, 14% used JSTOR once a year, 11% used JSTOR once a month, and 8% used JSTOR once a week. None of the faculty used JSTOR daily. Table 11.2 summarizes JSTOR frequency of use by type of institution and discipline. A comparison of use by type of institution shows a higher proportion of JSTOR users at the five colleges (42%) than at the University of Michigan (27%). A further breakdown by discipline shows that the five college economists had the highest proportion of users (46%), followed by the Michigan economists (40%), the five-college historians (39%), and the Michigan historians (16%). One way to put JSTOR use into perspective is to compare this activity with similar, more familiar on-line activities, such as literature searching. Overall, 21% of the faculty did not do on-line searches, 25% searched once a year, 25% searched once a month, 25% searched once a week, and 4% searched daily. Table 11.3 summarizes data on the frequency of on-line searching by type of institution and discipline for the same faculty described in Table 11.2. A comparison of on-line searching by type of institution shows a higher proportion of on-line searchers at the five colleges (85%) than at the University of Michigan (76%). A further breakdown by discipline shows that the five-college economists had the highest proportion of searchers (89%), followed by the five-college historians (82%), and the Michigan economists and historians (both 76%).
Figure 11.1 shows a plot of the cumulative percentage of faculty per institution who used JSTOR and who did on-line searches versus the frequency of these activities. For example, looking at the values plotted on the y-axis against the "Monthly" category shows that over three times as many Michigan faculty searched once a month or more (51%) compared with those who used JSTOR at least once a month (15%). Similarly, over two times as many of the five-college faculty searched once a month or more (62%) compared with those who used JSTOR at least once a month (25%). A further breakdown by discipline shows that
over twice as many of the five-college economists searched once a month or more (73%) than used JSTOR at least once a month (31%), that over six times as many of the Michigan historians searched once a month or more (54%) than used JSTOR at least once a month (8%), that over twice as many of the five-college historians searched once a month or more (50%) than used JSTOR at least once a month (21%), and that over twice as many of the Michigan economists searched once a month or more (48%) than used JSTOR at least once a month (23%).
Table 11.4 summarizes how faculty used features of journals. Across all journal features, patterns of use were similar except in two areas. First, the proportion of Michigan historians who used article abstracts (31%) was significantly smaller than the proportion of Michigan economists (81%), five-college economists (89%), and five-college historians (61%) who used abstracts. Second, the proportion of Michigan economists who used book reviews (49%) was significantly smaller than the proportion of five-college historians (100%), Michigan historians (98%), and five college economists (85%) who used book reviews.
Overall, faculty in the sample reported that they regularly used 8.7 journals, that they subscribed to 4.1 of these journals, and that 2.2 of these journals were also in JSTOR. Table 11.5 summarizes journal use by institution and discipline. There were no significant differences in the number of journals used across institution and discipline, although Michigan historians reported using the most journals (8.9). There were also no significant differences across institution and discipline in the number of paid journal subscriptions among the journals used, although again Michigan historians reported having the most paid subscriptions (4.6). There was a significant difference in the number of journals used regularly by the economists that were also titles in JSTOR (M = 2.9) compared with those used by the historians ([M = 1.7], t  = 5.71, p < .01).
Further examination of differences in use of journals shows a much greater consensus among the economists about the importance of the economics journals in JSTOR than among the historians about the history journals in JSTOR. For example, Table 11.6 shows the economists' ranking in order of use of the five economics journals chosen for JSTOR. The American Economic Review was cited among the top ten most frequently used journals by over 75% of both the Michigan and the five-college economists; the Journal of Political Economy was cited
among the top ten by over 60% of both the Michigan and the five-college economists; and the Quarterly Journal of Economics and the Review of Economics and Statistics were cited among the top ten by over 50% of the Michigan economists and by over 40% of the five-college economists. By contrast, Table 11.7 shows the historians' ranking in order of use of the five history journals chosen for JSTOR. The American Historical Review was cited among the top ten most frequently used journals by over 60% of both the Michigan and the five-college historians. However, none of the other four journals were used by a majority of the historians at Michigan or at the five colleges.
Overall, faculty reported weekly use of e-mail (M = 4.3), monthly use of on-line catalogs (M = 3.2) and the Web (M = 3.0), and two or three uses per year of FTP (M = 2.3) and on-line database (M = 2.1). Table 11.8 summarizes the use of these Internet applications by institution and discipline. In terms of e-mail use, Michigan historians (M = 3.3) were significantly lower than the Michigan economists (M = 4.9), the five-college economists (M = 5.0), and the five-college historians (M = 4.7). In terms of World Wide Web use, Michigan historians (M = 1.8) were significantly lower than everyone, while the five-college historians (M = 2.9) were significantly lower than the five-college economists (M = 4.2) and the Michigan economists (M = 3.9). In terms of FTP use, the Michigan historians (M = 1.4) and the five-college historians (M = 1.7) differed significantly from the Michigan economists (M = 3.4) and the five-college economists (M = 2.7). In terms of on-line database use, the Michigan historians (M = 1.6) were significantly lower than the five-college economists (M = 2.9). Faculty did not differ significantly in terms of on-line catalog use.
The Relationship of Journal and Internet Use to JSTOR Use
Examination of the frequency of JSTOR use among faculty aware of JSTOR (n = 78) showed that 58% of the respondents had varying levels of use, while 42% reported no use. Using the frequency of JSTOR use as the dependent variable, the faculty who reported no use were censored on the dependent variable. The standard zero, lower-bound tobit model was designed for this circumstance (Tobin 1958). Most important, by adjusting for censoring, the tobit model allows inclusion of negative cases in the analysis of variation in frequency of use among positive cases, which greatly enhances degrees of freedom. Therefore, hierarchical tobit regression analyses were used to examine the influence of demographic characteristics, journal use, search preferences, Internet use, and attitude toward computing on the frequency of JSTOR use. Independent variables used in these analyses were selected on the basis of significance in univariate tobit regressions
on the frequency of use variable. Table 11.9 summarizes the independent variables used in the multiple tobit regression analyses.
Table 11.10 summarizes the results of the hierarchical tobit regression of demographic, journal use, search preference, Internet use, and computing attitude variables on frequency of JSTOR use. The line second from the bottom in Table 11.10 summarizes the log likelihood score for each model. Analysis of the change in log likelihood score between adjacent models gives a measure of the significance of independent variables added to the model. For example, in Model 1, the addition of the demographic variables failed to produce a significant change in the log likelihood score compared to the null model. By contrast, in Model 2, the addition of journal use variables produced a significant change in the log likelihood score compared to Model 1-suggesting that the addition of the journal
use variables improved the fit in Model 2 over Model 1. Similarly, the addition of search variables in Model 3 and of Internet use variables in Model 4 both produced significant improvements in fit, but the addition of the computer attitude variable in Model 5 did not. Therefore, Model 4 was selected as the best model. From Model 4, the coefficients for gender, article copying, abstract reading, and searching on-line catalogs are all positive and significant. These results suggest that, controlling for other factors, men were 0.77 points higher on frequency of JSTOR use than were women, that there was a 0.29-point increase in the frequency of JSTOR use for every point increase in the frequency of article copying, that faculty who read article abstracts were 0.82 points higher on frequency of JSTOR use than were faculty who didn't read abstracts, and that there was a 1.13point increase in the frequency of JSTOR use for every point increase in the frequency of on-line catalog searching. From Model 4, the coefficients for affiliation with an economics department and the number of paid journal subscriptions are both negative and significant. These results suggest that, controlling for other factors, economists were 0.88 points lower on frequency of JSTOR use than were historians and that there was a 0.18-point decrease in frequency of JSTOR use for every unit increase in the number of paid journal subscriptions.
This study addressed five questions related to the preliminary impact of JSTOR: (1) how faculty searched for information; (2) which faculty used JSTOR; (3) how journals were used; (4) how the Internet was used; and (5) how journal use and Internet use correlated with JSTOR use.
Summary of Findings
In terms of how faculty searched for information, results were consistent with earlier findings reported in the literature. Specifically, a strong majority of the faculty reported relying on citations from related publications, on colleagues, on electronic catalogs, and on browsing library shelves when seeking information. Faculty did not differ dramatically in selection of search strategies, except that Michigan
economists were less likely to browse library shelves and less likely to search card catalogs.
In terms of JSTOR use, Michigan faculty were less likely to know about JSTOR than were the five-college faculty, and Michigan faculty were less likely to use JSTOR than were the five-college faculty. These results probably reflected the delayed rollout and availability of JSTOR at Michigan. Economists were more likely to use JSTOR than historians were. Of the faculty who reported JSTOR use, frequency of use did not differ dramatically from frequency of use of a related, more traditional technology: on-line searching. That is, 58% of the faculty who used JSTOR said they used JSTOR once a month or more, while 69% of the faculty who did on-line searches reported doing searches once a month or more. Note, however, that over twice as many faculty reported doing on-line searches (75%) as reported use of JSTOR (33%).
In terms of journal use, faculty did not vary greatly in their use of journal features, except that Michigan historians were less likely to use article abstracts and that Michigan economists were less likely to use book reviews. Economists and historians did not differ in the total number of journals used; however, there was greater consensus among the economists about core journals. Specifically, two of the five economics titles included in JSTOR (the American Economic Review and the Journal of Political Economy ) were cited among the top 10 most frequently used journals by a majority of the economists, while four of the five titles (the two mentioned above plus the Quarterly Journal of Economics and the Review of Economics and Statistics ) were cited among the top 10 most frequently used journals by a majority of the Michigan economists. By contrast, only one of the five history titles included in JSTOR (the American Historical Review ) was cited among the top 10 most frequently used journals by a majority of the historians.
In terms of Internet use, the Michigan historians lagged their colleagues in economics at Michigan and the five-college faculty. For example, the Michigan historians reported less use of e-mail, the World Wide Web, FTP, and on-line databases than did the other faculty. The economists were more likely to use FTP and more likely to use the World Wide Web than the historians were. Faculty used online catalogs at similar rates.
In terms of factors correlated with JSTOR use, the tobit regressions showed that a model including demographic factors, journal use factors, search factors, and Internet use factors offered the best fit to the data on frequency of JSTOR use. The addition of the computer attitude variable did not improve the fit of this model. In the best fit model, gender, article copying, abstract reading, and searching on-line catalogs were all positively and significantly related to frequency of JSTOR use. Also from the best fit model, affiliation with an economics department and greater numbers of journal subscriptions were negatively and significantly related to frequency of JSTOR use.
Limitations of the Study
These data represent a snapshot of faculty response to JSTOR at an extremely early stage in the evolution of the JSTOR system. In the spring of 1996, JSTOR had been available to the five-college faculty for less than six months, while at Michigan, the system had not yet been officially announced to faculty. Therefore, the results probably underestimate eventual use of the mature JSTOR system. Further, as a survey study, self-reports of use were crude compared to measures that could have been derived from actual behavior. For example, it was intended to match use reports with automated usage statistics from the JSTOR Web servers, but the usage statistics proved too unreliable. Another problem was that the survey contained no items on the frequency of traditional journal use. Therefore, it is unknown whether the low use of JSTOR reported by the faculty reflected dissatisfaction with the technology or simply a low base rate for journal use. Finally, the faculty at Michigan and at the five colleges were atypical in the extent of their access to the Internet and in the modernity of their computing equipment. Faculty with older computers and slower network links would probably be even less likely to use JSTOR.
Implications for the JSTOR Experiment
Although extremely preliminary, these early data suggest trends that merit further exploration as JSTOR expands. First, it is encouraging to discover that among faculty who have used JSTOR, rates of use are already comparable to rates for use of on-line searching-a technology that predates JSTOR by two decades. It will be interesting to see if JSTOR use grows beyond this modest level to equal the use of key Internet applications, like e-mail and Web browsing. Second, there appear to be clear differences in journal use across disciplinary lines. For example, economists focus attention on a smaller set of journals than is the case in history. Therefore, it may be easier to satisfy demand for on-line access to back archives in fields that have one or two flagship journals than in more diverse fields where scholarly attention is divided among dozens of journals. This conclusion may lead commercial providers of back archive content to ignore more diverse disciplines at the expense of easier-to-service, focused disciplines. Finally, the negative correlation between the number of journal subscriptions and JSTOR use suggests the possibility of a substitution effect (i.e., JSTOR for paper). However, the significance of this correlation is difficult to determine, since there is no way to know the direction of causality in a cross-sectional study.
Preparation of this article was supported by a grant to the University of Michigan from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. JSTOR is the proprietary product of JSTOR, a nonprofit
corporation dedicated to provision of digital access to the back archives of scholarly journals. For more information, please consult www.jstor.org.
We gratefully acknowledge the assistance of Kristin Garlock, Marcia Heringa, Christina Maresca, William Mott, Sherry Piontek, Tony Ratanaproeksa, Blake Sloan, and Melissa Stucki in gathering the data for this study. Also, we thank Ann Bishop, Joan Durrance, Kristin Garlock, Kevin Guthrie, Wendy Lougee, Sherry Piontek, Sarah Sully, and the participants of The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Scholarly Communication and Technology Conference for comments on earlier drafts. Finally, we thank the history and economics faculty of Bryn Mawr College, Denison University, Haverford College, Swarthmore College, the University of Michigan, and Williams College for their patience and cooperation as participants in this research.
Requests for copies should be sent to: (1) Thomas Finholt, Collaboratory for Research on Electronic Work, C-2420 701 Tappan Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1234; or (2) email@example.com.
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