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Notes

INTRODUCTION— THE DESTINIES OF HYSTERIA

1. See Jan Goldstein, Console and Classify: The French Psychiatric Profession in the Nineteenth Century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988). [BACK]

2. See H. Ellenberger, The Discovery of the Unconscious: The History and Evolution of Dynamic Psychiatry (New York: Basic Books, 1962); Ellenberger was, not ironically, one of the principal reviewers of Veith's book (see n. 3). [BACK]

3. These are the two mentioned, and there have been no histories of hysteria since 1900. The last one in French before Trillat's was G. Abricossoff's L'hysterie aux 17 et 18 siècles (Paris: G. Steinhill, 1897). Of interest here is Trillat's brief but valuable discussion of the methodological issues involved in writing the traditional history of hysteria; see E. Trillat, "Trois itinéraires a travers I'histoire de l'hysterie," Historie des Sciences Médicales 21 (1987): 27-31.

4. An idea of the disciplinary milieu among medical historians in which Veith wrote is gained by consulting Edwin Clarke, ed., Modern Methods in the History of Medicine (London: Athlone, 1971), who wrote before the ideologies of class, race, and gender held any sway in the history of medicine—his plea was for a balance between medical training and knowledge of history, but it was a nominalistic, realistic history of persons, places, and things in which gender and sex, class and race, language and representation, played a small role. Another contemporary approach not very different from Veith's is found in I. Macalpine and Richard Hunter, George III and the Mad Business (New York: Pantheon Books, 1969), which sheds further light on the discipline of the history of medicine at the time and the epistemological problems involved in the perception of writing the history of madness during the 1960s. For the historiography of medicine, itself a scant discourse in the last half century, and as it would have appeared in the mindset of scholars like Veith and others of her generation, see R. H. Shyrock, "The Historian Looks at Medicine," Bulletin of the History of Medicine 5 (1937): 887-894; G. Rosen, "A Theory of Medical Historiography," ibid., 8 (1940):655-665; idem, "Levels of Integration in Medical Historiography," Journal of the History of Medicine 4 (1949): 460-467; George Mora, Psychiatry and Its History: Methodological Problems in Research (Springfield, Mass.: C. C. Thomas, 1970), works that represent a portion of the methodological atmosphere in which Veith wrote. [BACK]

3. These are the two mentioned, and there have been no histories of hysteria since 1900. The last one in French before Trillat's was G. Abricossoff's L'hysterie aux 17 et 18 siècles (Paris: G. Steinhill, 1897). Of interest here is Trillat's brief but valuable discussion of the methodological issues involved in writing the traditional history of hysteria; see E. Trillat, "Trois itinéraires a travers I'histoire de l'hysterie," Historie des Sciences Médicales 21 (1987): 27-31.

4. An idea of the disciplinary milieu among medical historians in which Veith wrote is gained by consulting Edwin Clarke, ed., Modern Methods in the History of Medicine (London: Athlone, 1971), who wrote before the ideologies of class, race, and gender held any sway in the history of medicine—his plea was for a balance between medical training and knowledge of history, but it was a nominalistic, realistic history of persons, places, and things in which gender and sex, class and race, language and representation, played a small role. Another contemporary approach not very different from Veith's is found in I. Macalpine and Richard Hunter, George III and the Mad Business (New York: Pantheon Books, 1969), which sheds further light on the discipline of the history of medicine at the time and the epistemological problems involved in the perception of writing the history of madness during the 1960s. For the historiography of medicine, itself a scant discourse in the last half century, and as it would have appeared in the mindset of scholars like Veith and others of her generation, see R. H. Shyrock, "The Historian Looks at Medicine," Bulletin of the History of Medicine 5 (1937): 887-894; G. Rosen, "A Theory of Medical Historiography," ibid., 8 (1940):655-665; idem, "Levels of Integration in Medical Historiography," Journal of the History of Medicine 4 (1949): 460-467; George Mora, Psychiatry and Its History: Methodological Problems in Research (Springfield, Mass.: C. C. Thomas, 1970), works that represent a portion of the methodological atmosphere in which Veith wrote. [BACK]

5. For medicine and metaphor see Susan Sontag, Illness as Metaphor (New York: Random House, 1979); C. M. Anderson, Richard Selzer and the Rhetoric of Surgery (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1989); P. Radestsky, The Invisible Invaders: The Story of the Emerging Age of Viruses (New York: Little, Brown [BACK]

6. The newer approaches had been anticipated in the 1960s by E. L. Entralgo in Doctor and Patient (London: Weidenfeld & Nicholson, 1969); but see also C. Webster, "Medicine as Social History: Changing Ideas on Doctors and Patients in the Age of Shakespeare," in A Celebration of Medical History , ed. L. Stevenson (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1982); Roy and Dorothy Porter, Patient's Progress: Doctors and Doctoring in Eighteenth Century England (Oxford: Polity Press, 1989); Roy and Dorothy Porter, In Sickness and in Health: The British Experience, 1650-1850 (London: Fourth Estate, 1988); Roy Porter, Health for Sale: Quackery in England, 166o-1850 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1989). [BACK]

7. For the broad historical approach, see G. S. Rousseau, ed., The Languages of Psyche: Mind and Body in Enlightenment Thought (Berkeley, Los Angeles, Oxford: University of California Press, 1990). [BACK]

8. The most thorough historical background remains Goldstein's Console and Classify , but another good place to start, within the realm of theory, is the diverse discourse of post-Lacanian feminist theory as found in E. Grosz, Jacques Lacan: A Feminist Introduction (New York: Routledge, Chapman & Hall, 1990); E. Pagels, Adam, Eve and the Serpent (New York: Vintage Books, 1989); C. J. Adams, The Sexual Politics of Meat (Oxford: Polity Press, 1990), themselves immensely diverse and astute and linked only by their concern for the female plight in the world of poststructuralism and postmodernism. An important statement of the epistemological problems involved is found in In Dora's Case: Freud Hysteria Feminism , ed. C. K. Bernheimer and Claire Kahane (New York: Columbia University Press, 1985). For iconography and hysteria, see H. Speert, Iconographia Gyniatrica: A Pictorial History of Gynecology and Obstetrics (New York: Macmillan, 1973); for feminism and Freud, D. Silverman, Art Nouveau in Fin-de-Siècle France: Politics, Psychology, and Style (Berkeley, Los Angeles, Oxford: University of California Press, 1989). An approach to some of these problems grounded in Romantic literature is found in D. L. Hoeveler, Romantic Androgyny: The Woman Within (University Park, Pa.: Penn State University Press, 1990). [BACK]

9. For language and social history as they impinge on the discourses of hysteria and on various theories of medicine, see G. S. Rousseau, "Towards a Semiotics of the Nerve: The Social History of Language in a New Key," in Language, Self, and Society: A Social History of Language , ed. Peter Burke and Roy Porter (Oxford: Polity Press, 1991), 213-275; Rousseau, "Literature and Medicine: The State of the Field," Isis 52 (1981): 406-424. [BACK]

10. Illuminating for bringing together many of the ideas of these theorists is E. Grosz, Sexual Subversions: Three French Feminists (Sydney, Boston: Allen & Unwin, 1989). [BACK]

11. As evidenced in the wide attention given to this juncture in contemporary psychoanalytic literature and in the contemporary journal Literature and Medicine as well as in such books (chronologically arranged and a mere sampling) as J. B. Lyons, James Joyce and Medicine (Dublin: Dolmen Press, 1973); R. Antonioli, Rabelais et la medecine (Geneva: Dros, 1976); E. Peschel, Medicine and Literature (New York: Neale Watson Academic Publications, 1980); S. S. Lanser, "Feminist Criticism, 'The Yellow Wallpaper,' and the Politics of Color in America," Feminist Studies 15 (1989): 415-441; T. Caramagno, Virginia Woolf (Berkeley, Los Angeles, Oxford: University of California Press, 1991), a study of her depression and mental maladies; R. Lutz, Neurasthenia (New York: 1991). For more popular statements about the real and representational affinities of the two realms, see I. McGilchrist, "Disease and the Novel, 1880-1960," TLS , January 17, 1986: 61, and Leon Edel, "Disease and the Novel," TLS , May 30, 1986:591, contributions to a debate on the subject. [BACK]

12. However significant the Darwinian metaphors of rise and fall, evolution and flow, are in this context, they are less vital than the social construction of hysteria. Indeed, the debate between social constructionists and realists or essentialists has reached epic proportions, as group after group decodes the strengths of each method, some coming down on the side of the one, some on the other, and some (such as John Boswell, the Yale historian of homosexuality in early modern civilization) for a blending of the two. But the politics of representation also pose crucial questions: do we choose our representations because they are power-influenced and thereby capable of enhancing our own positions (as Michel Foucault argued) or because they are in some abstract ontological sense true (as in the ongoing current debates in the newly developing field of literature and science)? The antagonisms of realism and social constructionism have emerged as a field in itself, posing new problems for the decade of multiculturalism, and not without genuine implications for the construction of the category hysteria. For anticipations of the debate in both medicine and philosophy, see P. Wright and A. Treacher, eds., The Problem of Medical Knowledge: Examining the Social Construction of Medicine (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1982); O. Moscucci, The Science of Woman: Gynecology and Gender in England 1800-1929 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990); C. E. Russett, Sexual Science: The Victorian Construction of Womanhood (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1989); I. Paperno, Chernyshevsky and the Age of Realism: A Study in the Semiotics of Behavior (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1989); J. Leplin, ed., Scientific Realism (Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press, 1984); D. F. Greenberg, The Construction of Homosexuality (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989). [BACK]

13. An essential task of this book, for example, is the charting of these gains and losses in some detail during the centuries that form the basis of modern European culture from the Renaissance to the end of the Enlightenment, vital epochs whose medicine, and certainly whose hysteria, have been discussed much less than they deserve. [BACK]

14. One corrective to this historically false view is found in the important work of Jan Goldstein; see especially her Console and Classify . [BACK]

15. The "mechanical revolution" has profited from three decades of superior scholarship, but the study of the "nervous revolution" continues to lie in a more primitive state within the history of science and medicine. It has been the subject of recent scholarship among neurochemists, neurophysiologists, medical historians, and historians of science; for a comprehensive statement of the problem see G. S. Rousseau, "Cultural History in a New Key: Towards a Semiotics of the Nerve," in Interpretation in Cultural History , ed. Joan Pittock and Andrew Wear (London: Macmillan, 1991), 25-81; J. Mullan, ''Hypochondria and Hysteria: Sensibility and the Physicians," 25 (1984): 141-177; within the history of ideas, M. Kallich, The Association of Ideas and Critical Theory in Eighteenth Century England (The Hague: Mouton, 1970); M. H. Abrams, The Mirror and the Lamp: Romantic Theory and the Critical Tradition (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1953); for the Victorians, J. Oppenheim, " Shattered Nerves": Doctors, Patients, and Depression in Victorian England (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991). [BACK]

16. These consistencies and contradictions, and their particular cultural and historical appearances, form one of the central themes of this book. They constitute a further reason that we do not claim to write here primarily as "historians of medicine" but as students of the intersection of discourse and culture. For aspects of this intersection see S. Benstock, Textualizing the Feminine: On the Limits of Genre (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991); and Timothy Reiss, The Discourse of Modernism (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1982). [BACK]

17. For an example of what the abstract point means for the practicing historian, see Londa Schiebinger, The Mind Has No Sex? Women in the Origins of Modern Science (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1989). [BACK]

18. Another example proceeding in this careful philological manner for the Middle Ages is the work of Caroline Bynum in Holy Feast and Holy Fast: The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval Women (Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press, 1987); idem, Gender and Religion: On the Complexity of Symbols (Boston: Beacon Press, 1986). [BACK]

19. For these later inventions see Simon Bennett, M.D., Mind and Madness in Ancient Greece (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1978); L. F. Calmeil, De la folie considerée sous le point de vue pathologique, philosophique, historique et judiciare (Paris: Bailliére, 1845); an anonymous work attributed to "a society of physicians in London" and published as "Medical Observations and Inquiries," Critical Review , June 1757: 540-541, 544-545; L. M. Danforth, Firewalking and Religious Healing: The Anastenaria of Greece and the American Firewalking Movement (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1990). [BACK]

20. For the two-body model see Laqueur, Making Sex ; for Newtonianism and medicine, see three books by L. King: The Medical Worm of the Eighteenth Century (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1958); The Road to Medical Enlightenment , 1660-1695 (London: Macdonald, 1970); The Philosophy of Medicine: The Early Eighteenth Century (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1978), esp. pp. 152-181. For the philosophical issues involved in sexuality in general and their relation to historicism and social construction, see A. I. Davidson, "Sex and the Emergence of Sexuality," Critical Inquiry 11 (1987): 17-48. [BACK]

21. For the eighteenth-century debate on female gender in relation to functioning society see: P. Hoffmann, La femme dans la pensée des Lumières (Paris: Ophrys, 1977); D. Spender, ed., Feminist Theorists: Three Centuries of Key Women Thinkers (New York: Pantheon Books, 1983); B. Hill, Women, Work and Sexual Politics in 18th-Century England 1990); L. Schiebinger, The Mind Has No Sex? Women in the Origins of Modern Science (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1989); Moscucci, Science of Woman ; B. S. Anderson et al., A History of Their Own: Women in Europe from Prehistory to the Present (New York: Harper & Row, 1988). [BACK]

22. Valid as the reinvigoration was, there is no mention of hysteria in some of the classic interpretations of the period, for example in P. Gay's The Enlightenment: An Interpretation , 2 vols. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1966-69), which devotes much space to medicine. The canvas painted by Gay and other synthetic historians of the Enlightenment provides a further reason for our revisionist treatment. [BACK]

23. Although there is no such subgenre as the historiography of Sydenham studies, it is clear that over a century ago Sydenham's significance for hysteria was intuited but not demonstrated; see J. Brown, M.D., Horae Subsecivae: Locke and Sydenham and Other Papers (Edinburgh: David Douglas, 1890). [BACK]

24. An early anticipation of this approach within the British tradition is found in Alexander Thomson, An Enquiry into the Nature, Causes, and Method of Cure, of Nervous Disorders (London, 1781); an example of the commonly found physiological dissertation in France is H. Girard, Considerations physiologiques et pathologiques sur les affections nerveuses, dites hysteriques (Paris, 1841). [BACK]

25. See G. Didi-Huberman, Invention de l'Hysterie: Charcot et l'Iconographie Photographique (Paris: Macula, 1982); useful as this work is, it lacks the sweep and erudition of Sander Gilman's chapter concluding this book. [BACK]

26. Paris: Hachette, 1970; trans. in 1968 as The Fear of Women (New York: Grune & Stratton, 1968). [BACK]

27. See White's influential essay "The Forms of Wildness: Archaeology of an Idea—Noble Savage as Fetish," in The Wild Man Within: An Image in Western Thought from the Renaissance to Romanticism , ed. E. Dudley and M. E. Novak (Pittsburgh, Pa.: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1972), 3-38. [BACK]

28. An important exception is Jan Goldstein's work, especially as found in "The Hysteria Diagnosis and the Politics of Anticlericalism in Late Nineteenth-Century France," Journal of Modern History 54 (1982): 209-239, and her Console and Classify ; T. Laqueur's "Orgasm, Generation and the Politics of Reproductive Biology," Representations 14 (1986): 1-14. The matter is further substantiated bibliographically in the thorough researches of M. Micale, referred to in many of the chapters of this book. [BACK]

29. Others who helped retrieve these lost voices include: Patricia Fedikew, "Marguerite Duras: Feminine Field of Hysteria," Enclitic 6 (1982): 78-86; Bernheimer and Kahane, eds., In Dora's Case ; Terry Castle, "Learned Ladies," TLS , December 14-20, 1990: 1345-1346. [BACK]

30. These traditions of learning are brought together in Rousseau, ed., Languages of Psyche . [BACK]

31. Porter's discussion should be complemented with the important writings on nineteenth-century hysteria of Mark Micale. [BACK]

32. Some of the theoretical cruxes have been addressed in the controversies surrounding Richard Rorty and his influential book Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1980), and others such as G. Levine, ed., One Culture: Essays in Science and Literature (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1987); the problem of metaphor in both the realist and representative domains by M. B. Hesse, Models and Analogies in Science (Notre Dame: University of Indiana Press, 1966); The Structure of Scientific Inference (Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press, 1974); idem, "Habermas, Foucault, and Metaphor in Science," Proceedings of the Von Leer Institute of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem (1992, Jerusalem). But see also an important statement by Hayden White, "Historical Emplotments and the Problem of Truth," presented to the Conference on the Holocaust, University of California, Los Angeles, 1990; and for the role of representation as a presiding category in contemporary sensibility, J. F. Lyotard, The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1984). [BACK]

33. See S. Gilman, Seeing the Insane (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1982); Difference and Pathology: Stereotypes of Sexuality, Race, and Madness (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1985); Disease and Representation: Images of Illness from Madness to Aids (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1988), as well as many articles and reviews. [BACK]

34. One can imagine Hans Mayer listening to the list of these pariahs and reconsidering his omission of hysterics from his brilliant study of the representation of the outsider; see his Outsiders: A Study in Life and Letters (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1984). [BACK]

35. If William McGrath's evidence is correct about the politics of hysteria, we may have enhanced the validity of our work by this exclusion rather than harmed it; see W. J. McGrath, Freud's Discovery of Psychoanalysis: The Politics of Hysteria (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1986). [BACK]

36. For another form of deconstruction, see McGrath, Freud's Discovery . [BACK]

37. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1990. [BACK]

38. See Mark S. Micale, "Hysteria and Its Historiography: A Review of Past and Present Writings," History of Science 27 (September, December, 1989): 223-262; 319-351; idem, "Hysteria and Its Historiography: The Future Perspective," History of Psychiatry 1 (March, 1990): 33-124; idem, "Charcot and the Idea of Hysteria in the Male: Gender, Mental Science, and Medical Diagnosis in Late Nineteenth-Century France,'' Medical History 34 (1990): 363-411; and idem, "Hysteria Male/Hysteria Female: Reflections on Comparative Gender Construction in Nineteenth-Century France and Britain" in Science and Sensibility: Gender and Scientific Enquiry, 1780-1945 , ed. Marina Benjamin, (Oxford, Basil Blackwell, 1991), 200-239. [BACK]

39. As evidence we again suggest that the reader consult Goldstein's Console and Classify for evidence of what the post-Foucaldian methodology does in practice. [BACK]

One— Once upon a Text: Hysteria from Hippocrates

Many of the ancient writers cited here—for example, Hesiod, Martial, and Plato—are easily accessible in translation. Where no particular edition is specified, the Loeb Classical Library version may be used. This gives the ancient text with an English translation on the facing page.

The medical writers are less readily available to the general reader. In particular, few of the relevant works of the Hippocratic corpus have been translated into English. In the interests of consistency, all texts from the Hippocratic corpus are cited from the standard Greek edition with French translation of E. Littré, Oeuvres completes d'Hippocrate , 10 vols. (Paris: Baillière, 1839-61), abbreviated L. References are given in the form L volume.page number; for example, L 8.34. The specific locations, in the Littré edition, of the texts used, with the abbreviations used in the notes, are as follows:

Airs, Waters, Places , L 2.12-93
Aphorisms , L 4.458-609
Coan Prognoses , L 5.588-733
Diseases of Women , L 8.10-463 = DW
Diseases of Young Girls , L 8.466-471
Epidemics 2, L 3.24-149; 6, L 5.266-357 = Ep .
Generation , L 7.470-484 = Gen .
Glands , L 8.556-575
Nature of the Child , L 7.486-538 = NC
On Joints , L 4.78-339
On the Sacred Disease , L 6.352-397
Prorrhetics 1, L 5.510-577


66

Nature of Man , L 6.32-69
Nature of Woman , L 7-312-431 = NW
Places in Man , L 6.276-349
Regimen , L 6.466-637
Regimen in Acute Diseases, Appendix , L 2.394-529 = Acut. Sp .
Superfetation , L 8.476-509

Generation and Nature of the Child are available in an excellent English translation by I. M. Lonie, The Hippocratic Treatises "On Generation," "On the Nature of the Child," "Diseases IV " (Berlin: De Gruyter, 1981). Ann Hanson is preparing an edition and English translation of Diseases of Women for the Corpus Medicorum Graecorum series.

The following abbreviations are used for the works of Artistotle:

GA = Generation of Animals
HA = History of Animals
PA = Parts of Animals
MA = Movement of Animals

The text referred to in the notes as "Ps-Aristotle, On Sterility " is found in the Loeb Classical Library as the tenth book of History of Animals . Its authenticity as a work of Aristotle has long been doubted, although it is possible that it was an early work. It may date to the third century B.C . Ps-Aristotle, Problems is something very different, a collection of questions and answers—on matters ranging from why the old have white hair to why man sneezes more than any other animal—brought together perhaps as late as the fifth century A.D . and, with other works wrongly ascribed to Aristotle such as the Masterpiece , highly popular in the early modern era.

Several medical writers of antiquity are cited in the editions of the Corpus Medicorum Graecorum (hereafter CMG) and the Corpus Medicorum Latinorum (hereafter CML). They are referred to in the form CMG volume number, page.line (e.g., CMG vol. 2, p.34-7).

For the works of Galen, the standard edition remains that of C. G. Kuhn, Claudii Galeni Opera omnia , 20 vols. (Hildeheim: Olms, 1964-5 [reprint of the version of 1821-1833]). References to Galen are given in the form K volume.page (e.g., K 14.176).

1. The dates traditionally assigned to Hippocrates are ca. 460-ca. 370 B.C . Despite a tradition, developed several centuries after his death, claiming to give his biography and family tree, little is known of his life and work. The texts associated with his name—the Hippocratic corpus—cover a period far longer than a lifetime, show wide variations in style and content, and in many cases are "multi-author concoctions": see G. E. R. Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom (Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press, 1987), 132. On the manuscript tradition and assembly of the various treatises into a "Hippocratic corpus," possibly as late as the tenth century A.D ., see in general J. Irigoin, "Tradition manuscrite et histoire du texte: Quelques problèmes relatifs à la Collection Hippocratique," Revue d'histoire des textes 3 (1973): 1-13, with F. Pfaff, "Die Ueberlieferung des Corpus Hippocraticum in der nachalexandrinischen Zeit," Wiener Studien 50 (1932): 67-82. On the papyri so far found which give fragments of Hippocratic texts, see M.-H. Marganne, Inventaire analytique des papyrus grecs de médecine (Geneva: Centre de recherches d'histoire et de philologie de la IV e section, Ecole pratique des Hautes Etudes 3, 12, 1981), updated by A. E. Hanson, ''Papyri of Medical Content," Yale Classical Studies 28 (1985): 25-47. "Genuine Works" comes from the title of Francis Adams's The Genuine Works of Hippocrates (London: Sydenham Society, 1849). Although the search for at least one section of the Hippocratic corpus that can securely be attributed to Hippocrates—the so-called "Hippocratic question," on which see G. E. R. Lloyd, "The Hippocratic Question," Classical Quarterly 25 (1975): 171-192—is no longer the main aim of Hippocratic studies, it still exerts a powerful fascination. Thus, for example, even W. D. Smith, whose discussion in The Hippocratic Tradition (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1979) challenges the dominant paradigm in order to expose the development from the third century B.C . onward of the myth of the life and works of Hippocrates, tries to prove that Regimen is a "genuine work." Shortly after the publication of Smith's Hippocratic Tradition , Mansfeld produced an article arguing the case for another text of the Hippocratic corpus, Airs, Waters, Places —making use of precisely the same evidence as Smith drew on in defense of Regimen . See J. Mansfeld, "Plato and the Method of Hippocrates," Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies 21 (1980): 341-362. [BACK]

2. In 1922 Charles Singer described (imagined?) Hippocrates as "Learned, observant, humane . . . orderly and calm . . . grave, thoughtful and reticent, pure of mind and master of his passions"; see his Greek Biology and Greek Medicine (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1922). The social position of the Hippocratic doctor is best handled by Lloyd in Magic, Reason and Experience (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979); Science, Folklore and Ideology (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983); and Revolutions of Wisdom . Competition was an important social value in the Greek world, seen as a normal part of human activity; see the poet Hesiod, Works and Days 11-20, where "potter vies with potter." This description of preclassical society could be used to suggest that the Hippocratic doctor (Greek iatros ) would normally be in competition not only with mages, purifiers, begging priests, and quacks (literally "deceivers"): for this list see the Hippocratic text On the Sacred Disease 1 (L 6.354-356). [BACK]

3. Dr. Robb, "Hippocrates on Hysteria," Johns Hopkins Hospital Bulletin 3 (1892): 78-79. [BACK]

4. E. Slater, "Diagnosis of 'Hysteria,'" British Medical Journal (1965): 1395-1399; quotation is taken from p. 1396. [BACK]

5. I. Veith, Hysteria: The History of a Disease (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1965), 10. For an appreciation of Veith's considerable contribution to the history of medicine, see Showalter (chap. 4, this volume) and M. Micale, "Hysteria and Its Historiography: A Review of Past and Present Writings (1)," History of Science 27 (1989): 223-261, here pp. 227-228. [BACK]

6. R. A. Woodruff, D. W. Goodwin, and S. B. Guze, "Hysteria (Briquet's Syndrome)" (1974), in Hysteria , ed. A. Roy (Chichester: John Wiley, 1982), 117-129 (quotation, p. 118); P. B. Bart and D. H. Scully, "The Politics of Hysteria: The Case of the Wandering Womb," in Gender and Disordered Behavior: Sex Differences in Psychopathology , ed. E. S. Gomberg and V. Frank (New York: Brunner/Mazel), 354-380 (quotation, p. 354); S. B. Guze, "The Diagnosis of Hysteria: What Are We Trying to Do?" American Journal of Psychiatry 124 (1967): 491-498 (quotations, pp. 491, 493); see also J. Sauri, "La concepcion Hipocratica de la histeria,'' Actas Luso-Espanolas de Neurologia Psiquitria y Ciencias Afinas 1 [4] (1973): 539-546, esp. p. 539. Veith's control of the Greek material is questioned by H. Merskey, "Hysteria: The History of a Disease: Ilza Veith," British Journal of Psychiatry 147 (1985): 576-579. [BACK]

7. R. Satow, "Where Has All the Hysteria Gone?" Psychoanalytic Review 66 (1979/80): 463-477 (quotation, pp. 463-464). [BACK]

8. Sauri, "Concepcion Hipocratica de la histeria," 539-546, following Veith, attributes the belief in a migratory womb to the ancient Egyptians, who were supposed to have exerted a particularly strong influence on the "Cnidian" texts of the Hippocratic corpus; see esp. pp. 540 and 542. The traditional classification of the corpus into "Cnidian" and "Coan," with its suggestion that the Cnidian texts represent an earlier, prerational strand in opposition to the rational medicine of the school of Cos with which Hippocrates was associated, is increasingly seen as an unnecessary complication in the study of Greek medicine. See further R. Joly, Le niveau de la science hippocratique: Contribution à la psychologie de l'histoire des sciences (Paris: Eds Belles Lettres, 1966); I. M. Lonie, "Cos versus Cnidus and the Historians," History of Science 16 (1978): 42-75, 77-92; A. Thivel, Cnide et Cos? Essai sur les doctrines médicales dans la collection hippocratique (Paris: Eds Belles Lettres, 1981). G. R. Wesley, A History of Hysteria (Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1980), 1-8 (which gives Hippocrates "credit for coining this term [hysteria]" but alleges an Egyptian origin for the clinical description; however, by attributing the words of Plato, Timaeus 91c, to the Egyptian Papyrus Ebers he shoots himself in the foot). Lloyd, Science, Folklore and Ideology , 65 n. 21 and 84 n. 100, does not, however, accept the implied link between Egyptian and Greek theories of the wandering womb. See further on this point Hanson, "Papyri of Medical Content," 25-47, and the discussion of the relevant papyri in H. Merskey and P. Potter, "The Womb Lay Still in Ancient Egypt," British Journal of Psychiatry 154 (1989): 751-753, which concludes that "the wandering womb did not come from Egypt." [BACK]

9. E. Trillat, Histoire de l'hystérie (Paris: Eds Seghers, 1986); see esp. p. 14. [BACK]

10. Adams, Genuine Works of Hippocrates , 50-54; B. Chance, "On Hippocrates and the Aphorisms," Annals of Medical History 2 (1930): 31-46. For criticism, see Smith, Hippocratic Tradition , esp. p. 238. On the importance of the Aphorisms in the late antique tradition and in the Middle Ages, see I. Müller-Rohlfsen, Die Lateinische Ravennatische Übersetzung der hippokratischen Aphorismen aus dem 5./6. Jahrhundert n. chr ., Geistes- und socialwissenschaftliche Dissertation 55, Hartmut Lüdke, Hamburg, 1980, p. xviii; A. Beccaria, "Sulle tracce di un antico canone latino di Ippocrate e di Galeno II. Gli Aforismi di Ippocrate nella versione e nei commenti del primo medioevo," Italia Medioevale e Umanistica 4 (1961), 1-75; P. Kibre, "Hippocrates Latinus: Repertorium of Hippocratic Writings in the Latin Middle Ages: II," Traditio 32 (1976), 257-292. [BACK]

11. A. Rousselle, "Images médicales du corps. Observation féminine et idéologie masculine: Le corps de la femme d'après les médecins grecs," Annales E.S.C . 35 (1980): 1089-1115, esp. p. 1115 n. 27. [BACK]

12. Indeed, it is used in this way by the second-century A.D . writer Aretaeus of Cappadocia, who entitles chapter 11 of his On the Causes and Symptoms of Chronic Diseases , book 4, "Concerning Hysterika " (CMG vol. 2, 79-82). A separate chapter in his work on acute diseases, 2.11, deals with hysterike pnix (CMG vol. 2, pp.32-35). [BACK]

13. Pliny's Natural History gives many examples of these uses: for mustard (Pliny, Natural History 20.87.237), black or white hellebore (25.31.53), and castoreum (beaver-oil, 32.13.28). And cf. the Hippocratic Aphorisms 5.49 (L 6.550). After intercourse, sneezing could cause miscarriage (Pliny, Natural History 7.6.42). [BACK]

14. Pliny, Natural History 20.87.238. Note that "conversion" in this context has none of the later, post-Freudian implications of "hysterical conversion," simply meaning a physical turning. Beaver-oil is also used by Pliny as a fumigation or pessary for women suffering "from their wombs" ( Natural History 32.13.28). In other words, the substances promoting sneezing can expel from above or from below, and from either location can succeed in returning wombs to their correct position. [BACK]

15. Pliny, Natural History 7.52.175; see below page 34 for the use of this case in the literature of hysteria. [BACK]

16. Veith, Hysteria , 10. In Aristotle, On the Generation of Animals 776a11, we are told that woman is the only hysterikon animal; the Loeb translation gives "alone of all animals women are liable to uterine affections," A. L. Peck, Aristotle: Generation of Animals (London: Heinemann, 1942), 467. Cf. the Hippocratic texts Prorrhetics 1.119 (L 5.550) and Coan Prognoses 343 (L 5.658) and 543 (L 5.708). [BACK]

17. Gynaikeia is a word of some complexity, and hence difficult to translate into one English word; literally "women's things," it can mean not only "diseases of women" but also "menstruation," ''lochia," "external female genitalia," and "cures for women's diseases." For examples, see Diseases of Women 1.20 (L 8.58); 1.74 (L 8.156); Nature of Woman 67 (L 7.402); Epidemics 2.1.8 (L 3.88); 6.8.32 (L 5.356); Coan Prognoses 511 (L 5.702); 516 (L 5.704); Ps-Aristotle On Sterility 634b12. [BACK]

18. Robb, "Hippocrates on Hysteria," 78-79. [BACK]

19. Cf. Trillat, Histoire de l'hystérie , 14. [BACK]

20. Rousselle, "Images médicales du corps," 1090. [BACK]

21. Adams, Genuine Works of Hippocrates , v. [BACK]

22. Smith, Hippocratic Tradition , 31. [BACK]

23. M.-P. Duminil, "La recherche hippocratique aujourd'hui," History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 2 (1979): 153-181, esp. p. 154 (my translation). [BACK]

24. L 8.275, on Hippocrates's Diseases of Women 2.128 [hereafter DW ]; 8.327, on DW 2.150; 8.309, on DW 2.137. [BACK]

25. Veith, Hysteria , 13. [BACK]

26. Adams, Genuine Works of Hippocrates ; J. Chadwick and W. N. Mann, The Medical Works of Hippocrates (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1950), 166; W. H. S. Jones, Hippocrates IV (Loeb Classical Library, London: Heinemann, and Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1931), 167. [BACK]

27. Cited in Trillat, Histoire de l'hystérie , 272. [BACK]

28. D. W. Abse, Hysteria and Related Mental Disorders , 2d ed. (Bristol: Wright, 1987), 91. [BACK]

29. G. Lewis, Day of Shining Red (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980), 71-72. [BACK]

30. Trillat, Histoire de l'hystérie , 10.

31. Ibid., 274. [BACK]

30. Trillat, Histoire de l'hystérie , 10.

31. Ibid., 274. [BACK]

32. R. A. Woodruff, "Hysteria: An Evaluation of Objective Diagnostic Criteria by the Study of Women with Chronic Medical Illnesses," British Journal of Psychiatry 114 (1967): 1115-1119, esp. p. 1119.1 [BACK]

33. Guze, "Diagnosis of Hysteria," 494-495. [BACK]

34. See also Woodruff, Goodwin, and Guze, "Hysteria (Briquet's Syndrome)," in Hysteria , ed. Roy, 122-123. [BACK]

35. H. King, "Sacrificial Blood: The Role of the Amnion in Ancient Gynecology," Helios 13.2 (1987): 117-126 ( = Rescuing Creusa , ed. M. B. Skinner [Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press, 1987]). [BACK]

36. Slater, "Diagnosis of 'Hysteria,'" 1395-1399.

37. Ibid., 1399; E. Slater, "What Is Hysteria?" in Hysteria , ed. Roy, 40. See also H. Merskey, "The Importance of Hysteria," British Journal of Psychiatry 149 (1986): 23-28: "Whenever we are at the margin of our ability to decide on a diagnosis, hysteria is a diagnostic possibility" (p. 24). [BACK]

36. Slater, "Diagnosis of 'Hysteria,'" 1395-1399.

37. Ibid., 1399; E. Slater, "What Is Hysteria?" in Hysteria , ed. Roy, 40. See also H. Merskey, "The Importance of Hysteria," British Journal of Psychiatry 149 (1986): 23-28: "Whenever we are at the margin of our ability to decide on a diagnosis, hysteria is a diagnostic possibility" (p. 24). [BACK]

38. E. Shorter, "Les désordres psychosomatiques sont-ils 'hystériques'? Notes pour une recherche historique," Cahiers internationaux de Sociologie 76 (1984): 201-224, esp. p. 208. [BACK]

39. C. D. Marsden, "Hysteria—A Neurologist's View," Psychological Medicine 16 (1986): 277-288, esp. pp. 282-283. For a general discussion of retrospective diagnosis and its perils, see Micale, "Hysteria and Its Historiography," 43-46. [BACK]

40. Slater, "Diagnosis of 'Hysteria,'" 1396. [BACK]

41. F. Walshe, "Diagnosis of Hysteria," British Medical Journal (1965): 1451-1454, esp. 1452. [BACK]

42. Roy, Hysteria . [BACK]

43. R. Mayou, "The Social Setting of Hysteria," British Journal of Psychiatry 127 (1975): 466-469, here p. 466. [BACK]

44. J. Wright, "Hysteria and Mechanical Man," Journal of the History of Ideas 41 (1980): 233-247, esp. p. 233; W. Mitchinson, "Hysteria and Insanity in Women—A Nineteenth-Century Perspective," Journal of Canadian Studies 21 (1986): 87-105, here p. 92. [BACK]

45. E. Shorter, "Paralysis—The Rise and Fall of a 'Hysterical' Symptom," Journal of Social History 19 (1986): 549-582, here p. 551. [BACK]

46. Trillat, Histoire de l'hystérie , 54. [BACK]

47. Risse, "Hysteria at the Edinburgh Infirmary: The Construction and Treatment of a Disease, 1770-1800," Medical History 32 (1988): 1-22. [BACK]

48. Mayou, "Social Setting of Hysteria," 466. [BACK]

49. Marsden, "Hysteria—A Neurologist's View," 279. [BACK]

50. Quoted in Shorter, "Paralysis," 578 n. 51. [BACK]

51. Mayou, "Social Setting of Hysteria," 466-468; Shorter, "Désordres psychosomatiques sont-ils 'hystériques' ?" 205; Shorter, "Paralysis," 550-551; see also Abse, Hysteria and Related Mental Disorders , 23-25. [BACK]

52. Shorter, "Paralysis," 574 and 549; see Shorter, "Désordres psychosomatiques sont-ils 'hystériques'?" 202. [BACK]

53. D.C. Taylor, "Hysteria, Play-acting and Courage," British Journal of Psychiatry 149 (1986): 37-41, defines hysteria as "the laying claim to sickness for which there is no objective evidence" and thus that hysteria is "a commonplace reaction" (p. 40). The "non-verbal language" suggestion is made by E. M. R. Critchley and H. E. Cantor, ''Charcot's Hysteria Renaissant," British Medical Journal 289 (1984): 1785-1788, here p. 1788. [BACK]

54. J. M. N. Boss, "The Seventeenth-Century Transformation of the Hysteric Affection, and Sydenham's Baconian Medicine," Psychological Medicine 9 (1979): 221-234, here p. 221. [BACK]

55. J. Gabbay, "Asthma Attacked? Tactics for the Reconstruction of a Disease Concept," in The Problem of Medical Knowledge: Examining the Social Construction of Medicine , ed. P. Wright and A. Treacher (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1982), 23-48, quotation p. 29. [BACK]

56. Gabbay, "Asthma Attacked?" in Problem of Medical Knowledge , Wright and Treacher, 33.

57. Ibid., 42. [BACK]

56. Gabbay, "Asthma Attacked?" in Problem of Medical Knowledge , Wright and Treacher, 33.

57. Ibid., 42. [BACK]

58. The Hippocratic Places in Man 47 (L 6.344). [BACK]

59. Boss, "Seventeenth-Century Transformation," 221-234. [BACK]

60. W. Mitchinson, "Hysteria and Insanity in Women," 89. [BACK]

61. Boss, "Seventeenth-Century Transformation," 232. [BACK]

62. Risse, "Hysteria at the Edinburgh Infirmary," 2-4.

63. Ibid., 17.

64. Ibid., 16. [BACK]

62. Risse, "Hysteria at the Edinburgh Infirmary," 2-4.

63. Ibid., 17.

64. Ibid., 16. [BACK]

62. Risse, "Hysteria at the Edinburgh Infirmary," 2-4.

63. Ibid., 17.

64. Ibid., 16. [BACK]

65. Cf. H. Landouzy, Traité complet de l'hystérie (Paris and London: Baillière, 1846), with Littré; Landouzy accepts the curative powers of marriage but asks an important question that follows from the Hippocratic recommendation: "Peut-on épouser avec sécurité une hystérique?" (p. 303). See also H. Merskey, The Analysis of Hysteria (London: Baillière Tindall, 1979), 12 ff.; H. Ey, "History and Analysis of the Concept" (1964), in Hysteria , ed. Roy, 3-19. [BACK]

66. Mitchinson, "Hysteria and Insanity in Women," 90. [BACK]

67. F. M. Mai and H. Merskey, "Briquet's Concept of Hysteria: An Historical Perspective," Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 26 (1981): 57-63. [BACK]

68. B. C. Brodie, Lectures Illustrative of Certain Local Nervous Affections (London: Longman, 1837), 46. [BACK]

69. Robb, "Hippocrates on Hysteria," 78-79.

70. Ibid., 79. Sauri, "Concepcion Hipocratica de la histeria," 539-546, uses DW 1.7 and 2.123-125; J. Palis, E. Rossopoulos, and L. C. Triarhou, "The Hippocratic Concept of Hysteria: A Translation of the Original Texts," Integrative Psychiatry 3 (1985): 226-228, translate NW 3 (L 7.314-316), 73 (L 7.404), 75 (L 7.404), and 87, with DW 2.123-125, while Veith, Hysteria , p. 10 n. 1, is ''primarily based" on DW 1.7, 1.32, and 2.123-127. [BACK]

69. Robb, "Hippocrates on Hysteria," 78-79.

70. Ibid., 79. Sauri, "Concepcion Hipocratica de la histeria," 539-546, uses DW 1.7 and 2.123-125; J. Palis, E. Rossopoulos, and L. C. Triarhou, "The Hippocratic Concept of Hysteria: A Translation of the Original Texts," Integrative Psychiatry 3 (1985): 226-228, translate NW 3 (L 7.314-316), 73 (L 7.404), 75 (L 7.404), and 87, with DW 2.123-125, while Veith, Hysteria , p. 10 n. 1, is ''primarily based" on DW 1.7, 1.32, and 2.123-127. [BACK]

71. Acut. Sp . 35 (L 2.522). This is an interesting distinction; classical Greek uterine pnix , which so many writers want to identify as "hysteria," is distinguished by normal sensations, yet "hysteria" in later historical periods is supposed to involve "local loss of sensation." See Wright, "Hysteria and Mechanical Man," 233. [BACK]

72. Robb, "Hippocrates on Hysteria," 78-79. [BACK]

73. M. R. Lefkowitz, Heroines and Hysterics (London: Duckworth, 1981), 13. [BACK]

74. The entry of the word "hysteria" into European language is surprisingly late. The French hystérie appears in dictionaries in 1731, and "hysteria" itself in 1801. One conclusion that could be drawn from this is that, because of the very recent origin of "hysteria," the medical profession has sought to give it some respectability by projecting it back into Hippocratic medicine. [BACK]

75. G. Lewis, "A View of Sickness in New Guinea," in Social Anthropology and Medicine , ed. J. B. Loudon (London: ASA Monograph 13, Academic Press, 1976), 88. [BACK]

76. L. Bourgey, Observation et experience chez les médecins de la collection hippocratique (Paris: J. Vrin, 1953), 149-152. [BACK]

77. v. Di Benedetto, Il medico e la malattia: La scienza di Ippocrate (Turin: Einaudi Paperbacks 172, 1986), 18-21, 89-91, 4.

78. Ibid., 21-23. Lloyd, in Revolutions of Wisdom , 203-206, points out that the terminology of classical Greek medicine is characterized by "a certain conceptual vagueness"; ordinary Greek is preferred to technical terms. [BACK]

77. v. Di Benedetto, Il medico e la malattia: La scienza di Ippocrate (Turin: Einaudi Paperbacks 172, 1986), 18-21, 89-91, 4.

78. Ibid., 21-23. Lloyd, in Revolutions of Wisdom , 203-206, points out that the terminology of classical Greek medicine is characterized by "a certain conceptual vagueness"; ordinary Greek is preferred to technical terms. [BACK]

79. C. M. T. Clologe, Essai sur l'histoire de la gynécologie dans l'antiquité grecque jusqu' à la collection Hippocratique (Bordeaux: Arnaud, 1905), 63: "Les anciens s'étaient beaucoup occupés de la menstruation." [BACK]

80. DW 1.1 (L. 8.10-12); Greek ischyros, stereos, pyknos . See W. A. Heidel, Hippocratic Medicine: Its Spirit and Method (New York: Columbia University Press, 1941), 91; P. Manuli, "Donne mascoline, femmine sterili, vergini perpetue: La ginecologia greca tra Ippocrate e Sorano," in Madre Materia , by S. Campese, P. Manuli, and G. Sissa (Turin: Boringhieri, 1983), 147-192, here p. 188. See A. E. Hanson, "Anatomical Assumptions in Hippocrates Diseases of Women 1.1," paper delivered at the APA, 1981, and R. Parker, Miasma (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1982), 230, on the sheepskin analogy; the latter points out that the powers of absorption of the fleece account for its use in rituals of purification. In Superfetation 34 (L 8.506), sheepskin is used in therapy. A young girl who does not menstruate alternates among hunger, thirst, fever, and vomiting excess fluid. The remedy, warm lambskins placed on her abdomen, may be intended to draw out the excess fluid which should have come out as menstrual blood. [BACK]

81. Aristotle, GA 728a17 ff. and 737a; S. R. L. Clark, Aristotle's Man (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1975); M. C. Horowitz, "Aristotle and Woman," Journal of the History of Biology 9 (1976): 183-213; L. Dean-Jones, "Menstrual Bleeding According to the Hippocratics and Aristotle," Transactions of the American Philological Association 119 (1989): 177-192. [BACK]

82. Hesiod, Works and Days , 45-105 and 373-375; idem, Theogony , 594-602; N. Loraux, "Sur la race des femmes et quelques-unes de ses tribus," Arethusa 11 (1978): 43-87. [BACK]

83. Plato, Timaeus 90e-91a. [BACK]

84. P. DuBois, Sowing the Body: Psychoanalysis and Ancient Representations of Women (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988); N. Loraux, "Le lit, la guerre," L'Homme 21 (1981): 37-67; King, "Sacrificial Blood," 117-126 ( = Rescuing Creusa , Skinner). [BACK]

85. E.g., Airs, Waters, Places 10 (L 2.44 and 2.50); Nature of the Child 15 (L 7.494); Glands 16 (L 8.572). [BACK]

86. In Greek, strephontai hai metrai , close to the Latin converto . [BACK]

87. Younger women have the most blood, due to "the growth of the body and the diet." Diseases of Young Girls (L 8.466); confirmed in DW 2.111 (L 8.238-240). [BACK]

88. Castoreum and fleabane ( konyza ) appear together on many occasions; e.g., DW 2.128 (L 8.274); 2.200 (L 8.382); 2.201 (L 8.384). [BACK]

89. Bandages around the body occur in 2.127 (L 8.272) and 2.129 (L. 8.278). [BACK]

90. A translation of this text was given in my Ph.D. thesis, From Parthenos to Gyne: The Dynamics of Category , University of London, 1985. I am taking the Greek stomachos here to mean "mouth of the womb" rather than "mouth," although it can have many anatomical meanings and occurs in 2.203 (L 8.388) with the meaning "mouth." This is clearly not a "paint by numbers" format: if the reader tries to carry out the instructions in the order given, the jar will be sealed before the garlic and seal oil go in. Similar warnings about the possibility of exhaustion in the patient occur at DW 2.181 (L 8.364), 3.230 (L 8.442), and 3.241 (L 8.454). The vegetable substances used in scent therapy are discussed in S. Byl's ''L'odeur végétale dans la thérapeutique gynécologique du Corpus hippocratique," Revue Belge de Philologie et d'Histoire 67 (1989): 53-64. [BACK]

91. DW 2.126 (L 8.272); cf. 2.203 (L 8.390). [BACK]

92. E.g., DW 2.131 (L 8.278), where the substances to be used are not specified. [BACK]

93. NW 87 (L 7.408) reads, "In suffocation caused by movement [of the womb], light up the wick of a lamp then snuff it out, holding it under the nostrils so that she draws in the smoke. Then soak myrrh in perfume, dip wool in [so it is thoroughly impregnated] and insert. Also give her a drink of resin dissolved in oil." [BACK]

94. B. Simon, Mind and Madness in Ancient Greece (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1978), 238. [BACK]

95. I. M. Lewis, Ecstatic Religion (Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin, 1971), and Mayou, "Social Setting of Hysteria," 467. [BACK]

96. Simon, Mind and Madness in Ancient Greece , 242, 251.

97. Ibid., 243. [BACK]

96. Simon, Mind and Madness in Ancient Greece , 242, 251.

97. Ibid., 243. [BACK]

98. Fourteen is the ideal age of menarche in medical writers (D. W. Amundsen and C. J. Diers, "The Age of Menarche in Classical Greece and Rome," Human Biology 41 [1969]: 125-132); for age at marriage, see W. K. Lacey, The Family in Classical Greece (London: Thames & Hudson, 1968), 162, and M. L. West, Hesiod: The Works and Days (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978), 327. [BACK]

99. DW 2.126 (L 8.270-272); DW 2.130 (L 8.326); DW 2.203 (L 8.386-392). [BACK]

100. DW 2.128 (L 8.274); DW 2.129 (L 8.276); DW 2.131 (L 8.278-280). [BACK]

101. Ps-Aristotle, Problems 30; Simon, Mind and Madness in Ancient Greece , 222. [BACK]

102. Marriage and childbirth are recommended therapies in many Hippocratic texts outside the hysteria tradition; e.g., DW 1.37 (L 8.92), 2.115 (L 8.250), 2.119 (L 8.260), 2.128 (L 8.276), 2.133 (L 8.302), Gen . 4 (L 7.476). [BACK]

103. DW 2.150 (L 8.326), 2.201 (L 8.384). [BACK]

104. DW 3.222 (L 8.430). [BACK]

105. Di Benedetto, Il medico e la malattia , 4. [BACK]

106. A. Rousselle, Porneia: On Desire and the Body in Antiquity (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1968), 69. [BACK]

107. D. Gourevitch, Le mal d'être femme: La femme et la médecine dans la Rome antique (Paris: Eds Belles Lettres, 198.4), 119. [BACK]

108. Hanson, "Anatomical Assumptions in Hippocrates"; Manuli, "Donne mascoline, femmine sterili" in Madre Materia , by Campese, Manuli, and Sissa, 157. [BACK]

109. E.g., DW 2.146 (L 8.322), 3.214 (L 8.414-416), 3.219 (L 8.424), 3.230 (L 8.440); Superfetation 25 (L 8.488-490); NW 96 (L 7.412-414); Aphorisms 5.59 (L 4.554). [BACK]

110. L 8.310: Greek ano/kato . [BACK]

111. DW 2.123 (L 8.266), 2.154 (L 8.330), a description of a "wild" womb, translated by Littré as "irritated"; 2.201 (L 8.384), a discussion of pnix . See Byl, "L'odeur végétale," 56-58. [BACK]

112. DW 2.125 (L 8.268), 2.137 (L 8.310), 2.143 (L 8.316), 2. 145 (L 8.320). [BACK]

113. C. M. Turbayne, "Plato's 'Fantastic' Appendix: The Procreation Model of the Timaeus," Paideia , special issue, 1976: 125-140, quotation from p. 132.

114. Ibid., 140 n. 11. [BACK]

113. C. M. Turbayne, "Plato's 'Fantastic' Appendix: The Procreation Model of the Timaeus," Paideia , special issue, 1976: 125-140, quotation from p. 132.

114. Ibid., 140 n. 11. [BACK]

115. F. Kudlien, "Early Greek Primitive Medicine," Clio Medica 3 (1968): 305-336, quotations from p. 330. See also S. Byl and A. F. De Ranter, "L'étiologie de la stérilité féminine dans le Corpus hippocratique," 303-322, in La maladie et les maladies dans la Collection hippocratique (Actes du VI e Colloque hippocratique), ed. P. Potter, G. Maloney, and J. Desautels (Quebec: Eds du Sphinx, 1990), 321. [BACK]

116. Aretaeus, 2.11 (CMG vol.2, pp.32.28-33.1); the relevant passage reads "and the sum of the matter is that the womb in the female is hokoion ti zoon en zooi ." [BACK]

117. DW 1.7 (L 8.32). [BACK]

118. Ann Hanson, pers. comm.; F. Adams, The Medical Works of Paulus Aegineta , vol. I (London: Welsh, 1834), 458, suggests that the Timaeus passage "ought perhaps not to be taken in too literal a sense, considering that philosopher's well-known propensity to mystification." [BACK]

119. Soranus of Ephesus, Gynecology 3.29 (CMG vol. 4, P.113.3-6); O. Tem-kin, Soranus' Gynecology (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1956), translates, "For the uterus does not issue forth like a wild animal from the lair, delighted by fragrant odors and fleeing bad odors: rather it is drawn together because of the stricture caused by the inflammation." "Wild animal" is the Greek therion , in contrast to Aretaeus's more neutral zoon , "living thing." [BACK]

120. Based on R. E. Siegel, Galen on the Affected Parts (Basel and New York: S. Karger, 1976), 187, translating On the Affected Parts 6.5(K 8.425-426), the Latin version of which reads: "Haec dicente Platone, quidam addiderunt, uterum, quum ita per corpus errans ad septum transversum pervenerit, respirationem interturbare. Alii errare ipsum veluti animal non dicunt, sed ubi suppressa sunt menstrua, exiccatum ac humectari cupientem ad viscera usque ascendere; quum vero ascendendo nonnunquam septum transversum contingat, idcirco animal respiratione privari." [BACK]

121. D. F. Krell, "Female Parts in Timaeus," Arion 2 (1975): 400-421, esp. p. 404. [BACK]

122. Plato, Timaeus 70e: Greek hos thremma agrion .

123. Ibid., 89b-c.

124. Ibid., 71a; 91a-b. [BACK]

122. Plato, Timaeus 70e: Greek hos thremma agrion .

123. Ibid., 89b-c.

124. Ibid., 71a; 91a-b. [BACK]

122. Plato, Timaeus 70e: Greek hos thremma agrion .

123. Ibid., 89b-c.

124. Ibid., 71a; 91a-b. [BACK]

125. Not hoion zoon , but zoon epithymetikon enon tes paidopoiias (91c). [BACK]

126. Aristotle, PA 666a 20-23 and 666b 16-17; MA 703b 21-26; see S. Byl, Recherches sur les grands traités biologiques d'Aristotle: Sources écrites et préjugés (Brussels: Palais des Académies, 1980), 124. [BACK]

127. Plato, Timaeus 73c ff. [BACK]

128. Gen . (L 7.473-474); Nature of Man 11 (L 6.58). [BACK]

129. L 7.478-480. [BACK]

130. Shorter, "Paralysis," 574 and 549. [BACK]

131. Trillat, Histoire de l'hystérie , 16. [BACK]

132. E.g., DW 1.2 (L 8.32), use of he gyne , "the woman." [BACK]

133. Pnigei, DW 2.201 (L 8.384); DW 2.124 (L 8.266). [BACK]

134. Mitchinson, "Hysteria and Insanity in Women," 91. [BACK]

135. E. Jorden, A Briefe Discourse of a Disease Called the Suffocation of the Mother (London: J. Windet, 1603). [BACK]

136. See Trillat, Histoire de l'hystérie , 7. [BACK]

137. L 8.326. [BACK]

138. See Trillat, Histoire de l'hystérie , 33; Abse, Hysteria and Related Mental Disorders , 2. [BACK]

139. Places in Man 47 (L 6.344); cf. "the cause of numberless diseases," L 9.396. [BACK]

140. Proton ergon , Soranus, Gynecology 3.6. [BACK]

141. Nature of the Child 15 (L 7.494), the translation given is that of I. M. Lonie, The Hippocratic Treatises "On Generation," "On the Nature of the Child," "Diseases IV " (Berlin: De Gruyter, 1981), 8; the original Greek literally means "her original nature.'' [BACK]

142. Ep . 7.123 (L 5.468). [BACK]

143. Ep . 6.8.32 (L 5.356); DW 3.230 (L 8.444). [BACK]

144. L 7.476. [BACK]

145. Aristotle, PA 650a 8ff.; GA 775a 14-20; Horowitz, "Aristotle and Woman," 183-213. [BACK]

146. Plutarch, Moralia 650a-651e. [BACK]

147. Aristotle, PA 648a 28-30; GA 765b 19. [BACK]

148. L 8.12-14. [BACK]

149. L 6.512. [BACK]

150. Greek kaminos ; Aristotle, GA 764a 12-20. [BACK]

151. Herodotus, 5.92. [BACK]

152. Artemidorus, Oneirocritica: The Interpretation of Dreams , trans. R.J. White (Park Ridge, N.J.: Noyes Press, 1975), 2.10. [BACK]

153. Gen . 4 (L 7.474-476); NC 12 (L 7.486)—Greek en thermoi eousa , trans. Lonie, Hippocratic Treatises , 6— NC 30 (L 7.536). [BACK]

154. Greek paue, pnigeran legeis (line 122). [BACK]

155. The use of similar imagery does not end in the classical Greek period. Around A.D . 1565, Teresa of Avila suffered symptoms that, in the nineteenth century, were retrospectively diagnosed as hysteria. These included contractive spasms, sweating and chills, as well as feeling "like a person who has a rope around his neck, is being strangled and trying to breathe" (C. M. Bache, "A Reappraisal of Teresa of Avila's Supposed Hysteria," Journal of Religion and Health 24 (1985): 300-315, esp. pp. 310 and 305). [BACK]

156. M.-P. Duminil, "Recherche hippocratique aujourd'hui," 156; D.J. Furley and J. S. Wilkie, Galen on Respiration and the Arteries (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1984), 22. A similar difficulty exists between the Latin con-ceptio , meaning retention of the male seed, and our "conception," meaning the fertilization of the ovum by the sperm; see the Budé edition of Soranus (ed. P. Burguiére, D. Gourevitch, and Y. Malinas, 1988), p. xcv. [BACK]

157. Empedocles in H. Diels and W. Kranz, Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker I (Berlin: Weidmannsche, 1951), fragment 31 B 100; Furley and Wilkie, Galen on Respiration , 3-5. [BACK]

158. Plato, Timaeus 76b1-e9, discussed by Furley and Wilkie, Galen on Respiration , 7-8. [BACK]

159. On Aristotle, see above, n. 150; the quotations are from Galen, On the Usefulness of Breathing , chap. 3 (K 4.492 and 4.508), using the Furley and Wilkie edition, Galen on Respiration , 109 and 131. [BACK]

160. Galen, On the Affected Parts (K 8.415). [BACK]

161. See discussion in M. D. Grmek, "Les Indicia mortis dans la médecine gréco-romaine," in La mort, les morts et l'au-delà dans le monde greco-romaine , ed. F. Hinard (Caen: Centre des Publications de l'Université, 1987), 129-144, and A. Debru, "La suffocation hystérique chez Galien et Aetius: Réécriture et emprunt de 'je,'" in Tradizione e ecdotica dei testi medici tardoantichi e bizantini (Atti del Convegno Internazionale Anacapre 29-31 ottobre 1990), ed. A. Garzya (Napoli: M. D'Auria, 1992), 79-89. [BACK]

162. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of the Philosophers 8.61. The remaining fragments of Apnous or Peri tes apnou (On the absence of breath, also known as On the causes of disease) are given in the edition of the fragments of Heracleides edited by F. Wehrli, Die Schule des Aristoteles: Heft VII, Herakleides Pontikos (Basel: Schwabe, 1953). On Empedocles as a "showman" among early cosmogonists, see Lloyd, Revolutions of Wisdom , 101. [BACK]

163. Pliny, Natural History 7.52.175; Latin exanimis , "without breath," can also mean "without life." The editio princeps of Pliny was published in 1469, but abridgments and extracts circulated throughout the Middle Ages: see M. Chibnall, "Pliny's Natural History and the Middle Ages" in Silver Latin II , ed. T. A. Dorey (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1975), 57-78; book 7 was certainly in circulation from the early ninth century A.D .; see L. D. Reynolds, ed., Texts and Transmission: A Survey of the Latin Classics (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1983), 307-316. [BACK]

164. Literally conversio volvae . The Budé edition of Pliny gives a "medical" translation, "la rétroversion," while the Loeb uses the rather vague "distortion." [BACK]

165. Pieter van Foreest (1522-1597), Observationum et curationum medicinalium, liber vigesimus-octavus, de mulierum morbis (Leyden: Plantin, 1599), Obs. 27, 167-168; the story is also given by Nicolas de la Roche (fl. 1542) in De morbis mulierum curandis (Paris: V. Gaultherot, 1542), 65 r-v . [BACK]

166. Origen, Against Celsus 2.16, 402: Heracleides frag. 78 Wehrli. [BACK]

167. Soranus, Gynecology 3.4.29 (CMG 4.112.18-23); trans. O. Temkin, 153. [BACK]

168. J. Longrigg, "Superlative Achievement and Comparative Neglect: Alexandrian Medical Science and Modern Historical Research," History of Science 19 (1981): 155-200; P. Potter, "Herophilus of Chalcedon: An Assessment of His Place in the History of Anatomy," Bulletin of the History of Medicine 50 (1976): 45-60; H. von Staden, Herophilus: The Art of Medicine in Early Alexandria (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989). [BACK]

169. Manilas frag. 11: Soranus, Gynecology 3.4.29 (CMG IV p.112.22-23); von Staden, Herophilus , 517-518. On the effects of these discoveries on medical writing, see D. Gourevitch, "Situation de Soranos dans la médecine antique," in Soranos d'Ephèse: Maladies des femmes 1.1 , Budé ed. (Paris: Eds Belles Lettres, 1988), xxxiv-xxxv. [BACK]

170. Marganne, Inventaire analytique des papyrus grecs , no. 155, PP. 283-286; P. Ryl. 3.531 ( = PACK 2 2418). On the huge therapeutic repertory of Hippocratic gynecology, see Di Benedetto, Il medico e la malattia , 17. It is possible that the remedies that occur only once in the medical corpus simply represent the attempt of a healer to think of something entirely new in order to impress the patient. See the descriptions of the competitive social context of early medicine in G. E. R. Lloyd's Magic, Reason and Experience (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979), Science, Folklore and Ideology (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983), and Revolutions of Wisdom , 68-69 and 96 on the importance of innovation in Hippocratic medicine, and 103-104 on rivalry. [BACK]

171. Marganne no. 93, PP. 168-169; P. Hibeh 2.191 ( = PACK 2 2348). [BACK]

172. Marganne, Inventoire analytique des papyrus grecs , no. 8, pp. 16-17; B K T 3.33-34 ( = PACK 2 2394). [BACK]

173. Latin vulva ; Celsus 4.27, CML vol. 1, pp. 180-181. [BACK]

174. DW 1.77 (L 8.172), in which blood is let at the ankle in order to ease a long and difficult labor; P. Brain, Galen on Bloodletting (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986), 113-114. [BACK]

175. Soranus, Gynecology 3.28.4 (CMG vol. 4, p.111.8); Galen, On Venesection against the Erasistrateans in Rome (K 11.201; Brain, Galen on Bloodletting , 45); it is recommended that this be done at the ankle, to encourage the flow of blood away from the womb ( On Treatment by Venesection , K 11.283, 11.302-303; Brain, Galen on Bloodletting , 93). [BACK]

176. See in general M. H. Green, The Transmission of Ancient Theories of Female Physiology and Disease through the Early Middle Ages , Ph.D. dissertation, Princeton University, 1985, with M. Ullmann, Islamic Medicine (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1978), 11-15, and the discussion of the rediscovery of Hippocratism in V. Nutton, "Hippocrates in the Renaissance," in Die hippokratischen Epidemien , ed. G. Baader and R. Winau, Sudhoffs Archiv Beiheft 27 (Stuttgart, 1990), 420-439. [BACK]

177. On the content of Aretaeus see O. Temkin, "History of Hippocratism in Late Antiquity: The Third Century and the Latin West," in The Double Face of Janus and Other Essays in the History of Medicine , by O. Temkin (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1977), 167-177, esp. p. 170. Aretaeus uses the word hymenes for these membranes; see 2.11.5 (CMG vol. 2, P.33.29), 4.11.9 (CMG vol. 2, p.81.28), and 6.10.1 (CMG vol. 2, p.139.27). Scent therapy is discussed in a separate section on remedies for hysterical suffocation, at 6.10.3 (CMG vol. 2, p.140.17-19). It is worth noting here that the discussion of Aretaeus in Veith's Hysteria , 22-23, wrongly asserts that he gives a "brief reference to male hysteria." In fact, although he mentions an unnamed condition, described as having some symptoms in common with suffocation of the womb, and affecting both sexes, in his discussion of satyriasis in 2.12.4 he explicitly denies that suffocation of the womb can affect men, since men do not have wombs (CMG vol. 2, P.35.11-12). [BACK]

178. In his discussion of epilepsy itself, Aretaeus includes the symptom of " pnix as if strangled"; see 1.5.6 (CMG vol. 2, P.4.27). [BACK]

179. 2.11.4 (CMG vol. 2, P.33.15-17); I translate phlebes as "channels." [BACK]

180. "High-sailing" is akroploos , 2.11.5 (CMG vol. 2, P.33.29); the membranes around the womb are "like the sails of a ship" in 4.11.9 (CMG vol. 2, p.81.31) and 6.10.1 (CMG vol. 2, p.140.3-4). [BACK]

181. Aretaeus goes beyond Aphorisms 5.35, and says that sneezing, when accompanied by pressure on the nostrils, can make the womb return to its place; 6.10.5 (CMG vol. 2, p.141.7-9). [BACK]

182. Venesection occurs at 6.10.3 (CMG vol. 2, p.140.14) and 6.10.6 (CMG vol. 2, p.141.14-15) where the removal of hairs is also discussed. [BACK]

183. Smith, Hippocratic Tradition . [BACK]

184. Gourevitch, "Situation de Soranos," in Soranos d'Éphèse , Budé ed., xxxi. On the establishment of the text of Soranus, see P. Burguière, "Histoire du texte," in Soranos d'Éphèse , Budé ed., xlvii-lxv. On Caelius Aurelianus, see M. F. Drabkin and I. E. Drabkin, Caelius Aurelianus: Gynaecia fragments of a Latin version of Soranus's Gynaecia from a thirteenth-century manuscript (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1951), and J. Pigeaud, "Pro Caelio Aureliano," Mémoires du Centre Jean Palerne 3: Médecins et Médecine dans l'Antiquité (Université de Saint-Etienne, 1982), 105-117. [BACK]

185. In general see P. Manuli, "Elogia della castità: La Ginecologia di Sorano," Memoria 3 (1982): 39-49; Gourevitch, "Situation de Soranos," in Soranos d'Éphèse , Budé ed., vii-xlvi; p. xiii discusses the correct terms for the three conditions of the body. On the difficulty in reading our main source for the "sects," see O. Temkin, "Celsus' 'On Medicine' and the Ancient Medical Sects," Bulletin of the History of Medicine 3 (1935): 249-264; W. D. Smith, "Notes on Ancient Medical Historiography," Bulletin of the History of Medicine 63 (1989): 73-109; Lloyd, Revolutions of Wisdom , 158-171. See also M. Frede, "The Method of the So-called Methodical School of Medicine," in Science and Speculation , ed. J. Barnes, J. Brunschwig, M. Burnyeat, and M. Schofield (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1821), 1-23. [BACK]

186. Gourevitch, "Situation de Soranos," in Soranos d'Éphèse , Budé ed., xlv. [BACK]

187. O. Temkin, Soranus' Gynecology (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1956), 9; Green, Ancient Theories of Female Physiology and Disease , 34; Lloyd, Revolutions of Wisdom (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1987), 164-165. [BACK]

188. Soranus, Gynecology 3.29.5 (CMG vol. 4, P.113.5-6).

189. Ibid. (CMG vol. 4, P.113.3-5), trans. Temkin, 153.

190. Ibid., 3.28.4 (CMG vol. 4, P.111.8); the acute and chronic forms are distinguished at 3.28.1 (CMG vol. 4, P.110.22). [BACK]

188. Soranus, Gynecology 3.29.5 (CMG vol. 4, P.113.5-6).

189. Ibid. (CMG vol. 4, P.113.3-5), trans. Temkin, 153.

190. Ibid., 3.28.4 (CMG vol. 4, P.111.8); the acute and chronic forms are distinguished at 3.28.1 (CMG vol. 4, P.110.22). [BACK]

188. Soranus, Gynecology 3.29.5 (CMG vol. 4, P.113.5-6).

189. Ibid. (CMG vol. 4, P.113.3-5), trans. Temkin, 153.

190. Ibid., 3.28.4 (CMG vol. 4, P.111.8); the acute and chronic forms are distinguished at 3.28.1 (CMG vol. 4, P.110.22). [BACK]

191. P. Diepgen, Die Frauenheilkunde der Alten Welt: Handbuch der Gynäkologie XII , 1 (Munich: Bergmann, 1937), 233. On the identity of the short treatise De gynaeciis liber, hoc est de passionibus mulierum , attributed to Galen and including references to hysterical suffocation, together with scent therapy, see M. H. Green, "The De Genecia Attributed to Constantine the African," Speculum 62 (1987): 299-323, esp. p. 30 n. 9. There also exists an Arabic commentary on Diseases of Women 1.1-11, which is attributed to Galen; Green, Ancient Theories of Female Physiology and Disease , 118-119 n. 5, argues that this attribution merits further investigation, since Galen wrote that he planned a commentary on this text. [BACK]

192. Galen, On the Affected Parts 6.5 (K 8.414-437). [BACK]

193. On the Affected Parts 6.5 (K 8.414). See T. C. Allbutt, Greek Medicine in Rome (London: Macmillan, 1921), 344. [BACK]

194. E. Trillat, "Trois itinéraires à travers l'histoire de l'hystérie," Histoire des Sciences médicales 21 (1987): 27-31, esp. p. 28. [BACK]

195. On the Affected Parts 6.5 (K 8.424), use of ton hysterikon legomenon symptomaton ; see also the commentary on Aphorism 5.35, K17B.824. [BACK]

196. On the Affected Parts 6.5 (K 8.417); the English translation given here is that of Siegel, which is not always to be trusted: p. 184. [BACK]

197. K 8.426 and K 8.430, trans. Siegel, p.189. Galen himself wrote a treatise called "On the Anatomy of the Uterus," which, like On the Affected Parts , was translated into Arabic; see M. Ullmann, Die Medizin im Islam (Leiden: Brill, 1970), 35-68. [BACK]

198. See in particular the Hippocratic text Generation : Lonie, Hippocratic Treatises , esp. pp. 1-5. For the writer of these texts, female seed is weak and thin, male strong and thick. On Soranus and the context of his work see Gourevitch, "Situation de Soranos," in Soranos d'Éphèse , Budé ed., xix. [BACK]

199. On the Affected Parts 6.5 (K 8.420, 424, and 432-433). [BACK]

200. On the Affected Parts 6.5 (K 8.421-424). [BACK]

201. Sympaschei , K 8.424; adelphixia, On joints 57 (L 4.246); in the sixteenth century, the Latin communitas is the preferred term. [BACK]

202. Further discussion of the mechanism by which these symptoms are produced may be found in On the Method of Healing, to Glaucon 1.15 (C. Daremberg, Oeuvres anatomiques, physiologiques, et médicales de Galien [Paris: Baillière, 1854-6], Vol. II, p. 735), where the seed becomes wet and cold, chilling the body. [BACK]

203. Green, Ancient Theories of Female Physiology and Disease , 50-52. Scent therapy too is described in On the Method of Healing, to Glaucon 1.15 (Daremberg, Oeuvres anatomiques , Vol. II, p. 735), and also in On Compound Medicines according to Site 9.10 (K 13.320). [BACK]

204. On the Affected Parts 6.5 (K 8.420); cf. DW 2.201 (L 8.384) on rubbing aromatics into the groin and inner thighs. [BACK]

205. PGM VII 260-272; K. Preisendanz and A. Henrichs, Papyri Graecae Magicae 2 (Stuttgart: Teubner, 1974). The translation is that of J. Scarborough, in The Greek Magical Papyri in Translation , by H. D. Betz (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986), 123-124. [BACK]

206. Pandora is created with a kyneos noos , the mind of a bitch (Hesiod Works and Days 67). On the sexuality of the dog, see for example Aristotle, HA 540a 24 and 574b 27. Kuon , dog, can mean the genitals of either sex. [BACK]

207. Marcellus Empiricus, fl. A.D . 395; see De medicamentis liber , chap. 1.25 (CML vol. 5, pp.60.35-61.3). The editio princeps of Cornarius was printed in 1536; p. 32 has a note in the margin by this passage saying suffocatio de vulva (J. Cornarius, De medicamentis empiricis, physicis, ac rationabilibus liber [Basel: Froben, 1536]). [BACK]

208. On encyclopedism, see P. Lemerle, Byzantine Humanism: The First Phase , Australian Association for Byzantine Studies, Byzantina Australiensa 3, Canberra 1986, chap. 10; medical treatises receive only a brief mention on p. 341. [BACK]

209. See M. Meyerhof and D. Joannides, La Gynécologie et l'Obstétrique chez Avicenne (Ibn Sina) et leurs rapports avec celles des Grecs (Cairo: R. Schindler, 1938), 6. A reassessment of the period is given by V. Nutton, "From Galen to Alexander, Aspects of Medicine and Medical Practice in Late Antiquity," in Dumbarton Oaks Papers 38 (1984), 1-14 ( = V. Nutton, From Democedes to Harvey [London: Variorum Reprints, 1988], chap. 10, 2-3). [BACK]

210. J. Kollesch, Untersuchungen zu den pseudogalenischen Definitiones Medicae (Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, 1973), 14; J. Duffy, "Byzantine Medicine in the Sixth and Seventh Centuries: Aspects of Teaching and Practice," in Dumbarton Oaks Papers 38, ed. Scarborough, 21-27. [BACK]

211. J. Duffy, "Byzantine Medicine in the Sixth and Seventh Centuries: Aspects of Teaching and Practice," in Dumbarton Oaks Papers 38, ed. Scarborough, 21-27; here 21-22. [BACK]

212. N. G. Wilson, Scholars of Byzantium (London: Duckworth, 1983), 48, and see also 85-86. [BACK]

213. Oribasius, Collectiones medicae 24.31 (CMG vol. 6.2,1, pp.41-46). [BACK]

214. Oribasius, Synopsis 9.45 (CMG vol. 6.3, p.305.10-28), trans. C. Daremberg, in Oeuvres d'Oribase , ed. U. Bussemaker and C. Daremberg, 6 vols. (Paris: Impr. Nationale, 1851-1876), vol. 6, pp. 539-540. Philumenos of Alexandria was the author of a work on gynecology, and another on venomous animals and remedies for their stings and bites (see Allbutt, Greek Medicine in Rome ). The latter is available as CMG vol. 10.1.1. Philumenos uses the same remedies for certain poisons as for hysterike pnix (pp. 14.19 and 22), thus echoing Galen's view that retained seed and menses acted like a poison on the body. About Philumenos himself little is known; even his date is variously given as the first century A.D ., ca. A.D . 180, or the third century A.D . He does not explicitly use Galen—which lends support to the earliest date but the above reference to hysterike pnix may imply knowledge of Galen's theories. [BACK]

215. Oribasius, Synopsis 9.41 (CMG vol. 6.3, p.301). [BACK]

216. G. Baader, "Early Medieval Latin Adaptations of Byzantine Medicine in Western Europe," in Dumbarton Oaks Papers 38, ed. Scarborough, 251-259, esp. p. 252; Wilson, Scholars of Byzantium , 57-58; Duffy, "Byzantine Medicine," in Dumbarton Oaks Papers 38, ed. Scarborough, 21-27, esp. 25-27. [BACK]

217. Wilson, Scholars of Byzantium , 142-143. [BACK]

218. 16.68; while the completion of the CMG Aetius is awaited, Book 16 appears only in the unsatisfactory edition of S. Zervos, Aetii sermo sextidecimus et ultimus (Leipzig: Mangkos, 1901), of which see pp. 95 ff.; Soranus is cited on p. 97.26. An English translation is available in J. V. Ricci, Aetios of Amida: The Gynecology and Obstetrics of the Sixth Century A.D . (Philadelphia: Blakiston, 1950), where the relevant sections may be found on pp. 70-76. See also A. Garzya, "Problèmes relatifs à l'édition des livres IX-XVI du Tétrabiblon d'Aétios d'Amida," Revue des Etudes Anciennes 86 (1984): 245-257. [BACK]

219. Zervos, Aetii sermo , p.96. 1-3. [BACK]

220. Galen, On the Affected Parts 6.5 (K 8.415). [BACK]

221. Zervos, Aetii sermo , P.97.14. See further J. M. Riddle, Contraception and Abortion from the Ancient World to the Renaissance (Cambridge, Mass. and London: Harvard University Press, 1992), 92-97. Riddle argues that Aetius "displayed a knowledge of contraceptives and abortifacients greater than anyone else in antiquity, except Soranus and Dioscorides" (92).

222. Ibid., p.97.26-28.

223. Ibid., p.98.1. Debru argues that the use of the first person in other people's stories is characteristic of this genre; see Debru, "La suffocation hystérique." Note that this readiness to turn a general story into a personal experience is evident even in the writings of one person; Nutton shows that the stories Galen had read or heard thirty years before were transformed into his own eye-witness accounts in his later writings. See V. Nutton, "Style and Context in the Method of Healing ," in Galen's Method of Healing , ed. F. Kudlien and R.J. Durling (Leiden: Brill, 1991), 1-25; see pp. 12-13. [BACK]

221. Zervos, Aetii sermo , P.97.14. See further J. M. Riddle, Contraception and Abortion from the Ancient World to the Renaissance (Cambridge, Mass. and London: Harvard University Press, 1992), 92-97. Riddle argues that Aetius "displayed a knowledge of contraceptives and abortifacients greater than anyone else in antiquity, except Soranus and Dioscorides" (92).

222. Ibid., p.97.26-28.

223. Ibid., p.98.1. Debru argues that the use of the first person in other people's stories is characteristic of this genre; see Debru, "La suffocation hystérique." Note that this readiness to turn a general story into a personal experience is evident even in the writings of one person; Nutton shows that the stories Galen had read or heard thirty years before were transformed into his own eye-witness accounts in his later writings. See V. Nutton, "Style and Context in the Method of Healing ," in Galen's Method of Healing , ed. F. Kudlien and R.J. Durling (Leiden: Brill, 1991), 1-25; see pp. 12-13. [BACK]

221. Zervos, Aetii sermo , P.97.14. See further J. M. Riddle, Contraception and Abortion from the Ancient World to the Renaissance (Cambridge, Mass. and London: Harvard University Press, 1992), 92-97. Riddle argues that Aetius "displayed a knowledge of contraceptives and abortifacients greater than anyone else in antiquity, except Soranus and Dioscorides" (92).

222. Ibid., p.97.26-28.

223. Ibid., p.98.1. Debru argues that the use of the first person in other people's stories is characteristic of this genre; see Debru, "La suffocation hystérique." Note that this readiness to turn a general story into a personal experience is evident even in the writings of one person; Nutton shows that the stories Galen had read or heard thirty years before were transformed into his own eye-witness accounts in his later writings. See V. Nutton, "Style and Context in the Method of Healing ," in Galen's Method of Healing , ed. F. Kudlien and R.J. Durling (Leiden: Brill, 1991), 1-25; see pp. 12-13. [BACK]

224. Zervos, Aetii sermo , p.98.1-8; P.99.18-22.

225. Ibid., p.100.7; p.101.1-3 (= Oribasius, Synopsis 9.45.6). [BACK]

224. Zervos, Aetii sermo , p.98.1-8; P.99.18-22.

225. Ibid., p.100.7; p.101.1-3 (= Oribasius, Synopsis 9.45.6). [BACK]

226. 3.71 (CMG vol. 9.1, p.288.8-289.21). This is translated into English in Adams, The Medical Works of Paulus Aegineta , 345-346. [BACK]

227. CMG vol. 9.1, p.288.8; Greek anadrome . [BACK]

228. CMG vol. 9.1, p.288.19-20. [BACK]

229. CMG vol. 9.1, p.288.24-27; cf. Zervos, Aetii sermo , P.97.12-14. [BACK]

230. CMG vol. 9.1, p-289.6-8; Zervos, Aetii sermo , p.99.8-10 gives the same three substances. [BACK]

231. CMG vol. 9.1, p.289.16; cf. Soranus, Gynecology 3.28.1 (CMG vol. 4, p.110.22). [BACK]

232. G. Del Guerra, Il libro di Metrodora (Milan: Ceschina, 1953), 41, and "La medicina bizantina e il codice medico-ginecologica di Metrodora," Scientia Veterum 118 (1968): 67-94:89. [BACK]

233. Green, Ancient Theories of Female Physiology and Disease , 135 and 174-175 nn. 5 and 6. [BACK]

234. Baader, "Early Medieval Latin Adaptations of Byzantine Medicine," in Dumbarton Oaks Papers 38 (1984): 251-252. [BACK]

235. Muscio should be consulted in the V. Rose edition of Sorani Gynaeciorum vetus translatio Latina (Leipzig: Teubner, 1882), 4.26-29 (pp. 58-61); compare with M. F. Drabkin and I. E. Drabkin, Caelius Aurelianus . The added phrase is ascendente sursum ad pectus matrice , and it occurs at Rose p.58.9-10 and Drabkin p.76.367-368. [BACK]

236. V. Rose, Theodori Prisciani Euporiston Libri III (Leipzig: Teubner, 1894), 228-230. On Theodorus Priscianus, see O. Temkin, "History of Hippocratism in Late Antiquity: The Third Century and the Latin West," in Double Face of Janus , by Temkin, 174. [BACK]

237. V. Rose, Cassii Felicis De Medicina ex Graecis Logicae Sectae Auctoribus Liber Translatus (Leipzig: Teubner, 1879), chap. 77, PP. 187-189. See Temkin, "History of Hippocratism," in Double Face of Janus , by Temkin, 228; and Green, Ancient Theories of Female Physiology and Disease , 167. [BACK]

238. Rose, Sorani Gynaeciorum , 131-139; Baader, "Early Medieval Latin Adaptations of Byzantine Medicine," in Dumbarton Oaks Papers 38, ed. Scar-borough, 251. [BACK]

239. Green, Ancient Theories of Female Physiology and Disease , 153. [BACK]

240. For criticism of the view that Hippocratic writings were unknown in the West before the fifteenth century, see P. Kibre, "Hippocratic Writings in the Middle Ages," Bulletin of the History of Medicine 18 (1945): 373-412, and "Hippocrates Latinus," Traditio 36 (1980): 347-372, esp. p. 347 n. 1. Green, Ancient Theories of Female Physiology and Disease , 142, 146-147; Latin manuscripts such as the early ninth-century Paris BN 11219, which contains DW 1.7-38, can be traced to Ravenna. On Ravenna, see Müller-Rohlfsen, Die Lateinische Ravennatische . [BACK]

241. See further I. Mazzini and G. Flammini, De conceptu (Bologna: Patron Editore, 1983); M. E. Vazquez Bujan, El de mulierum affectibus del corpus Hippocraticum: Estudio y edición critica de la antigua traducción latina (Compostela: Universidad de Santiago, 1986); Irigoin, "Tradition manuscrite," 1-13. [BACK]

242. For a translation of this commentary, see N. Palmieri, "Un antico commento a Galeno della scuola medica di Ravenna," Physis 23 (1981): 197-296, esp. 288-289, discussed in Green, Ancient Theories of Female Physiology and Disease , 153-153. [BACK]

243. Green, " De genecia Attributed to Constantine," 311; I. Mazzini, "Ippocrate latino dei secolo V-VI: tecnica di traduzione," in I Testi di Medicina Latini Antichi: Problemi Filologici e Storici , I. Mazzini and F. Fusco, Atti del I Convegno Internazionale, Università di Macerata, Bretschneider, 1985, 383-387, esp. p. 385. [BACK]

244. Beccaria, "Antico canone latino di Ippocrate," 36 and 38-39; Kibre, "Hippocrates Latinus," 280-282; J. Agrimi, "L' Hippocrates Latinus nella tradizione manoscritta e nella cultura altomedievali," in I Testi di Medicina Latini Antichi , Mazzini and Fusco, 391-392. On the relationship between the Epistula ad Maecenatem and Vindicianus, see M. E. Vazquez Bujan, "Vindiciano y el tratado De natura generis humani," Dynamis 2 (1982): 25-56. [BACK]

245. P. Diepgen, "Reste antiker Gynäkologie im frühen Mittelalter," Quellen und Studien zur Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften 3 (1933): 226-242, esp. 228-229; G. Walter, "Peri Gynaikeion A of the Corpus Hippocraticum in a Latin Translation," Bulletin of the Institute of the History of Medicine 3 (3935): 599-606. [BACK]

246. M. Ullmann, Islamic Medicine (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1978), 8. The terms Arabic medicine and Islamic medicine are misleading; many of those whose work is considered here were not Muslims or were not of Arab origin. The reader should take warning. Veith, Hysteria , 94-97, pays little attention to the Arab world, saying merely that "the three leading Muslim physicians [Ibn Sina, Rhazes and Haly Abbas] did not write much about hysteria." The difficulty in studying the fortunes of the hysteria tradition in the Arab world is the paucity of texts available in European languages; however, since many of these works were translated into Latin, it is at least possible for the scholar without Arabic to make some preliminary comments. [BACK]

247. Irigoin, "Tradition manuscrite," 1-13; D. Lippi and S. Arieti, "La ricezione del Corpus hippocraticum nell'Islam," in I Testi di Medicina Latini Antichi , Mazzini and Fusco, 399-402; Meyerhof and Joannides, Gynécologie et l'Obstétrique chez Avicenne , 6; Ullmann, Islamic Medicine , 11; M. Meyerhof, "New Light on Hunain Ibn Ishaq and His Period," Isis 8 (1926): 685-724. [BACK]

248. R. J. Durling, "A Chronological Census of Renaissance Editions and Translations of Galen," Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 24 (1961): 230-305, esp. p. 232. See also Lippi and Arieti, "Ricezione del Corpus hippocraticum ," in I Testi di Medicina Latini Antichi , by Mazzini and Fusco, 401. [BACK]

249. M. Ullmann, "Zwei spätantike Kommentare zu der hippokratischen Schrift 'De morbis muliebribus'," Medizinhistorisches Journal 12 (1977): 245-262; Green, " De genecia Attributed to Constantine," 303 n. 15, 305 n.22; Ullmann, Islamic Medicine , 11-12. [BACK]

250. On al-Tabari, see M. Meyerhof, "Ali at-Tabari's 'Paradise of Wisdom,' One of the Oldest Arabic Compendiums of Medicine," Isis 16 (1931): 6-54, esp. 13-15; 5; E.G. Browne, Arabic Medicine (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1921), 37-40. [BACK]

251. Firdaws 2.1, chap. 16; A. Siggel, "Gynäkologie, Embryologie und Frauenhygiene aus dem 'Paradies der Weisheit Über die Medizin' des Abu Hana 'Ali b. Sahl Rabban at-Tabari nach der Ausgabe von Dr. Zubair as-Siddiqi, 1928," Quellen und Studien zur Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften und der Medizin 8 (1941): 216-272, esp. p. 242. [BACK]

252. Firdaws 4.9, chap. 17; Siggel, "Gynäkologie, Embryologie," 244-245. [BACK]

253. Ullmann, Islamic Medicine , 43. [BACK]

254. Chap. 87, De praefocatione matricis; I am using the edition of 1534, Rhasis Philosophi Tractatus nonus ad regem Almansorem, de curatione morborum particularium (Paris: Simon de Colines, 1534). [BACK]

255. Kamil I 9.39; A. A. Gewargis, Gynäkologisches aus dem Kamil as-Sina'a at-Tibbiya des 'Ali ibn al-'Abbas al-Magusi , Inaugural dissertation, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität, Erlangen-Nürnberg, 1980, 43. On al-Majusi, see Browne, Arabic Medicine , (1921), 53-57, and Meyerhof and Joannides, Gynécologie et l'Obstétrique chez Avicenne , 7. [BACK]

256. Kamil II 8.12; Gewargis, Gynäkologisches , 76. [BACK]

257. Gewargis, Gynäkologisches , 18; see further, U. Weisser, Zeugung, Vererbung und Pränatale Entwicklung in der Medizin des arabisch-islamischen Mittelalters (Erlangen: Lülung, 1983), 146-147, and U. Weisser, "Das Corpus Hippocraticum in der arabischen Medizin," in Die hippokratischen Epidemien , ed. G. Baader and R. Winau, Sudhoffs Archiv Beiheft 27 (1990): 377-408. [BACK]

258. Gewargis, Gynäkologisches , 44 and 80, picking up Aetius (Zervos p. 97.13) on the susceptibility of the young to suffocation. See also Green, Ancient Theories of Female Physiology and Disease , 114, and 'Arib ibn Sa'id, Le Livre de la Génération du Foetus et le Traitement des Femmes enceintes et des Nouveau-nés , edited and translated by H. Jahier and N. Abdelkader (Algiers: Librairie Ferraris, 1956). [BACK]

259. Gewargis, Gynäkologisches , 77. [BACK]

260. On Ibn al-Jazzar, see J. Schönfeld, "Die Zahnheilkunde im 'Kitab Zad al-musafir' des al-Gazzar,'' Sudhoffs Archiv 58 (1974): 380-403; R. Jazi, "Millénaire d'Ibn al-Jazzar, pharmacien maghrébin, médecin des pauvres et des déshérités," Revue d'Histoire de la Pharmacie 33 (1986): 5-12, 108-120; idem, "Aphrodisiaqu es et médicaments de la reproduction chez Ibn al-Jazzar, méde-cin et pharmacien maghrébin du x e siècle," Revue d'Histoire de la Pharmacie 34 (1987): 155-170, 943-959; M. W. Dols, Medieval Islamic Medicine: Ibn Ridwan's Treatise 'On the Prevention of Bodily Ills in Egypt ' (Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press, 1973), 67-69. [BACK]

261. Here I am using the Latin translation of the Viaticum given in Opera Ysaac (Lyons: B. Trot & J. de Platea, 1515), an abbreviated form of the Arabic text; the Viaticum version of this chapter is conveniently given by Green in Ancient Theories of Female Physiology and Disease , 249. [BACK]

262. Ullmann, Islamic Medicine , 46; on Avicenna in the West, see N. Siraisi, Avicenna in Renaissance Italy: The Canon and Medical Teaching in Italian Universities after 1500 (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1987). [BACK]

263. Qanun III 21.4.16-19. I am using the ed. Libri in re medica omnes (2 vols.), 949-943 (Venice: Valgrisi, 1564). Meyerhof and Joannides, Gynécologie et l'Obstétrique chez Avicenne , p. 66, argue that rubbing aromatic oil into the mouth of the womb to imitate copulation, as recommended by Avicenna, is absent from Greek medicine—yet it is present not only in Galen but also in the Hippocratic corpus. [BACK]

264. Green, Ancient Theories of Female Physiology and Disease , 75-76 and 119-120, nn. 9-10. [BACK]

265. Diseases of Young Girls , also known as On Virgins , L 8.466-470; Ullmann, Die Medizin im Islam , 32. [BACK]

266. Diagnoses of hysteria in E. T. Withington, "The Asclepiadae and the Priests of Asclepius," in Studies in the History and Method of Science , ed. C. Singer, vol. 2 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1921), 192-905, esp. p. 200; Diepgen, Die Frauenheilkunde der Alten Welt , 194; W. D. Smith, "So-called Possession in Pre-Christian Greece," Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 96 (1965): 403-426 esp. p. 406; B. Simon, Mind and Madness in Ancient Greece , 243; Lefkowitz, Heroines and Hysterics , 14; Manuli, "Donne mascoline, femmine sterili," in Madre Materia , Campese, Manuli, and Sissa (Turin: Boringhieri, 1983), 147-192, esp. p. 161. For discussion of the text and its probable context of menarche, see H. King, "Bound to Bleed: Artemis and Greek Women," in Images of Women in Antiquity , ed. A. Cameron and A. Kuhrt (London: Croom Helm, 1983), 109-127; H. King, From Parthenos to Gyne: The Dynamics of Category , Ph.D. thesis, University of London, 1985, 175-182. [BACK]

267. Green, Ancient Theories of Female Physiology and Disease , 132-133. [BACK]

268. J. L. Heiberg, Pauli Aeginetae libri tertii interpretatio Latina antiqua (Leipzig: Teubner, 1912), xiii, cited by Green, Ancient Theories of Female Physiology and Disease , 184, n. 82. [BACK]

269. F. P. Egert, Gynähologische Fragmente aus dem frühen Mittelalter nach einer Petersburger Handschrift aus dem VII-IX Jahrhundert (Berlin: Ebering, 1936).

270. Ibid., I 26.

271. Ibid., II 16; see discussion on p. 54.

272. Ibid., III 23. [BACK]

269. F. P. Egert, Gynähologische Fragmente aus dem frühen Mittelalter nach einer Petersburger Handschrift aus dem VII-IX Jahrhundert (Berlin: Ebering, 1936).

270. Ibid., I 26.

271. Ibid., II 16; see discussion on p. 54.

272. Ibid., III 23. [BACK]

269. F. P. Egert, Gynähologische Fragmente aus dem frühen Mittelalter nach einer Petersburger Handschrift aus dem VII-IX Jahrhundert (Berlin: Ebering, 1936).

270. Ibid., I 26.

271. Ibid., II 16; see discussion on p. 54.

272. Ibid., III 23. [BACK]

269. F. P. Egert, Gynähologische Fragmente aus dem frühen Mittelalter nach einer Petersburger Handschrift aus dem VII-IX Jahrhundert (Berlin: Ebering, 1936).

270. Ibid., I 26.

271. Ibid., II 16; see discussion on p. 54.

272. Ibid., III 23. [BACK]

273. H. Schipperges, "Die Assimilation der arabischen Medizin durch das lateinische Mittelalter," Sudhoffs Archiv Beiheft 3 (Wiesbaden, 1964); Green, " De genecia Attributed to Constantine," 299-323; G. Baader, "Early Medieval Latin Adaptations of Byzantine Medicine," in Dumbarton Oaks Papers 38 (1984), 259; Durling, "Renaissance Editions and Translations of Galen," 233; on Constantinus Africanus, see P.O. Kristeller, ''The School of Salerno: Its Development and Its Contribution to the History of Learning," Bulletin of the History of Medicine 17 (1945): 138-194. [BACK]

274. Green, "Constantinus Africanus and the Conflict between Religion and Science," in The Human Embryo: Aristotle and the Arabic and European Traditions , ed. G. R. Dunstan (Exeter: University of Exeter Press, 1990), 47-69, esp. pp. 49 and 62 n. 7. [BACK]

275. Ullmann, Islamic Medicine , 53-54; Green, Ancient Theories of Female Physiology and Disease , 220. [BACK]

276. Green, Ancient Theories of Female Physiology and Disease , 234. On the school of Salerno, see Kristeller, "School of Salerno," 138-194; G. Baader, "Die Schule von Salerno," Medizinhistorisches Journal 13 (1978): 124-145. [BACK]

277. S. de Renzi, Collectio Salernitana II (Naples: Filiatre-Sebezio, 1853), 338-339; Green, Ancient Theories of Female Physiology and Disease , 263-266, and Monica Green, pers. comm. 16.11.91. [BACK]

278. Green, Ancient Theories of Female Physiology and Disease , 267-268.

279. Ibid., 303 nn. 49 and 50, 306 n. 68, 310 n. 90; S. M. Stuard, "Dame Trot," Signs 1 (1975): 537-542; J. F. Benton, "Trotula, Women's Problems, and the Professionalization of Medicine in the Middle Ages," Bulletin of the History of Medicine 59 (1985): 30-53. Monica Green is currently editing the Trotula manuscripts. [BACK]

278. Green, Ancient Theories of Female Physiology and Disease , 267-268.

279. Ibid., 303 nn. 49 and 50, 306 n. 68, 310 n. 90; S. M. Stuard, "Dame Trot," Signs 1 (1975): 537-542; J. F. Benton, "Trotula, Women's Problems, and the Professionalization of Medicine in the Middle Ages," Bulletin of the History of Medicine 59 (1985): 30-53. Monica Green is currently editing the Trotula manuscripts. [BACK]

280. Green, Ancient Theories of Female Physiology and Disease , 274-275.

281. Ibid., 285 and n. 91; the text is also given in n. 91.

282. Ibid., 316. [BACK]

280. Green, Ancient Theories of Female Physiology and Disease , 274-275.

281. Ibid., 285 and n. 91; the text is also given in n. 91.

282. Ibid., 316. [BACK]

280. Green, Ancient Theories of Female Physiology and Disease , 274-275.

281. Ibid., 285 and n. 91; the text is also given in n. 91.

282. Ibid., 316. [BACK]

283. On its date see D. W. Peterson, "Observations on the Chronology of the Galenic Corpus," Bulletin of the History of Medicine 51 (1977): 484-495; on Renaissance editions, see Durling, "Renaissance Editions and Translations of Galen," 243. [BACK]

284. Kibre, "Hippocratic Writings in the Middle Ages," 380; but see Nutton, "Hippocrates in the Renaissance," in Hippokratischen Epidemien , by Baader and Winau: p. 437 points out that the Paracelsian Petrus Antonius Severinus rejected the Aphorisms as part of his recasting of Hippocrates in a Paracelsian mold. [BACK]

285. P. O. Kristeller, "Bartholomaeus, Musandinus and Maurus of Salerno and Other Early Commentators of the 'Articella,' with a Tentative List of Texts and Manuscripts," Italia Medioevale e Umanistica 19 (1976): 57-87, esp. pp. 59 and 65. [BACK]

286. A. Beccaria, "Sulle tracce di un antico canone latino di Ippocrate e di Galeno II: Gli Aforismi di Ippocrate nella versione e nei commenti del primo medioevo," Italia Medioevale e Umanistica 4 (1961): 1-75, esp. p. 23. [BACK]

287. Müller-Rohlfsen, Die Lateinische Ravennatische , xviii-xix and 72. [BACK]

288. I am using the first edition of 1476, published by N. Petri at Padua. On the Articella , see Kibre, "Hippocratic Writings in the Middle Ages," 382-384; Baader, "Early Medieval Latin Adaptations of Byzantine Medicine," in Dumbarton Oaks Papers 38, ed. Scarborough, 259; Nutton, "Hippocrates in the Renaissance,'' in Hippokratischen Epidemien , ed. Baader and Winau, 420-439; Kristeller, "Other Early Commentators of the 'Articella,'" 57-87; on the translation of Aphorisms used, see pp. 66-67. [BACK]

289. De sternutatione, p. xliiii r ; De membris generationis in femellis, p. xlviii r . [BACK]

290. See Nutton, "Hippocrates in the Renaissance," in Hippokratischen Epidemien , ed. Baader and Winau: pp. 425-426 discuss how the "unity between Galen and Hippocrates was reinforced by the power of print." [BACK]

291. Galen, In Hippocratis Aphorismi , K 17B.824. [BACK]

292. The 1493 edition does not give the aphorisms themselves in full: see Ugo Benzi, Senensis super aphorismos Hypo. et super commentus Gal. eius interpretis (Ferrara: Laurentium de Valentia et Andrea de Castro Novo, 1493). For the full version, see Expositio Ugonis Senensis super aphorismos Hypocratis et super commentum Galieni (Venice: B. Locatellus, 1498), p. 125 r . See D. P. Lockwood, Ugo Benzi: Medieval Philosopher and Physician 1376-1439 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951), 35-36 and 217-219. Benzi tidies up the translation, giving the correct form, molestatur , in place of the molestat or molestant of other versions. [BACK]

293. Lorenzo Laurenziani, In Sententias Hippocratis praefatio (Florence: Antonius Miscominus), 1494. [BACK]

294. Niccolò Leoniceno, Commentum Nicoli super aphorismos (Bononie: Benedictum Hectoris, 1522). [BACK]

295. Antonio Musa Brasavola, In octo libros aphorismorum Hippocratis et Galeni, Commentaria et Annotationes (Basel: Froben, 1541), 828. On Brasavola, see Nut-ton, "Medicine, Diplomacy and Finance: The Prefaces to a Hippocratic Commentary of 1541," in New Perspectives on Renaissance Thought: Essays in the History of Science, Education and Philosophy in Memory of Charles B. Schmitt , eds. J. Henry and S. Hutton (London: Duckworth, 1990), 230-243. [BACK]

296. Leonhart Fuchs, In Hippocratis Coi septem Aphorismorum libris commentaria (Paris: Roigny, 1545), 412-413; the discussion of lunga versus pniga is on pp. 414-415. [BACK]

297. Guillaume Plancy, Galen in Aphorismi Hippocratis commentarius (Lyons: Roville, 1552), 340. [BACK]

298. Claude Champier, Aphorismi ex nova Claudii Campensii interpretatione (Lyons: C. Ravot, 1579), 120; Jacques Houllier, In Aphorismos Hippocratis commentarii septem (Paris: Jacques de Puys, 1582), 284-285. [BACK]

299. I. M. Lonie, "The 'Paris Hippocratics': Teaching and Research in Paris in the Second Half of the Sixteenth Century," in The Medical Renaissance of the Sixteenth Century , ed. A. Wear and R. K. French (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985), 155-174, esp. pp. 158-160. [BACK]

300. The Whole Aphorismes of Great Hippocrates (trans. S. H.) (London: H. L. for Richard Redmer, 1610), 93. [BACK]

301. B. L. Sloane ms. 2811, p. 23. [BACK]

302. B. L. Sloane ms. 2117, p. 23 v and p. 281 r . [BACK]

303. See for example the thirteenth-century work of Walter Agilon in P. Diepgen, Gualteri Agilonis, Summa medicinalis: Nach den Münchener Cod. lat. Nr 325 und 13124 erstmalig ediert mit einer vergleichenden Betrachtung älterer medizinischer Kompendien des Mittelalters (Leipzig: Johann Ambrosius Barth, 1911), chap. 42 of which, on suffocation of the womb, is heavily dependent on Ibn Sina, and includes a version of the woman who lay as if dead, in which Galen becomes the hero-narrator (p. 149). Also from the thirteenth century is the De naturis rerum of Thomas of Brabant; chap. 59 on the womb discusses suffocation. See C. Ferckel, Die Gynäkologie des Thomas von Brabant: Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis der mittelalterlichen Gynäikologie und ihrer Quellen (Munich: Carl Kühn, 1912). The De proprietatibus rerum of Bartholomeus Anglicus (d. 1260) also includes suffocation in a general chapter on the womb, in Book 5 chap. 49 (Strasbourg: G. Husner, 1485); so does the thirteenth-century work of Joannes Actuarius, Methodi Medendi libri sex , in Book 4 chap. 8 (Venice: Gualterio Scoto, 1554). The material is thus copied from text to text, becoming increasingly familiar—an essential section in any work claiming the status of encyclopedia. For its appearance in a more specialized work, see also the fifteenth-century Middle English text given by M.-R. Hallaert, The 'Sekenesse of wymmen': A Middle English Treatise on Diseases in Women , Scripta 8 (Brussels: OMIREL, UFSAL, 1982), in which lines 375-482, describe "suffocation of the mother" (i.e., of the womb). [BACK]

304. Pieter van Foreest, Observationum et curationum medicinalium, liber vigesimusoctavus, de mulierum morbis (Leyden: Plantin, 1599).

305. Ibid., 154-155.

306. Ibid., 167: Hysterica vitulo se simulat esse marito.

307. Ibid., 167: Et hoc est verum. [BACK]

304. Pieter van Foreest, Observationum et curationum medicinalium, liber vigesimusoctavus, de mulierum morbis (Leyden: Plantin, 1599).

305. Ibid., 154-155.

306. Ibid., 167: Hysterica vitulo se simulat esse marito.

307. Ibid., 167: Et hoc est verum. [BACK]

304. Pieter van Foreest, Observationum et curationum medicinalium, liber vigesimusoctavus, de mulierum morbis (Leyden: Plantin, 1599).

305. Ibid., 154-155.

306. Ibid., 167: Hysterica vitulo se simulat esse marito.

307. Ibid., 167: Et hoc est verum. [BACK]

304. Pieter van Foreest, Observationum et curationum medicinalium, liber vigesimusoctavus, de mulierum morbis (Leyden: Plantin, 1599).

305. Ibid., 154-155.

306. Ibid., 167: Hysterica vitulo se simulat esse marito.

307. Ibid., 167: Et hoc est verum. [BACK]

308. Jorden, A Briefe Discourse of a Disease Called the Suffocation of the Mother . [BACK]

309. T. Laqueur, Making Sex: Body and Gender from the Greeks to Freud (Cambridge, Mass., and London: Harvard University Press, 1990), 99; for a more optimistic view of the relationship between science and experience in this period see D. Jacquart and C. Thomasset, Sexuality and Medicine in the Middle Ages (Cambridge: Polity Press in association with Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1988), 46. [BACK]

310. Jorden, Disease Called the Suffocation of the Mother , 10 v . [BACK]

311. Guillaume de Baillou, De virginum et mulierum morbis (Paris: J. Quesnel, 1643), 206. [BACK]

312. Thomas Laycock, A Treatise on the Nervous Diseases of Women (London: Longman, 1840), 317-318; based on Daniel Le Clerc, Histoire de la Médecine , p. 85 of the edition of 1702. [BACK]

313. Leigh Hunt, A Legend of Florence (London: Edward Moxon, 1840). [BACK]

314. Durling, "Renaissance Editions and Translations of Galen," 245; Geo wargis, Gynäkologisches , 6. [BACK]

315. M. F. Wack, Lovesickness in the Middle Ages: The Viaticum and Its Commentaries (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1990), 292 n. 6. [BACK]

Two— "A Strange Pathology": Hysteria in the Early Modern World, 1500-1800

1. This raises the philosophical question about medical categories as distinct from others; some discussion of the subject is found in Lester King, The Philosophy of Medicine: The Early Eighteenth Century (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1978), 49-50, in the context of Greek philosophy and medicine. Throughout this chapter the question of medical categories never lies far from my imagination. What can a "medical malady" or "medical condition" be if it can embrace almost every type of symptom? [BACK]

2. This fact should not cause students such as those of us who contribute to this book to become positivists and think we can know everything about hysteria as a philosophical, medical, and representational category; for hysteria and representation see below in this section and in section XIV; for the dangers of such belief see Edward Davenport, "The Devils of Positivism," in Literature and Science: Theory and Practice , ed. Stuart Peterfreund (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1990), 17-31. The "is" and "as is" of hysteria is a double-headed hydra. [BACK]

3. The generalization must be qualified: For the intimate connection between hysteria and psychoanalysis, pre- and post-Lacanian, see Alan Krohn, "Hysteria: The Elusive Neurosis," in Psychological Issues (New York: International Universities Press, 1978); Monique David-Ménard, Hysteria from Freud to Lacan: Body and Language in Psychoanalysis (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1989); and the important bibliographical detective work of Mark Micale, "On the 'Disappearance' of Hysteria: A Study in the Clinical Deconstruction of a Diagnosis," unpublished paper delivered to the Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London (1988), and "Hysteria and Its Historiography: A Review of Past and Present Writings," History of Science 27 (1989): 223-260, 317-351. [BACK]

4. Discussions of the strange disappearance of hysteria include: Mark Micale's works (n. 3); Krohn, "Hysteria"; and, from a literary point of view, the fiction of Marguerite Duras (see sections II and III). For conversion syndrome, see M. I. Weintraub, Hysterical Conversion Reactions: A Clinical Guide to Diagnosis and Treatment (Lancaster: MTP Press, 1983); David-Ménard, Hysteria from Freud to Lacan . [BACK]

5. Female sexuality is not, of course, synonymous with feminism or any other political women's movement; what I designate by the threat of female sexuality in history is eloquently discussed in Caroline Bynum, ed., Gender and Religion: On the Complexity of Symbols (Boston: Beacon Press, 1986); Elaine Showalter, The Female Malady: Women, Madness and English Culture, 1830-1980 (London: Virago, 1987); Susan Rubin Suleiman, ed., The Female Body in Western Culture: Contemporary Perspectives (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1985). [BACK]

6. Such vigilance paid to the linguistic aspects of scientific and medical discourse has been at the top of my own agenda for two decades; see G. S. Rousseau, Enlightenment Borders: Scientific—Medical: Pre- and Postmodern Discourses (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1991). I use the term "emplot" (i.e., emplotted, emplotment, emplotments) to denote the way cultural practices and material conditions are encoded in a discourse, and throughout this chapter I particularly want to understand how various medical theories of hysteria assume a particular vision of culture and then emplot that vision into a text. Questions of further representation, genre, and rhetoric are another matter. [BACK]

7. For the claim and its limits, see G. S. Rousseau, "Medicine and the Muses: An Approach to Literature and Medicine," in Medicine and Literature , ed. Marie Roberts and Roy Porter (London: Routledge, 1993), 23-57. For numbness and headache among hysterical types, see Oliver Sacks, Migraine: The Evolution of a Common Disorder (Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press, 1985), 196-207. See also section IX for Willis's model of hysteria in relation to migraine. [BACK]

8. See sections III and IX for detailed discussion of Sydenham's theories and therapies. [BACK]

9. See Krohn, "Hysteria," 343. [BACK]

10. Even the most theoretical and philosophically advanced of medical theorists has avoided this matter of category, and Micale's various bibliographical studies (n. 3) do not address the issue. [BACK]

11. I take this to be a main point of David Morris's chapter on hysteria in his fine study of The Languages of Pain (Berkeley, Los Angeles, Oxford: University of California Press, 1992). [BACK]

12. William Shakespeare, Hamlet, The Riverside Shakespeare , ed. G. B. Evans (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1974), l.ii. 82. The standard work is by R. Klibansky et al., Saturn and Melancholy (London: Nelson, 1964). For the relation of eros and ecstasy see Arthur Evans, The God of Ecstasy (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1988), and M. Screech, Ecstasy and the Praise of Folly (London: Duck-worth, 1980). For Lacan biographically and in relation to hysteria, see: Stuart Schneiderman, Jacques Lacan: The Death of an Intellectual Hero (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1983); Elizabeth Roudinesco, Jacques Lacan and Co.: A History of Psychoanalysis in France (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1987); Catherine Clement, The Life and Legend of Jacques Lacan , trans. Arthur Goldhammer (New York: Columbia University Press, 1983). [BACK]

13. This remains one of the main points, collectively speaking, of the ten authors writing in G. S. Rousseau, ed., The Languages of Psyche: Mind and Body in Enlightenment Thought (Berkeley, Los Angeles, Oxford: University of California Press, 1990). [BACK]

14. See Julia Kristeva, Desire in Language: A Semiotic Approach to Literature and Art (New York: Columbia University Press, 1980), and idem, Black Sun: Depression and Melancholia (New York: Columbia University Press, 1989). The trope of hysteria and melancholy is pervasive in her writing, as her best commentators have recognized: see, for example, J. Fletcher and A. Benjamin, eds., Abjection, Melancholia and Love: The Work of Julia Kristeva (London: Routledge, 1989). [BACK]

15. Michel Foucault, The History of Sexuality, Vol. 1, An Introduction (London: Penguin, 1978), 104. [BACK]

16. "Numbing" was not a term commonly used in any language in the period preeminently discussed in this chapter, although for a contemporary use in a medical context see M. Liger, M.D., "A Treatise on the Gout: From the French of M. Charles Luis Liger," Critical Review (April 1760): 283-288. Nevertheless, I continue to invoke it fully aware of its somewhat anachronistic usage and based on its common appearance in twentieth-century parlance and printed writing, especially in the works of such "nervous writers" as Virginia Woolf, Simon de Beauvoir, Marguerite Duras, and Samuel Beckett. In English, the word had acquired several usages by 1800, especially in physiological and medical contexts, but was not regularly used in the vocabulary of the nerves. For the standard definitions in English ca. 1750, see Samuel Johnson, A Dictionary of the English Language , 2 vols. (London, 1755). [BACK]

17. The extended quarrel of the ancients and moderns, which is seminal for any understanding of the period covered by this chapter, taught its contestants as much, and we do well to learn from the intellectual ravages of three centuries; see R. F. Jones, Ancients and Moderns (St. Louis: Washington University Press, 1936), and Joseph Levine, Humanism and History: Origins of Modern English Historiography (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1987). [BACK]

18. See George Lincoln Burr, "The Literature of Witchcraft," Papers of the American Historical Association 4 (1890): 37-66; Henry Charles Lea, "Materials toward a History of Witchcraft" (Philadelphia, 1939; reprint, New York and London: T. Yoseloff, 1957); Russell Hope Robbins, The Encyclopedia of Witchcraft and Demonology (New York: Crown, 1959); and the several books by William Monter, the acknowledged expert on European witchcraft. [BACK]

19. The literature is reviewed in J. Dall'Ava Santucci, Des sorciè aux mandarines: Histoire des femmes médecins (Paris: Calmann-Levy, 1989). [BACK]

20. It is found in and has its own curious provenance, having been quoted by many writers in the last century, and by some who figure in this chapter, having often been cited by Marguerite Duras and, most recently, by David Morris; see Marguerite Duras, Writing on the Body (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1987), and David Morris, The Culture of Pain (Berkeley, Los Angeles, Oxford: University of California Press, 1991), chap. 5. Curiously, Monter does not discuss the account in his many books on witchcraft. [BACK]

21. Jules Michelet, Satanism and Witchcraft: A Study in Medieval Superstition (New York: Citadel Press, 1939), 23, 39, 41, 79, 327-329. [BACK]

22. See Kristeva, Desire in Language , and David-Ménard, Hysteria from Freud to Lacan , who extends Kristeva's jouissance to the whole field of knowledge but without relating it to hysteria in the way I attempt here. [BACK]

23. T. F. Graham, Medieval Minds: Mental Health in the Middle Ages (London: Allen & Unwin, 1967); T. K. Oesterreich, Possession: Demoniacal and Other (New York: Richard R. Smith, 1930); Robbins, The Encyclopedia of Witchcraft and Demonology ; John Demos, Entertaining Satan: Witchcraft and the Culture of Early New England (New York: Oxford University Press, 1982). [BACK]

24. For mass hysteria see Bryan Wilson, Magic and the Millennium: A Sociological Study of Religious Movements of Protest among Tribal and Third-World Peoples (London: Heinemann, 1973); Michael J. Colligan et al., eds., Mass Psychogenic Illness: A Social Psychological Analysis (Hillsdale, N.J.: L. Erlbaum Assoc., 1982). As late as 1989, several hundred musical performers became violently ill in the Santa Monica Civic Auditorium in California. A team of UCLA psychiatrists investigated the case and published their findings in the American Journal of Psychiatry , reporting that this was a classic case of "group psychogenic illness." See J. Scott, "1989 Santa Monica Illness That Struck 247 called Mass Hysteria," Los Angeles Times , September 4, 1991 (B1, 3). The Los Angeles riots of April 1992, may in time receive a similar diagnosis. [BACK]

25. An early work making this point is Albertus Krantz's De passionibus mulierum (1544); see also Kate Campbell Hurd-Mead, A History of Women in Medicine, from the Earliest Times to the Beginning of the Nineteenth Century (Haddam, Conn.: Haddam Press, 1938); Michael MacDonald, "Women and Madness in Tudor and Stuart England," Social Research 53, no. 2 (1986): 261-281; Caroline Walker Bynum, Holy Feast and Holy Fast: The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval Women (Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press, 1987); Alexander Walker, Woman Physiologically Considered, as to Mind, Morals, Marriage, Matrimonial Slavery, Infidelity and Divorce (Hartford, Conn., 1851); D. P. Walker, Spiritual and Demonic Magic from Ficino to Campanella (London : Warburg Institute, 1958); idem, Unclean Spirits: Possession and Exorcism in France and England in the Late Sixteenth and Early Seventeenth Centuries (London: Scholar Press, 1981); Keith Thomas, Religion and the Decline of Magic (Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin, 1973); Brian Easlea, Witch Hunting, Magic and the New Philosophy (Brighton, Sussex: Harvester, 1980), esp. chap. 4. [BACK]

26. For further evidence see Graham, Medieval Minds ; B. L. Gordon, Medieval and Renaissance Medicine (London: Peter Owen, 1959); Richard Neugebauer, "Treatment of the Mentally Ill in Medieval and Early Modern England: A Reappraisal," Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences 14 (1978): 158-169; Beryl Rowland, Medieval Woman's Guide to Health (Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1981); Mary Frances Wack, Lovesickness in the Middle Ages: The Viaticum and Its Commentaries (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1990), the most useful of these works for hysteria, especially for her commentary on Bona For-tuna's fourteenth-century Treatise on the Viaticum ; see Wack, Lovesickness in the Middle Ages , 131, 174-179, 290-291. [BACK]

27. Wack, Lovesickness in the Middle Ages , 175. The classic work is, of course, Jacques Ferrand's 1623 Treatise on Lovesickness , ed. Donald A. Beecher and Massimo Ciavolella (Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 1989). [BACK]

28. Examples are found in S. Anglo, The Damned Art: Essays in the Literature of Witchcraft (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1985). Comparison of these images with modern ones of the hypnotic prove useful; see Leon Chertok and Isabelle Stengers, Le coeur et la raison: L'hypnose en question de Lavoisier a Lacan (Paris: Editions Payot, 1989). [BACK]

29. Oesterreich's Possession: Demoniacal and Other is still useful, but also see A. Rodewyk, Die dämonische Besessenheit in der Sicht des Rituale Romanum (Aschaffenburg: Paul Pattloch Verlag, 1963). [BACK]

30. See these works by Marguerite Duras: The Lover (New York: Grove Press, 1976); The Malady of Death (New York: Grove Press, 1986); and Writing on the Body . [BACK]

31. This example assumes upper-class hysterics; hysteria in relation to poverty and poor nerves is discussed in sections IX and XIV. [BACK]

32. The point has been eloquently made by Morris in The Languages of Pain , chap. 5. The locales also provide surfeits of pleasure; this point about pleasure must be stressed. [BACK]

33. Easlea, Witch Hunting , esp. chap. 4; Demos, Entertaining Satan . [BACK]

34. P. Janet, L'état mental des hystériques , 2d ed. (Paris: F. Alcan, 1911), 708. [BACK]

35. See Alice Jardine, Gynesis: Configurations of Woman and Modernity (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1985); R. Satow, "Where Has All the Hysteria Gone?" Psychoanalytic Review 66 (1979-80): 463-477; Patricia Fedikew, "Marguerite Duras: Feminine Field of Hysteria," Enclitic 6 (1982):78-86. This form of analysis has been developed with regard to Kristeva and Lacan in David-Ménard, Hysteria from Freud to Lacan , and in William Holsz, Sexual Subversions (London: Allen & Unwin, 1989). [BACK]

36. Such numbness, however, does not figure into recent medical analyses: see Gilbert H. Glaser, "Epilepsy, Hysteria and 'Possession,'" Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 166, no. 4 (1978): 268-274; S. B. Guze, "The Diagnosis of Hysteria: What Are We Trying to Do?" American Journal of Psychiatry 124 (1967): 491-498. For comparison between the nineteenth century and earlier periods and the broad cultural factors involved, see J. Goldstein, "The Hysteria Diagnosis and the Politics of Anticlericalism in Late Nineteenth Century France," Journal of Modern History 54 (1982): 209-239, and idem, Console and Classify: The French Psychiatric Profession in the Nineteenth Century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991). [BACK]

37. See William B. Ober, "Margery Kempe: Hysteria and Mysticism Reconciled," in Bottoms Up! A Pathologist's Essays on Medicine and the Humanities (Carbondale, Ill.: Southern Illinois University Press, 1987), 203-220; C. M. Bache, "A Reappraisal of Teresa of Avila's Supposed Hysteria," Journal of Religion and Health 24 (1985): 300-315. [BACK]

38. Not surprisingly, there is no male equivalent containing an ideology even remotely similar to the one found in the feminist agenda. What indeed do contemporary feminists say about male hysteria? For a start, see Micale above. [BACK]

39. For the philosophical problem of representation, at least since the advent of the Cartesian revolution in thought, see Dalia Judovitz, Subjectivity and Representation in Descartes: The Origins of Modernity , Cambridge Studies in French, ed. Malcolm Bowie (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988); and, for more recent times, James L. Larson, Reason and Experience: The Representation of Natural Order in the Worm of Carl yon Linné (Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press, 1971), and Richard Rorty, Contingency, Irony, and Solidarity (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989); idem, Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature (Princeton , N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1980). [BACK]

40. Sources for Sydenham are provided in n. 41 and in Sections V-VII. [BACK]

41. For Sydenham, see especially Kenneth Dewhurst, Dr. Thomas Sydenham (1624-1689): His Life and Original Writings (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1966). Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, the brilliant aristocrat, world traveler, and friend of poet Alexander Pope, was deeply impressed by Sydenham's ability to describe the real condition of hysteria: ''I have seen so much of hysterical complaints, tho' Heaven be praised I never felt them, I know it is an obstinate and very uneasy distemper, tho' never fatal unless when Quacks undertake to cure it. I have even observed that those who are troubled with it commonly live to old age. Lady Stair is one instance; I remember her screaming and crying when Miss Primrose, my selfe, and other girls were dancing 2 rooms distant. Lady Fanny has but a slight touch of this distemper: read Dr. Sydenham; you will find the analyse of that and many other diseases, with a candor I never found in any other author. I confess I never had faith in any other physician, living or dead. Mr. Locke places him in the same rank with Sir Isaac Newton, and the Italians call him the English Hippocrates. I own I am charmed with his taking off the reproach which you men so saucily throw on our sex, as if we alone were subject to vapours. He clearly proves that your wise honourable spleen is the same disorder and arises from the same cause; but you vile usurpers do not only engross learning, power, and authority to yourselves, but will be our superiors even in constitution of mind, and fancy you are incapable of the woman's weakness of fear and tenderness" ( The Complete Letters of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu , ed. Robert Halsband [Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1965], 3:171). Dr. Thomas Trotter, the influential early nineteenth-century English physician, thought that Sydenham and Cheyne had been the two most influential physicians of the last hundred years barring none; see Ida Macalpine and Richard Hunter, George III and the Mad Business (New York: Pantheon Books, 1969), 290. [BACK]

42. For the word "nervous" set into its cultural context and a history of this development, see G. S. Rousseau, "The Language of the Nerves: A Chapter in Social and Linguistic History," in Language, Self, and Society: A Social History of Language , 2d ed., ed. Peter Burke and Roy Porter (Oxford: Polity Press, 1991), 213-275. [BACK]

43. Good surveys of this science and Sydenham's role in it are found in Michael Hunter, Science and Society in Restoration England (New York and Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981); idem, The Royal Society and Its Fellows, 1660-1700: The Morphology of an Early Scientific Institution (Chalfont St. Giles, Bucks: British Society for the History of Science, 1982). [BACK]

44. Sydenham's notion of imitation ( imitatio ) was the traditional Aristotelian one described in the Poetics ; for textual examples see Thomas Sydenham, "Processes Integri: Chap. 1: On the Affection Called Hysteria in Women; and Hypochondriasis in Men," in The Works of Thomas Sydenham, M.D ., trans. R. G. Latham, 2 vols. (London: Sydenham Society, 1848-1850), 1: 281-286, and idem, The Whole Works of That Excellent Practical Physician (London, 1705). [BACK]

45. A synchronic view of hysteria evaluates all its theories at once by comparative and dialectical means; a diachronic view allows them to evolve chronologically, decade by decade. The difficulty with the latter is that narrators generating the diachronic story pretend in one decade (e.g., the 1730s) that they do not know its influence on the next (e.g., the 1740s), which they of course do, and this entails a myth about diachronic method they themselves never believe. The linguistic theorists of the period covered in this chapter were often searching for synchronic structures in the development of languages. [BACK]

46. See sections IX and XIV.

47. Ibid. See n. 174 below. [BACK]

46. See sections IX and XIV.

47. Ibid. See n. 174 below. [BACK]

48. The hysteria of Duras's women continues to be narrated by others as well. For example, in Jim Harrison's 1990 short story "The Woman Lit by Fireflies," the protagonist suffers from the same agonies; see The New Yorker , July 23, 1990, pp. 26-55. [BACK]

49. This point remains the thrust of Krohn's work in "Hysteria" (n. 3), in which the author lays equal emphasis on psychosomatic medicine and psychoanalysis. For the psychosomatic connection in the English Enlightenment, see John Midriff's marvelously satirical and humorous Observations on the Spleen and Vapours: Containing Remarkable Cases of Persons of both Sexes, and all Ranks, from the aspiring Directors to the Humble Bubbler, who have been miserably afflicted with these Melancholy Disorders since the Fall of the South-sea, and other publick Stocks; with the proper Method for their Recovery, according to the new and uncommon Circumstances of each Case (London, 1720), and W. F. Brown, "Descartes, Dualism and Psycho-somatic Medicine," in The Anatomy of Madness , ed. W. F. Bynum, Roy Porter, and Michael Shepherd (London: Tavistock Publications, 1985), 2: 40-62. [BACK]

50. For the background see A. E. Taylor, A Commentary on Plato's Timaeus (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1928), 638-640; G. E. R. Lloyd, Science, Folklore, and Ideology (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983). [BACK]

51. Plato's view, as I have suggested, was that of the womb as living animal; see D. F. Krell, "Female Parts in Timaeus," Arion 2 (1975): 400-421. For phallo-cratic discourse and the role of women, see Eva C. Keuls, The Reign of the Phallus: Sexual Politics in Ancient Greece (New York: Harper & Row, 1985). For the Renaissance modification of this view, see Krant, De passionibus mulierum (1544); Edward Shorter, A History of Women's Bodies (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1983); idem, Women in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance: Literary and Historical Perspective (Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1986); Mary Beth Rose, Women in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance: Literary and Historical Perspective (Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1986); I. MacLean, The Renaissance Notion of Woman (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980); Joan Kelly-Gadol, "Did Women Have a Renaissance?" in Becoming Visible: Women in European History , ed. Renate Bridenthal and Claudia Koonz (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1967). [BACK]

52. Nowhere is this better seen than in the historiography of hysteria provided by Micale in his various works; see n. 3. [BACK]

53. See especially the contemporary testimonies in J. De Valmont, Dissertation sur les Maléfices et les Sorciers selon les principes de la théologie et de la physique, où l'on examine en particulier l'état de la fille de Tourcoing (Tourcoing, 1752); A. Galopin, Les hystériques des couvents, des églises, des temples, des theatres, des synagogues, et de l'amour (Paris, 1886); Klibansky et al., Saturn and Melancholy (n. 12); Catherine-Laurence Maire, Les convulsionnaires de Saint-Médard: Miracles, convulsions et propéties Paris au XVIIIe siécle , Collection Archives (Paris: Gallimard Julliard, 1985). [BACK]

54. Krohn, "Hysteria," all the more evident because hysteria is so "real" and afflicts patients suffering ''real" symptoms. [BACK]

55. Looking ahead, this will be one of Sydenham's main points about hysteria in relation to all other medical conditions, despite the neglect of it by medical historians; see, for example, Dewhurst, Dr. Thomas Sydenham ; Jeffrey M. N. Boss, "The Seventeenth-Century Transformation of the Hysteric Affection, and Sydenham's Baconian Medicine," Psychological Medicine 9 (1979): 221-234. [BACK]

56. Reflection through power and marginaliation had been one of Foucault's main points about hysteria in Madness and Civilization: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason (New York: Pantheon Books, 1965); see also David Armstrong, Political Anatomy of the Body (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983). [BACK]

57. For these debates see the valuable work of Ian Hacking, Nancy Cartwright, Mary Hesse (her late works; she experienced a conversion from her earlier more internalist position), Larry Laudan, Ernan McMullin, Arthur Fine, and Ronald Giere. [BACK]

58. Valuable information is found in Colligan, Mass Psychogenic Illness (n. 24), and Wilson, Magic and the Millennium . [BACK]

59. As emphasized by Krell, "Female Parts in Timaeus "; see also Shorter, History of Women's Bodies .

60. Ibid. [BACK]

59. As emphasized by Krell, "Female Parts in Timaeus "; see also Shorter, History of Women's Bodies .

60. Ibid. [BACK]

61. See the discussion of Shakespeare and Rabelais in section VI. [BACK]

62. Elaine Pagels, Adam, Eve and the Serpent (New York: Vintage Books, 1989); MacLean, Renaissance Notion of Woman ; Carroll Camden, The Elizabethan Woman (New York: Elsevier Press, 1952). [BACK]

63. For the psychophysiological implications of this turning point as they affect hysteria, see Richard B. Carter, Descartes' Medical Philosophy: The Organic Solution to the Mind-Body Problem (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1983); Brown, "Descartes, Dualism and Psychosomatic Medicine." [BACK]

64. For Sydenham's relation to Cartesianism see Dewhurst, Dr. Thomas Sydenham . [BACK]

65. As he traveled through the Levant in the 1590s, William Richard searched for Oriental equivalents; see his History of Turkey (London, 1603). [BACK]

66. See Susan Sontag, Illness as Metaphor (New York: Random House, 1979). The defect for gout will soon be remedied in a book in preparation by G. S. Rousseau and Roy Porter, Gout: The Patrician Malady (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1994). [BACK]

67. A point discussed by Henry Siegerist, Civilization and Disease (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1944); Frederick F. Cartwright, Disease and History (London: Hart-Davis, 1972); Leon Edel, "Disease and the Novel," TLS , 30 May 1986:591. [BACK]

68. Susan Sontag, AIDS and Its Metaphors (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1989). [BACK]

69. Juliet Mitchell, Woman: The Longest Revolution (London, 1984), 288-290. [BACK]

70. For some of the socioeconomic causes see Dall'Ava Santucci, Des sorcieres aux mandarines ; Bridget Hill, Women and Work in Eighteenth-Century England (New York: Oxford University Press); Rita Goldberg, Sex and Enlightenment: Women in Richardson and Diderot (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984). [BACK]

71. Rose, Women in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance ; Pagels, Adam, Eve and the Serpent ; less astute is Camden, Elizabethan Woman . [BACK]

72. Not even the tradition of the "good surgeon" in the Renaissance and Enlightenment changes this situation; in this sense Jonathan Swift's Lemuel Gulliver, the "good surgeon" of Swift's exotic travels, comes at the end of a tradition rather than the beginning of a new one. [BACK]

73. See n. 34 for Janet. [BACK]

74. See Stephen Wilson, Saints and Their Cults (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989); H. R. Lemay, "Human Sexuality in Twelfth- through Fifteenth-Century Scientific Writings," in Sexual Practices and the Medieval Church , ed. Vern Bullough and James Brundage (Buffalo: Prometheus Books, 1982), 187-206. Here philology is also instructive: the word "hysteria" did not enter Anglo-Saxon, Middle English, or the Romance languages until the sixteenth century, but "melancholia" (as black bile) was already being used by the medical doctors in the thirteenth, often as a synonym of " chlorosis .'' The appearance of " furor uterinus " begins in the thirteenth century, but "nymphomania" (the word) had not yet been invented; its first use, as a condition, is found as late as 1775 in M. D. T. Bienville, Nymphomania; or A Dissertation concerning the Furor Uterinus (London, 1775); see G. S. Rousseau, "The Invention of Nymphomania," in Perilous Enlightenment (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1991), 44-64. No work brings these traditions—verbal and visual, philological and scientific—so well together as Klibansky et al., Saturn and Melancholy . [BACK]

75. A brief account is found in Wack, Lovesickness in the Middle Ages (n. 26). The classic source for melancholy as both male and female remains Robert Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy (1621). See also T. S. Soufas, Melancholy and the Secular Mind in Spanish Golden Age Literature (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1990), who considers melancholy the key to the transition between medieval and Renaissance mentalities but who is rather silent on its genderization in the Renaissance. In Melancholy and Society (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1992), Wolf Lepenies expands on the intersection of melancholy and secularism in its utopian and political dimensions. [BACK]

76. Soufas, Melancholy and the Secular Mind , 131.

77. Ibid. [BACK]

76. Soufas, Melancholy and the Secular Mind , 131.

77. Ibid. [BACK]

78. It is surely anachronistic to imagine that the objection was then made, or could have been made, among the midwives and their patients in the name of lesbianism: that was never a concern; if there was concern, it was on grounds that the midwives (the obstetrices ) as well as patients were becoming sexually aroused and carnally sacrificed; see B. Ehrenreich, Witches, Midwives, and Nurses (Old Westbury, N.Y.: Feminist Press, 1973); Jacques Gelis, La sage-femme ou le médecin: Une nouvelle conception de la vie (Paris: Fayard, 1988). [BACK]

79. For the early genderization and pathologization of the soul see Joseph Schumacher, Die seelischen Volkskrankheiten im deutschen Mittelalter (Berlin: Neue Deutsche Forschungen, 1937); R. B. Onians, The Origins of European Thought about the Body, the Mind, the Soul, the World, Time, and Fate (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1951); and an early work, Johann Ambrosius Hillig, Anatomie der Seelen (Leipzig, 1737). For hysteria and possession, see Oesterreich, Possession: Demoniacal and Other ; Glaser, "Epilepsy, Hysteria and 'Possession'" (n. 36); and a modern philosophical approach, J. D. Bernal, The World, the Flesh and the Devil: An Inquiry into the Future of the Three Enemies of the Rational Soul (London: Cape, 1970). The milieu of these early hysterics was a culture of ecstasy marked by a gap between first- and third-person discourse. The first-person narratives (confessions of hysterics) were almost never written; they include the diaries of mad women and other convulsionaries, neither of whom had any public authority. [BACK]

80. Ferrand's Treatise of Lovesickness has been astutely discussed by Foucault and now magnificently edited (n. 27); for Platterus (Platter) and his works as they relate to the traditions of hysteria see Stanley W. Jackson, Melancholia and Depression (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1987), and Platterus, Beloved Son: The Journal of Felix Platter, a Medical Student in Montpellier in the Sixteenth Century (London: Frederick Muller, 1961). Ferrand makes the important observation that males, whom he viewed generically as homo publicus , suffered many other disappointments than love, but that even among amorous males there is no greater loss or cause for unhappiness and despair. [BACK]

81. Ideas adumbrated by the influential Binswangers in Freud's Vienna. See the writings of Freud's contemporary, Austrian psychiatrist Otto Ludwig Binswanger, esp. Die hysterie (Vienna , 1904), a work of almost one thousand pages, and the important book of his son Ludwig, Melancholie und Manie (Pfullingen, 1960), a study of anger in relation to hysteria. The elder Binswanger wrote studies of hysteria, neurasthenia, epilepsy, and madness. From the early modern period (ca. 1500 forward), anger was associated with possession and demonism; later, in the seventeenth century, with war and attention; yet the modern social history of anger awaits its student. [BACK]

82. See A. Luyendijk, "Of Masks and Mills: The Enlightened Doctor and His Frightened Patient," in The Languages of Psyche , ed. Rousseau (n. 13), 186-231; the classic eighteenth-century statement is by John Bond, An Essay on the Incubus, or Night-Mare (London: Wilson & Durham, 1753); a theoretical approach to the spectatorial nighttime world that glances at the early period is found in Terry Castle, "Phantasmagoria," Critical Inquiry 15 (1988): 26-61. [BACK]

83. For the opposite view, that it was pure possession, see Graham, Medieval Minds , 99-101. [BACK]

84. Veith, Hysteria , 59-66, and chap. 6, "The Non-conformists."

85. Ibid., 61.

86. Ibid., 110. [BACK]

84. Veith, Hysteria , 59-66, and chap. 6, "The Non-conformists."

85. Ibid., 61.

86. Ibid., 110. [BACK]

84. Veith, Hysteria , 59-66, and chap. 6, "The Non-conformists."

85. Ibid., 61.

86. Ibid., 110. [BACK]

87. Bodin, the author of De la démonomanie des sorciers (Paris: Jacques du Pays, 1581) and other works on magic, reasoned that "madwomen are never burned . . . and Hippocrates whom you [Weyer] should know, teaches you on his part that those women who have their menses, are not subject to melancholy, madness, epilepsy" (quoted in Veith, Hysteria , 111). For Weyer see Graham, Medieval Minds ; J. J. Cobben, Jan Wier, Devils, Witches and Magic (Philadelphia: Dorrance, 1976); Carl Binz, Doctor Johann Weyer: Ein rheinischer Arzt, der 1. Bekaempfer des Hexenwahns: Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Aufklaerung und der Heilkunde (Weisbaden: Dr. Martin Saendig, 1969). [BACK]

88. See also Baldinus Ronsseus, De humanae vitae primordiis hystericis affectibus (Leiden, 1594), for a similar point. [BACK]

89. For one approach to Weyer's life see Cobben, Jan Wier, Devils, Witches and Magic . See also the apparatus in Johannes Weyer, Witches, Devils, and Doctors in the Renaissance: Johannes Weyer's De Praestigiis Daemonum , ed. George Mora, M.D. (Binghamton, N.Y.: University Center at Binghamton, 1990; originally published 1583). [BACK]

90. Timothy Bright, A Treatise of Melancholie. Containing the Causes thereof, & reasons of the strange effects it worketh in our minds and bodies: with the physicke cure, and spirituall consolation for such as haue thereto adioyned an afflicted conscience. The difference betwixt it, and melancholie with diuerse philosophicall discourses touching actions, and affections of soule, spirit, and body: the particulars whereof are to be seene before the booke (London, 1586; reprint, Amsterdam and New York: Da Capo Press, 1969). For Bright see also Jackson, Melancholia and Depression . [BACK]

91. The text has now been edited with useful commentary by Michael MacDonald in Witchcraft and Hysteria in Elizabethan London: Edward Jorden and the Mary Glover Case—Tavistock Classic Reprints in the History of Psychiatry (London: Routledge, 1990). [BACK]

92. During the period 1550-1650 the nomenclature was variable, some authors preferring one term over another, and it is almost impossible to differentiate among these terms in the medical literature. All three are used in John Sadler, The Sicke Womans Private Looking-Glasse, wherein Methodically are handled at uterine affects, or diseases arising from the wombe; enabling Women to informe the Physician about the cause of their griefe (London: Anne Griffin, 1636), 130. [BACK]

93. For the cultural milieu of the devil see Walker, Spiritual and Demonic Magic (n. 25); Brian Vickers, Scientific and Occult Mentalities in the Renaissance (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984); Wayne Shumaker, The Occult Sciences in the Renaissance (Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press, 1972); A. Macfarlane, Witchcraft in Tudor and Stuart England (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1970); and for the connection with erotic life and sexuality, Ioan P. Culianu, Eros and Magic in the Renaissance (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989). [BACK]

94. Edward Jorden, A Brief Discourse of a Disease Called the Suffocation of the Mother (London: John Windet, 1603), B3 2. [BACK]

95. See A. E. Taylor (n. 50) for the Platonic sources. [BACK]

96. The politics of Jorden's " furor uterinus " is discussed in D. H. Bart Scully et al., "The Politics of Hysteria: The Case of the Wandering Womb," in Gender and Disordered Behavior: Sex Differences in Psychopathology , ed. E. S. Gomberg and V. Franks (New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1979), 354-380. For models of the uterus in the previous few centuries, especially the seven-cell uterus, see Robert Reisert, Der seibenkammerige uterus (Hanover: Würzburger medizinshistorische Forschungen, 1986). [BACK]

97. Along the line of Scully's "politics of hysteria," one wonders why the female could not masturbate to provide the much-needed moisture. Was male sperm alone capable of providing the moisture, or was masturbation too delicate a topic to address? For the politics and ideology of masturbation in history see Jean Paul and Roger Kempf Aron, Le pénis et la démoralisation de l' Occident (Paris: Bernard Grasset, 1978). [BACK]

98. Jorden, Suffocation of the Mother , G2 2. [BACK]

99. Nor will the genderization cease with the innovative Jorden. Throughout the seventeenth century, the "mother" will become increasingly associated with nature; see James Winn, " When Beauty Fires the Blood": Love and Arts in the Age of Dryden (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1992). Likewise, its metaphors attach to anatomy, then consistently said to be the "mother of science"; see A. J. Luyendijk, ''Anatomy, Mother of Art and Science: Controversies between English and Dutch Scientists, 1690-1725," a talk delivered at the Well-come Institute Symposium on the History of Medicine, 1988. By the eighteenth century, anatomical preoccupation with the "suffocation of the mother" will have moved anatomically and gynecologically from the womb to "the mother's imagination," now said by doctors to be the most important aspect of fetal marking during the act of reproduction; see G. S. Rousseau, "Pineapples, Pregnancy, Pica, and Peregrine Pickle ," in Tobias Smollett: Bicentennial Essays Presented to Lewis M. Knapp , ed. G. S. Rousseau and P. G. Boucé (New York: Oxford University Press, 1971), 79-110. And by the early nineteenth, the "mother" becomes the key to the mystery of androgyny; see D. L. Hoeveler, Romantic Androgyny: The Woman Within (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1990). While a study of the medicalization of the imagination in the Renaissance and Enlightenment is badly needed, a study of the transformations of the image of "the mother," construed literally and metaphorically, visually and iconographically also remains a desideratum. [BACK]

100. The jungle of rhetoric is so dense in these treatises, especially in Jorden's, that it is worthwhile to construe these works as medical romances designed to sway a particular male audience in a predictable direction. Within these dense tropics of discourse (to borrow a phrase again from Hayden White's Tropics of Discourse [Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1982]), one trope alone stands out over and over again: analogy. Analogy, common in the medical literature of the time, is everywhere present in this construction of hysteria, as in this important passage by Jorden about the "affections of the mind": "the perturbations of the minde are oftentimes to blame for this [i.e., hysteria] and many other diseases. For feeling we are not masters of our owne affections, wee are like battered Cities without walles, or shippes tossed in the Sea, exposed to all manner of assaults and daungers, even to the overthrow of our owne bodies" (Jorden, Suffocation of the Mother , G2 2). [BACK]

101. See Veith, Hysteria , 122-123. [BACK]

102. C. E. McMahon, "The Role of Imagination in the Disease Process in Pre-Cartesian History," Psychological Medicine 6 (1976): 179-184. [BACK]

103. Veith, Hysteria , 122.

104. Ibid., 123. [BACK]

103. Veith, Hysteria , 122.

104. Ibid., 123. [BACK]

105. Jorden, Suffocation of the Mother , B3 3.

106. Ibid., B3.

107. Ibid., 25.

108. Ibid., G3 3.

109. Ibid.

110. Ibid., A3.

111. Ibid.

112. Ibid., A4. Epilepsies and convulsions were considered important signs throughout the seventeenth century; see Jean Chastelain, Traité des convulsions (Lyon, 1691). [BACK]

105. Jorden, Suffocation of the Mother , B3 3.

106. Ibid., B3.

107. Ibid., 25.

108. Ibid., G3 3.

109. Ibid.

110. Ibid., A3.

111. Ibid.

112. Ibid., A4. Epilepsies and convulsions were considered important signs throughout the seventeenth century; see Jean Chastelain, Traité des convulsions (Lyon, 1691). [BACK]

105. Jorden, Suffocation of the Mother , B3 3.

106. Ibid., B3.

107. Ibid., 25.

108. Ibid., G3 3.

109. Ibid.

110. Ibid., A3.

111. Ibid.

112. Ibid., A4. Epilepsies and convulsions were considered important signs throughout the seventeenth century; see Jean Chastelain, Traité des convulsions (Lyon, 1691). [BACK]

105. Jorden, Suffocation of the Mother , B3 3.

106. Ibid., B3.

107. Ibid., 25.

108. Ibid., G3 3.

109. Ibid.

110. Ibid., A3.

111. Ibid.

112. Ibid., A4. Epilepsies and convulsions were considered important signs throughout the seventeenth century; see Jean Chastelain, Traité des convulsions (Lyon, 1691). [BACK]

105. Jorden, Suffocation of the Mother , B3 3.

106. Ibid., B3.

107. Ibid., 25.

108. Ibid., G3 3.

109. Ibid.

110. Ibid., A3.

111. Ibid.

112. Ibid., A4. Epilepsies and convulsions were considered important signs throughout the seventeenth century; see Jean Chastelain, Traité des convulsions (Lyon, 1691). [BACK]

105. Jorden, Suffocation of the Mother , B3 3.

106. Ibid., B3.

107. Ibid., 25.

108. Ibid., G3 3.

109. Ibid.

110. Ibid., A3.

111. Ibid.

112. Ibid., A4. Epilepsies and convulsions were considered important signs throughout the seventeenth century; see Jean Chastelain, Traité des convulsions (Lyon, 1691). [BACK]

105. Jorden, Suffocation of the Mother , B3 3.

106. Ibid., B3.

107. Ibid., 25.

108. Ibid., G3 3.

109. Ibid.

110. Ibid., A3.

111. Ibid.

112. Ibid., A4. Epilepsies and convulsions were considered important signs throughout the seventeenth century; see Jean Chastelain, Traité des convulsions (Lyon, 1691). [BACK]

105. Jorden, Suffocation of the Mother , B3 3.

106. Ibid., B3.

107. Ibid., 25.

108. Ibid., G3 3.

109. Ibid.

110. Ibid., A3.

111. Ibid.

112. Ibid., A4. Epilepsies and convulsions were considered important signs throughout the seventeenth century; see Jean Chastelain, Traité des convulsions (Lyon, 1691). [BACK]

113. Joubert was an esteemed physician and contemporary of Rabelais; see his Erreurs populaires et propos vulgaires touchant la médecine et le régime de santé (Bordeaux, 1579). Bakhtin was fascinated by him for his literary contributions to the "Hippocratic novel" and to the semiotics of laughter: "The famous physician Laurent Joubert, published in 1560 a special work under the characteristic rifle: Traité du Ris, contenant son essence, ses causes et ses mervelheus effeis, curieusement recherchès, raisonnés et observés par M. Laur. Joubert . In 1579 Joubert published another treatise in Bordeaux, La cause morale du Ris, de l'excellent et tres renommé Démocrite, expliquée et temoignée par ce devin Hippocrate en ses épîtres (The moral cause of laughter of the eminent and very famous Democritus explained and witnessed by the divine Hippocrates in his epistles). This work was actually a French version of the last part of the "Hippocratic novel" (Mikhail Bakhtin, Rabelais and His World [Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1968], 68). [BACK]

114. Georges Lote, La vie et l'oeuvre de François Rabelais (Paris: Droz, 1938), 163: "Medicine became the science of the sixteenth century; it exercised a great influence and inspired confidence which it no longer retained in the seventeenth century." [BACK]

115. See R. Antonioli, Rabelais et la médecine (Geneva: Dros, 1976); Lucien Febvre, The Problem of Unbelief in the Sixteenth Century: The Religion of Rabelais (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982); Graham, Medieval Minds ; and Bakhtin, Rabelais and His Worm , esp. 316-317, 355-363; Bakhtin, always sensitive to the Hippocratic tradition for its glorious narrative legacy, raises the fascinating possibility of a "grotesque hysteria": "These two areas [the bowels and the phallus] play the leading role in the grotesque image, and it is precisely for this reason that they are predominantly subject to positive exaggeration, to hyperbolization; they can even detach themselves from the body and lead an independent life, for they hide the rest of the body, as something secondary" (317)—so too the grotesque image of the "wandering womb" and the suggestion of its "independent life." [BACK]

116. Samuel Putnam, ed., The Portable Rabelais (New York: Viking Press, 1946), 477-479, especially the passage in Pantagruel beginning "I call it an 'animal,' in accordance with the doctrine of the Academics. . ." [BACK]

117. Joseph Lieutaud, Historia anatomico-medica , 2 vols. (Paris, 1767). [BACK]

118. See L. J. Rather, "Thomas Fienus (1567-1631): Dialectical Investigation of the Imagination as Cause and Cure of Bodily Disease," Bulletin of the History of Medicine 41 (1967): 349-367. [BACK]

119. Useful here is K. E. Williams, "Hysteria in Seventeenth Century Primary Sources," History of Psychiatry 1 (1990): 383-402. [BACK]

120. Supplemental to the works on women in the Renaissance mentioned in nn. 51 and 62 are Barbara and Henri van der Zee, 1688: Revolution in the Family (London: Penguin Books, 1988); Bonnie S. Anderson, A History of Their Own: Women in Europe from Prehistory to the Present (New York: Harper & Row, 1988); K. M. Rogers, The Troublesome Helpmate: A History of Misogyny in Literature (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1966). [BACK]

121. The diligent historian wants to know, of course, what does remain, and the reply is little. What is clear is that voices are being silenced: those of hysterics trying to find their own first-person voices and identities when all those insistent on generating third-person discourse did not want to hear them. For the dire psychological consequences of such silencing within a patriarchal Western culture in which female sexuality has been the source of terrific male terror, see Wolfgang Lederer, Gynophobia ou la peur des femmes (Paris: Nizet, 1967), translated as The Fear of Women (New York: Grune & Stratton, 1968); Jardine, Gynesis (n. 35); E. Fischer-Homberger, Krankheit, Frau und andere Arbeite zur Medizingeschichte der Frau (Bern, Stuttgart, Vienna: Hans Huber, 1979). [BACK]

122. MacDonald, "Women and Madness in Tudor and Stuart England" (n. 25). [BACK]

123. For the ritual of the danse macabre in relation to malingerers see chap. 5 (Sander Gilman), and Harold Speert, Iconographia Gyniatrica: A Pictorial History of Gynecology and Obstetrics (New York: Macmillan, 1973). [BACK]

124. G. Greer, The Female Eunuch (London: MacGibbon & Kee, 1970), 47-53. [BACK]

125. See esp. Galopin, Les hystériques des couvents (n. 53), but also Thomas, Religion and the Decline of Magic (n. 25); I. M. Lewis, Ecstatic Religion (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1971); Michel Feher et al., eds., Fragments for a History of the Human Body (New York: Zone, 1989), vol. 1; Bynum, Gender and Religion (n. 5). [BACK]

126. Although the ideological view of women continued to alter during the seventeenth century, the belief that their hysteria was primarily the result of a rampaging menarche continued to be strong, and doctors did what they could to assuage the effects of the paroxysm and genital upheaval. The menses provided doctors and patients alike with a paradoxical situation: on the one hand, they could not be suppressed; on the other, once rampaging, they wreaked vast physiological damage. Pharmacologically, juleps and apozems were administered with hops to induce the menses, on the theory that hops produced nocturnal dreams and would calm the hysterically ill when under the spell of a fever to sleep. This preparation continued to be used into the eighteenth century; see Johann Delaeus, Upon the Cure of the Gout by Milk Diet: & An Essay upon Diet by William Stephens (London: Smith & Bruce, 1732). [BACK]

127. It may also be that homophobia (in our modern sense a problematic word that has come to be a metonymy denoting fear of the excessively male ) has a place in this history and its linguistic configurations. See Katherine Cummings, Telling Tales: The Hysteric's Seduction in Fiction and Theory (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1991). In "Freud and Fliess: Homophobia and Seduction," in Seduction and Theory: Readings of Gender, Representation, and Rhetoric , ed. Dianne Hunter (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1989), 86-109, S. N. Garner studies the language of Freud's hysterical women in the light of their fear of same-sex relations. Furthermore, one wonders if there is any connection between the so-called demise of hysteria in our century and the monumental growth of homophobia. [BACK]

128. J. W. Hebel, ed., The Works of Michael Drayton (Oxford: Shakespeare Head, Blackwell, 1961), "Poly-Olbion," p. 128, Song VII, lines 19-28. [BACK]

129. Marie E. Addyman, "The Character of Hysteria in Shakespeare's England," doctoral dissertation, University of York, York, England, 1988. Janet Adelman appears to agree but embroiders the idea from a psychoanalytic perspective in Suffocating Mothers: Fantasies of Maternal Origin in Shakespeare's Plays Hamlet to The Tempest (London: Routledge, 1990). [BACK]

130. Adelman, Suffering Mothers , 3. For further background, see F. D. Hoeniger, Medicine and Shakespeare in the English Renaissance (Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1992). [BACK]

131. Hoeniger, Medicine and Shakespeare, 2 .

132. Ibid., 137. [BACK]

131. Hoeniger, Medicine and Shakespeare, 2 .

132. Ibid., 137. [BACK]

133. The point seems to be buttressed by Micale's studies on the history of male hysteria; see n. 3. [BACK]

134. The belief of G. S. Rousseau, "Literature and Medicine: The State of the Field," Isis 72 (1981): 406-424, and Peter B. Medawar, The Hope of Progress: A Scientist Looks at Problems in Philosophy, Literature and Science (Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor Books, 1973). [BACK]

135. Devon Hodges, Renaissance Fictions of Anatomy (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1985); B. G. Lyons, Voices of Melancholy: Studies of Literary Treatments of Melancholy in Renaissance England (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1971), who is particularly useful in describing Burton's rhetorical strategies and devices of persuasion in the "Perturbations of the Minde"; see esp. pp. 132-134. [BACK]

136. This transformation of knowledge is discussed by Joscelyn Godwin, Athanasius Kircher: A Renaissance Man and the Quest for Lost Knowledge (London: Thames & Hudson, 1979); Michel Foucault, The Archaeology of Knowledge (New York: Pantheon Books, 1972); C. C. Camden, "The Golden Age and the Renaissance," Literary Views (1988): 1-14; in the contexts of the body in F. Bottomley, Attitudes to the Body in Western Christendom (London, 1979); in the carnivalization of knowledge in Bakhtin, Rabelais and His World . [BACK]

137. Compare the nineteenth-century medicalization of homosexuality. Work on positivism for periods before 1800 seems to be virtually nonexistent. One wonders whether the principle was also operative in the late nineteenth century when the winds of positivism were blowing so strongly. [BACK]

138. One obvious place to start with is Thomas Laqueur's Making Sex: Body and Gender from the Greeks to Freud (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1990).

139. Ibid., 98-132; P. Hoffmann, La femme dans la pensée des Lumières (Paris: Ophrys, 1977); R. Thompson, Unfit for Modest Ears (London: Macmillan, 1979). [BACK]

138. One obvious place to start with is Thomas Laqueur's Making Sex: Body and Gender from the Greeks to Freud (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1990).

139. Ibid., 98-132; P. Hoffmann, La femme dans la pensée des Lumières (Paris: Ophrys, 1977); R. Thompson, Unfit for Modest Ears (London: Macmillan, 1979). [BACK]

140. Laqueur, Making Sex (n. 138), 70-98; idem, "Orgasm, Generation and the Politics of Reproductive Biology," Representations 14 (1986): 1-14; idem, "Amor Veneris, vel Dulcedo Apperatur," in Fragments for a History of the Human Body , ed. Feher (see n. 125), 3:90-131. [BACK]

141. (London: Anne Griffin, 1636). The astrological, herbal, and Hebrew signs on the frontispiece are worth considering in the light of Sadler's approach to hysteria. Chap. 13, "Of the generation of monsters," considers the "Divine" or "Naturall'' Generation of Monsters in relation to the health of the mother's womb and the state of her imagination, which "workes on the child after conception" (139). The period produced other works similar to Sadler's, many of which refer to the "mother's fits" as a common expression representing the "green-sickness," now endemic among pubescent virgins. But Robert Pierce, Bath memoirs: or, Observations in Three and Forty Years Practice, at the Bath, what Cures have been there wrought (Bristol: Hammond, 1697), 34-37, cautioned that "Women's Diseases could affect women at all times in their lives: they are subject to when they are young, or when more adult; when marry'd or when unmarry'd; when Childless, or when they have had Children." Pierce claims that "the Hysterick Passion, or Fits of the Mother," often arose out of the green sickness, i.e., the condition of pubescent teenage girls. Thus Mrs. Elizabeth Eyles, from the Devizes, in the County of Wilts, age 16, being very far gone in the "green-sickness," developed "Mother-fits withal." [BACK]

142. The quotations from Harvey in this paragraph are found in William Harvey, "On Parturition," in his Works (London: Sydenham Society, 1847), 528-529, 542-543; idem, Exercitationes de generatione animalium (London, 1651), 542. See also R. Brain, "The Concept of Hysteria in the Time of Harvey," Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 56 (1963): 317-324. Along similar lines Jane Sharp warned that retention of seed (putrefied menstruum) was harmful, and hence advised lusty maids to marry; see her Midwife's Book, or the Whole Art of Midwifery Discovered Directing Childbearing Women How to Behave Themselves in Their Conception, Breeding, Bearing and Nursing Children (London, 1671), 52. [BACK]

143. In his Nymphomania (n. 74), Bienville writes as if the term had been perennially used, predating the Elizabethan world of Jorden and Bright. [BACK]

144. Such had been the alleged politics in paradise: see J. G. Turner, One Flesh: Paradisal Marriage and Sexual Relations in the Age of Milton (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987). Tradition had it that hysteria was nonexistent among the pre-Adamites, the sect of men and women who ran about the primordial garden naked and in a state of perfect nature; for the neo-Adamite sects of the Renaissance and Enlightenment, see Michael Mullett, Radical Religious Movements in Early Modern Europe (Boston: Routledge, 1980). [BACK]

145. See Peter Brown, The Body and Society: Men, Women, and Sexual Renunciation in Early Christianity (New York: Columbia University Press, 1990); Lemay, "Human Sexuality in Twelfth- through Fifteenth-Century Scientific Writings" (n. 74); for a more esoteric version of the debates, Maire, Les convulsionnaires de Saint-Médard (n. 53). [BACK]

146. Sharp, Midwife's Book , 52. It was not uncommon in the period for male quacks to assume female pseudonyms, especially one as common as "Jane Sharp." Sharp claimed that his book was based on "vast knowledge" and that he wrote primarily for women in simple language they could understand. [BACK]

147. See William Harvey, Exercitationes de generatione animalium (n. 142), 543. For comparison in the sexual domain, see the views of Nicolas Venette, The Mysteries of Conjugal Love Revealed , 3d ed. (London, 1712), and Roy Porter, "Love, Sex and Medicine: Nicolas Venette and his Tableau de l'Amour Conjugal ," in Erotica and the Enlightenment , ed. P. Wagner (Frankfurt: Peter Lang, 1990), 90-122. [BACK]

148. Harvey, Exercitationes , 542. See also Laqueur, "Orgasm, Generation and the Politics of Reproductive Biology" (n. 140). [BACK]

149. See L. Jordanova, Sexual Visions, Images of Gender in Science and Medicine Between the Eighteenth and the Twentieth Centuries (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1989); MacLean, Renaissance Notion of Woman (n. 51); for the social construction of womanhood and gender in history, L. Schiebinger, The Mind Has No Sex? Women and the Origins of Modern Science (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1989). [BACK]

150. The point was made in the eighteenth century especially; see Henry Burdon, The Fountain of Health: or a View of Nature (London, 1734); James MacKenzie, The History of Health and the Art of Preserving It , 2d ed. (Edinburgh, 1759); for the history of the notion, Roy Porter and Dorothy Porter, In Sickness and in Health: The British Experience, 1650-1850 (London: Fourth Estate, 1988), chap. 10. [BACK]

151. These are ideological matters au fond and could not be politely put until this century; see Pagels, Adam, Eve and the Serpent (n. 62). The sermonists of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries often alluded to it but in the language of ellision; for both realms, physiological and religious, see P. Zacchia, De affectionibus hypochondriacis libri tres. Nunc in Latinum sermonem translati ab Alphonso Khonn (Augsburg, 1671). [BACK]

152. See Hill, Women and Work , who accepts Lawrence Stone's marriage statistics in The Family, Sex and Marriage in England: 1500-1800 (London: Weidenfeld & Nicholson, 1977) as reliable. [BACK]

153. Also suggested by contemporary social commentators such as Peter Annet in Social Bliss considered in marriage and divorce: cohabiting unmarried, and public whoring. Containing things necessary to be known by all that seek mutual felicity, and are ripe for the enjoyment of it (London, 1749). Examples of the prescription of sexual intercourse are found in Adalheid Giedke, Die Liebeskrankheit in der Geschichte der Medizin , University of Düsseldorf, Ph.D. thesis, 1983. [BACK]

154. For anger in relation to melancholy in early modern history, see L. Binswanger, Melancholie und Manie (n. 81). [BACK]

155. For the sexes see J. H. Hagstrum, Sex and Sensibility: Ideal and Erotic Love from Milton to Mozart (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980); Turner, One Flesh (n. 144); for sex, gender, with a glance at hysteria in Milton see Annabelle Patterson, "No meer amatorius novel?" in Politics, Poetics, and Hermeneutics in Milton's Prose , ed. D. Loewenstein and J. G. Turner (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990), 85-101, esp. 101, n. 18. [BACK]

156. The most important of the many works on this topic is Richard Baxter's The Cure of Melancholy and over much Sorrow by Faith and Physick (London, 1682); see also Baxter's Reliquiae Baxterianae , part iii, sec. 184 (London, 1696). [BACK]

157. As was apparent in the development of the Theophrastan character in the late seventeenth century, as well as in the arrangement of the genders; see first its history and relation to the traditions of hysteria in Chester Noyes Greenough, A Bibliography of the Theophrastan Character in English with Several Portrait Characters (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1947), and two important studies: Benjamin Boyce, The Theophrastan Character in England to 1642 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1947); J. W. Smeed, The Theophrastan "Character": The History of a Literary Genre (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985). [BACK]

158. See H. M. Weber, The Restoration Rake-Hero: Transformations in Sexual Understanding in Seventeenth Century England (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1986), and Turner, One Flesh (n. 144). For the broader philosophical issues involved in the construction of sexuality, see A. I. Davidson, "Sex and the Emergence of Sexuality," Critical Inquiry 11 (1987): 16-48. [BACK]

159. Stone, Family, Sex and Marriage in England: 1500-1700 (n. 152), and R. Trumbach, The Rise of the Egalitarian Family (New York: New York University Press, 1978). [BACK]

160. See R. Trumbach, "Sodomy Transformed: Aristocratic Libertinage, Public Reputation and the Gender Revolution of the Eighteenth Century," in Love Letters between a Certain Late Nobleman and the Famous Mr. Wilson , ed. M. S. Kimmel (New York: Harrington Park Press, 1990), 106. [BACK]

161. See Hill's hypothesis about female mobility in relation to the rise of prostitution in Women and Work . [BACK]

162. For the transformation of these gender relations in the period see R. Trumbach, "The Birth of the Queen: Sodomy and the Emergence of Gender Equality in Modern Culture, 1660-1750," in Hidden from History: Reclaiming the Gay and Lesbian Past , ed. M. Duberman, M. Vicinus, and G. Chauncey, Jr. (New York: NAL Books, 1989), 45-60, whose thesis deserves consideration. [BACK]

163. See Sydenham (n. 44), 282-283. [BACK]

164. For medical theory before Sydenham (i.e., in the period 1600-1680), advocating the position that the patient may be afflicted with the one or the other, see G. S. Rousseau, "Towards a Semiotics of the Nerve: The Social History of Language in a New Key," in The Social History of Language II , ed. Peter Burke and Roy Porter (Oxford: Polity Press, 1991), 76-81 (Appendix); some discussion of the subject is also found in P. E. A. Roy, "De l'hypochondrie," Archives de Neurologie 20 (1905): 166-183. [BACK]

165. The hypochondrium was, anatomically speaking, located within the intercostal cavity, yet little differentiation was made at this time, from what I can gather, between male and female intercostal cavities; perhaps it was one more aspect of Thomas Laqueur's "one sex" theory; see Laqueur, Making Sex (n. 138). In Sex and Reason (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1991), Richard Posner sees deeply into the biological and legal dimensions of these differences but practices a flawed method by virtue of ignoring local sociohistorical practices, as in the now remote Restoration ethos of sexuality. [BACK]

166. See Dewhurst, Dr. Thomas Sydenham (n. 41), and Boss, "Seventeenth-Century Transformation of the Hysteric Affection" (n. 55). [BACK]

167. For "psyche-ologia" as a neologism, and for its linguistic ramifications in both medicine and rhetoric at this time, see G. S. Rousseau, "Psychology," in The Ferment of Knowledge: Studies in the Historiography of Science , ed. G. S. Rousseau and Roy Porter (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980), 167-172. [BACK]

168. See his important treatise on the gout, originally published in 1683 as a Treatise on Gout and Dropsy and reprinted in 1705. Some of Sydenham's ideas on gout also appeared in Of the Four Constitutions (an undated manuscript in the Bodleian Library, Oxford [MS Locke, c. 19, ff. 170-176]) and in his Theologia Rationalis (which exists in four manuscript versions). [BACK]

169. For Sydenham's medical practice see Dewhurst, Dr. Thomas Sydenham (n. 41); J. F. Payne, A Biography of Dr. Thomas Sydenham (London: Longman's, 1900); L. M. F. Picard, Thomas Sydenham (Dijon, 1889). [BACK]

170. Locke served as Sydenham's assistant and amanuensis, later as his co-practitioner and collaborator. Discussion of the Locke-Sydenham relation is found in Dewhurst, Dr. Thomas Sydenham (n. 41), 39-41, 55-56, 73-76, 164-169, and H. Isler, Thomas Willis, 1621-1685, Doctor and Scientist (New York: Hafner, 1968). [BACK]

171. No evidence indicates whether or not Sydenham read Lepois on hysteria, and Sydenham's most authoritative biographer (Dewhurst) is silent on the matter; Boerhaave comments on the importance of Lepois's theories of hysteria in his 1714 preface to Lepois's select observations ( Selectiorum observationum . . .). For Lepois and hysteria, see Jackson, Melancholia and Depression (n. 80). [BACK]

172. For Lepois see Veith, Hysteria , 129; the translation provided here is Veith's.

173. Ibid., 129.

174. Sydenham's published medical works are few; for a list see Dewhurst, Dr. Thomas Sydenham (n. 41), 190; there are even fewer that survive in manuscript (ibid., 190). Comments on his significance within the history of medicine are found in C. D. Martin, "A Treatise on the Gout," Critical Review (March, 1759): 281-282, as well as in the 1753 edition of some of his works published by John Swan. A study of his style in the Epistolary Dissertation in relation to the language of the time would repay the effort and might shed further light on his theory of hysteria. [BACK]

172. For Lepois see Veith, Hysteria , 129; the translation provided here is Veith's.

173. Ibid., 129.

174. Sydenham's published medical works are few; for a list see Dewhurst, Dr. Thomas Sydenham (n. 41), 190; there are even fewer that survive in manuscript (ibid., 190). Comments on his significance within the history of medicine are found in C. D. Martin, "A Treatise on the Gout," Critical Review (March, 1759): 281-282, as well as in the 1753 edition of some of his works published by John Swan. A study of his style in the Epistolary Dissertation in relation to the language of the time would repay the effort and might shed further light on his theory of hysteria. [BACK]

172. For Lepois see Veith, Hysteria , 129; the translation provided here is Veith's.

173. Ibid., 129.

174. Sydenham's published medical works are few; for a list see Dewhurst, Dr. Thomas Sydenham (n. 41), 190; there are even fewer that survive in manuscript (ibid., 190). Comments on his significance within the history of medicine are found in C. D. Martin, "A Treatise on the Gout," Critical Review (March, 1759): 281-282, as well as in the 1753 edition of some of his works published by John Swan. A study of his style in the Epistolary Dissertation in relation to the language of the time would repay the effort and might shed further light on his theory of hysteria. [BACK]

175. Veith, Hysteria , 140. Sydenham pronounced here clearly and succinctly, as in everything else he wrote. His main points are that hysteria has been misunderstood in its most fundamental principles (i.e., as the most transformative of all conditions); in its affliction among the genders and social rank; and, after affliction, in its physical and mental manifestations. [BACK]

176. It is worth emphasizing, at the cost of belaboring the obvious, that all seventeenth- and eighteenth-century physicians claimed to treat patients for the "hysterical passion," or the many other names by which it was known. There was nothing unusual about this at all. The only difference was the degree to which the particular physician specialized in these cases. Doctors like Willis and Sydenham, and later on Cheyne and Adair, were known as "nerve doctors," or specialists in hysterical passions, and patients with these complaints accordingly flocked to them. [BACK]

177. Lepois did not emphasize the animal spirits but wrote of "a collection of liquid accumulated in the hind part of the head and here collected with the effect that it swells and distends the beginnings of the nerves"; see Henri Cesbron, These pour le doctorat en medecine: Histoire critique de l'hystériae (Paris: Asselin et Houzeau, Libraires de la Faculté de Medecine, 1909), who quotes and translates this passage in French; Veith, Hysteria , 129. The liquid existed without regard to gender, and this is precisely why Lepois could justify a view that women are not naturally predisposed to hysteria any more than men. But Lepois's view was not known in England, his works were never translated into English, and I have found no evidence in the writings of English-speaking doctors that they were aware of Lepois's theory. [BACK]

178. For Willis's primary medical works, brain theory, beliefs about the interface of brain and nervous system, and view of hysteria in the light of these basic theories, see G. S. Rousseau, "Nerves, Spirits and Fibres: Toward the Origins of Sensibility," in Studies in the Eighteenth Century , ed. R. F. Brissenden (Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1975), 137-157; for Willis and hysteria exclusively see Boss, "Transformation of the Hysteric Affection" (n. 55). [BACK]

179. The best treatment of Willis's medical theory is R. Frank, "Thomas Willis and His Circle: Brain and Mind in Seventeenth-Century Medicine," in Languages of Psyche , ed. G. S. Rousseau (n. 13), esp. pp. 131-141. Frank comments on Willis's important clinical observation that "postmortems showed the wombs of hysterical women to be perfectly normal" (p. 134). Willis's Affectionum . . . hystericae (1672) has never been translated into English, despite its status as one of the most important neurological works of the early modern period. But Willis's salient point about the etiology of hysteria was the blood-brain connection: essentially, that any "derangements within the blood'' were conveyed to the brain and the nerves, and hence the neural trajectory of the condition rather than any other transmission. The mid-twentieth-century historian of physiology, Professor John Fulton of Yale University, viewed Willis as a hybrid English Freud cum physiologist, noting that Willis's Cerebre anatome (1664) was one of the "six cornerstones of modern neurology," together with books by Hitzig, Ferrier, and Sherrington, and that in the sphere of the relation of the cerebellum and involuntary action, so important to any scientific or secular theory of hysteria, "there was little further advance after Willis until 1809"; see J. Fulton, Physiology of the Nervous System , 2d ed. (London: Macmillan, 1943), 463. [BACK]

180. Willis himself had coined such words as "neuro-logia" and "psyche-logia" but never used the term psychological malady or hysteria or any other condition; see Rousseau, Ferment of Knowledge (n. 167), 146-148. [BACK]

181. T. Laqueur, Making Sex (n. 138). [BACK]

182. The emotions were undergoing a paradigmatic shift at this time; see G. Rosen, "Emotion and Sensibility in Ages of Anxiety: A Comparative Historical Review," American Journal of Psychiatry 124 (1967): 771-783; L. J. Rather, "Old and New Views of the Emotions and Bodily Changes," Clio Medica 1 (1965): 1-25; for a summary of their changes in the moral and philosophical realms, F. Hutcheson, An Essay on the Nature and Conduct of the Passions (London: J. Knapton, 1730). [BACK]

183. Latham, Works of Thomas Sydenham (n. 44), vol. 2, 85. For a contrasting condition to the sedentary life, see the effects of "the glass delusion"; Gill Speak, "An Odd Kind of Melancholy: Reflections on the Glass Delusion of Europe (1440-1680)," History of Psychiatry 1 (1990): 191-206. For these violent mood swings and outbursts of unexpected behavior see John Ball, The Modern Practice of Physic , 2 vols. (London, 1760), 2:229. [BACK]

184. See G. S. Rousseau, "Science and the Discovery of the Imagination in Enlightened England," Eighteenth-Century Studies III (1969): 108-135. [BACK]

185. By the mid-eighteenth century the "nervous system" had become entrenched, in medical theory as well as diagnosis, and in anatomy and physiology as well; see D. Smith, A Dissertation upon the Nervous System to show its influence upon the Soul (London, 1768); A Monro, Experiments on the nervous system, with opium and mealline [sic] substances; made chiefly with the view of determining the nature and effects of animal electricity (Edinburgh: A. Neill & Co. for Bell & Bradfute, 1793). For its development, see E. T. Carlson and M. Simpson, "Models of the Nervous System in Eighteenth-Century Psychiatry," Bulletin of the History of Medicine 43 (1969): 101-115. C. Lawrence has studied the cultural ramifications in "The Nervous System and Society in the Scottish Enlightenment," in Natural Order: Historical Studies of Scientific Enlightenment , ed. Barry Barnes and Steven Shapin (Beverly Hills, Calif.: Sage Publications, 1979), 19-40; for the early nineteenth-century view, see C. Bell, The Nervous System of the Human Body (London, 1824, reprinted 1830). [BACK]

186. Today, viewed from our feminist and pro-abortion ideologies, the idea would be ridiculed as preposterous despite the strong vestiges of it that remain everywhere in the civilized world, but viewed from the perspective of the sciences of man, which relied so heavily on anatomy and physiology for their underpinnings, it was easy to make a case for it. No one should think these two last subjects—anatomy and physiology—were free of the politics and ideologies that intervene in all science. [BACK]

187. See n. 182. [BACK]

188. See G. S. Rousseau, "Cultural History in a New Key: Towards a Semiotics of the Nerve," in Interpretation and Cultural History , ed. J. H. Pittock and A. Wear (London: Macmillan, 1991), 25-81. [BACK]

189. The passage appears in Latham, Works of Thomas Sydenham (n. 44), vol. 2, 85. [BACK]

190. Beliefs about hysteria were still drawn almost exclusively from Western models, and despite the expansionism and discoveries of the last century, geographical insulation still served to produce disease according to climatic and national characteristics; see W. Falconer, Remarks on the Influence of Climate, Situation, etc on the disposition and temper. . . of mankind (London: C. Dilly, 1781). [BACK]

191. Latham, Works of Thomas Sydenham (n. 44), vol. 2, 85. [BACK]

192. As early as 1943, Henry Siegerist wrote about disease within history from a broad perspective, and claimed that there had always been an intimate connection between disease and art (i.e., literature, painting, poetry, drama, etc.), a view that seems not to have had much influence on Veith. Had Siegerist gazed further back than to Charcot in his discussion of hysteria, he would have seen how true his intuition was for the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries; see H. Siegerist, Civilization and Disease (n. 67), 184-185, 191-194. [BACK]

193. For the nervous constitution by 1900, see J. Goldstein, Console and Classify (n. 36), and J. Oppenheim, " Shattered Nerves": Doctors, Patients, and Depression in Victorian England (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991). [BACK]

194. Latham, Works of Thomas Sydenham (n. 44), vol. 2, 85.

195. Ibid.

196. Ibid., vol. 2, 54.

197. Ibid. [BACK]

194. Latham, Works of Thomas Sydenham (n. 44), vol. 2, 85.

195. Ibid.

196. Ibid., vol. 2, 54.

197. Ibid. [BACK]

194. Latham, Works of Thomas Sydenham (n. 44), vol. 2, 85.

195. Ibid.

196. Ibid., vol. 2, 54.

197. Ibid. [BACK]

194. Latham, Works of Thomas Sydenham (n. 44), vol. 2, 85.

195. Ibid.

196. Ibid., vol. 2, 54.

197. Ibid. [BACK]

198. Highmore espoused his theory of hysteria in three works primarily: Excercitationes duae, quarum prior de passione hysterica, altera de affectione hypochondriaca (Amsterdam: C. Commelin, 1660); Hysteria (Oxford: A. Lichfield and R. Davis, 1660); De hysterica et hypochondriaca passione: Responsio epistolaris ad Doctorem Willis (London, 1670). [BACK]

199. Quoted in Richard Hunter and Ida Macalpine, Three Hundred Years of Psychiatry, 1535-1860 (London: Oxford University Press, 1963). See also Boss, Seventeenth-Century Transformation of the Hysteric Affection (n. 55); Isler, Thomas Willis (n. 170). [BACK]

200. T. Willis, An Essay on the Pathology of the Brain (London, 1684), 71. [BACK]

201. Beliefs about the effeminacy of men antedate the Restoration, of course, but the idea acquired altogether different currency then. For some of the reasons see Trumbach, "The Birth of the Queen" (n. 162); J. Turner, "The School of Men: Libertine Texts in the Subculture of Restoration London" (a talk given at UCLA, 1989); for a remarkably detailed case history of male effeminacy of the playwright Richard Cumberland in the eighteenth century, see K. C. Balderston, ed., Thraliana: The Diary of Mrs. Thrale 1776-1809 , 2, vols. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1942; rev. ed. 1951), 2: 436-440. [BACK]

202. The term category as I have been using it in this chapter should not suggest philosophical so much as medical category. Disease was then understood almost entirely within the terms of categories and classifications, as the wide taxonomic tendencies of the era had doctors compiling and classifying every disease in terms of its major symptoms, anatomic presentations, organic involvements, and so forth. See D. Knight, Ordering the World: A History of Classifying the World (London: Macmillan, 1980). [BACK]

203. Baglivi held a chair of medical theory in the Collegio della Sapienza in Rome, having been elected to it by Pope Clement XI. His book De praxi medicina (1699; English trans. 1723) was written with a knowledge of Sydenham's theories. He believed that hysteria was a mental disease caused by passions of the troubled mind; in this sense, he is less accurate and intuitive than Sydenham but nevertheless important. For Italian hysteria and hypochondria see Oscar Giacchi, L'isterismo e l'ipochondria avvero il malo nervosa . . . Giudizii fisioclinici-sociali (Milan, 1875). [BACK]

204. See B. Mandeville, A Treatise of the Hypochondriack and Hysterick Passions (London, 1711; reprinted 1715; 3d ed. 1730). [BACK]

205. Willis's anatomical "explosions" are discussed by R. G. Frank, "Thomas Willis and His Circle: Brain and Mind in Seventeenth-Century Medicine," in The Languages of Psyche , ed. Rousseau (n. 13), 107-147; Sacks, Migraine (n. 7), 26-27; for Willis's rhetoric and language see D. Davie, Science and Literature 1700-1740 (London: Sheed & Ward, 1964). [BACK]

206. For these shifts in knowledge at large see Thomas S. Kuhn, The Structure of the Scientific Revolution (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970; rev. ed.); Rom Harré, "Philosophy and Ideas: Knowledge," in Ferment of Knowledge , ed. Rousseau and Porter (n. 167), 11-55. [BACK]

207. Even Veith's survey in Hysteria makes this fact abundantly clear. [BACK]

208. The evidence for entrenchment is provided in the remaining portion of this chapter and remains a central theme of this essay, as it does in J. Wright, "Hysteria and Mechanical Man," Journal History of Ideas 41 (1980): 233-247, and for numbers of medical historians such as A. Luyendijk. [BACK]

209. For some of the evidence of the opposite view see P. Hoffmann, La femme dans la pensée des Lumiéres (Paris: Ophrys, 1977); Hill, Women and Work . [BACK]

210. So much has now been written about this relatively small group that one hardly knows where to direct the curious reader; a good place is J. Todd, Sign of Angellica: Women, Writing, and Fiction, 1660-1800 (London: Virago, 1988), and for one case history, written in depth, R. Perry, The Celebrated Mary Astell: An Early English Feminist (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986). [BACK]

211. A thorough linguistic study of these words ("spleen," "vapors," "hysterics") reconstructed in their local contexts would reveal shades of difference, but there are an equal number of examples of overlap and interchangeability; see also section XIII. For the witch trials, see K. Thomas, Religion and the Decline of Magic (Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin, 1973); for the famous 1736 case of the witch of Endor, B. Stock, The Holy and the Demonic (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1983). [BACK]

212. John Purcell, A Treatise of Vapours, or, Hysterick Fits (London: J. Johnson, 1707), 91. [BACK]

213. Radcliffe had a large and established practice of wealthy aristocratic clients, many of whom suffered from hysteria, but he wrote little; his famed repertoire of remedies continued to be published during and after his lifetime and was edited by apothecary Edward Strother; see J. Radcliffe, Pharmacopoeia Radcliffeana (London , 1716). [BACK]

214. A good discussion of the scene is found in John Sena, "Belinda's Hysteria: The Medical Context of The Rape of the Lock," Eighteenth-Century Life 5, no. 4 (1979): 29-42. [BACK]

215. J. Butt, ed., The Twickenham Edition of the Works of Alexander Pope (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press), 234. [BACK]

216. For the post-Popean iconography of Belinda as hysteric see C. Tracy, The Rape Observ'd (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1974), 81, especially D. Guernier's illustration of Belinda swooning. [BACK]

217. An interesting pharmaceutical study could be written compiling these remedies in the eighteenth century. For example, the Gentlemen's Magazine regularly printed "receipts" for female hysteria and "male lovesickness"; see the June 1733 issue, p. 321. prescribing the tying of a woman's head in a noose next to a cricket allegedly stung by the noise! Domestic vade mecums such as W. Buchan, Domestic Medicine (London, 1776), and standard pharmacopeias such as J. Quincy, The Dispensatory of the Royal College of Physicians (London, 1721, many editions), also prescribed. Hysteria was a virtual industry for apothecaries for the entire period, especially in cordials to prevent miscarrying. [BACK]

218. For the all-important iatromechanism of the period at large see T. M. Brown, "From Mechanism to Vitalism in Eighteenth-Century English Physiology," Journal of the History of Biology 7 (1974): 179-216; Rousseau, "Nerves, Spirits and Fibres" (n. 178); G. Bowles, "Physical, Human and Divine Attraction in the Life and Thought of George Cheyne," Annals of Science 41 (1974): 473-488; H. Metzger, Attraction Universelle et Religion Naturelle chez quelques Commentateurs Anglais de Newton (Paris: Nizet, 1938); more recently for iatromechanism in the work of Dr. Cheyne, see G. S. Rousseau, ''Medicine and Millenarianism: 'Immortal Doctor Cheyne,'" in Hermeticism and the Renaissance: Intellectual History and the Occult in Early Modem Europe , ed. Ingrid Merkel and Allen Debus (Washington, D.C.: Folger Shakespeare Library, 1988), 192-230, and for the roles of rhetoric and language in Cheyne's writings, see Rousseau, "Language of the Nerves," in Social History of Language , ed. Burke and Porter (n. 42). I consider Cheyne's Essay of the True Nature and Due Method of Treating the Gout (London: G. Strahan, 1722) among his most important works for layihg out his theory of iatromechanism and post-Newtonian application. [BACK]

219. The Dutch were important in the development of a mechanical theory of hysteria, the great and influential Dr. Boerhaave himself having identified hysteria as the most baffling of all female maladies. Boerhaave's writings set hysteria on a firm mechanical basis on the continent; for his theory of hysteria and its adoption by his followers, especially Anton de Haen in Holland, Gerard van Swieten in Austria, and Robert Whytt in Scotland, see A. M. Luyendijk, "Het hysterie-begrip in de 18de eeuw," in Ongeregeld zenuwleven , ed. L. de Goei (Utrecht: NcGv, 189), 30-41, a volume rich in the bibliography of hysteria and dealing exclusively with the modern history of female uterine maladies. Luyendijk is right to claim that throughout the eighteenth century every aspect of "the sick woman" was sexually charged and sexually liminal; see A. M. Luyendijk, "De Zieke Vrouw in de Achttiende Eeuw," Natuurkundige Voordrachten 66 (1988): 129-136. [BACK]

220. See Rousseau on Cheyne ("Medicine and Millinarianism," n. 218). By 1750 hysteria had become "nationalized" (i.e., Dutch hysteria, Scottish hysteria, etc.) and a study of its nationalistic idiosyncrasies would make for fascinating reading. [BACK]

221. It undid his psychologizing and cultural determination, neglected his primary point about hysteria as a disease of imitation (see n. 44), and replaced it with a radical anatomizing and mechanizing of the nervous system capable of accounting for rises and falls of hysteria in both genders. Indeed, after Sydenham the theory of imitation virtually went under, finding no place in Cheyne's system, where the word never appears. It may be more than coincidental that Sydenhamian hysteria as a disease of imitation declines concomitantly with the larger aesthetic and philosophical theory of imitation in the same period; see F. Boyd, Mimesis: The Decline of a Doctrine (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1973). [BACK]

222. For Robinson see A New System of the Spleen (London, 1729), quoted in Richard Hunter and Ida Macalpine, Three Hundred Years of Psychiatry (n. 199); Klibansky et al., Saturn and Melancholy (n. 12); Jackson, Melancholia and Depression (n. 80), 291-294; T. H. Jobe, "Medical Theories of Melancholia in the Seventeenth and Early Eighteenth Centuries," Clio Medica 19 (1976): 217-231. [BACK]

223. G. Cheyne, The English Malady: or, a Treatise of Nervous Diseases of All Kinds (London: Strahan & Leake, 1733), 184; see also O. Doughty, "The English Malady of the Eighteenth Century," Review of English Studies 2 (1926): 257-269; E. Fischer-Homberger, "On the Medical History of the Doctrine of the Imagination," Psychological Medicine 4 (1979): 619-628, which discusses the medicalization of the imagination in relation to the hysteric affection, and, most important, R. Porter, "The Rage of Party: A Glorious Revolution in English Psychiatry," Medical History 27 (1983): 35-50. [BACK]

224. Cheyne, English Malady , 14. Samuel Richardson, the novelist and printer, had printed the book for his friend and claimed that Cheyne chose the title ("English") because he held the squalor and polluted air responsible for London's being "the greatest, most capacious, close and populous City of the Globe"—and also called it the " English malady" because hysteria was so called in derision by continental writers ( English Malady , 55; C. F. Mullett, ed., The Letters of Doctor George Cheyne to Samuel Richardson 1733-1743 [Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1943, 15]). [BACK]

225. R. James, A Medicinal Dictionary; Including Physics, Surgery, Anatomy, Chemistry, and Botany, in All Their Branches. Together with a History of Drugs . . . (London: T. Osborne, 1743-1745), article entitled "hysteria." [BACK]

226. Curiously, no systematic study has been undertaken despite the large amount of recent feminist scholarship in the field of eighteenth-century studies; it awaits its avid student, for whom the sheer amount of material between 1700 and 1800 will make for a field day of scholarship. Some material for the nineteenth century is found in Y. Ripa, La ronde des folles: Femme folie et enfermement au XIXe siecle (Paris: Aubier, 1986). Müller, who became a leading anthropologist in Germany, wrote his medical thesis at the University of Paris in 1813 on "le spasme et l'affection vaporeuse"; as late as the 1840s some French doctors still considered "spleen" a valid category of the hysteria-hypochondria syndrome; see D. Montallegry, Hypochondrie-spleen ou névroses trisplanchniques. Observations relative à ces maladies et leur traitement radical (Paris, 1841). [BACK]

227. For Swift and hysteria see Christopher Fox, ed., Psychology and Literature in the Eighteenth Century (New York: AMS Press, 1988), 236—237. [BACK]

228. M. DePorte, Nightmares and Hobbyhorses: Swift, Sterne, and Augustan Ideas of Madness (San Marino, Calif.: Huntington Library Press, 1974), 125 ff. [BACK]

229. For evidence of the linguistic confusion in the primary medical literature, see W. Stukeley, Of the Spleen (London, 1723); J. Midriff, Observations on the Spleen and Vapours; Containing Remarkable Cases of Persons of both Sexes, and all Ranks, from the aspiring Directors to the Humble Bubbler, who have been miserably afflicted with these Melancholy Disorders since the Fall of the South-sea, and other publick Stocks; with the proper Method for their Recovery, according to the new and uncommon Circumstances of each Case (London, 1720); J. Raulin, Traité des affections vaporeuses du sexe (Paris, 1758). There is also a wide literature of spleen and vapors, as in Matthew Green, The Spleen, and Other Poems . . . with a Prefatory Essay by John Aikin, M.D . (London: Cadell, 1796). For comparison of this early eighteenth-century outbreak of spleen with outbursts in America at the end of the nineteenth century, see T. Lutz, American Nervousness, 1903: An Anecdotal History (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1991), a study of the "neurasthenia plague" of 1903 that gave rise to hundreds of cures and potions. Midriff wondered if certain types of "spleen" appeared in particular types of wars and not others. [BACK]

230. See Purcell, Treatise of Vapours (n. 212); some discussion of these matters is found in O. Temkin, The Falling Sickness (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1974). [BACK]

231. For the extensiveness of this Newtonianism in medical theory, see N. Robinson, M.D., A new theory of physick and diseases, founded on the principles of the Newtonian philosophy (London, 1725), with much emphasis on hysteria; in theology and cosmic thought, J. Craig, Theologia . . . Mathematica (London, 1699); more generally, I. Prigogine, Order Out of Chaos: Man's New Dialogue with Nature (New York: Bantam Books, 1984). James Thomson the poet and author of The Seasons , the most widely read English poem of the eighteenth century, also reflects this pervasiveness; see A. D. McKillop, The Background of Thomson's Seasons (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1942). For Newtonianism and the popular imagination, M. H. Nicolson, Newton Demands the Muse (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1946). [BACK]

232. Roy Porter has chronicled aspects of this development in Mind-Forged Manacles: A History of Madness in England from the Restoration to the Regency (London: Penguin, 1987); see also for madness in this period and its relation to current scientific movements: V. Skultans, English Madness: Ideas on Insanity 1580-1890 (London: Routledge, 1979); M. Foucault, Madness and Civilization: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason (New York: Pantheon Books, 1965), 120-132. Dr. Charles Perry, a mechanist and contemporary of Cheyne, Robinson, and Purcell, makes perceptive points about madness in relation to hysteria in his treatise On the Causes and Nature of Madness (London, 1723). [BACK]

233. For the humanitarianism of madness, see D. Weiner, "Mind and Body in the Clinic: Philippe Pinel, Alexander Crichton, Dominique Esquirol, and the Birth of Psychiatry," in Rousseau, Languages of Psyche (n. 13), 332-340. [BACK]

234. See Rousseau, "Medicine and Millenarianism" (n. 218). [BACK]

235. G. Cheyne, quoted in L. Feder, Madness in Literature (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1980), 170. Cheyne's prose abounds with weird syntax, ungrammatical constructions, and neologisms; "fantastical" rather than the simpler word strange is just the sort of word found in his vocabulary. [BACK]

236. The English Malady (1733), 353.

237. Ibid., 354. [BACK]

236. The English Malady (1733), 353.

237. Ibid., 354. [BACK]

238. Sir Richard Blackmore, A Treatise of the Spleen and Vapours (London, 1725), 320. In a rather similar prose, William Buchan in his Domestic Medicine (Edinburgh, 1769), 561, discussing "hysteric and hypochondriacal affections," noted that these nervous disorders were "diseases which nobody chuses to own." It is important to insist on the yoking of hysteria and hypochondria ever since Sydenham undercut (except in name) hysteria as a gendered disease . Blackmore argued from the perspective of one who had lived through the revolution in nomenclature as well as gender: "Most Physicians have looked upon Hysteric Affections as a distinct Disease from Hypochondriacal, and therefore have treated some of them under different Heads; but though in Conformity to that Custom I do the same, yet . . . I take them to be the same Malady." Blackmore admitted that women suffered worse, ''the Reason of which is, a more volatile, dissipable [sic], and weak Constitution of the Spirits, and a more soft, tender, and delicate Texture of the Nerves." Yet, he insisted, "this proves no Difference in their Nature and essential Properties, but only a higher or lower Degree of the Symptoms common to both." This more "delicate Texture of the Nerves" was the fulcrum on which the theory of nervous diseases, including hysteria, was to be pegged for the next century and remains a crucial development in the history of medicine in the Enlightenment. For some of its cultural resonances, see Rousseau, "Cultural History in a New Key," in Interpretation and Cultural History , ed. Pittock and Wear (n. 188), 25-81. [BACK]

239. Blackmore, Treatise of the Spleen and Vapours (n. 238), 319. It is important to reiterate Sydenham's consistent use of this nomenclature for males, which fell under his gender collapse of the disease and which was generally adopted by his students and followers into the time of Blackmore and Robinson: men were always "hypochondriacal," while women remained "hysterical," and no amount of anatomical similitude between the genders could account for the linguist disparity; for some discussion, see E. Fischer-Homberger, "Hypochondriasis of the Eighteenth Century—Neurosis of the Present Century," Bulletin of the History of Medicine 46 (1972): 391-401. [BACK]

240. Nicholas Robinson, A new system of the spleen, vapours, and hypochondriack melancholy; wherein all the decays of the nerves, and lownesses of the spirits are mechanically accounted for. To which is subjoined, a discourse upon the nature, cause, and cure of melancholy, madness, and lunacy (London, 1729), 144.

241. Ibid., 345. More generally for this "physiological psychology" see DePorte, Nightmares and Hobbyhorses (n. 228); Rather, "Old and New Views of the Emotions and Bodily Changes" (n. 182); Jobe, "Melancholia in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries" (n. 222). [BACK]

240. Nicholas Robinson, A new system of the spleen, vapours, and hypochondriack melancholy; wherein all the decays of the nerves, and lownesses of the spirits are mechanically accounted for. To which is subjoined, a discourse upon the nature, cause, and cure of melancholy, madness, and lunacy (London, 1729), 144.

241. Ibid., 345. More generally for this "physiological psychology" see DePorte, Nightmares and Hobbyhorses (n. 228); Rather, "Old and New Views of the Emotions and Bodily Changes" (n. 182); Jobe, "Melancholia in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries" (n. 222). [BACK]

242. Looking ahead, these factors will coalesce later on in the century, in the world of Adair, Heberden, Cullen—Cheyne's followers. For the medical profession in the eighteenth century in relation to the development of other professions, see Geoffrey S. Holmes, The Professions and Social Change in England 1680-1730 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1981), and idem, Augustan England: Professions, State and Society, 1680-1730 (London: Allen & Unwin, 1982). [BACK]

243. For the role of quacks in this milieu see R. Porter, Health for Sale: Quackery in England 1650-1850 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1989), and "Female Quacks in the Consumer Society," The History of Nursing Society Journal 3 (1990): 1-25. [BACK]

244. Veith, Hysteria , 155. [BACK]

245. I.e., the essentially anti-vitalistic principle that all is brain and body, nothing mind. Twentieth-century science has spelled the death knell of scientific vitalism despite its many vestiges in the biological and neurological realms. For the anti-vitalistic strains and what I am calling the triumph of the neurophysiological approach of contemporary twentieth-century science, see J. D. Spillane, The Doctrine of the Nerves: Chapters in the History of Neurology (Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, 1981); W. Riese, A History of Neurology (New York: MD Publications, 1959); for the linguistic implications, M. Jeannerod, The Brain Machine: The Development of Neurophysiological Thought (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1985); H. A. Whitaker, On the Representation of Language in the Human Brain: Problems in the Neurology of Language (Los Angeles: UCLA Working Papers in Linguistics, 1969). [BACK]

246. Cheyne, English Malady , 271 ff. [BACK]

247. For nymphomania, see n. 74. [BACK]

248. The animal spirits continued to prove troublesome for experimenters and theorists until the middle of the eighteenth century; for this complicated chapter in the history of science and medicine, see E. Clarke, "The Doctrine of the Hollow Nerve in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries," in Medicine, Science, and Culture: Historical Essays in Honor of Owsei Temkin , ed. L. G. Stevenson and Robert P. Multhauf (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1968), 123-141; for its linguistic representations and diverse metaphorical uses, Rousseau, "Discovery of the Imagination" (n. 184); the interchanges between the rhetorical and empirical (or scientific) domains here would make a fascinating study that has not been undertaken on a broad canvas. [BACK]

249. See Laqueur, Making Sex (n. 138); Feher, History of the Human Body (n. 125). [BACK]

250. Cheyne, English Malady , ii (preface). [BACK]

251. For nightmares and hysteria, see A. M. Luyendijk-Elshout, "Mechanism contra vitalisme: De school van Herman Boerhaave en de beginselen van het leven," T. Gesch. Geneesk. Natuurw. Wisk. Techn . 5 (1982): 16-26; idem, "Of Masks and Mills" (n. 82); and, more generally, Castle, "Phantasmagoria" (n. 82). [BACK]

252. Two generations after Pope, Hannah Webster Foster (1759-1840) thought that the nerves of the coquette distinguished her from other types; see The coquette; or, The history of Eliza Wharton. Reproduced from the original edition of 1797 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1939), as did David Garrick in his play of the same name, but a century earlier there was no such notion in Philippe Quinault's La mére coquette (written as Sydenham was composing his essay on hysteria) or in the State Poems on court coquettes written during Swift's period. [BACK]

253. S. Greenblatt, Renaissance Self-fashioning: From More to Shakespeare (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980), whose use of self-fashioning must be credited. [BACK]

254. P. M. Spacks, The Female Imagination (London: Methuen, 1976); idem, Imagining a Self: Autobiography and Novel in Eighteenth-Century England (London: Routledge, 1976); K. O. Lyons, The Invention of the Self (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1978); J. Mullan, Sentiment and Sociability (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988); and literary criticism dealing with the literature of sensibility. [BACK]

255. G. S. Rousseau, "Nerves, Spirits and Fibres" (n. 178); for the scientific dimension in mid-eighteenth century, see Haller's physiological revolution; for the popular cults, see an anonymous "Descant on Sensibility," London Magazine (May 1776); for the literary dimension, Hagstrum, Sex and Sensibility (n. 155); and L. I. Bredvold, The Natural History of Sensibility (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1962). [BACK]

256. I tried to document this point about the semiology of disease then in " 'Sowing the Wind and Reaping the Whirlwind': Aspects of Change in Eighteenth-Century Medicine," in Studies in Change and Revolution: Aspects of English Intellectual History 1640-1800 , ed. Paul J. Korshin (London: Scholar Press, 1972), 129-159. [BACK]

257. The new code is not evident in John Playford's seventeenth-century treatises, but begins to be apparent in the drama (Wycherly's Love in a Wood ) and in treatises by dancing masters written after ca. 1740. [BACK]

258. This complex and largely nonverbal code remains to be deciphered; it is something as yet not understood about the Augustan "self-fashioning" (to invoke Greenblatt's fine term) of the nerves. [BACK]

259. The new role of consumption of every type cannot be minimized in this period: see N. J. McKendrick et al., The Birth of Consumer Society: The Commercialization of Eighteenth-Century England (London: Europa Publications Limited, 1982); J. Brewer, The Sinews of Power: War, Money, and the English State, 1688-1783 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1990); for the reaction, M. Caldwell, The Last Crusade: The War on Consumption (New York: Atheneum Publishers, 1988); for the medical diagnosis and its economic implications see such contemporary medical works as C. Bennet, Treatise of Consumptions (London, 1720); for drink and its relation to nervous sensibility, compare T. Trotter, An Essay, Medical, Philosophical and Chemical on Drunkenness (London: Longmans, 1804). [BACK]

260. I tried to explain the chain of reasons from medical and philosophical, to social and popular, in "Nerves, Spirits and Fibres" (n. 178) and "Cultural History in a New Key" (n. 188), but much work remains to be done—I have barely scratched the surface of the Enlightenment cults of sensibility. [BACK]

261. See M. Foucault, Madness and Civilization: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason (New York: Pantheon Books, 1965), 132. My own thought has been influenced as much on the semiotic domain by Tzvetan Todorov in The Conquest of America: The Question of the Other Translated from the French by Richard Howard (New York: Harper & Row, 1985). [BACK]

262. Richard Sennett, The Fall of Public Man (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1979). [BACK]

263. It could not have elevated sensibility and the conditions (hysteria) that depended on it, without a prior theory of the "sciences of man." There are fine studies of this subject, but they usually omit the medical dimension entirely; for the best, see Sergio Moravia, Filosofia e scienze umane nell'eta dei lumi (Florence: Sansoni, 1982). The point needs to be related to the development of the science of man; Moravia saw much but did not make the important connections; he saw narrowly only the new science of man but not its implication for self-fashioning. [BACK]

264. Even Peter Gay had made this seminal point about Hailer in the opening pages of The Enlightenment: An Interpretation , 2 vols. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1966-69), 1:30, in "The Spirit of the Age" and "The Recovery of Nerve," as did Henry Steele Commager in The Empire of Reason (New York: Anchor Doubleday, 1977), 8-10, in the famous paean to Hailer who "took all knowledge for his province" (p. 8) and who "in the breadth and depth of his knowledge was perhaps unique'' (p. 10). However, Haller's shrewd fusion of a medical and literary language of sexual sensibility ( sensibilität ) has been less well understood by historians forever bent on merely assessing his contribution to the history of European science, the Swiss Enlightenment, or the intellectual development of Göttingen. [BACK]

265. Elsewhere I have tried to make the argument that the medical and scientific revolutions of the Enlightenment have still not been integrated into the culture at large, nor into the developing medical profession; Goldstein's Console and Classify (n. 36) is an exemplary book for this type of work carried out for the next century. For the legacy of the "nervous revolution" in medicine in the next century see also Oppenheim, " Shattered Nerves " (n. 193). [BACK]

266. See Rousseau, Languages of Psyche (n. 13). [BACK]

267. Mechanical philosophy had been applied to every other domain, including painting, diet, health, government, so why not to manners? For a list of applications, see Rousseau, "Language of the Nerves" (n. 42), 60-61; for an example in music, R. Browne, Medicina musica: Or a Mechanical Essay on the Effects of Singing, Musick, and Dancing, on Human Bodies (London, 1729). As late as 1757, manners are still being described in mechanical metaphors; see J. Brown, An Estimate of the Manners and Principles of the Times (London: L. Davis & C. Reymers, 1757). [BACK]

268. William Heberden, Medical Commentaries (London: T. Payne, 1802), 227.

269. Ibid., 235. Heberden did insist, however, that "their force will be very different, according to the patient's choosing to indulge and give way to them." [BACK]

268. William Heberden, Medical Commentaries (London: T. Payne, 1802), 227.

269. Ibid., 235. Heberden did insist, however, that "their force will be very different, according to the patient's choosing to indulge and give way to them." [BACK]

270. The role of medical schools was also great in this; see section X. [BACK]

271. See F. J. McLynn, Crime and Punishment in Eighteenth-Century England (London: Routledge, 1989). [BACK]

272. For the evidence see Wright, "Hysteria and Mechanical Man" (n. 208). Servants often aped these affectations of spleen and vapors to other servants, but rarely would they do so with their mistresses, who usually saw through the pretense. In Gay's The Beggar's Opera , Lucy explains her unacceptable behavior to the rivalrous Polly in terms of the vapors, but without recalling (if she ever knew it) that "Affectation" had been one of the handmaidens in Pope's "Cave of Spleen" in The Rape of the Lock . [BACK]

273. For his life and works, see Rousseau, "Cultural History in a New Key" (n. 188); Philip Gosse, Dr. Viper: The Querulous Life of Philip Thicknesse (London: Cassell, 1952); A. Brunschwig, Enlightenment and Romanticism in Eighteenth-Century Prussia (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974). For Whytt, see R. K. French, Robert Whytt, the Soul, and Medicine (London: Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicine, 1969). [BACK]

274. James Makittrick Adair, Essays on Fashionable Diseases (N.P., 1786), 4-7. [BACK]

275. The phrase is usually quoted from An Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot , line 132; see also Marjorie Hope Nicolson and G. S. Rousseau, This Long Disease My Life: Alexander Pope and the Sciences (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1968). But Pope had used it earlier in a letter to Aaron Hill, March 14, 1731 ( Correspondence , III. 182), commenting on his chronic infirmities, which he thought had predisposed his "manly temperament" to certain "softer activities." [BACK]

276. For Pinel and hysteria see D. Weiner, "Mind and Body in the Clinic," in Rousseau, The Languages of Psyche (n. 13), 391-395. [BACK]

277. For a list of many of these medical dissertations see G. S. Rousseau, "Discourses of the Nerve," in Literature and Science as Modes of Expression , ed. F. Amrine (Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1989), 56-60. [BACK]

278. M. Micale, "A Review Essay of Male Hysteria," Medical History (1988). [BACK]

279. For some examples see Boss, "Transformation of the Hysteric Affection" (n. 55). [BACK]

280. Biographical material is found in Thomas Guidott, The Lives and Characters of the Physicians of Bath (London, 1676-77; reprint of 1724-25 is edition referred to here) and Some Particulars of the Author's [i.e., Guidott] Life in Guidott's ed. of Edward Jorden's Discourse of Natural Bathes and Mineral Waters (London, 1669, 3d ed.). Guidott dedicated his books to Maplet and in 1694 saw through the press Maplet's treatise on the effects of bathing. [BACK]

281. Guidott, Lives and Characters of Physicians of Bath , 128-142. Subsequent passages are found on these pages. [BACK]

282. Throughout my reading I wondered if Guidott had read Sydenham on hysteria, but have been unable to make a case for or against. The larger point, however, is that one would not have to read a particular text to know, and even espouse, the fundamental aspects of the paradigm. [BACK]

283. Elsewhere I shall demonstrate that it was this paradigm that informed, in part, theoretical explanations of all-male friendship (on grounds that sensitivity gravitated to like sensitivity), and that became the substratum of later discussions about effeminacy and sodomy. [BACK]

284. For example, Gideon's Fleece; or the Sieur de Frisk. An Heroic Poem . . . by Philo-Musus, a Friend to the Muses (London, 1684). [BACK]

285. Philippe Hecquet, Le naturalisme des convulsions dans les maladies de l'épi-démie convulsionnaire (Soleure, 1733); Hillel Schwartz, The French Prophets: The History of a Millenarian Group in Eighteenth-Century England (Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press, 1980); idem, Knaves, Fools, Madmen, and that Subtile Effluvium: A Study of the Opposition to the French Prophets in England, 1706-1710 (Gainesville: University Presses of Florida, 1978). [BACK]

286. Edith Sitwell, The English Eccentrics (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1933). [BACK]

287. Hugh Farmer, An Essay on the Demoniacs of the New Testament (London: G. Robinson, 1775). For Farmer's interest in miracles, demons, spirits, and hysterics, as well as his medical case history and life, see Michael Dodson, Memoirs of the Life and Writings of the Late Reverend and Learned Hugh Farmer (London: Longman & Rees, 1804). This work differs from physician Richard Mead's Treatise concerning the Influence of the Sun and the Moon upon Human Bodies, and the Diseases Thereby Produced (London, 1748). In Mead, male hysteria is explained according to external phenomena (for example moon, waves, tides) acting through Hartleyan vibrations and magnetism upon the human Nerves and then the imagination. In this sense Mead, like Farmer, different though their professions were, should both be considered kindred in the mindset of counter-nerve. For counter-nerve see Rousseau, "Cultural History in a New Key" (n. 188), 70-75, and Richard Kuhn, The Demon of Noontide: Ennui in Western Literature (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1976). [BACK]

288. Loneliness was an element of their alienation as securely as any other factors, as has been noticed by John Sitter in his Literary Loneliness in Mid-Eighteenth-Century England (Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1982). [BACK]

289. For a very limited study in one hospital during the 1780s see G. B. Risse, "Hysteria at the Edinburgh Infirmary: The Construction and Treatment of a Disease, 1770-1800," Medical History 32 (1988): 1-22. Risse has suggested that the organic diagnosis rather than any remotely psychogenic etiology enhanced the bedside discourse shared between these Edinburgh professors and their pupils. Men were not taken in at Edinburgh, but they were in Paris and Vienna. Highborn and low, female and male: all were treated and eventually admitted without regard to gender. [BACK]

290. The Adventures of Tom Jones, a Foundling (1749), Bk. XVI. Smollett, a physician-novelist who knew medical theory more intimately than Fielding, portrays many more hysterics, male as well as female, especially in his "psychiatric novel" The Adventures of Sir Launcelot Greaves (1762). Karl Miller believes that Greaves's "weakness of the nerves," the malady his quack doctor assigns, is a foreshadowing of modern, almost Beckettian, "nervousness," and ''the more nervous people there are, the more we may need spitting images, a comedy of hurt." See his provocative chapter entitled "Andante Capriccioso," in his Authors (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989). [BACK]

291. Bienville, Nymphomania (n. 74). Works had been written before 1775 on the behavior or activity we would now, anachronistically, call nymphomania, but Bienville was the first to write an entire treatise using the word and concept. [BACK]

292. G. Miller, ed., Letters of Edward Jenner (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1983). [BACK]

293. This fact surfaces repeatedly in the study of female maladies in Barbara Duden, The Woman beneath the Skin: A Doctor's Patients in Eighteenth-Century Germany (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1991). [BACK]

294. Those who think "hordes" is excessive to describe the proliferation of hysteria theory should consult the bibliographical evidence; see J. Sena, A Bibliography of Melancholy (London: Nether Press, 1970) and Rousseau, "Cultural History in a New Key" (n. 188), 76-81, which are themselves but the tip of the iceberg. [BACK]

295. Richard Hunter and Ida Macalpine Hunter, Three Hundred Years of Psychiatry (n. 41); William Battie, A Treatise on Madness (London: Dawsons, 1962); William Perfect, Cases of Insanity . . . Hypochondriacal Affection . . . (London, 1781); William Pargeter, Observations on Maniacal Disorders (Reading, 1792; reprint, London: Routledge, 1989). [BACK]

296. The classic works remain Klaus Doerner's Madmen and the Bourgeoisie (Oxford: Basil Blackworth, 1981; originally published in German in 1969), which appeared before Foucault's insightful Birth of the Clinic: An Archaeology of Medical Perception (New York: Vintage Books, 1973). [BACK]

297. Cited above at the end of Section X. [BACK]

298. For some of the evidence related to rank and class in Edinburgh see Risse, "Hysteria at the Edinburgh Infirmary" (n. 289). [BACK]

299. And yet this opposition remains one of the most persistent contrasts in the history of hysteria in the early modern period surveyed in this chapter; as I worked my way through the massive amounts of material available from over two centuries (1600-1800), I was struck to what massive degree the body-mind model kept reifying itself in the discourses of hysteria. [BACK]

300. See Andrew Wilson, Medical Researches: Being an inquiry into the nature and origin of hysterics in the female constitution, and into the distinction between that disease and hypochondriac or nervous disorders (London: C. Nourse, 1776), and William Rowley, A treatise on female, nervous, hysterical, hypochondriacial, bilious, convulsive disease; apoplexy & palsy with thoughts on madness & suicide, etc . (London: C. Nourse, 1788). [BACK]

301. The point about Cullen and taxonomy in medical theory has been well made by C. Lawrence, "Nervous System and Society" (n. 185). See also John Thomson, An Account of the Life, Lectures and Writings of William Cullen , 2 vols. (Edinburgh: William Blackwood & Sons, 1859). [BACK]

302. See Alan Bewell, Wordsworth and the Enlightenment: Nature, Man, and Society in the Experimental Poetry (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1989), 175. [BACK]

303. K. Cave, ed., The Diary of Joseph Farington , 16 vols. (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1982- ), 10:3705. [BACK]

304. Traité des Affections Vaporeuses de deux sexes, ou Maladies Nerveuses vulgairement appelés de nerfs (Paris: Imprimerie Royale, 1782). [BACK]

305. W. Falconer, A Dissertation on the Influence of the Passions upon Disorders of the Body (London: C. Dilly, 1788). [BACK]

306. London: Rivington, 1800. [BACK]

307. Bath: R. Crutwell, 1800. [BACK]

308. John Haslam, Observations on Insanity (London: Rivington, 1798), reissued in 1809 as Observations on Madness & Melancholy: Including practical remarks on those diseases; together with cases: and an account of the morbid appearances of dissection ; idem, Illustrations of Madness (London: Routledge, 1810). [BACK]

309. See n. 1 above. For madness from Renaissance to Enlightenment more generally, see Anatomy of Madness , ed. Bynum, Porter, and Shepherd. [BACK]

310. See section XIII and n. 273. [BACK]

311. It is not accidental, for example, that Battie's Treatise on Madness (1757) appeared only a few years after the appearance of Julien Offray de La Mettrie's seminal announcement of materialism; see his Man a machine. Wherein the several systems of philosophers, in respect to the soul of man, are examined . . . Translated from the French of Mons, de La Mettrie (London: G. Smith, 1750) and E. Callot, La philosophie de la vie au XVIIIe siècle, étudiee chez Fontenelle, Montesquieu, Maupertuis, La Mettrie, Diderot, d'Holbach, Linné (Paris: M. Rivière, 1965). Also, as a parallel here are the nonmedical writings of women of the period, who also retain mystery as an essence of the then modern secularized woman. [BACK]

312. Pinel's versions of hysteria have not been studied in any detail, but see nn. 233 and 276. [BACK]

313. The imitative aspect extends, of course, beyond the theory of hysteria. For different approaches to it, see Mark Johnson, The Body in the Mind: The Bodily Basis of Meaning, Imagination, and Reason (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987) and Barbara Stafford, Body Criticism: Imaging the Unseen in Enlightenment Art and Medicine (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1991). [BACK]

314. Italics mine; see Mary Jacobus, Reading Woman: Essays in Feminist Criticism (New York: Columbia University Press, 2986), 201; and Mary Jacobus, Evelyn Fox Keller, and Sally Shuttleworth, eds., Body/Politics: Women in the Discourses of Science (London: Routledge, 1990). [BACK]

315. See n. 300 and for Cullen and neurosis, J. M. Lopez Piñero, Historical Origins of the Concept of Neurosis (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983). Echoes of Robert James's, Medicinal Dictionary (2 vols. [London, 1745]) article on "Hysteria" are found in Cullen's works. [BACK]

316. A recent social critic has noted that the main reason twentieth-century homosexuals build up their muscles in gyms is their misogynist contempt of weak "inner spaces"—a materialist hypothesis at least. [BACK]

317. There are fundamental ways in which the history of hysteria resembles that of gender and sex itself, and it is wrong to believe that hysteria resides in a class entirely apart from these. For the social construction of all of these see Peter Wright and Andrew Treacher Wright, eds., The Problem of Medical Knowledge: Examining the Social Construction of Medicine (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1982); Cynthia Eagle Russett, Sexual Science: The Victorian Construction of Womanhood (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1989); Celia Kitzinger, The Social Construction of Lesbianism (London: Sage Publications, 1987); David F. Greenberg, The Construction of Homosexuality (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989); Thomas Laqueur, "Onanism, Sociability, and Imagination: Medicine and Fiction in the Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Century," a talk delivered at the University of California, Berkeley, 1991. [BACK]

318. R. B. Carter, On the Pathology and Treatment of Hysteria (London: John Churchill, 1853). [BACK]

319. Veith, Hysteria , 221-228. For this view in another key see L. Chertok and R. de Sausurre Chertok, The Therapeutic Revolution: From Mesmer to Freud (New York: Brunner Mazel, 1979), but for sounder approaches to the Mesmeric phenomenon see V. Buranelli, The Wizard from Vienna: Franz Mesmer and the Origins of Hypnotism (London: Routledge, 1976); R. Darnton, Mesmerism and the End of the Enlightenment in France (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1968). [BACK]

320. For Mesmer's Newtonianism see R. Cooter, "The History of Mesmerism in England," in Mesmer und die Geschichte des Mesmerismus , ed. H. Schott (Stuttgart: Franz Steiner, 1985), 152-162. [BACK]

321. Some have seen the evidence of these misogynistic outbursts in the debates about female reproductivity; see Pierre Darmon, The Myth of Procreation in the Baroque Period (London: Routledge, 1982); Damning the Innocent: A History of Persecution in Pre-Revolutionary France (New York: Viking Press, 1986). [BACK]

322. I owe the phrase to David Morris; see D. Morris, "The Marquis of Sade and the Discourses of Pain: Literature and Medicine at the Revolution," in The Languages of Psyche , ed. Rousseau (n. 13), 291-331. [BACK]

323. Roy Porter provides the scholarship, but see also G. Didi-Huberman, Invention de l'Hysterie: Charcot et l'Iconographie Photographique (Paris: Macula, 1982). [BACK]

324. F. Kaplan, Dickens and Mesmerism: The Hidden Springs of Fiction (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1975). [BACK]

Three— The Body and the Mind, The Doctor and the Patient: Negotiating Hysteria

1. See H. O. Lancaster, Expectations of Life: A Study of the Demography, Statistics and History of World Mortality (New York: Springer Verlag, 1990); James C. Riley, Sickness, Recovery and Death: A History and Forecast of Ill Health (London: Macmillan, 1989); Alex Mercer, Disease, Mortality and Population in Transition: Epidemiological-demographic Change in England since the Eighteenth Century as Part of a Global Phenomenon (London: Leicester University Press, a division of Pinter Publishers, 1990); Roderick Floud, Kenneth Wachter, and Annabel Gregory, Height, Health, and History: Nutritional Status in the United Kingdom, 1750-1980 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990); Mark Nathan Cohen, Health and the Rise of Civilization (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1989). [BACK]

2. W. H. McNeill, Plagues and Peoples (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1976); A. Crosby, Ecological Imperialism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986). [BACK]

3. Mary Kilbourne Matossian, Poisons of the Past: Molds, Epidemics, and History (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1989). It is claimed that some of Freud's "hysterical" patients in reality suffered from organic disorders that Freud, in his zeal for psychodynamic explanations, omitted to investigate. See E. M. Thornton, Hypnotism, Hysteria and Epilepsy: An Hysterical Synthesis (London: Heinemann, 1976); Lindsay C. Hurst, "What Was Wrong with Anna O," Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 75 (1982): 129-131; and the discussion in Mark Micale, "Hysteria and Its Historiography: A Review of Past and Present Writings," History of Science 27 (1989): 223-261, esp. p. 45. [BACK]

4. The issues of shifting medical terminology are well discussed in J. H. Dirckx, The Language of Medicine: Its Evolution, Structure, and Dynamics (New York: Praeger Publishers, 1983); see also Roy Porter, "The Doctor and the Word," Medical Sociology News 9 (1983): 21-28. [BACK]

5. James Longrigg, "Plague of Athens," History of Science 18 (1980): 209-225. [BACK]

6. Such matters lead, of course, to questions as to the meaning of the term disease itself; see W. Riesse, The Conception of Disease: Its History, Its Versions and Its Nature (New York: Philosophical Library, 1953); G. Risse, "Health and Disease: History of the Concepts," in W. T. Reich, ed., Encyclopedia of Bioethics , 2 vols. (New York: Free Press, 1978), 579-585; O. Temkin, "Health and Disease," Dictionary of the History of Ideas 2 (1973): 395-407. [BACK]

7. On cholera, see Margaret Pelling, Cholera, Fever and English Medicine 1825-1865 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978). [BACK]

8. See Alan Krohn, Hysteria: The Elusive Neurosis , appearing in Psychological Issues , nos. 45/46 (New York: International Universities Press, 1978). These problems are intelligently addressed for a comparably elusive condition, asthma, in J. Gabbay, "Asthma Attacked? Tactics for the Reconstruction of a Disease Concept," in The Problem of Medical Knowledge , ed. P. Wright and A. Treacher (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1982), 23-48. Modern psychiatrists are themselves unsure of the current validity of the hysteria diagnosis. See, for example, several of the contributions in Alec Roy, ed., Hysteria (Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 1982), especially Henri Ey, "Hysteria: History and Analysis of the Concept," 3-19; René Major, "The Revolution of Hysteria," International Journal of Psycho-Analysis 15 (1974): 385-392; D. W. Abse, Hysteria and Related Mental Disorders (Bristol: Wright, 1987); E. M. R. Critchley and H. E. Cantor, ''Charcot's Hysteria Renaissant," British Medical Journal 289 (22-29 December 1984): 1785-1788; Harold Merskey, "Hysteria: The History of an Idea," Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 28 (1983): 428-433; idem, "The Importance of Hysteria," British Journal of Psychiatry 149 (1986): 23-28.

For invaluable reflections on the relations between modern thinking, historiographical trends, and the history of hysteria, see Micale, "Hysteria and Its Historiography" (part 1), 223-261; idem, "Hysteria and Its Historiography" (part 2), 319-350; idem, "Hysteria and Its Historiography: The Future Perspective," History of Psychiatry 1 (1990): 33-124. [BACK]

9. I believe Elaine Showalter's chap. 4 embodies these goals. [BACK]

10. Though it developed ideas of diseases of the womb, and diseases of love: see Danielle Jacquart and Claude Thomasset, Sexuality and Medicine in the Middle Ages (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1989). [BACK]

11. From the high serious—for instance, F. C. Skey, Hysteria (London: Longman, 1867)—to the highly stigmatizing: Robert Thornton, The Hysterical Woman: Trials, Tears, Tricks, and Tantrums (Chicago: Donohue & Hennebury, 1893). [BACK]

12. For the representations of hysteria and other exemplary diseases in art and the media, see Elaine Showalter's and Sander Gilman's chapters. See also S. Sontag, Illness as Metaphor (New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1978); idem, AIDS and Its Metaphors (London: Allen Lane, 1988); Sander Gilman, Difference and Pathology (Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1985); idem, Disease and Representation: Images of Illness from Madness to Aids (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1988); idem, Seeking the Insane: A Cultural History of Madness and Art in the Western World (New York: Wiley, 1982). [BACK]

13. Ian Dowbiggin, "The Professional, Sociopolitical, and Cultural Dimensions of Psychiatric Theory in France, 1840-1900," Ph.D. dissertation, University of Rochester, 1986; idem, "French Psychiatric Attitudes toward the Dangers Posed by the Insane ca. 1870," in Research in Law, Deviance, and Social Control , ed. Andrew Scull and Steven Spitzer, vol. 9 (Greenwich, Conn.: JAI Press, 1988), 87-111; Jan Goldstein, "The Hysteria Diagnosis and the Politics of Anti-clericalism in Late Nineteenth Century France," Journal of Modern History 54 (1982): 209-239; J. Guillais, Crimes of Passion (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1989); Ruth Harris, "Melodrama, Hysteria and Feminine Crimes of Passion in the Fin-de-Siècle," History Workshop 25 (1988): 31-63; Robert Nye, The Origins of Crowd Psychology: Gustave LeBon and the Crisis of Mass Democracy in the Third Republic (London: Sage, 1975); Daniel Pick, Faces of Degeneration: Aspects of a European Disorder c. 1848-1918 (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989); Yannick Ripa, Women and Madness: The Incarceration of Women in Nineteenth Century France (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1990); S. Moscovici, L'Age des foules: Un Traité historique de Psychologie des masses (Paris: Fayard, 1981). [BACK]

14. On Ada Byron, see D. Stein, Ada: A Life and Legacy (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1985); for a parallel case, see Roger Cooter, "Dichotomy and Denial: Mesmerism, Medicine and Harriet Martineau," in Science and Sensibility: Gender and Scientific Enquiry, 1780-1945 , ed. Marina Benjamin (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1991), 144-173; generally on patients' accounts of their own conditions, see Dorothy Porter and Roy Porter, Patient's Progress: Doctors and Doctoring in Eighteenth-Century England (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1989); idem, In Sickness and in Health: The British Experience 1650-1850 (London: Fourth Estate, 1988). [BACK]

15. Mark Micale, "Charcot and the Idea of Hysteria in the Male: A Study of Gender, Mental Science, and Medical Diagnostics in Late Nineteenth Century France," Medical History 34 (1990): 363-411. [BACK]

16. Also discussed in Mark Micale, "Diagnostic Discriminations: Jean-Martin Charcot and the Nineteenth Century Idea of Masculine Hysterical Neurosis," Ph.D. thesis, Yale University, 1987. [BACK]

17. Edward Shorter, "Paralysis: The Rise and Fall of a 'Hysterical' Symptom," Journal of Social History 19 (1986): 549-582; and, more fully, his From Paralysis to Fatigue: A History of Psychosomatic Illness in the Modern Era (New York: Free Press, 1992). [BACK]

18. Robert B. Carter, On the Pathology and Treatment of Hysteria (London: John Churchill, 1853). [BACK]

19. Edward Shorter, "Private Clinics in Central Europe, 1850-1933," Social History of Medicine 3, 2 (1990): 159-196; idem, "Women and Jews in a Private Nervous Clinic in Late Nineteenth Century Vienna," Medical History 33 (1989): 149-183; Anne Digby, Madness, Morality and Medicine: A Study of the York Retreat, 1796-1914 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985), 217, 287; Charlotte Mackenzie, "A Family Asylum: A History of the Private Madhouse at Ticehurst in Sussex, 1792-1917," Ph.D. dissertation, University of London, 1987; Trevor Turner, "A Diagnostic Analysis of the Casebooks of Ticehurst Asylum 1845-1890," M.D., University of London, 1990. [BACK]

20. Suzanne Poirier, "The Weir-Mitchell Rest Cure: Doctors and Patients," Women's Studies 10 (1983): 15-40; R. D. Walter, S. Weir Mitchell, MD, Neurologist: A Medical Biography (Springfield, Ill.: Thomas, 1970); Janet Browne, "Spas and Sensibilities: Darwin at Malvern," in The Medical History of Waters and Spas , ed. Roy Porter (London: Wellcome Institute, Medical History Supplement 10, 1990), 102-113; Susan E. Cayleff, Wash and Be Healed: The Water-Cure Movement and Women's Health (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1987). [BACK]

21. Edward Shorter, "Mania, Hysteria and Gender in Lower Austria, 1891-1905," History of Psychiatry 1 (1990): 3-31; Francis Gosling, Before Freud: Neurasthenia and the American Medical Community, 187o-1910 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1987). [BACK]

22. William J. McGrath, Freud's Discovery of Psychoanalysis: The Politics of Hysteria (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1986); John Forrester, The Seductions of Psychoanalysis: Freud, Lacan and Derrida (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990); C. Bernheimer and Clare Kahane, eds., In Dora's Case: Freud, Hysteria and Feminism (New York: Columbia University Press, 1985). [BACK]

23. D. Mechanic, "The Concept of Illness Behaviour," Journal of Chronic Disease 15 (1962): 189-194. [BACK]

24. For excellent cross-cultural comparative accounts, see A. Kleinman, Patients and Healers in the Context of Culture: An Exploration of the Borderline between Anthropology, Medicine, and Psychiatry (Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press, 1980); idem, Social Origins of Distress and Disease: Depression, Neurasthenia, and Pain in Modern China (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1986); idem and B. Good, eds., Culture and Depression: Studies in the Anthropology and Cross-Cultural Psychiatry of Affect and Disorder (Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press, 1985). [BACK]

25. For some accounts of these pressures Victorian ideals exerted, see Walter Houghton, Jr., The Victorian Frame of Mind (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1957); Eric Sigsworth, ed., In Search of Victorian Values (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1988); Martin Wiener, Reconstructing the Criminal: Culture, Law and Policy in England, 1830-1914 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991). For further instances see H. Martineau, Life in the Sick-Room: Essays by an Invalid , 2d ed. (London: Moxon, 1854); idem, Autobiography , 2 vols. (London: Virago, 1983; 1st ed., 1877). [BACK]

26. Among the mass of excellent recent feminist scholarship, see, for instance, Joan Jacobs Brumberg, Fasting Girls: The Emergence of Anorexia Nervosa as a Modern Disease (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1989); Lynne Nead, Myths of Sexuality: Representations of Women in Victorian Britain (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1988); Cynthia Eagle Russett, Sexual Science: The Victorian Construction of Womanhood (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1989). [BACK]

27. Shorter, "Paralysis"; Elaine Showalter, The Female Malady: Women, Madness and English Culture, 1830-1980 (London: Virago, 1987); and see op. cit. (ref. 17). Against feminists who claim that hysteria is an effective form of rebellion, Showalter effectively counterargues for the self-victimization thesis. See 'also Ann Daily, Why Women Fail (London: Wildwood House, 1979); idem, The Morbid Streak (London: Wildwood House, 1978). For shellshock see Martin Stone, "Shellshock," in Anatomy of Madness , ed. W. F. Bynum, Roy Porter, and Michael Shepherd, vol. 2 (London: Routledge, 1985), 242-271; Edward M. Brown, "Between Cowardice and Insanity: Shell Shock and the Legitimation of the Neuroses in Great Britain," Science, Technology and the Military 12, (1988): 323-345. [BACK]

28. Gilman, Disease and Representation , valuably indicates the sociocultural factors behind so many representations of illness. [BACK]

29. On Briquet's syndrome see Maurice Dongier, "Briquet and Briquet's Syndrome Viewed from France," Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 28 (October 1983): 422-427. See also J. Babinski and J. Froment, Hysteria or Pithiatism and Reflex Nervous Disorders in the Neurology of War (London: University of London Press, 1918). [BACK]

30. Harold Merskey, "Hysteria: The History of an Idea," Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 28 (1983): 428-433; idem, "Importance of Hysteria." [BACK]

31. And see also Helen King, "From Parthenos to Gyne: The Dynamics of Category" (Ph.D., University of London, 1985), and James Palis, E. Rossopoulos, and L.-C. Triarkou, "The Hippocratic Concept of Hysteria: A Translation of the Original Texts," Integrative Psychiatry 3 (1985): 226-228. Compare A. Rousselle, Porneia: On Desire and the Body in Antiquity (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1988). [BACK]

32. (Hysteria has always existed, in all places and in all times.) Quoted in E. Trillat, Histoire de l'Hystérie (Paris: Seghers, 1986), 272. [BACK]

33. J.-M. Charcot and P. Richer, Les Démoniaques dans l'art (Paris: Delahaye and Lecrosnier, 1887); J. Carroy-Thirard, "Possession, Extase, Hystérie au XIX siècle," Psychanalyse a l'Université (1980), 499-515; idem, Le Mal de Morzine: De la Possession a l'hystérie (Paris: Soin, 1981); see also J. Devlin, The Superstitious Mind: French Peasants and the Supernatural in the Nineteenth Century (London: Oxford University Press, 1987); Jan Goldstein, Console and Classify: The French Psychiatric Profession in the Nineteenth Century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987); idem, "The Hysteria Diagnosis and the Politics of Anticlericalism in Late Nineteenth Century France," Journal of Modern History 54 (1982): 209-239; Catherine-Laurence Maire, Les Posedées de Morzine 1857-1873 (Lyons: Presses Universitaires de Lyons, 1981); G. H. Glaser, "Epilepsy, Hysteria and 'Possession'; A Historical Essay," Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 166 (1978): 268-274; on the underlying medical politics, see Jack D. Ellis, The Physician-Legislators of France: Medicine and Politics in the Early Third Republic, 1870-1914 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990); Bernard Brais, "The Making of a Famous Nineteenth Century Neurologist: Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893)," M. Phil. thesis, University College, London, 1990. [BACK]

34. The foundational text for this reading is G. Zilboorg, The Medical Man and the Witch During the Renaissance (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1935); and more generally, idem, A History of Medical Psychology (New York: Norton, 1947). The self-validating aspects of this ploy have been explored by T. Szasz, The Myth of Mental Illness (New York: Paladin, 1961). [BACK]

35. See the discussion in Micale, "Hysteria and Its Historiography," 226. [BACK]

36. I. Veith, Hysteria: The History of a Disease (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1965). Veith's book is assessed in Harold Merskey, "Hysteria: The History of a Disease: Ilza Veith," British Journal of Psychiatry 147 (1985): 576-579, and in Micale, "Hysteria and Its Historiography," 223-261. Elaine Showalter offers in chap. 4 a more sympathetic appraisal of Veith and her work, in context of the ideological constraints shaping her stance, all abundantly clear from Veith's autobiography, Can You Hear the Clapping of One Hand ? (Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press, 1988). The following pages should be read alongside Elaine Showalter's more personal assessment of Veith below, which sympathetically and convincingly reconstructs Veith's study from a biographical viewpoint. The aim of my discussion is rather different: it is to show the inbuilt historiographical biases resulting from uncritically accepted Freudian perspectives. [BACK]

37. This characterization of the Middle Ages is revealed as complete caricature in Helen King's essay in chap. 1, and in Jacquart and Thomasset's Sexuality and Medicine in the Middle Ages , 173ff. [BACK]

38. Veith, Hysteria , 156, 157, 183. [BACK]

39. J. Breuer and S. Freud, Studies on Hysteria , in The Standard Edition of the Complete Works of Sigmund Freud , ed. J. Strachey et al., vol. 3 (London: Hogarth Press, 1959), 86. [BACK]

40. Veith, Hysteria , viii.

41. Ibid., 199. [BACK]

40. Veith, Hysteria , viii.

41. Ibid., 199. [BACK]

42. Carter, Pathology and Treatment of Hysteria ; A. Kane and E. Carlson, "A Different Drummer: Robert B. Carter on Nineteenth Century Hysteria," Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine 58 (1982): 519-534. [BACK]

43. For a sample see Bernheimer and Kahane, In Dora's Case ; J. Gallop, The Daughter's Seduction: Feminism and Psychoanalysis (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1982); Dianne Hunter, "Hysteria, Psychoanalysis, and Feminism: The Case of Anna O.," Feminist Studies 9 (1983): 464-488; Showalter, Female Malady ; J. M. Masson, The Assault on Truth: Freud's Suppression of the Seduction Theory (London: Faber, 1984; Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin, 1985); idem, A Dark Science: Women, Sexuality and Psychiatry in the Nineteenth Century (New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1986); M. Rosenbaum and M. Muroff, eds., Anna O: Fourteen Contemporary Reinterpretations (New York: Free Press, 1984). For Freud and the witch-hunters, see J. M. Masson, ed., The Complete Letters of Sigmund Freud to Wilhelm Fliess, 1887-1904 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1986), 225. [BACK]

44. Veith, Hysteria , vii. [BACK]

45. Veith doles out dozens of accolades and brickbats. See, for instance, the judgment on Paré, that his "return to the ancient views on hysteria, though seemingly a regression, was actually a scientific advance": Veith, Hysteria , 116; or the view that Jorden showed "extraordinary perceptiveness" because he recognized the role of mental passions (123); likewise the "surprisingly contemporary overtones" of Burton's "blunt assertion of the evils of enforced sexual abstinence" (127). [BACK]

46. Szasz, Myth of Mental Illness . If Szasz's point is well taken, the shortcoming of his view, however, is that he has nothing to say about pre-Freudian accounts of hysteria.

47. Ibid.; also relevant are idem, The Manufacture of Madness (New York: Dell Publishing Co., 1970). [BACK]

46. Szasz, Myth of Mental Illness . If Szasz's point is well taken, the shortcoming of his view, however, is that he has nothing to say about pre-Freudian accounts of hysteria.

47. Ibid.; also relevant are idem, The Manufacture of Madness (New York: Dell Publishing Co., 1970). [BACK]

48. Szasz, Myth of Mental Illness , 100.

49. Ibid., 65. [BACK]

48. Szasz, Myth of Mental Illness , 100.

49. Ibid., 65. [BACK]

50. E. Gellner, The Psychoanalytic Movement (London: Paladin, 1985); A. C. Macintyre, The Unconscious (London: Routledge, 1958). [BACK]

51. For such psychological pictorialization, see Graham Richards, On Psychological Language (London: Routledge, 1989). [BACK]

52. Szasz, Myth of Mental Illness , 19. For instance, the hysteric behaves in a womanly way (being ultra weak) to avoid fulfilling womanly functions (e.g., having sex, having babies, keeping house).

53. Ibid. [BACK]

52. Szasz, Myth of Mental Illness , 19. For instance, the hysteric behaves in a womanly way (being ultra weak) to avoid fulfilling womanly functions (e.g., having sex, having babies, keeping house).

53. Ibid. [BACK]

54. The rigidity, arbitrariness, and ahistoricity of Szasz's view of disease are well analyzed in Peter Sedgwick, Psychopolitics (London: Pluto Press; New York: Harper & Row, 1982). [BACK]

55. Micale, "Hysteria and Its Historiography," (part 1), 223-261; (part 2), 319-350. [BACK]

56. Points well made in Ludmilla Jordanova, Sexual Visions: Images of Gender in Science and Medicine between the Eighteenth and Twentieth Centuries (Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1989). [BACK]

57. See Ian Hacking, The Taming of Chance (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990); G. Canguilhem, On the Normal and the Pathological (Dordrecht: D. Reidel, 1978). [BACK]

58. J. Goldstein, "The Hysteria Diagnosis and the Politics of Anticlericalism in Late Nineteenth Century France," Journal of Modern History 54 (1982): 209-239. [BACK]

59. For classic complaints about the ascientificity of Freud, see K. R. Popper, The Open Society and Its Enemies (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1971); H. J. Eysenck, The Decline and Fall of the Freudian Empire (Harmondsworth: Viking, 1985); E. Gellner, The Psychoanalytic Movement (London: Paladin, 1985). [BACK]

60. Excellent and contrasting discussions are offered in F. Sulloway, Freud: Biologist of the Mind (New York: Basic Books, 1979); William J. McGrath, Freud's Discovery of Psychoanalysis: The Politics of Hysteria (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1986); Isabel F. Knight, "Freud's Project : A Theory for Studies on Hysteria," Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences 20 (1984): 340-358; B. B. Rubinstein, "Freud's Early Theories of Hysteria," in Physics, Philosophy and Psychoanalysis: Essays in Honor of Adolf Grünbaum , ed. R. S. Cohen and L. Laudan (Dordrecht: D. Reidel, 1983), 169-190. [BACK]

61. Hannah Decker, Freud in Germany: Revolution and Reaction in Science, 1883-1907 (New York: University Press International, 1977). [BACK]

62. See S. Marcus, Freud and the Culture of Psychoanalysis (Boston: Allen & Unwin, 1984). [BACK]

63. H. T. Ellenberger, The Discovery of the Unconscious (London: Allen Lane, 1970); L. L. Whyte, The Unconscious Before Freud (New York: Doubleday, 1962). [BACK]

64. See M. Foucault, Discipline and Punish (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1979); Theodor T. Adorno and Max Horkheimer, Dialectic of Enlightenment (New York: Herder & Herder, 1972); N. Elias, The Civilizing Process (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1983); and discussion in Dorinda Outram, The Body and the French Revolution: Sex, Class and Political Culture (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1989), and Roy Porter, "Body Politics: Approaches to the Cultural History of the Body," in New Perspectives on Historical Writings , ed. P. Burke (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1991). [BACK]

65. For histories of mind/body doctrines, see J. Yolton, Thinking Matter: Materialism in Eighteenth Century Britain (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1983); G. S. Rousseau and Roy Porter, "Introduction: Toward a Natural History of Mind and Body," in The Languages of Psyche: Mind and Body in Enlightenment Thought , ed. G. S. Rousseau (Berkeley, Los Angeles, Oxford: University of California Press, 1990), 3-44; B. S. Turner, The Body and Society: Explorations in Social Theory (Oxford and New York: Basil Blackwell, 1984). Critiques of mind/body dualism are offered in F. Barker, The Tremulous Private Body (London: Methuen, 1984); M. Berman, The Re-enchantment of the World (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1981). For the Blakean quotation, see Roy Porter, Mind Forg'd Manacles: A History of Madness from the Restoration to the Regency (London: Athlone, 1987). [BACK]

66. There is a hostile account of Freud's hostility to religion in N. Isbister, Freud: An Introduction to HIS Life and Work (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1985); see also Norman O. Brown, Life and Against Death: The Psychoanalytical Meaning of History (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1957). [BACK]

67. Hence orthodox Freudianism's dismissal of Wilhelm Fliess's or Wilhelm Reich's biologism. [BACK]

68. Peter Gay, Freud: A Life for Our Time (London: Dent, 1988). The non-believer in psychoanalysis might observe that Freud substituted the psychoanalytic priesthood for the Christian. [BACK]

69. P. Lain Entralgo, Mind and Body (London: Harvill, 1955); for a good account of medicine's metaphysics, see Lester S. King, The Philosophy of Medicine: The Early Eighteenth Century (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1978). On the Project see Isabel Knight, "Freud's Project : A Theory for Studies on Hysteria," Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences 20 (1984): 340-358. [BACK]

70. E. L. Griggs, ed., Collected Letters of Samuel Taylor Coleridge 1 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1956), 256: Coleridge to Charles Lloyd, Sr., 14 November 1796; for discussion see Roy Porter, "Barely Touching: A Social Perspective on Mind and Body," in Languages of Psyche , ed. Rousseau, 45-80. [BACK]

71. Szasz, Myth of Mental Illness , 80ff. [BACK]

72. F. Bottomley, Attitudes to the Body in Western Christendom (London: Lepus Books, 1979); Peter Brown, The Body and Society: Men, Women and Sexual Renunciation in Early Christianity (New York: Columbia University Press, 1988). [BACK]

73. Of course, there is also a long history of attempts, from both sides, to deny the other, e.g., Berkeleyan immaterialism or the kind of dogmatic medical materialism developed from the time of La Mettrie, trying to prove that consciousness is either a complete delusion or at most epiphenomenal. See Roy Porter, "Medicine in the Enlightenment," in Inventing Human Science , ed. C. Fox and R. Porter (Berkeley, Los Angeles, Oxford: University of California Press, 1994). The point is, as I go on to show, that such arguments have largely remained marginal rather than mainstream. [BACK]

74. M. Clark, "'Morbid Introspection,' Unsoundness of Mind, and British Psychological Medicine, c. 1830-1900," in Anatomy of Madness , ed. W. F. Bynum, Roy Porter, and Michael Shepherd, Vol. III (London: Routledge, 1988), 71-101; idem, "The Rejection of Psychological Approaches to Mental Disorder in Late Nineteenth Century British Psychiatry," in Madhouses, Mad-Doctors and Madmen , ed. A. Scull (London: Athlone, 1981), 271-312; W. F. Bynum, "The Nervous Patient in Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century Britain: The Psychiatric Origins of British Neurology," in Anatomy of Madness , ed. Bynum, Porter, and Shepherd, Vol. I (London: Tavistock, 1985), 89-102; more generally see B. Haley, The Healthy Body and Victorian Culture (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1978); Martin Wiener, Reconstructing the Criminal: Culture, Law and Policy in England, 1830-1914 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), 168f.; Charles E. Rosenberg, "Body and Mind in Nineteenth-Century Medicine: Some Clinical Origins of the Neurosis Controversy," Bulletin of the History of Medicine 63 (1989): 185-197. [BACK]

75. M. H. Nicolson and G. S. Rousseau, "Bishop Berkeley and Tar Water," in The Augustan Milieu: Essays Presented to Louis A. Landa , ed. H. K. Miller (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1970), 102-137; Marina Benjamin, "Medicine, Morality and the Politics of Berkeley's Tar-Water," in The Medical Enlightenment of the Eighteenth Century , ed. Andrew Cunningham and Roger French (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990), 165-193. [BACK]

76. The very complex interplay of mind and body in medical therapeutics is splendidly brought out in Rosenberg, "Body and Mind in Nineteenth-Century Medicine," 185-197. [BACK]

77. Thomas Willis, Essay of the Pathology of the Brain (1684), 69, quoted by Veith, Hysteria , 134. [BACK]

78. W. Buchan, Domestic Medicine, or a Treatise on the Prevention and Cure of Diseases by Regimen and Simple Medicines (Edinburgh: Bayou, Auld, & Smellie, 1769), 561. [BACK]

79. The discussion in "Bourgeois Hysteria and the Carnivalesque," by Peter Stallybrass and Allon White, in The Politics and Poetics of Transgression (London: Methuen, 1986), 171-190, is highly relevant. They argue that civilization's need to repress the carnivalesque produced a return of the repressed in hysteria. Thus hysteria was a mockery of official mind/body relations. [BACK]

80. See Rousseau and Porter, "Introduction," in Languages of Psyche , ed. Rousseau, 3-44. [BACK]

81. Feminist historians have plausibly argued that late nineteenth-century female hysterics, such as "Anna O" or Charlotte Perkins Gilman, possessed better insight into their condition than the doctors who treated them. See above, n. 43; and Mary A. Hill, Charlotte Perkins Gilman: The Making of a Radical Feminist, 1860-1896 (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1980). [BACK]

82. For hysteria in the limelight see Ruth Harris, "Melodrama, Hysteria and Feminine Crimes of Passion in the Fin-de-Siècle," History Workshop 25 (Spring, 1988), 31-63; idem, "Murder under Hypnosis in the Case of Gabrielle Bompard: Psychiatry in the Courtroom in Belle Epoque France," in Anatomy of Madness , ed. Bynum, Porter, and Shepherd, Vol. II, 197-241; J. Guillais, Crimes of Passion (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1989); G. Didi-Huberman, Invention de l'Hystérie: Charcot et l'Iconographie Photographique (Paris: Macula, 1982). [BACK]

83. Carter, Pathology and Treatment of Hysteria , 159f. On mass hysteria see Moscovici, Age des Foules ; Robert Nye, Crime, Madness and Politics in Modern France (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1984). [BACK]

84. Eliot Slater, "What Is Hysteria?" in Hysteria , ed. A. Roy (Chichester: John Wiley, 1982), 37-40, esp. p. 40. [BACK]

85. Berman, Re-enchantment of the World , and classically Theodor T. Adorno and Max Horkheimer, Dialectic of Enlightenment (New York: Herder & Herder, 1972). For a more balanced view of Descartes's impact, see T. Brown, "Descartes, Dualism and Psychosomatic Medicine," in Anatomy of Madness , ed. Bynum, Porter, and Shepherd, 2:40-62; R. B. Carter, Descartes's Medical Philosophy (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1983). [BACK]

86. Here see John Mullan, "Hypochondria and Hysteria: Sensibility and the Physicians," The Eighteenth Century: Theory and Interpretation 25 (1984): 141-174; H. Mayer, Outsiders: A Study in Life and Letters (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1984). [BACK]

87. P. M. Spacks, The Female Imagination (New York: Knopf, 1975); idem, Imagining a Self: Autobiography and Novel in Eighteenth Century England (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1976); K. O. Lyons, The Invention of the Self (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press; London: Feffer & Simons, 1978); Janet Todd, Sensibility: An Introduction (London: Methuen, 1986); and, for nerves, see especially G. S. Rousseau, "The Language of the Nerves: A Chapter in Social and Linguistic History," in Language, Self and Society: The Social History of Language , ed. P. Burke and R. Porter (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1991), 213-275; and Roy Porter, "'Expressing Yourself Ill': The Language of Sickness in Georgian England," in Language, Self and Society , ed. Burke and Porter, 276-299. [BACK]

88. B. Faulkner, Observations on the General and Improper Treatment of Insanity (London: H. Reynell, 1789), p. 1; Faulkner added that it had "given birth to endless conjecture, and perpetual error." See also W. Falconer, A Dissertation on the Influence of the Passions Upon Disorders of the Body (London: C. Dilly, 1788); J. Haygarth, Of the Imagination, as a Cause and as a Cure of Disorders of the Body (Bath: Cadell & Davies, 1800). [BACK]

89. Nicholas Jewson, "The Disappearance of the Sick Man from Medical Cosmology 1770-1870," Sociology 10 (1976): 225-244; idem, "Medical Knowledge and the Patronage System in Eighteenth Century England," Sociology 8 (1974): 369-385; D. Porter and R. Porter, Patient's Progress . [BACK]

90. William Heberden, Medical Commentaries (London: T. Payne, 1802), 227.

91. Ibid., 225.

92. Ibid., 235. Heberden did insist, however, that "their force will be very different, according to the patient's choosing to indulge and give way to them." [BACK]

90. William Heberden, Medical Commentaries (London: T. Payne, 1802), 227.

91. Ibid., 225.

92. Ibid., 235. Heberden did insist, however, that "their force will be very different, according to the patient's choosing to indulge and give way to them." [BACK]

90. William Heberden, Medical Commentaries (London: T. Payne, 1802), 227.

91. Ibid., 225.

92. Ibid., 235. Heberden did insist, however, that "their force will be very different, according to the patient's choosing to indulge and give way to them." [BACK]

93. Sir Richard Blackmore, A Treatise of the Spleen and Vapours; or, Hypochondriacal and Hysterical Affections (London: Pemberton, 1725), quoted in Richard Hunter and Ida Macalpine, Three Hundred Years of Psychiatry: 1535-1860 (London: Oxford University Press, 1963), 320. [BACK]

94. Barbara Sicherman, "The Uses of a Diagnosis: Doctors, Patients and Neurasthenia," Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 32 (1977): 33-54. [BACK]

95. See W. F. Bynum, "Rationales for Therapy in British Psychiatry: 1780-1835," Medical History 18 (1974): 327-334; idem, "The Nervous Patient in Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century England: The Psychiatric Origins of British Neurology," in Anatomy of Madness , ed. Bynum, Porter, and Shepherd, 1:89-102; Bonnie Ellen Blustein, "'A Hollow Square of Psychological Science': American Neurologists and Psychiatrists in Conflict," in Madhouses, Mad-doctors and Madmen , ed. A. Scull (London: Athlone, 1981), 241-270; M. Clark, "'Morbid Introspection,' Unsoundness of Mind, and British Psychological Medicine, c. 1830-1900," in Anatomy of Madness , ed. Bynum, Porter, and Shepherd 3:71-101; M. Clark, "The Rejection of Psychological Approaches to Mental Disorder in Late Nineteenth Century British Psychiatry'' in Madhouses, Mad-Doctors and Madmen , ed. Scull, 271-312. For Tissot see Antoinette Emch-Dériaz, Towards a Social Conception of Health in the Second Half of the Eighteenth Century: Tissot (1728-1797) and the New Preoccupation with Health and Well-Being (Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms International, 1984). [BACK]

96. Quoted in Andrew Scull, Mental Disorder/Social Disorder (Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press, 1989), 275. [BACK]

97. Gosling, Before Freud . Of course, it was women who disproportionately underwent the rest-cure hysteria treatments meted out in these clinics. Some, such as Charlotte Perkins Gilman, who was treated by Silas Weir Mitchell, and Virginia Woolf, rebelled against what they considered to be demeaning and counterproductive therapeutics. Elsewhere in this book, Elaine Showalter explains the powerful social, cultural, and medical forces that particularly exposed women to such treatments. See Hill, Charlotte Perkins Gilman ; Suzanne Poirier, "The Weir-Mitchell Rest Cure: Doctors and Patients," Women's Studies 10 (1983): 15-40; R. D. Walter, S. Weir Mitchell, MD, Neurologist: A Medical Biography (Springfield, Ill.: Thomas, 1970). [BACK]

98. Gosling, Before Freud ; A. Rabinbach, "The Body without Fatigue: A Nineteenth Century Utopia," in Political Symbolism in Modern Europe: Essays in Honor of George L. Mosse , ed. S. Drescher, D. Sabean, and A. Sharlin (London: Transaction Books, 1982), 42-62; Shorter, "Paralysis," 549-582; idem, "Mania, Hysteria, and Gender in Lower Austria," 3-32; Clifford Beers, A Mind That Found Itself (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1981; 1908); Norman Dain, Clifford W. Beers: Advocate for the Insane (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1980); George Beard, A Practical Treatise on Nervous Exhaustion (Neurasthenia ) (1880); idem, American Nervousness: Its Causes and Consequences (New York: Putnam, 1881); Charles Rosenberg, "The Place of George M. Beard in Nineteenth Century Psychiatry," Bulletin of the History of Medicine 36 (1962): 245-259; S. Weir Mitchell, Doctor and Patient (Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1888); idem, Lectures on the Diseases of the Nervous System, Especially in Women (Philadelphia: Lea, 1881); idem, Doctor and Patient (Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1888); idem, Fat and Blood: An Essay on the Treatment of Certain Forms of Neurasthenia and Hysteria (Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1877); Kenneth Levin, "S. Weir Mitchell: Investigations and Insights into Neurasthenia and Hysteria," Transactions and Studies of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia 38 (1971): 168-173. [BACK]

99. A particular worry of Maudsley's: Trevor Turner, "Henry Maudsley: Psychiatrist, Philosopher and Entrepreneur," in Anatomy of Madness , ed. Bynum, Porter, and Shepherd, 3:151-189. [BACK]

100. For Mill and Carlyle, see Barbara T. Gates, Victorian Suicide: Mad Crimes and Sad Histories (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1988), and B. Haley, The Healthy Body in Victorian Culture (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1978); John M. Robson and Jack Stillinger, eds., Autobiography and Literary Essays by John Stuart Mill (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1981): Collected Works of John Stuart Mill , vol. 1. It has often been noted that hysteria cases were never prominent in England. Was this because well-bred young people were trained against introspection and in habits of healthy-minded out-goingness? For some support for this view, see M. Jeanne Peterson, Family, Love and Work in the Lives of Victorian Gentlewomen (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1989). [BACK]

101. Veith, Hysteria , 212-220. Veith proceeds on the Freudian assumption that such women were suffering from sexual frustration. But why should we assume this? For one thing, it might be argued, per contra, that such patients were pleased to go on rest cure because it offered an escape from sexual demands. For another, as Peter Gay has contended, our vision of the frustrated, sex-starved Victorian women may be mythical. See Carl H. Degler, "What Ought to Be and What Was: Women's Sexuality in the Nineteenth Century," The American Historical Review 79 (1974): 1467-1490; P. Gay, The Bourgeois Experience, Victoria to Freud : vol. 1, The Education of the Senses ; vol. 2, The Tender Passion (New York: Oxford University Press, 1984 and 1986). [BACK]

102. Bevan Lewis, A Textbook of Mental Diseases (London: Griffin, 1889), 143. [BACK]

103. M. Clark, "'Morbid Introspection,' Unsoundness of Mind, and British Psychological Medicine, c. 1830-1900," in Anatomy of Madness , ed. Bynum, Porter, and Shepherd, 3:71-101; A. N. Gilbert, "Masturbation and Insanity: Henry Maudsley and the Ideology of Sexual Repression," Albion 12 (1980): 268-282. For an exemplary source, see D. Hack Tuke, Illustrations of the Influence of the Mind upon the Body in Health and Disease, Designed to Elucidate the Action of the Imagination (London: Churchill, 1872). [BACK]

104. Henry Maudsley, Body and Mind (London: Macmillan & Co., 1873), 79-80.

105. Ibid. [BACK]

104. Henry Maudsley, Body and Mind (London: Macmillan & Co., 1873), 79-80.

105. Ibid. [BACK]

106. On Woolf see Roger Poole, The Unknown Virginia Woolf (Brighton: Harvester Press, 1982); Stephen Trombley, " All That Summer She Was Mad": Virginia Woolf (London: Junction Books, 1981); Elaine Showalter, The Female Malady (New York: Pantheon, 1986); Elizabeth Abel, Virginia Woolf and the Fictions of Psychoanalysis (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990). [BACK]

107. Jean-Martin Charcot, Charcot the Clinician: The Tuesday Lessons: Excerpts from Nine Case Presentations on General Neurology Delivered at the Salpêtrière Hospital in 1887-88 , translation and commentary by Christopher G. Goetz (New York: Raven Press, 1987). [BACK]

108. Well emphasized in Martin Wiener, Reconstructing the Criminal: Culture, Law and Policy in England, 1830-1914 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), 40f. [BACK]

109. M. Praz, The Romantic Agony (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1933); M. Poovey, Uneven Developments: The Ideological Work of Gender in Mid-Victorian England (London: Virago, 1989). [BACK]

110. Bram Dijkstra, Idols of Perversity: Fantasies of Feminine Evil in Fin de Siècle Culture (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986). [BACK]

111. Peterson's Family, Love and Work in the Lives of Victorian Gentlewomen has warned us not to equate advice for women with actual women's lives, reminding us that many women escaped, or coped perfectly happily with these pressures. [BACK]

112. For women as defined by Victorian science and society see Cynthia Eagle Russett, Sexual Science: The Victorian Construction of Womanhood (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1989). [BACK]

113. See most recently Ornella Moscucci, The Science of Woman: Gynaecology and Gender in England, 1800-1929 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990); Londa Schiebinger, The Mind Has No Sex? Women in the Origins of Modern Science (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1989); Lynne Nead, Myths of Sexuality: Representations of Women in Victorian Britain (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1988); Thomas Laqueur, Making Sex: Body and Gender from the Greeks to Freud (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1990). [BACK]

114. There is a disappointing lack of studies of the wider social significance of the nineteenth-century revolution in medicine. See however M. Jeanne Peterson, The Medical Profession in Mid-Victorian London (Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press, 1978); A. J. Youngson, The Scientific Revolution in Victorian Medicine (London: Croom Helm, 1979). This situation will be rectified by the forthcoming work by W. F. Bynum, Basic Science and Clinical Medicine in Nineteenth Century Society (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994). Michel Foucault, The Birth of the Clinic , trans. A. M. Sheridan Smith (London: Tavistock, 1973), is highly suggestive. [BACK]

115. For the development of these professional specialties see, for instance, E. Lesky, The Vienna Medical School of the Nineteenth Century (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1976); R. Maulitz, Morbid Appearances: The Anatomy of Pathology in the Early Nineteenth Century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987); L. S. Jacyna, "Somatic Theories of Mind and the Interests of Medicine in Britain, 1850-1879," Medical History 26 (1982): 233-258; E. Clarke and L. S. Jacyna, Nineteenth Century Origins of Neuroscientific Concepts (Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press, 1987); A. Scull, Social Order/Mental Disorder: Anglo-American Psychiatry in Historical Perspective (London: Rout-ledge, 1989), esp. "From Madness to Mental Illness: Medical Men as Moral Entrepreneurs," 118-161; Constance M. McGovern, Masters of Madness: Social Origins of the American Psychiatric Profession (Hanover and London: University Press of New England, 1985); Moscucci, Science of Woman ; B. Latour, The Pasteurization of France (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1988). [BACK]

116. Jacyna, "Somatic Theories of Mind"; illuminating is L. Fleck, Genesis and Development of a Scientific Fact (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1979). [BACK]

117. Foucault, Birth of the Clinic , trans. S. Smith; D. Armstrong, The Political Anatomy of the Body (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983); Canguilhem, On the Normal and the Pathological . [BACK]

118. Ian Dowbiggin, "Degeneration and Hereditarianism in French Mental Medicine 1840-1890: Psychiatric Theory as Ideological Adaptation," in Anatomy of Madness , ed. Bynum, Porter, and Shepherd, 1:188-232; Nye, Crime, Madness and Politics in Modern France . [BACK]

119. Elaine Showalter and English Showalter, "Victorian Women and Menstruation," Victorian Studies 14 (1970): 83-89; Thomas W. Laqueur, "Orgasm, Generation, and the Politics of Reproductive Biology," in The Making of the Modern Body , ed. C. Gallagher and T. Laqueur (Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press, 1987), 1-41; E. Gasking, Investigations into Generation, 1651-1828 (London: Hutchinson, 1967); F. J. Cole, Early Theories of Sexual Generation (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1930). [BACK]

120. On women and difference see Ludmilla Jordanova, Sexual Visions: Images of Gender in Science and Medicine Between the Eighteenth and Twentieth Centuries (Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1989); S. Gilman, Difference and Pathology (Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1985). [BACK]

121. On this pathologizing of female sexuality, see G. J. Barker-Benfield, The Horrors of the Half-Known Life: Male Attitudes towards Women and Sexuality in Nineteenth Century America (New York: Harper, 1976); C. Smith-Rosenberg, "The Hysterical Woman: Sex Roles and Role Conflict in Nineteenth Century America," Social Research 39 (1972): 652-678; C. Smith-Rosenberg and C. Rosenberg, "The Female Animal: Medical and Biological Views of Woman and Her Role in Nineteenth Century America," in Women and Health in America: Historical Readings , ed. J. W. Leavitt (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1984), 1227; Lorna Duffin, "The Conspicuous Consumptive: Woman as an Invalid,'' in Delamont and L. Duffin, eds., The Nineteenth Century Woman: Her Cultural and Physical World , ed. S. Delamont and L. Duffin (London: Croom Helm, 1978), 26-56. [BACK]

122. The best account of the rise of British gynecology in the nineteenth century is Moscucci, Science of Woman . [BACK]

123. Michel Foucault, Histoire de la sexualité , vol. 1, La volonté de savoir (Paris: Gallimard, 1976) (trans. Robert Hurley, The History of Sexuality: Introduction [London: Allen Lane, 1978]). [BACK]

124. Nancy F. Cott, "Passionlessness: An Interpretation of Victorian Sexual Ideology," in Women and Health in America: Historical Readings , ed. J. W. Leavitt (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1984), 57-69. [BACK]

125. Discussions of views such as this can be found in Smith-Rosenberg and Rosenberg, "Female Animal," in Women and Health in America , ed. Leavitt, 12-27. [BACK]

126. On chlorosis see K. Figlio, "Chlorosis and Chronic Disease in Nineteenth-Century Britain: The Social Constitution of Somatic Illness in a Capitalist Society," Social History 3 (1978): 167-197; I. S. L. Loudon, "Chlorosis, Anaemia and Anorexia Nervosa," British Medical Journal (1978), I, 974-977; Joan J. Brumberg, "Chlorotic Girls 1870-1920: A Historical Perspective on Female Adolescence," in Women and Health in America , ed. Leavitt, 186-195. [BACK]

127. On masturbation see E. H. Hare, "Masturbatory Insanity: The History of an Idea," Journal of Mental Science 108 (1962): 1-25; R. H. MacDonald, "The Frightful Consequences of Onanism," Journal of the History of Ideas 28 (1967): 423-441; J. Stengers and A. Van Neck, Histoire d'une Grande Peur: La Masturbation (Brussels: University of Brussels Press, 1984). [BACK]

128. Hysteria was the mimic disorder. Charcot spoke of "neuromimesis," "this property possessed by functional diseases of resembling organic ones"; he discussed the problem of "simulation" as a kind of ''art for its own sake" (l'art pour l'art) done "with the idea of making a sensation, to excite pity." J.-M. Charcot, Clinical Lectures on Diseases of the Nervous System , trans. T. Savill (London: New Sydenham Society, 1889), 14. This has been reprinted in the Tavistock Classics in the History of Psychiatry series (London: Routledge, 1990), with a fine introduction by Ruth Harris. [BACK]

129. See the strictures of Carter: Carter, Pathology and Treatment of Hysteria (London: John Churchill, 1853), 69. [BACK]

130. Maudsley, Body and Mind , 62-64. [BACK]

131. John Haslam, Considerations on the Moral Management of Insane Persons (London: R. Hunter, 1817), 4-5. Haslam stressed that this was a matter of exclusive medical judgment, for "of such circumstances those who are not of the medical profession would be unable to judge." [BACK]

132. George Man Burrows, Commentaries on Insanity (London: Underwood, 1828), 146-148.

133. Ibid. See Vern Bullough and Martha Voght, "Women, Menstruation and Nineteenth Century Medicine," in Women and Health in America: Historical Readings , ed. Leavitt, 28-38; J. Delaney, M. J. Lupton, and E. Toth, The Curse: A Cultural History of Menstruation (New York: Dutton, 1976). For comparable views to those of Burrows, see Thomas Laycock, An Essay on Hysteria (Philadelphia: Haswell, 1840); idem, A Treatise on the Nervous Diseases of Women: Comprising an Inquiry into the Nature, Causes and Treatment of Spinal and Hysterical Disorders (London: Longman, 1840); idem, Mind and Brain, or the Correlations of Consciousness and Organization , 2 vols. (Edinburgh: Sutherland & Knox, 1860); Alex Leff, "Thomas Laycock and the Cerebral Reflex," History of Psychiatry 2 (1991): 385-408. All such writers bear out Michael Clark's point, that Victorian psychiatrists looked to organic causation: M. J. Clark, "The Rejection of Psychological Approaches to Mental Disorder in Late Nineteenth Century British Psychiatry," in Madhouses, Mad-Doctors and Madmen , ed. Scull, 271-312. [BACK]

132. George Man Burrows, Commentaries on Insanity (London: Underwood, 1828), 146-148.

133. Ibid. See Vern Bullough and Martha Voght, "Women, Menstruation and Nineteenth Century Medicine," in Women and Health in America: Historical Readings , ed. Leavitt, 28-38; J. Delaney, M. J. Lupton, and E. Toth, The Curse: A Cultural History of Menstruation (New York: Dutton, 1976). For comparable views to those of Burrows, see Thomas Laycock, An Essay on Hysteria (Philadelphia: Haswell, 1840); idem, A Treatise on the Nervous Diseases of Women: Comprising an Inquiry into the Nature, Causes and Treatment of Spinal and Hysterical Disorders (London: Longman, 1840); idem, Mind and Brain, or the Correlations of Consciousness and Organization , 2 vols. (Edinburgh: Sutherland & Knox, 1860); Alex Leff, "Thomas Laycock and the Cerebral Reflex," History of Psychiatry 2 (1991): 385-408. All such writers bear out Michael Clark's point, that Victorian psychiatrists looked to organic causation: M. J. Clark, "The Rejection of Psychological Approaches to Mental Disorder in Late Nineteenth Century British Psychiatry," in Madhouses, Mad-Doctors and Madmen , ed. Scull, 271-312. [BACK]

134. Burrows, Commentaries on Insanity , 146.

135. Ibid.

136. Ibid.

137. Ibid., 147.

138. Ibid.

139. Ibid.

140. Ibid.

141. Ibid., 148.

142. Ibid.

143. Ibid., 191.

144. Ibid.

145. Ibid.

146. Ibid. Nevertheless, Burrows admitted that "occasional hysteria, however, in young and susceptible females whose nervous systems are always highly irritable, may certainly occur without any such suspicion." [BACK]

134. Burrows, Commentaries on Insanity , 146.

135. Ibid.

136. Ibid.

137. Ibid., 147.

138. Ibid.

139. Ibid.

140. Ibid.

141. Ibid., 148.

142. Ibid.

143. Ibid., 191.

144. Ibid.

145. Ibid.

146. Ibid. Nevertheless, Burrows admitted that "occasional hysteria, however, in young and susceptible females whose nervous systems are always highly irritable, may certainly occur without any such suspicion." [BACK]

134. Burrows, Commentaries on Insanity , 146.

135. Ibid.

136. Ibid.

137. Ibid., 147.

138. Ibid.

139. Ibid.

140. Ibid.

141. Ibid., 148.

142. Ibid.

143. Ibid., 191.

144. Ibid.

145. Ibid.

146. Ibid. Nevertheless, Burrows admitted that "occasional hysteria, however, in young and susceptible females whose nervous systems are always highly irritable, may certainly occur without any such suspicion." [BACK]

134. Burrows, Commentaries on Insanity , 146.

135. Ibid.

136. Ibid.

137. Ibid., 147.

138. Ibid.

139. Ibid.

140. Ibid.

141. Ibid., 148.

142. Ibid.

143. Ibid., 191.

144. Ibid.

145. Ibid.

146. Ibid. Nevertheless, Burrows admitted that "occasional hysteria, however, in young and susceptible females whose nervous systems are always highly irritable, may certainly occur without any such suspicion." [BACK]

134. Burrows, Commentaries on Insanity , 146.

135. Ibid.

136. Ibid.

137. Ibid., 147.

138. Ibid.

139. Ibid.

140. Ibid.

141. Ibid., 148.

142. Ibid.

143. Ibid., 191.

144. Ibid.

145. Ibid.

146. Ibid. Nevertheless, Burrows admitted that "occasional hysteria, however, in young and susceptible females whose nervous systems are always highly irritable, may certainly occur without any such suspicion." [BACK]

134. Burrows, Commentaries on Insanity , 146.

135. Ibid.

136. Ibid.

137. Ibid., 147.

138. Ibid.

139. Ibid.

140. Ibid.

141. Ibid., 148.

142. Ibid.

143. Ibid., 191.

144. Ibid.

145. Ibid.

146. Ibid. Nevertheless, Burrows admitted that "occasional hysteria, however, in young and susceptible females whose nervous systems are always highly irritable, may certainly occur without any such suspicion." [BACK]

134. Burrows, Commentaries on Insanity , 146.

135. Ibid.

136. Ibid.

137. Ibid., 147.

138. Ibid.

139. Ibid.

140. Ibid.

141. Ibid., 148.

142. Ibid.

143. Ibid., 191.

144. Ibid.

145. Ibid.

146. Ibid. Nevertheless, Burrows admitted that "occasional hysteria, however, in young and susceptible females whose nervous systems are always highly irritable, may certainly occur without any such suspicion." [BACK]

134. Burrows, Commentaries on Insanity , 146.

135. Ibid.

136. Ibid.

137. Ibid., 147.

138. Ibid.

139. Ibid.

140. Ibid.

141. Ibid., 148.

142. Ibid.

143. Ibid., 191.

144. Ibid.

145. Ibid.

146. Ibid. Nevertheless, Burrows admitted that "occasional hysteria, however, in young and susceptible females whose nervous systems are always highly irritable, may certainly occur without any such suspicion." [BACK]

134. Burrows, Commentaries on Insanity , 146.

135. Ibid.

136. Ibid.

137. Ibid., 147.

138. Ibid.

139. Ibid.

140. Ibid.

141. Ibid., 148.

142. Ibid.

143. Ibid., 191.

144. Ibid.

145. Ibid.

146. Ibid. Nevertheless, Burrows admitted that "occasional hysteria, however, in young and susceptible females whose nervous systems are always highly irritable, may certainly occur without any such suspicion." [BACK]

134. Burrows, Commentaries on Insanity , 146.

135. Ibid.

136. Ibid.

137. Ibid., 147.

138. Ibid.

139. Ibid.

140. Ibid.

141. Ibid., 148.

142. Ibid.

143. Ibid., 191.

144. Ibid.

145. Ibid.

146. Ibid. Nevertheless, Burrows admitted that "occasional hysteria, however, in young and susceptible females whose nervous systems are always highly irritable, may certainly occur without any such suspicion." [BACK]

134. Burrows, Commentaries on Insanity , 146.

135. Ibid.

136. Ibid.

137. Ibid., 147.

138. Ibid.

139. Ibid.

140. Ibid.

141. Ibid., 148.

142. Ibid.

143. Ibid., 191.

144. Ibid.

145. Ibid.

146. Ibid. Nevertheless, Burrows admitted that "occasional hysteria, however, in young and susceptible females whose nervous systems are always highly irritable, may certainly occur without any such suspicion." [BACK]

134. Burrows, Commentaries on Insanity , 146.

135. Ibid.

136. Ibid.

137. Ibid., 147.

138. Ibid.

139. Ibid.

140. Ibid.

141. Ibid., 148.

142. Ibid.

143. Ibid., 191.

144. Ibid.

145. Ibid.

146. Ibid. Nevertheless, Burrows admitted that "occasional hysteria, however, in young and susceptible females whose nervous systems are always highly irritable, may certainly occur without any such suspicion." [BACK]

134. Burrows, Commentaries on Insanity , 146.

135. Ibid.

136. Ibid.

137. Ibid., 147.

138. Ibid.

139. Ibid.

140. Ibid.

141. Ibid., 148.

142. Ibid.

143. Ibid., 191.

144. Ibid.

145. Ibid.

146. Ibid. Nevertheless, Burrows admitted that "occasional hysteria, however, in young and susceptible females whose nervous systems are always highly irritable, may certainly occur without any such suspicion." [BACK]

147. Alfred Maddock, On Mental and Nervous Disorders (London: Simpkin, Marshall & Co., 1854), 177.

148. Ibid. [BACK]

147. Alfred Maddock, On Mental and Nervous Disorders (London: Simpkin, Marshall & Co., 1854), 177.

148. Ibid. [BACK]

149. John Millar, Hints on Insanity (London: Henry Renshaw, 1861), 32. [BACK]

150. Maudsley, Body and Mind , 79.

151. Ibid.

152. Ibid.; A. N. Gilbert, "Masturbation and Insanity: Henry Maudsley and the Ideology of Sexual Repression," Albion 12 (1980): 268-282; Trevor Turner, "Henry Maudsley: Psychiatrist, Philosopher and Entrepreneur," in Anatomy of Madness , ed. Bynum, Porter, and Shepherd, 3:151-189. [BACK]

150. Maudsley, Body and Mind , 79.

151. Ibid.

152. Ibid.; A. N. Gilbert, "Masturbation and Insanity: Henry Maudsley and the Ideology of Sexual Repression," Albion 12 (1980): 268-282; Trevor Turner, "Henry Maudsley: Psychiatrist, Philosopher and Entrepreneur," in Anatomy of Madness , ed. Bynum, Porter, and Shepherd, 3:151-189. [BACK]

150. Maudsley, Body and Mind , 79.

151. Ibid.

152. Ibid.; A. N. Gilbert, "Masturbation and Insanity: Henry Maudsley and the Ideology of Sexual Repression," Albion 12 (1980): 268-282; Trevor Turner, "Henry Maudsley: Psychiatrist, Philosopher and Entrepreneur," in Anatomy of Madness , ed. Bynum, Porter, and Shepherd, 3:151-189. [BACK]

153. Henry Maudsley, The Pathology of Mind (New York: Appleton, 1886), 464. [BACK]

154. Maudsley, Body and Mind , 79-80.

155. Ibid. On earlier views of nymphomania see G. S. Rousseau, "Nymphomania, Bienville and the Rise of Erotic Sensibility," in Sexuality in Eighteenth-Century Britain , ed. P.-G. Boucé (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1982), 95-120. For fears of sexually active women, see Elizabeth Lunbeck, "'A New Generation of Women': Progressive Psychiatrists and the Hypersexual Female," Feminist Studies 13 (1987): 514-543. [BACK]

154. Maudsley, Body and Mind , 79-80.

155. Ibid. On earlier views of nymphomania see G. S. Rousseau, "Nymphomania, Bienville and the Rise of Erotic Sensibility," in Sexuality in Eighteenth-Century Britain , ed. P.-G. Boucé (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1982), 95-120. For fears of sexually active women, see Elizabeth Lunbeck, "'A New Generation of Women': Progressive Psychiatrists and the Hypersexual Female," Feminist Studies 13 (1987): 514-543. [BACK]

156. Veith, Hysteria , 197. [BACK]

157. W. Griesinger, Mental Pathology and Therapeutics , trans. C. Lockhard Robertson and James Rutherford (London: New Sydenham Society, 1867). For similar views expressed by other German neurologists, see F. Schiller, A Moebius Strip: Fin-de-siècle Neuropsychiatry and Paul Moebius (Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press, 1982). [BACK]

158. Griesinger, Mental Pathology and Therapeutics , trans. Robertson and Rutherford, 1; Veith, Hysteria , 197. [BACK]

159. Jeffrey M. Masson, Against Therapy (London: Fontana, 1990); idem, A Dark Science: Women, Sexuality and Psychiatry in the Nineteenth Century (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1986); Moscucci, Science of Woman ; A. Scull and D. Favreau, "A Chance to Cut Is a Chance to Cure: Sexual Surgery for Psychosis in Three Nineteenth Century Societies," in Research in Law, Deviance and Social Control , vol. 8, ed. S. Spitzer and A. Scull (Greenwich, Conn.: JAI Press, 1986), 3-39; A. Scull and D. Favreau, "The Clitoridectomy Craze," Social Research 53 (1986): 243-260; Ann Dally, Women under the Knife: A History of Surgery (London: Hutchinson, 1991). See Isaac Baker Brown, On the Curability of Certain Forms of Insanity, Epilepsy, Catalepsy and Hysteria in Females (London: Robert Hardwick, 1866). More generally upon gynecological violence, see Roger Cooter, "Dichotomy and Denial: Mesmerism, Medicine and Harriet Martineau," in Science and Sensibility: Gender and Scientific Enquiry, 1780-1945 , ed. Marina Benjamin (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1991), 144-173. [BACK]

160. See broadly E. Clarke and L. S. Jacyna, Nineteenth Century Origins of Neuroscientific Concepts (Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press, 1987); Anne Harrington, Medicine, Mind and the Double Brain: A Study in Nineteenth Century Thought (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1987). [BACK]

161. For the new medicine of the nineteenth-century hospital, see Foucault, Birth of the Clinic , trans. S. Smith (London: Tavistock, 1973); E. H. Ackerknecht, Medicine at the Paris Hospital, 1794-1848 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1967); L. Granshaw and Roy Porter, eds., The Hospital in History (London: Routledge, 1989); C. E. Rosenberg, The Care of Strangers: The Rise of America's Hospital System (New York: Basic Books, 1987), esp. the discussion in the introduction. [BACK]

162. For degenerationism, see Dowbiggin, "Degeneration and Hereditarianism in French Mental Medicine," in Anatomy of Madness , ed. Bynum, Porter, and Shepherd, 1:188-232; Nye, Crime, Madness and Politics in Modern France ; D. Pick, Faces of Degeneration: A European Disorder, 1848-1918 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989); J. E. Chamberlin and S. L. Gilman, Degeneration: The Dark Side of Progress (New York: Columbia University Press, 1985); S. Gilman, Difference and Pathology (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1985). [BACK]

163. Didi-Huberman, Invention de l'Hystérie . For Charcot see Pearce Bailey, J.-M. Charcot, 1825-1893: His Life His Work (London: Pitman Medical, 1959); A. R. G. Owen, Hysteria, Hypnosis and Healing: The Work of J. M. Charcot (London: Dobson, 1971). [BACK]

164. Stallybrass and White, "Bourgeois Hysteria and the Carnivalesque," in Politics and Poetics of Transgression (London: Methuen, 1986), 171-190; from the literary viewpoint, quite helpful is Martha Noel Evans, Fits and Starts: A Genealogy of Hysteria in Modern France (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1991). [BACK]

165. Trillat, Histoire de l'hystérie ; Micale, "Hysteria and Its Historiography" (part 2), 319-350. For the French alienist tradition see Jan Goldstein, Console and Classify: The French Psychiatric Profession in the Nineteenth Century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987). [BACK]

166. Charcot, Clinical Lectures , trans. Savill, 12. See also Charcot, Charcot the Clinician , translation and commentary by Goetz. [BACK]

167. E. W. Massey and L. C. McHenry, "Hysteroepilepsy in the Nineteenth Century: Charcot and Gowers," Neurology 36 (1986): 65-67. [BACK]

168. Points well made in Mark Micale, "Diagnostic Discriminations: Jean Martin Charcot and the Nineteenth Century Idea of Masculine Hysterical Neurosis," Ph.D., Yale University, 1987; idem, "Hysteria Male/Hysteria Female: Reflections on Comparative Gender Construction in Nineteenth Century France and Britain," in Science and Sensibility , ed. Benjamin, 200-242; see also Charcot, Clinical Lectures , trans. Savill, 77. [BACK]

169. Charcot, Clinical Lectures , trans. Savill, 131-166.

170. Ibid., 77.

171. Ibid., 13. For Briquet see Pierre Briquet, Traité Clinique et Therapeutique de l'hystérie (Paris: Baillière, 1859); Maurice Dongier, "Briquet and Briquet's Syndrome Viewed from France," Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 28 (1983): 422-427; François M. Mai, "Pierre Briquet: Nineteenth-Century Savant with Twentieth-Century Ideas," Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 28 (1983): 418-421; idem and Harold Merskey, "Briquet's Concept of Hysteria: An Historical Perspective,'' Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 26 (1981): 57-63; idem, "Briquet's Treatise on Hysteria : A Synopsis and Commentary," Archives of General Psychiatry 37 (1980): 1401-1405. Briquet saw hysteria as a neurosis of the brain. [BACK]

169. Charcot, Clinical Lectures , trans. Savill, 131-166.

170. Ibid., 77.

171. Ibid., 13. For Briquet see Pierre Briquet, Traité Clinique et Therapeutique de l'hystérie (Paris: Baillière, 1859); Maurice Dongier, "Briquet and Briquet's Syndrome Viewed from France," Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 28 (1983): 422-427; François M. Mai, "Pierre Briquet: Nineteenth-Century Savant with Twentieth-Century Ideas," Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 28 (1983): 418-421; idem and Harold Merskey, "Briquet's Concept of Hysteria: An Historical Perspective,'' Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 26 (1981): 57-63; idem, "Briquet's Treatise on Hysteria : A Synopsis and Commentary," Archives of General Psychiatry 37 (1980): 1401-1405. Briquet saw hysteria as a neurosis of the brain. [BACK]

169. Charcot, Clinical Lectures , trans. Savill, 131-166.

170. Ibid., 77.

171. Ibid., 13. For Briquet see Pierre Briquet, Traité Clinique et Therapeutique de l'hystérie (Paris: Baillière, 1859); Maurice Dongier, "Briquet and Briquet's Syndrome Viewed from France," Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 28 (1983): 422-427; François M. Mai, "Pierre Briquet: Nineteenth-Century Savant with Twentieth-Century Ideas," Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 28 (1983): 418-421; idem and Harold Merskey, "Briquet's Concept of Hysteria: An Historical Perspective,'' Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 26 (1981): 57-63; idem, "Briquet's Treatise on Hysteria : A Synopsis and Commentary," Archives of General Psychiatry 37 (1980): 1401-1405. Briquet saw hysteria as a neurosis of the brain. [BACK]

172. Charcot, Clinical Lectures , trans. Savill, 13. [BACK]

173. For Bernheim see H. Bernheim, Suggestive Therapeutics: A Treatise on the Nature and Uses of Hypnotism (Westport, Conn.: Associated Booksellers, 1957). [BACK]

174. A Harrington, "Metals and Magnets in Medicine: Hysteria, Hypnosis and Medical Culture in Fin-de-Siècle Paris," Psychological Medicine 28 (1988): 21-38; idem, "Hysteria, Hypnosis, and the Lure of the Invisible: The Rise of Neo-Mesmerism in Fin-de-Siècle French Psychiatry," in Anatomy of Madness , ed. Bynum, Porter, and Shepherd, 3:226-246. Rather similarly Charcot discovered, in the case of one male hysteric, that when the skin of the patient's scrotum was pinched, the patient began a hysterical attack. One is not surprised. Charcot, Clinical Lecures , trans. Savill, 239. [BACK]

175. Points well made by Micale, "Hysteria and Its Historiography" (part 2), 319-350. [BACK]

176. Charcot, Clinical Lecures , trans. Savill, 3.

177. Ibid. Charcot raised the possibility of "contagious imitation" only to dismiss it: 7. [BACK]

176. Charcot, Clinical Lecures , trans. Savill, 3.

177. Ibid. Charcot raised the possibility of "contagious imitation" only to dismiss it: 7. [BACK]

178. P. Janet, The Major Symptoms of Hysteria: Fifteen Lectures Given in the Medical School of Harvard University , 2d ed. (New York: Macmillan, 1929). [BACK]

179. Charcot, Clinical Lecures , trans. Savill, 14. [BACK]

180. For Charcot and sex, see Emily Apter, Feminizing the Fetish: Psychoanalysis and Narrative Obsession (Ithaca, N.Y., and London: Cornell University Press, 1991). [BACK]

181. Charcot, Clinical Lecures , trans. Savill, 85.

182. Ibid., 99. Hereditary diathesis offered one cast-iron reason why male hysteria existed. [BACK]

181. Charcot, Clinical Lecures , trans. Savill, 85.

182. Ibid., 99. Hereditary diathesis offered one cast-iron reason why male hysteria existed. [BACK]

183. A point well made in Ruth Harris, "Murder under Hypnosis in the Case of Gabrielle Bompard: Psychiatry in the Courtroom in Belle Epoque France," in Anatomy of Madness , ed. Bynum, Porter, and Shepherd, 2:197-241. [BACK]

184. See Scull, Social Order/Mental Disorder ; Michel Foucault, Madness and Civilization, History of Insanity in the Age of Reason , trans. Richard Howard (New York: Random House, 1965); A. Digby, Madness, Morality and Medicine (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985); M. Fears, "Therapeutic Optimism and the Treatment of the Insane," in Health Care and Health Knowledge , ed. R. Dingwall (London: Croom Helm, 1977), 66-81; idem, "The 'Moral Treatment' of Insanity: A Study in the Social Construction of Human Nature," Ph.D. thesis, University of Edinburgh, 1978. [BACK]

185. Veith, Hysteria , 202, 209. [BACK]

186. Carter, Pathology and Treatment of Hysteria . See also Kane and Carlson, "A Different Drummer: Robert B. Carter," 519-534; Elaine Showalter examines Carter's work (see chap. 4) from the viewpoint of gender. [BACK]

187. Carter, Pathology and Treatment of Hysteria , 83.

188. Ibid.

189. Ibid. [BACK]

187. Carter, Pathology and Treatment of Hysteria , 83.

188. Ibid.

189. Ibid. [BACK]

187. Carter, Pathology and Treatment of Hysteria , 83.

188. Ibid.

189. Ibid. [BACK]

190. See Alex Leff, "Thomas Laycock and the Cerebral Reflex," History of Psychiatry 2 (1991) 385-408. [BACK]

191. Carter, Pathology and Treatment of Hysteria , 17.

192. Ibid., 2.

193. Ibid., 43.

194. Ibid.

195. Ibid., 46.

196. Ibid.

197. Ibid., 51.

198. Ibid., 56.

199. Ibid., 96.

200. Ibid., 129.

201. Ibid., 67.

202. Ibid., 106.

203. Ibid., 113.

204. Ibid., 111.

205. Ibid., 95.

206. Ibid., 35.

207. Ibid., 26.

208. Ibid., 122.

209. Ibid., 107. [BACK]

191. Carter, Pathology and Treatment of Hysteria , 17.

192. Ibid., 2.

193. Ibid., 43.

194. Ibid.

195. Ibid., 46.

196. Ibid.

197. Ibid., 51.

198. Ibid., 56.

199. Ibid., 96.

200. Ibid., 129.

201. Ibid., 67.

202. Ibid., 106.

203. Ibid., 113.

204. Ibid., 111.

205. Ibid., 95.

206. Ibid., 35.

207. Ibid., 26.

208. Ibid., 122.

209. Ibid., 107. [BACK]

191. Carter, Pathology and Treatment of Hysteria , 17.

192. Ibid., 2.

193. Ibid., 43.

194. Ibid.

195. Ibid., 46.

196. Ibid.

197. Ibid., 51.

198. Ibid., 56.

199. Ibid., 96.

200. Ibid., 129.

201. Ibid., 67.

202. Ibid., 106.

203. Ibid., 113.

204. Ibid., 111.

205. Ibid., 95.

206. Ibid., 35.

207. Ibid., 26.

208. Ibid., 122.

209. Ibid., 107. [BACK]

191. Carter, Pathology and Treatment of Hysteria , 17.

192. Ibid., 2.

193. Ibid., 43.

194. Ibid.

195. Ibid., 46.

196. Ibid.

197. Ibid., 51.

198. Ibid., 56.

199. Ibid., 96.

200. Ibid., 129.

201. Ibid., 67.

202. Ibid., 106.

203. Ibid., 113.

204. Ibid., 111.

205. Ibid., 95.

206. Ibid., 35.

207. Ibid., 26.

208. Ibid., 122.

209. Ibid., 107. [BACK]

191. Carter, Pathology and Treatment of Hysteria , 17.

192. Ibid., 2.

193. Ibid., 43.

194. Ibid.

195. Ibid., 46.

196. Ibid.

197. Ibid., 51.

198. Ibid., 56.

199. Ibid., 96.

200. Ibid., 129.

201. Ibid., 67.

202. Ibid., 106.

203. Ibid., 113.

204. Ibid., 111.

205. Ibid., 95.

206. Ibid., 35.

207. Ibid., 26.

208. Ibid., 122.

209. Ibid., 107. [BACK]

191. Carter, Pathology and Treatment of Hysteria , 17.

192. Ibid., 2.

193. Ibid., 43.

194. Ibid.

195. Ibid., 46.

196. Ibid.

197. Ibid., 51.

198. Ibid., 56.

199. Ibid., 96.

200. Ibid., 129.

201. Ibid., 67.

202. Ibid., 106.

203. Ibid., 113.

204. Ibid., 111.

205. Ibid., 95.

206. Ibid., 35.

207. Ibid., 26.

208. Ibid., 122.

209. Ibid., 107. [BACK]

191. Carter, Pathology and Treatment of Hysteria , 17.

192. Ibid., 2.

193. Ibid., 43.

194. Ibid.

195. Ibid., 46.

196. Ibid.

197. Ibid., 51.

198. Ibid., 56.

199. Ibid., 96.

200. Ibid., 129.

201. Ibid., 67.

202. Ibid., 106.

203. Ibid., 113.

204. Ibid., 111.

205. Ibid., 95.

206. Ibid., 35.

207. Ibid., 26.

208. Ibid., 122.

209. Ibid., 107. [BACK]

191. Carter, Pathology and Treatment of Hysteria , 17.

192. Ibid., 2.

193. Ibid., 43.

194. Ibid.

195. Ibid., 46.

196. Ibid.

197. Ibid., 51.

198. Ibid., 56.

199. Ibid., 96.

200. Ibid., 129.

201. Ibid., 67.

202. Ibid., 106.

203. Ibid., 113.

204. Ibid., 111.

205. Ibid., 95.

206. Ibid., 35.

207. Ibid., 26.

208. Ibid., 122.

209. Ibid., 107. [BACK]

191. Carter, Pathology and Treatment of Hysteria , 17.

192. Ibid., 2.

193. Ibid., 43.

194. Ibid.

195. Ibid., 46.

196. Ibid.

197. Ibid., 51.

198. Ibid., 56.

199. Ibid., 96.

200. Ibid., 129.

201. Ibid., 67.

202. Ibid., 106.

203. Ibid., 113.

204. Ibid., 111.

205. Ibid., 95.

206. Ibid., 35.

207. Ibid., 26.

208. Ibid., 122.

209. Ibid., 107. [BACK]

191. Carter, Pathology and Treatment of Hysteria , 17.

192. Ibid., 2.

193. Ibid., 43.

194. Ibid.

195. Ibid., 46.

196. Ibid.

197. Ibid., 51.

198. Ibid., 56.

199. Ibid., 96.

200. Ibid., 129.

201. Ibid., 67.

202. Ibid., 106.

203. Ibid., 113.

204. Ibid., 111.

205. Ibid., 95.

206. Ibid., 35.

207. Ibid., 26.

208. Ibid., 122.

209. Ibid., 107. [BACK]

191. Carter, Pathology and Treatment of Hysteria , 17.

192. Ibid., 2.

193. Ibid., 43.

194. Ibid.

195. Ibid., 46.

196. Ibid.

197. Ibid., 51.

198. Ibid., 56.

199. Ibid., 96.

200. Ibid., 129.

201. Ibid., 67.

202. Ibid., 106.

203. Ibid., 113.

204. Ibid., 111.

205. Ibid., 95.

206. Ibid., 35.

207. Ibid., 26.

208. Ibid., 122.

209. Ibid., 107. [BACK]

191. Carter, Pathology and Treatment of Hysteria , 17.

192. Ibid., 2.

193. Ibid., 43.

194. Ibid.

195. Ibid., 46.

196. Ibid.

197. Ibid., 51.

198. Ibid., 56.

199. Ibid., 96.

200. Ibid., 129.

201. Ibid., 67.

202. Ibid., 106.

203. Ibid., 113.

204. Ibid., 111.

205. Ibid., 95.

206. Ibid., 35.

207. Ibid., 26.

208. Ibid., 122.

209. Ibid., 107. [BACK]

191. Carter, Pathology and Treatment of Hysteria , 17.

192. Ibid., 2.

193. Ibid., 43.

194. Ibid.

195. Ibid., 46.

196. Ibid.

197. Ibid., 51.

198. Ibid., 56.

199. Ibid., 96.

200. Ibid., 129.

201. Ibid., 67.

202. Ibid., 106.

203. Ibid., 113.

204. Ibid., 111.

205. Ibid., 95.

206. Ibid., 35.

207. Ibid., 26.

208. Ibid., 122.

209. Ibid., 107. [BACK]

191. Carter, Pathology and Treatment of Hysteria , 17.

192. Ibid., 2.

193. Ibid., 43.

194. Ibid.

195. Ibid., 46.

196. Ibid.

197. Ibid., 51.

198. Ibid., 56.

199. Ibid., 96.

200. Ibid., 129.

201. Ibid., 67.

202. Ibid., 106.

203. Ibid., 113.

204. Ibid., 111.

205. Ibid., 95.

206. Ibid., 35.

207. Ibid., 26.

208. Ibid., 122.

209. Ibid., 107. [BACK]

191. Carter, Pathology and Treatment of Hysteria , 17.

192. Ibid., 2.

193. Ibid., 43.

194. Ibid.

195. Ibid., 46.

196. Ibid.

197. Ibid., 51.

198. Ibid., 56.

199. Ibid., 96.

200. Ibid., 129.

201. Ibid., 67.

202. Ibid., 106.

203. Ibid., 113.

204. Ibid., 111.

205. Ibid., 95.

206. Ibid., 35.

207. Ibid., 26.

208. Ibid., 122.

209. Ibid., 107. [BACK]

191. Carter, Pathology and Treatment of Hysteria , 17.

192. Ibid., 2.

193. Ibid., 43.

194. Ibid.

195. Ibid., 46.

196. Ibid.

197. Ibid., 51.

198. Ibid., 56.

199. Ibid., 96.

200. Ibid., 129.

201. Ibid., 67.

202. Ibid., 106.

203. Ibid., 113.

204. Ibid., 111.

205. Ibid., 95.

206. Ibid., 35.

207. Ibid., 26.

208. Ibid., 122.

209. Ibid., 107. [BACK]

191. Carter, Pathology and Treatment of Hysteria , 17.

192. Ibid., 2.

193. Ibid., 43.

194. Ibid.

195. Ibid., 46.

196. Ibid.

197. Ibid., 51.

198. Ibid., 56.

199. Ibid., 96.

200. Ibid., 129.

201. Ibid., 67.

202. Ibid., 106.

203. Ibid., 113.

204. Ibid., 111.

205. Ibid., 95.

206. Ibid., 35.

207. Ibid., 26.

208. Ibid., 122.

209. Ibid., 107. [BACK]

191. Carter, Pathology and Treatment of Hysteria , 17.

192. Ibid., 2.

193. Ibid., 43.

194. Ibid.

195. Ibid., 46.

196. Ibid.

197. Ibid., 51.

198. Ibid., 56.

199. Ibid., 96.

200. Ibid., 129.

201. Ibid., 67.

202. Ibid., 106.

203. Ibid., 113.

204. Ibid., 111.

205. Ibid., 95.

206. Ibid., 35.

207. Ibid., 26.

208. Ibid., 122.

209. Ibid., 107. [BACK]

191. Carter, Pathology and Treatment of Hysteria , 17.

192. Ibid., 2.

193. Ibid., 43.

194. Ibid.

195. Ibid., 46.

196. Ibid.

197. Ibid., 51.

198. Ibid., 56.

199. Ibid., 96.

200. Ibid., 129.

201. Ibid., 67.

202. Ibid., 106.

203. Ibid., 113.

204. Ibid., 111.

205. Ibid., 95.

206. Ibid., 35.

207. Ibid., 26.

208. Ibid., 122.

209. Ibid., 107. [BACK]

210. It would be intriguing, for example, to examine Judge Schreber in this light. See Ida Macalpine and Richard Hunter, eds., Memoirs of My Nervous Illness, by Daniel Paul Schreber (London: William Dawson & Sons, 1955). [BACK]

211. For discussion of mind and body as theorized within the intellectual framework of psychoanalysis, see Sander Gilman's essay (chap. 5) and also his The Jewish Body (London: Routledge, 1991). It would, of course, be desirable to extend the discussion in the present essay further than the threshold of psychoanalysis, up toward the present day, but that would be a gigantic undertaking. On hysteria within psychoanalysis itself, the items cited in the following note offer a helpful way in. On the broader developments and debates within twentieth-century psychiatry, see nn. 8 and 30 above. [BACK]

212. Monique David-Ménard, Hysteria from Freud to Lacan: Body and Language in Psychoanalysis (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1989); John Forrester, The Seductions of Psychoanalysis: Freud, Lacan and Derrida (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990). [BACK]

Four— Hysteria, Feminism, and Gender

1. Hal Foster, interview with Mary Kelly, in Interim (New York: The New Museum of Contemporary Art, 1990), 55. [BACK]

2. Hèléne Cixous and Catherine Clément, The Newly Born Woman , trans. Betsy Wing (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1987), 47. [BACK]

3. Edward Tilt, A Handbook of Uterine Therapeutics and of Diseases of Women , 4th ed. (New York: William Wood, 1881), 85. [BACK]

4. Paul Chodoff, "Hysteria and Women," American Journal of Psychiatry 139 (May 1982): 546. [BACK]

5. A. Fabre, L'hystérie viscérale nouveaux fragments de clinique médicale (Paris: A. Delahaye & E. Lecrosnier, 1883), 3. [BACK]

6. Mark S. Micale, "Hysteria and Its Historiography: A Review of Past and Present Writings, II," History of Science 27 (1989): 320. [BACK]

7. Gregorio Kohon, "Reflections on Dora: The Case of Hysteria," International Journal of Psychoanalysis 65 (1984): 73-84. [BACK]

8. Chodoff, "Hysteria and Women," 545. [BACK]

9. See P. Chodoff and H. Lyons, "Hysterical Personality: A Re-evaluation," Psychoanalytic Quarterly 34 (1965): 390-405; and Harriet A. Lerner, "The Hysterical Personality: A 'Woman's Disease,'" in Women and Mental Health , ed. Elizabeth Howell and Marjorie Bayes (New York: Basic Books, 1981), 196-206. [BACK]

10. For an overview and critique of this work, see Mark S. Micale, "Feminist Historiography of Hysteria," in "Hysteria and Its Historiography, II," 319-331. See also Elaine Showalter, The Female Malady (New York: Pantheon Press, 1985). [BACK]

11. Micale, "Hysteria and Its Historiography, II," 331. [BACK]

12. See Juliet Mitchell, "Femininity, Narrative, and Psychoanalysis," in Women: The Longest Revolution (London: Virago, 1984). [BACK]

13. Jane Gallop, "Nurse Freud: Class Struggle in the Family," unpublished paper, Miami University, 1983. [BACK]

14. Claire Kahane, In Dora's Case: Freud-Hysteria-Feminism , ed. Claire Kahane and Charles Bernheimer (New York: Columbia University Press, 1985), 22. [BACK]

15. See Joan W. Scott, "Gender: A Useful Category of Historical Analysis," American Historical Review 91 (December 1986): 1053-1075. [BACK]

16. J. Russell Reynolds, "Hysteria," in A System of Medicine , ed. J. Russell Reynolds (London: Macmillan, 1866-1879), 2:307; quoted in Mark Micale, "Charcot and the Idea of Hysteria in the Male: A Study of Gender, Mental Science, and Medical Diagnostics in Late Nineteenth-Century France," Medical History 34 (October 1990). [BACK]

17. Emile Batault, Contribution à l'étude de l'hystérie chez l'homme (Paris, 1885), 48. [BACK]

18. D. M. Berger, "Hysteria: In Search of the Animus," Comprehensive Psychiatry 12 (1971): 277. [BACK]

19. Wilhelm Reich, Character-Analysis , 3d ed., trans. Theodore P. Wolfe (New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1949), 189. [BACK]

20. Chodoff and Lyons, "Hysterical Personality," 739. [BACK]

21. Lucien Israël, L'hystérique, le sexe, et le médecin (Paris: Masson, 1983), 60, 197 (my translation).

22. Ibid., 60. [BACK]

21. Lucien Israël, L'hystérique, le sexe, et le médecin (Paris: Masson, 1983), 60, 197 (my translation).

22. Ibid., 60. [BACK]

23. See Evelyn Fox Keller, Reflections on Gender and Science (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1985); Ludmilla Jordanova, Sexual Visions: Images of Gender in Science and Medicine between the Eighteenth and Twentieth Centuries (Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1989); Emily Martin, The Woman in the Body: A Cultural Analysis of Reproduction (Boston: Beacon Press, 1987); and Cynthia Eagle Russett, Sexual Science: The Victorian Construction of Womanhood (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1989). [BACK]

24. Jordanova, Sexual Visions , 5. [BACK]

25. Etienne Trillat, L'histoire de l'hystérie (Paris: Seghers, 1986). [BACK]

26. Josef Breuer and Sigmund Freud, "Studies on Hysteria," Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud , ed. J. and A. Strachey (London: The Hogarth Press, 1955), 2:240 (hereafter cited as SE). [BACK]

27. Olive Schreiner, letter to Karl Pearson, in The Letters of Olive Schreiner , ed. Richard Rive (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987), 86. [BACK]

28. Neil Bartlett, Who Was That Man? (London: Serpent's Tail, 1989), 46. [BACK]

29. Vieda Skultans, English Madness: Ideas on Insanity, 1580-1890 (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1978), 81. [BACK]

30. Thomas Sydenham, Works of Thomas Sydenham , 1848, 2:85, quoted in Ilza Veith, Hysteria: The History of a Disease (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1965), 141. [BACK]

31. Jordanova, Sexual Visions , 59. [BACK]

32. Jean-Baptiste Louyer-Villermay, Recherches historiques et médicales sur l'hypochondrie (1802), quoted in Trillat, L'histoire de l'hystérie , 103. [BACK]

33. M. Jeanne Peterson, "Dr. Acton's Enemy: Medicine, Sex, and Society in Victorian England," Victorian Studies 29 (Summer 1986): 578 n. 29. [BACK]

34. Stephen Heath, The Sexual Fix (London: Macmillan Publishers, 1982), 30. [BACK]

35. Ernst von Feuchtersleben, The Principles of Medical Psychology , trans. H. E. Lloyd, ed. B. G. Babington (London: Sydenham Society, 1847), 228. [BACK]

36. John H. Smith, "Abulia: Sexuality and Diseases of the Will in the Late Nineteenth Century," Genders 6 (Fall 1989): 110. [BACK]

37. George M. Beard, American Nervousness: Its Causes and Consequences , 1881; reprint (New York: Arno Press, 1972); and Sexual Neurasthenia: Its Hygiene, Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment (New York: Treat, 1884). [BACK]

38. Beard, Sexual Neurasthenia , 204. [BACK]

39. Spencer, quoted in Howard M. Feinstein, "The Use and Abuse of Illness in the James Family Circle," in Ourselves, Our Past: Psychological Approaches to American History , ed. Robert J. Brugger (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1981), 230. [BACK]

40. Jan Goldstein, Console and Classify: The French Psychiatric Profession in the Nineteenth Century (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1987), 336. [BACK]

41. See the case of M. Defly and the discussion in Micale, "Charcot and the Idea of Hysteria in the Male." [BACK]

42. See Russett, Sexual Science , 116. [BACK]

43. Beard, Sexual Neurasthenia , 59. [BACK]

44. Herbert Spencer, "A Theory of Population Deduced from the General Law of Animal Fertility," Westminster Review , n.s. 1 (1852): 263. [BACK]

45. Gordon Haight, George Eliot: A Biography (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1968), 118-119. [BACK]

46. F. S. Gosling, Before Freud: Neurasthenia and the American Medical Community (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1987), 34.

47. Ibid., 47, 55.

48. Ibid., 47, 63. [BACK]

46. F. S. Gosling, Before Freud: Neurasthenia and the American Medical Community (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1987), 34.

47. Ibid., 47, 55.

48. Ibid., 47, 63. [BACK]

46. F. S. Gosling, Before Freud: Neurasthenia and the American Medical Community (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1987), 34.

47. Ibid., 47, 55.

48. Ibid., 47, 63. [BACK]

49. See Edward Clarke, Sex in Education (Boston: J. R. Osgood, 1873); and Henry Maudsley, "Sex in Mind and Education," Fortnightly Review 15 (1874): 466-483. [BACK]

50. Ernest Earnest, S. Weir Mitchell, Novelist and Physician (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1950), 51. [BACK]

51. Silas Weir Mitchell, Doctor and Patient (Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1888), 48. [BACK]

52. S. Weir Mitchell, Lectures on Diseases of the Nervous System Especially in Women , 2d ed. (London: J. & A. Churchill, 1885), 15. [BACK]

53. S. Weir Mitchell, Wear and Tear: Hints for the Overworked , 4th ed. (Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1872), 38-39. [BACK]

54. Mitchell, Doctor and Patient , 139. [BACK]

55. Mitchell, Lectures on Diseases of the Nervous System , 14. [BACK]

56. Mitchell, Doctor and Patient , 48. [BACK]

57. Mitchell, Lectures on Diseases of the Nervous System , 76. [BACK]

58. Quoted in Gosling, Before Freud , 115. [BACK]

59. See Ann D. Wood, "The Fashionable Diseases: Women's Complaints and Their Treatment in Nineteenth-Century America," in Clio's Consciousness Raised: New Perspectives on the History of Women , ed. Mary Hartman and Lois W. Banner (New York: Harper & Row, 1971), 9; G. Barker-Benfield, The Horrors of the Half-Known Life (New York: Harper Colophon, 1976), 130; and Suzanne Poirier, "The Weir Mitchell Rest Cure: Doctor and Patients," Women's Studies 10 (1983): 15-40. [BACK]

60. Gilman, The Living of Charlotte Perkins Gilman (1935), reprint (New York: Arno Press, 1972), 96. [BACK]

61. Margaret Cleaves, The Autobiography of a Neurasthenic (Boston: Gorham, 1910), 198. See also Poirier, "Weir Mitchell Rest Cure," 28-29; and Constance M. McGovern, "Doctors or Ladies? Women Physicians in Psychiatric Institutions, 1872,-1900," in Women and Health in America , ed. Judith Walker-Leavitt (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1984), 442-443. [BACK]

62. Breuer and Freud, "Studies on Hysteria," SE 2:311. [BACK]

63. Robert Brudenell Carter, On the Pathology and Treatment of Hysteria (London: John Churchill, 1853), 25, 53.

64. Ibid., 97-98. [BACK]

63. Robert Brudenell Carter, On the Pathology and Treatment of Hysteria (London: John Churchill, 1853), 25, 53.

64. Ibid., 97-98. [BACK]

65. Henry Maudsley, The Pathology of Mind (London: Macmillan, 1879), 450. [BACK]

66. Charles Mercier, Sanity and Insanity (New York: Scribner & Welford, 1890), 213. [BACK]

67. H. B. Donkin, "Hysteria," in Dictionary of Psychological Medicine , by D. H. Tuke (Philadelphia: P. Blakiston, 1982), 619-620. [BACK]

68. F. C. Skey, Hysteria , 2d ed. (London: Longmans, Greem, Reader & Dyer, 1867), 77-84. [BACK]

69. Maudsley, Pathology of Mind , 397-398. [BACK]

70. Skey, Hysteria , 60. [BACK]

71. Robert Thornton, The Hysterical Woman: Trials, Tears, Tricks, and Tantrums (Chicago: Donohue & Hennebery, 1893). [BACK]

72. Jules Falret, Etudes cliniques sur les maladies mentales et nerveuses (Paris: Librairie Baillière et Fils, 1890), 502. [BACK]

73. Smith-Rosenberg, "The Hysterical Woman: Sex Roles and Role Conflict in Nineteenth-Century America," Social Research 39 (1972); reprinted in Smith-Rosenberg, Disorderly Conduct , 197-216. [BACK]

74. Michel Foucault, The History of Sexuality , trans. Robert Hurley (New York: Vintage, 1980), 104.

75. Ibid., 121. [BACK]

74. Michel Foucault, The History of Sexuality , trans. Robert Hurley (New York: Vintage, 1980), 104.

75. Ibid., 121. [BACK]

76. Smith-Rosenberg, Disorderly Conduct , 331 n. 5. [BACK]

77. Foucault, History of Sexuality , 112. [BACK]

78. Smith-Rosenberg, Disorderly Conduct , 200. [BACK]

79. Van Deusen, "Observations on a Form of Nervous Prostration," American Journal of Insanity 25 (1869): 447; cited in Smith-Rosenberg, Disorderly Conduct , 332 n. 14. [BACK]

80. Lisa Tickner, The Spectacle of Women (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988), 196. [BACK]

81. Smith-Rosenberg, Disorderly Conduct , 259-260. [BACK]

82. See Debora Silverman, "The 'New Woman,' Feminism, and the Decorative Arts in Fin-de-Siècle France," in Eroticism and the Body Politic , ed. Lynn Hunt (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991), 144-163. [BACK]

83. [William Barry], "The Strike of a Sex," Quarterly Review 179 (1894): 312. [BACK]

84. Ian Fletcher, Introduction, British Poetry and Prose 1870-1905 (London: Oxford University Press, 1987), xvii. [BACK]

85. Tickner, Spectacle of Women , 194. [BACK]

86. Linton, The Girl of the Period and Other Essays (London: Macmillan, 1883). [BACK]

87. See Mark S. Micale, "The Salpêtrière in the Age of Charcot: An Institutional Perspective on Medical History in the Late Nineteenth Century," Journal of Contemporary History 20 (October 1985): 709. [BACK]

88. Charcot, "A propos de six cas d'hystérie chez l'homme," in J. M. Charcot: L'Hystérie , ed. E. Trillat (Toulouse: Privat, 1971), 156. [BACK]

89. Batault, Contribution à l'étude de l'hystérie chez l'homme , 110. [BACK]

90. Charcot, "A propos de six cas d'hystérie chez l'homme," 157-158. [BACK]

91. Micale, "Charcot and the Idea of Hysteria in the Male," 66. [BACK]

92. See Micale, "The Salpêtrière in the Age of Charcot," 703-731. [BACK]

93. Goldstein, Console and Classify , 322. [BACK]

94. Cited in Elisabeth Roudinesco, La Bataille de cent ans: Histoire de la psychanalyse en France (Paris: Ramsay, 1982), 1:35. [BACK]

95. Quoted in Ruth Harris, Murders and Madness: Medicine, Law, and Society in the "Fin de Siècle" (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989), 162. [BACK]

96. Quoted in Fielding H. Garrison, Introduction to the History of Medicine (Philadelphia: Saunders, 1924), 640. [BACK]

97. Batault, Contribution à l'étude de l'hystérie chez l'homme . [BACK]

98. See Roudinesco, La Bataille de cent ans , 1:76. [BACK]

99. Griselda Pollock, Vision & Difference: Femininity, Feminism, and the Histories of Art (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1988), 189-190. [BACK]

100. On the art of the Charcot family, see Debora Silverman, Art Nouveau in Fin-de-Siècle France (Berkeley, Los Angeles, Oxford: University of California Press, 1989), 192-193, 196. [BACK]

101. Silverman, "'New Woman,' Feminism, and the Decorative Arts in Fin-de-Siècle France," 147-148. [BACK]

102. See Toby Gelfand, "Medical Nemesis, Paris 1894: Leon Daudet's 'Les Morticoles,'" Bulletin of the History of Medicine 60 (1986): 155-176. [BACK]

103. Axel Munthe, The Story of San Michele (London: John Murray, 1930), 296. [BACK]

104. Zoöphilist 7 (November 1887): 110; quoted in Mary Ann Elston, "Women and Anti-Vivisection in Victorian England, 1870-1900," in Vivisection in Historical Perspective , ed. Nicolaas A. Ruphe (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1987), 281. [BACK]

105. Goldstein, Console and Classify , 375. [BACK]

106. See the accounts of Augustine, also called "Louise" and "X. . ." in D. M. Bourneville, Iconographie photographique de la Salpêtrière , Vol. II (1878): 124-167; and Vol. III (1879-80): 187-199. I am grateful to the staff of the Library of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia for assistance with these materials. [BACK]

107. Louis Aragon and André Breton, "Le cinquantenaire de l'hystérie," La Révolution surréaliste , no. 11 (1928): 20. [BACK]

108. See Georges Didi-Huberman, Invention de l'Hystérie: Charcot et l'Iconographie Photographique de la Salpêtrière (Paris: Macula, 1982). [BACK]

109. The critic Dianne Hunter is active in this group. See also Showalter, Female Malady , chap. 6; and Coral Houtman, Augustine , unpublished television play, London, 1989. [BACK]

110. At least one woman, however, attacked his hostility toward women doctors. See the comments of C. R., "Charcot dévoilé," in Goldstein, Console and Classify , 375. [BACK]

111. L'hystérie aux XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles (Paris: Steinhel, 1897). [BACK]

112. Georgette Déga, Essai sur la cure préventive de l'hystérie féminine par l'édu-cation (Felix Alcan, 1898), 29. See also Jacqueline Carroy, "Le noviciat de l'hystérie selon Georgette Déga," Psychanalyse Universitaire 12 (1987): 141-152. [BACK]

113. Mark Micale, "Hysteria Male/Hysteria Female: Reflections in Comparative Gender Construction in Nineteenth-Century France and Britain," in Science and Sensibility: Essays in the History of Gender, Science, and Medicine in Nineteenth-Century Britain , ed. Marina Benjamin (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, forthcoming). [BACK]

114. See Trillat, Histoire de l'hystérie , 199-204. [BACK]

115. Pierre Janet, The Major Symptoms of Hysteria (New York: Macmillan, 1920), 10-11. [BACK]

116. Freud, "Paris Report," SE 3:10. [BACK]

117. Cited by Ernest Jones, The Life and Work of Sigmund Freud , edited and abridged by Lionel Trilling and Steven Marcus (New York: Basic Books, 1961), 207n. [BACK]

118. Freud, "Hystérie," SE 1:41, 52. [BACK]

119. See Dianne Hunter, "Hysteria, Psychoanalysis, and Feminism: The Case of Anna O," Feminist Studies 9 (1983): 467-468. [BACK]

120. A significant contribution to this work was made by Hunter in her essay "Hysteria, Psychoanalysis, and Feminism." [BACK]

121. See Diane Price Herndl, "The Writing Cure: Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Anna O, and 'Hysterical' Writing," NWSA Journal 1 (1988): 64-68. [BACK]

122. Sigmund Freud, Dora: An Analysis of a Case of Hysteria (New York: Collins, 1964). See also In Dora's Case: Freud Hysteria Feminism , ed. Charles Bernheimer and Claire Kahane (New York: Columbia University Press, 1985). [BACK]

123. Jeffrey Masson, Against Therapy (London: Fontana, 1990), 101. [BACK]

124. See Susan Katz, "Speaking Out against the 'Talking Cure': Unmarried Women in Freud's Early Case Studies," Women's Studies 13 (1987): 297-324. [BACK]

125. Toril Moi, "Representations of Patriarchy: Sexuality and Epistemology in Freud's Dora," in In Dora's Case , ed. Kahane and Bernheimer, 196. [BACK]

126. Breuer and Freud, "Studies on Hysteria," SE , 2:254. [BACK]

127. Freud, "Remembering, Repeating, and Working Through," SE 12:151. [BACK]

128. Freud, "The Dynamics of Transference," SE 12:108. [BACK]

129. The British School of Psychoanalysis , ed. Gregorio Kohon (London: Free Association Books, 1986), 386. [BACK]

130. Kurt Eissler, "The Effect of the Structure of the Ego in Psychoanalytic Technique," J. of American Psychoanalytic Association , Vol. I (1953): 114. [BACK]

131. Dubois, Les psychonévroses et leur traitement moral (Paris: Masson, 1904), 14. [BACK]

132. Tickner, Spectacle of Women , 203.

133. Ibid., 316 n. 198. [BACK]

132. Tickner, Spectacle of Women , 203.

133. Ibid., 316 n. 198. [BACK]

134. P. Guriaud, Hystérie et folie hystérique (AMP 1914), in Trillat, L'histoire de l'hystérie , 241. [BACK]

135. Claude Barrois, Les révroses traumatiques (Paris: Bardas, 1988), 20-21. [BACK]

136. "Deux types de névroses de guerre," Oeuvres complètes (Paris: Payot, 1970), 2:238-252. [BACK]

137. On W. H. R. Rivers, see the biography by Richard Sloboden, W. H. R. Rivers (New York: Columbia University Press, 1978); and Showalter, Female Malady , chap. 7. [BACK]

138. See Charles S. Myers, Shell-Shock in France (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1940), 25, 37, 66. [BACK]

139. Myers, Shell-Shock in France , 83; and W. McDougall, An Outline of Abnormal Psychology (London: Methuen, 1926), 2. [BACK]

140. Martin Stone, "Shellshock and the Psychologists," in The Anatomy of Madness , ed. W. F. Bynum, Roy Porter, and Michael Shepherd (London: Tavistock, 1985), 261. [BACK]

141. Myers, Shell-Shock in France , 40. [BACK]

142. Quoted in Eric Leed, No Man's Land: Combat and Identity in World War I (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979), 179. [BACK]

143. Frederick W. Mott, War Neuroses and Shell Shock (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1919), 171. [BACK]

144. H. Stern, "Evolution du problème des psychoneuroses de guerre," An-nales médico-psychologiques (1947) 2:249-270. [BACK]

145. Jones, Life and Work of Sigmund Freud , 494-495. [BACK]

146. Quoted in Thomas Salmon, The Care and Treatment of Mental Diseases and War Neuroses ("Shell Shock") in the British Army (New York: War Work Committee of the National Committee for Mental Hygiene, 1917), 40. [BACK]

147. G. Elliot-Smith and T. H. Pear, Shellshock and Its Lessons , 4th ed. (London: Longman, Green, 1919), 32-33. [BACK]

148. R. D. Gillespie, The Psychological Effects of War on Citizen and Soldier (New York: Norton, 1942), 21; quoted in Stone, "Shellshock and the Psychologists," 21. [BACK]

149. Crichton-Miller, quoted in Salmon, Care and Treatment , 40. [BACK]

150. Thomas A. Ross, Lectures on War Neurosis (Baltimore: Williams, 1941), 78. [BACK]

151. Paul Fussell, The Great War and Modern Memory (New York: Oxford University Press, 1975), 22-29. [BACK]

152. Karl Abraham, in Psycho-analysis and the War Neuroses , ed. Sándor Ferenczi (London: International Psycho-analytical Press, 1921), 24. [BACK]

153. See The Lancet , 25 December 1915; 15 January 1916; 22 January 1916; and 19 February 1916. [BACK]

154. P. S. Lynch, "The Exploitation of Courage," M.Phil. thesis, University of London, 1977. [BACK]

155. Stone, "Shellshock and the Psychologists," 261, 263. [BACK]

156. Fussell, The Great War and Modern Memory , 273-274. [BACK]

157. Stone, "Shellshock and the Psychologists," 262. [BACK]

158. Stone, "Shellshock and the Psychologists," 245. [BACK]

159. W. H. R. Rivers, Instinct and the Unconscious (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1922), 252. [BACK]

160. Rivers, "Psycho-Therapeutics," in Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics , ed. James Hastings, 13 vols. (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1918), 10:440. [BACK]

161. See, for example, the case study of a claustrophobic officer who stammered in Rivers, Instinct and the Unconscious . [BACK]

162. Rivers, Instinct and the Unconscious , 133, 135, 136. [BACK]

163. Edward Shorter, "Mania, Hysteria, and Gender in Lower Austria, 1891-1905," History of Psychiatry 1 (1990): 4. See also Shorter, "Paralysis: The Rise and Fall of a 'Hysterical Symptom,'" Journal of Social History 19 (1986): 549-582. [BACK]

164. Interview with Monique David-Ménard in Women Analyze Women , ed. Elaine Hoffman Baruch and Lucienne J. Serrano (New York: New York University Press, 1988), 54-55. [BACK]

165. David-Ménard in Women Analyze Women , ed. Baruch and Serrano, 54. [BACK]

166. Elizabeth Zetzel, The Capacity for Emotional Growth (New York: International Universities Press, 1970), 14.

167. Ibid. 236-238.

168. Ibid., 245. [BACK]

166. Elizabeth Zetzel, The Capacity for Emotional Growth (New York: International Universities Press, 1970), 14.

167. Ibid. 236-238.

168. Ibid., 245. [BACK]

166. Elizabeth Zetzel, The Capacity for Emotional Growth (New York: International Universities Press, 1970), 14.

167. Ibid. 236-238.

168. Ibid., 245. [BACK]

169. Baruch and Serrano, Women Analyze Women , 55.

170. Ibid., 49. [BACK]

169. Baruch and Serrano, Women Analyze Women , 55.

170. Ibid., 49. [BACK]

171. Micale, "Hysteria and Its Historiography, I," 227. [BACK]

172. Ilza Veith, Can You Hear the Clapping of One Hand? Learning to Live with a Stroke (Berkeley, Los Angeles, Oxford: University of California Press, 1989), 94.

173. Ibid., 274. [BACK]

172. Ilza Veith, Can You Hear the Clapping of One Hand? Learning to Live with a Stroke (Berkeley, Los Angeles, Oxford: University of California Press, 1989), 94.

173. Ibid., 274. [BACK]

174. Micale, "Hysteria and Its Historiography, II," 319. [BACK]

175. Veith, Hysteria , viii. [BACK]

176. See, for example, Carol F. Karlson, The Devil in the Shape of a Woman: Witchcraft in Colonial New England (New York: Vintage Books, 1989). [BACK]

177. Veith, Hysteria , 208, 210.

178. Ibid., 209. [BACK]

177. Veith, Hysteria , 208, 210.

178. Ibid., 209. [BACK]

179. Joan W. Scott, "American Women Historians, 1884-1984," in Gender and the Politics of History (New York: Columbia University Press, 1988), 186. [BACK]

180. Nancy J. Chodorow, Feminism and Psychoanalytic Theory (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1989), 215, 219. [BACK]

181. Kahane, In Dora's Case , 31. [BACK]

182. Mary Jacobus, Reading Woman: Essays in Feminist Criticism (New York: Columbia University Press, 1986), 200. [BACK]

183. Hélène Cixous, "The Laugh of the Medusa," in New French Feminisms , ed. Elaine Marks and Isabelle de Courtivron (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1980), 257. [BACK]

184. Cixous and Clement, Newly-Born Woman , 154.

185. Ibid., 5, 9, 15, 157. [BACK]

184. Cixous and Clement, Newly-Born Woman , 154.

185. Ibid., 5, 9, 15, 157. [BACK]

186. On hysterical narrative see Madelon Sprengnether, "Enforcing Oedipus: Freud and Dora," in In Dora's Case , ed. Kahane and Bernheimer, 267-271. [BACK]

187. Toril Moi, Feminist Theory and Simone de Beauvoir (London: Basil Blackwell Publisher, 1990), 82. [BACK]

188. Lisa K. Gornick, "Developing a New Narrative: The Woman Therapist and the Male Patient," in Psychoanalysis and Women: Contemporary Reappraisals , ed. Judith L. Alpert (Hillsdale, N.J.: Analytic Press, 1986), 257-286. [BACK]

189. Gornick, "Developing a New Narrative," 258. [BACK]

190. Herndl, "Writing Cure," 53-54. [BACK]

191. Mitchell, Women: The Longest Revolution: Essays in Feminism, Literature and Psychoanalysis (London: Virago, 1984), 117. [BACK]

192. Quoted in Elisabeth Roudinesco, Histoire de la psychanalyse en France , I: 82-83. [BACK]

193. Anne Stevenson, "The Hysterical Women's Movement," Times Literary Supplement (9 September 1983), 961. There are interesting correspondences between Sylvia Plath's most famous poem, "Daddy," and the case of Anna O., although this textual connection is not at all the kind of hysterical parallel Stevenson had in mind. [BACK]

194. "The Storming of St. Pat's," New York Times (12 December 1989), Sec. A, 24. [BACK]

195. Lena Williams, "Psychotherapy Gaining Favor among Blacks," New York Times , (22 November 1989), Sec. I, 1. [BACK]

196. Quoted in Arnold Rampersad, "Psychology and Afro-American Biography," The Yale Review (1989): 7. [BACK]

197. Hunter, "Hysteria, Psychoanalysis, and Feminism," 485. [BACK]

198. Trillat, L'histoire de l'hystérie , 274. [BACK]

199. Phillip R. Slavney, Perspectives on "Hysteria" (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1990), 190. [BACK]

Five— The Image of the Hysteric

1. Howard W. Telson, "Une leçon du Docteur Charcot à la Salpêtrière," Journal of the History of Medicine 35 (1980): 58. To contextualize this image see the discussion by Anne Harrington, Medicine, Mind, and the Double Brain: A Study in Nineteenth-Century Thought (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1987), 266-170. On the historiography of hysteria see Mark S. Micale, "Hysteria and Its Historiography," History of Science 27 (1989): 223-261, 319-351. See also the work on the early history of hysteria by Ilza Veith, Hysteria: The History of a Disease (Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1965); H. Merskey, "Hysteria: The History of an Idea," Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 28 (1983): 428-433 as well as his "The Importance of Hysteria,'' British Journal of Psychiatry 149 (1986): 23-28; Annemarie Leibbrand and Werner Leibbrand, "Die 'koperni-kanische Wendung' des Hysteriebegriffes bei Paracelsus," Paracelsus Werk und Wirkung. Festgabe für Kurt Goldammer zum 60. Geburtstag , ed. Sepp Domandl (Vienna: Verband der Wissenschaftlichen Gesellschaften Österreichs, 1975); Helmut-Johannes Lorentz, "Si mulier obticuerit: Ein Hysterierezept des Pseudo-Apuleius," Sudhoffs Archiv 38 (1954): 20-28; Umberto de Martini, "L'isterismo: De Ippocrate a Charcot," Pagine di storia della medicina 12.6 (1968): 42-49; John Mullan, "Hypochondria and Hysteria: Sensibility and the Physicians," Eighteenth Century 25 (1983): 141-173; John R. Wright, "Hysteria and Mechanical Man," Journal of the History of Ideas 41 (1980): 233-247; Phillip R. Slavney, Perspectives on "Hysteria " (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1990). [BACK]

2. J.-M. Charcot, Lectures on the Disease of the Nervous System delivered at La Salpêrière , trans. George Sigerson (London: New Sydenham Society, 1877), 271. [BACK]

3. Among the figures are Charcot beside the patient (Blanche Wittman?), Joseph Babinski in back of her, then fight to left from the back of the picture are Prof. V. Cornil, unknown, Prof. M. Debove, Prof. Mathias-Duval, Al. Londe (the head of the photographic service), Prof. Joffroy (with his head in his hand); second row from the right are Dr. Guinon, Dr. Ribot (in the foreground), Dr. Jules Clarétie, Dr. Naquet, Dr. D.-M. Bourneville, Prof. E. Brissaud, Prof. Pierre-Marie, Dr. Georges Gilles de la Tourette, Dr. Ferré, and Dr. Paul Richer (with a pencil in his hand). [BACK]

4. Oscar Wilde, "The Decay of Lying," in The Soul of Man under Socialism and Other Essays , ed. Philip Reiff (New York: Harper and Row, 1970), 72. [BACK]

5. I am aware that various names were used for the various processes developed and that "photography" was but one of them. I shall use all of these terms (or at least "photograph" and "Daguerreotype") interchangeably as I am more interested in the reaction to the object than the means by which the object was produced. On the naming of the "photograph" see Wolfgang Baier, Quellen-darstellungen zur Geschichte der Fotographie (Leipzig: Fotokinoverlag, 1965), 119-120. On the centrality of the photograph in the history of medical representation in the late nineteenth century see Renata Taureck, Die Bedeutung der Photographie für die medizinische Abbildung im 19. Jahrhundert (Cologne: Arbeiten der Forschungsstelle des Instituts für Geschichte der Medizin, 1980). [BACK]

6. On the problem of the relationship between the shift in the symptomatic structure of hysteria and the nature of the perception of this disease entity see Annemarie Leibbrand and Werner Leibbrand, "Gestaltwandel medizinischer Begriffe am Beispiel der Hysterie und der Perversion," Medizinische Klinik 69 (1974): 761-765; Robert Satow, "Where Has All the Hysteria Gone?" Psychoanalytic Review 66 (1979-80): 463-480 and the exchange of letters under the title "Why No Cases of Hysterical Psychosis?" in the American Journal of Psychiatry 143 (1986): 1070-1071. My thesis is at variance with the view of Carol Smith-Rosenberg, "The Hysterical Woman: Sex Roles in Nineteenth-Century America," Social Research 39 (1972): 652-678 as I believe that the role of medical science in shaping the "idea" of the hysteric is certainly of equal importance to the representation of the assigned social roles of the patient. See also Edward Shorter, "Paralysis: The Rise and Fall of a 'Hysterical' Symptom," Journal of Social History 19 (1986): 549-582; S. Mouchly Small, ''Concept of Hysteria: History and Reevaluation," New York State Journal of Medicine 69 (1969): 1866-1872. [BACK]

7. This plate is reproduced in Etienne Trillat, Histoire de l'hystérie (Paris: Seghers, 1986). The picture is to be found in the Musée de Reims, collection Roger-Viollet. [BACK]

8. J.-B. Luys, Iconographie photographiques des centres nerveux (Paris: Baillière, 1873). [BACK]

9. See Sander L. Gilman, Seeing the Insane (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1982), for the broader context of the image of the hysteric. [BACK]

10. J.-B. Luys, Les émotion chez sujet en état d'hypnotisme (Paris: Baillière, 1887). The photographic images of his patients at the Salpêtrière are reproduced in the exhibition catalogue by Jacqueline Sonolet, ed., J. M. Charcot et l'hysterie au xixe siècle (Chapelle de la Salpêtrière, 2-18 juin 1982,), 33 (plate 74). [BACK]

11. Luys, Les émotions chez les sujets . [BACK]

12. Gilman, Seeing the Insane , 83. [BACK]

13. Louis Battaille, "Deux Cas d'Anorexie Hystérique," Nouvelle Iconographie de la Salpêtrière 5 (1892): 276-278 (plate opposite p. 277). [BACK]

14. Arthur Gamgee, "An Account of a Demonstration on the Phenomena of Hystero-epilepsy," British Medical Journal 2 (1878): 544-548. Cited by E. M. Thornton, Hypnotism, Hysteria and Epilepsy: An Historical Synthesis (London: William Heinemann, 1976), 144. [BACK]

15. A lithographed plate based on a photograph representing the type of patient described is to be found in the image from Paul Regnard, Les maladies épidémiques de l'esprit: Sorcellerie magnétisrae, morphinisme, délire des grandeurs (Paris: E. Plon, Nourrit et Cie., 1887), 359. Other such evocations of hysterical symptoms using the tuning fork are represented by the disembodied hand of the physician and the face of the patient. See Paul Richer, "Gonflement du cou chez un hystérique," Nouvelle Iconographie de la Salpêtrière 2 (1889): 17-20 (plate 34). See also the photograph of a similar patient taken from the Iconographie de la Salpêtrière , reproduced in the exhibition catalogue by Sonolet, J. M. Charcot et l'hysterie au xixe siècle , 36. [BACK]

16. In this context see Esther Fischer-Homburger, Krankheit Frau und andere Arbeiten zur Medizingeschichte der Frau (Bern: Hans Huber, 1979); Wendy Mitchinson, "Hysteria and Insanity in Women: A Nineteenth-Century Canadian Perspective," Journal of Canadian Studies 21 (1980): 87-104; Regina Schaps, Hysterie und Weiblichkeit: Wissenschaft über die Frau (Frankfurt/Main and New York: Campus Verlag, 1982). [BACK]

17. Charcot, Lectures on the Disease of the Nervous System , pp. 230 and 264. [BACK]

18. Purves Stewart, "Two Lectures on the Diagnosis of Hysteria," The Practitioner 72 (1903): 457. [BACK]

19. See the review of the first volume of the Iconographie photographique de la Salpêtrière in Progrès médical 7 (1879): 331. On the general background of these concepts see Léon Chertok, "Hysteria, Hypnosis, Psychopathology," Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 161 (1975): 367-378; Maurice Dongier, "Briquet and Briquet's Syndrome Viewed from France," Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 28 (1983): 422-427; François M. Mai, "Pierre Briquet: Nineteenth Century Savant with Twentieth Century Ideas," Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 28 (1983): 418-421; Jean-Jacques Goblot, ''Extase, hystérie, possession: Les théories d'Alexandre Bertrand," Romantisme 24 (1979): 53-59; E. Gordon, "The Development of Hysteria as a Psychiatric Concept," Comprehensive Psychiatry 25 (1984): 532-537; Leston L. Havens, "Charcot and Hysteria," Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 141 (1965): 505-516. [BACK]

20. On the problem of the metaphor of the "germ theory" and its role in the evolution of the depiction of the hysteric see K. Codell Carter, "Germ Theory, Hysteria, and Freud's Early Work in Psychopathology," Medical History 24 (1980): 259-274. [BACK]

21. Georges Canguilhem, The Normal and the Pathological , trans. Carolyn R. Fawcett (New York: Zone, 1989), 40. [BACK]

22. See the development of the redefinition of hysteria from the 1952 DSM discussions of "psychoneurotic disorders" ( Diagnostic and Statistical Manual: Mental Disorders [Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association, 1952], 31-35) to the discussion of the representation of the hysteric in DSM-III-R ( Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , 3d ed. revised [Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association, 1987], 205-207, 257-259, 269-277, 318-320, 348-349). [BACK]

23. Friedrich Nietzsche, The Will to Power , trans. Walter Kaufmann and R. J. Hollingdale (New York: Vintage, 1968), 33. [BACK]

24. Sander L. Gilman, ed., The Face of Madness: Hugh W. Diamond and the Origin of Psychiatric Photography (New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1976), 21. [BACK]

25. Gilman, Face of Madness , 23.

26. Ibid., 10. [BACK]

25. Gilman, Face of Madness , 23.

26. Ibid., 10. [BACK]

27. I am discounting at present the recent work on the physiology of stress and anxiety which may, however, provide a future basis for an understanding of the psychological "startle effect" of innovative art. The incorporation of new experiences and their articulation in terms of existing models of perception may be our means of dealing with such stress. See Jeffrey A. Gray, The Neurophysiology of Anxiety: An Inquiry into the Functions of the Septo-Hippocampal System (New York: Clarendon Press, 1982). [BACK]

28. George S. Layne, "Kirkbride-Langenheim Collection: Early Use of Photography in Psychiatric Treatment in Philadelphia," The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 55 (1981): 182-202. [BACK]

29. Betty Miller, ed., Elizabeth Barrett to Miss Mitford: The Unpublished Letters of Elizabeth Barrett Browning to Mary Russell Mitford (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1954), 208-209. [BACK]

30. Cited by Hermann Glaser, ed., The German Mind of the Nineteenth Century (New York: Continuum, 1981), 16. [BACK]

31. Edgar Allan Poe, "The Daguerreotype," reprinted in Classic Essays on Photography , ed. Alan Trachtenberg (New Haven, Conn.: Leete's Island Books, 1980), 37-38. [BACK]

32. Sander L. Gilman, "Heine's Photographs," Hebrew University Studies in Literature and Art 13 (1985): 293-350. [BACK]

33. On the background for Freud and hysteria see K. Codell Carter, "Infantile Hysteria and Infantile Sexuality in Late Nineteenth-Century German-Language Medical Literature," Medical History 27 (1983): 186-196; Isabel F. Knight, "Freud's 'Project': A Theory for Studies on Hysteria," Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences 20 (1984): 340-358; Russell Meares et al., "Whose Hysteria: Briquet's, Janet's, or Freud's," Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 19 (1985): 256-263; Jean G. Schimek, "Fact and Fantasy in the Seduction Theory: A Historical Review," Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association 35 (1987): 937-965; Ernest S. Wolf, ''Artistic Aspects of Freud's 'The Aetiology of Hysteria,'" Psychoanalytic Studies of the Child 26 (1971): 535-554; Monique David-Ménard, Hysteria from Freud to Lacan , trans. Catherine Porter (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1989). [BACK]

34. George Didi-Huberman, Invention de l'hystérie: Charcot et l'iconographie photographique de la Salpêtrière (Paris: Macula, 1982). [BACK]

35. This general discussion is rooted in the work (and images) in Robert Darnton, Mesmerism and the End of the Enlightenment in France (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1968). All his images are from the Bibliothéque nationale cabinet of prints, E.R.L. Paris. [BACK]

36. Darnton, Mesmerism and the End of the Enlightenment , 53.

37. Ibid., 63. [BACK]

36. Darnton, Mesmerism and the End of the Enlightenment , 53.

37. Ibid., 63. [BACK]

38. Reproduced in Trillat, Histoire de l'hystérie . From the Bibliothéque nation-ale cabinet of prints, E.R.L. Paris. [BACK]

39. As in Paul Richer's reproduction of an engraving of "la phase d'immobilté ou tétanisme," in his Études cliniques sur la grande hystérie ou hystéro-épilepsie (Paris: Delahaye & Lecrosnier, 1881). Plate reproduced in Didi-Huberman, Invention de l'hystérie , 121. [BACK]

40. Sir Charles Bell's Essays on the Anatomy and Philosophy of Expression (London: John Murray, 1824), 101. Plate is on the same page. On Bell's image see Klaus Knecht, Charles Bell, The Anatomy of Expression (1806) (Cologne: Arbeiten der Forschungstelle des Instituts für Geschichte der Medizin, 1978), 121. [BACK]

41. On the background of the history of hysteria in the context see Urs Boschung, "Albrecht von Hailer als Arzt: Zur Geschichte des Elixir acidum Halleri," Gesnerus 34 (1977): 267-293; Jeffrey M. N. Boss, "The Seventeenth-Century Transformation of the Hysteric Affection and Sydenham's Baconian Medicine," Psychological Medicine 9 (1979): 221-234; Walter Russell Barow Brain, "The Concept of Hysteria in the Time of William Harvey," Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 56 (1963): 317-324. [BACK]

42. F. de Havilland Hall, Differential Diagnosis: A Manual of the Comparative Semeiology of the More Important Diseases (Philadelphia: D. G. Brinton, 1887), 134-135. [BACK]

43. See the discussion of the hospital and its patients in Jean-Martin Charcot, Hospice de la Salpêtrière (Paris: Aux bureau du progrès médical, 1892-1893). [BACK]

44. On Jackson see Oswei Temkin, The Falling Sickness: A History of Epilepsy from the Greeks to the Beginnings of Modern Neurology (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1972,), 305-316, 347-350. [BACK]

45. Sigmund Freud, Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud , ed. and trans. J. Strachey, A. Freud, A Strachey, and A. Tyson, 24 vols. (London: Hogarth, 1955-1974), 1:58. (Hereafter cited as SE .) On the background see Henri Ellenberger, The Discovery of the Unconscious: The History and Evolution of Dynamic Psychiatry (New York: Basic Books, 1970). [BACK]

46. Freud, SE , 9:234. [BACK]

47. The Clinical Diary of Sándor Ferenczi , ed. Judith Dupont (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1985), 63. [BACK]

48. Arthur F. Hurst, "War Contractures—Localized Tetanus, A Reflex Disorder, or Hysteria?" Seale Hayne Neurological Studies 1 (1918): 43-52. Hurst's collected papers on hysteria appeared as The Croonian Lectures on the Psychology of the Special Senses and Their Functional Disorders (London: Henry Frowde/Hodder & Stoughton, 1920) with 29 plates, some taken from Charcot. [BACK]

49. Joseph Babinski and Jules Froment, Hystérie-pithiatisme et troubles nerveux d'ordre réflexe en neurologie de guerre (Paris: Masson et Cie., 1917). [BACK]

50. Elaine Showalter, The Female Malady: Women, Madness, and English Culture, 1830-1980 (New York: Pantheon Books, 1985), 189-194. [BACK]

51. Les Démoniaques dans l'art (Paris: Adrien Delahaye et Émile Lecrosnier, 1887). The later, expanded version of this study, Les difformes et les malades dans l'art (Paris: Lecrosnier et Babé, 1889), attempts to parallel all visual images of "difference." See also Louis Langlet, Une possession au XVIe siêcle: Étude medicale de la vie et de l'hystérie de Nicol Obry, Dite Nicole de Vervins 1566 (Reims: Matot-Braine, 1910), and Henri Ey, "Introduction a l'étude actuelle de l'hystérie," Revue du practicien 14 (1964): 1417-1431. [BACK]

52. A detailed account of the stages of hysteria that are documented in the historical study can be found in J.-M. Charcot, "Lemon d'ouverture," Progrès méd-ical 10 (1882): here, 336. The most detailed visual representation of the stages is to be found in Richer, Études cliniques sur la grande hystérie . [BACK]

53. Compare Jan Goldstein, Console and Classify: The French Psychiatric Profession in the Nineteenth Century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987), esp. her chapter "Hysteria, Anticlerical Politics, and the View beyond the Asylum," 322-377. [BACK]

54. The plates are found on p. 99 lower and p. 100 lower. [BACK]

55. The plate is found on p. 94 upper. [BACK]

56. Louis Basile Carré de Montgeron, La verité des miracles operas par l'intercession de M. de Pâris et autres appellans demontrée contre M. L'archevêque de Sens ., 3 vols. (Cologne: Chez les libraires de la Campagnie, 1745-47).

The Montgeron plates reproduced by Regnard (see n. 15) are on the following unnumbered pages:

Reftnard, vol. 1

Montgeron, vol. 1

 

113

Frontispiece

 

120, 123

Prior to p. 1 of the "II Demonstration"

 

127, 129

Prior to p. 1 of the "III Demonstration"

 

133, 134

Prior to p. 1 of the "IV Demonstration"

 

141, 143

Prior to p. 1 of the "VII Demonstration"

 

149, 151

Prior to p. 1 of the "VIII Demonstration"

Regnard, vol. 2

Montgeron, vol. 2

 

169, 176

Prior to p. 1 of the "Miracle operé sur Marie Jeanne Fourcroy"

 

161, 163

Prior to p. 1 of "pieces justificatives sur . . . Catherine Bigot"

 

172

Prior to p. 1 of "Relation du miracle sur l'auteur"

See also the essay by Georges Gilles de la Tourette, "Le Sein Hystérique," Nouvelle Iconographie de la Salpêtrière 8 (1895): 107-121, for the further use of images from this source. [BACK]

57. See the second edition of Philippe Pinel, Traité médico-philosophique sur l'aliénation mentale, ou la manie (Paris: Brosson, 1809), 268. See also Theodore Zeldin, "The Conflict of Moralities: Confession, Sin and Pleasure in the Nineteenth Century," in Conflicts in French Society: Anticlericalism, Education, and Morals in the Nineteenth Century , ed. Theodore Zeldin (London: Allen & Unwin, 1970), 22-30. [BACK]

58. This association of forms of "extravagant" and "visible" religions may well be a reaction to the charge lodged against the school of Charcot that it was "Jewish" as it advocated the laicization of the nursing staff at the major psychiatric hospitals in Paris. See Goldstein, Console and Classify , 364. [BACK]

59. Regnard, Les maladies épidémiques de l'esprit , 95. [BACK]

60. Désire-Magloire Bourneville and Paul Regnard, Iconographie photographique de la Salpêtrière (service de M. Charcot) (Paris: Progrès médical, 1877-80), 3 vols., vol. 2. Plates are reproduced in Didi-Huberman, Invention de l'hystérie , 139-145. [BACK]

61. The idea of tracing a linear history of hysteria through examining the history of religion is not solely a "French" tradition. William A. Hammond documents the development of hysteria from the religious manifestation in the middle ages (saints as well as witches) through the "fasting girls" of the late nineteenth century and the rise of a medicalized hysteria in his Spiritualism and Other Causes and Conditions of Nervous Derangement (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1876), here p. 122. This is clearly part of what seems to be a "French" tradition—at least as manifested in Charcot and his influence on the Salpêtrière, since Hammond's visual sources are primarily from the Salpêtrière. [BACK]

62. Jean Heitz, "Un possédée de Rubens," Nouvelle iconographie de la Salpê-trière 14 (1901): 274-276; Henry Meige, "Documents compléméntares sur les possédés dans l'art," Nouvelle iconographie de la Salpétriére 16 (1903): 319-320, 411-412. [BACK]

63. Eugen Holländer, Die Medizin in der klassischen Malerei (Stuttgart: Enke, 1923). [BACK]

64. Jean Rousselot, ed., Medicine in Art: A Cultural History (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967). [BACK]

65. Andrew Dickson White, A History of the Warfare of Science with Theology in Christendom (New York: D. Appleton, 1896). [BACK]

66. Regnard, Maladies épidémiques de l'esprit . [BACK]

67. Bourneville and Regnard, Iconographie photographique de la Salpêtrière . [BACK]

68. Paul Regnard and M. H. Johnson, Planches murales d'anatomie et de physiologie (Paris: Delagrave, 1885). [BACK]

69. Abraham Palingh, 't Afgeruckt Mom-Aansight der Tooverye: Daar in het bedrogh der gewaande Toverye, naakt ontdeckt, en emt gezone Redenen en exemplen dezer Eeuwe aangewezen wort (Amsterdam: Andries van Damme, 1725). The plates from Regnard are to be found in the original as follows: Regnard p. 19 = Palingh p. 50; 16 = 250; 17 = 268; 21 = 270; 18 (both) = 284 (both); 20 = 298. (Original in the Cornell University Witchcraft collection, BF/1565/P16/1725.) [BACK]

70. On the general history of epilepsy see Temkin, Falling Sickness . [BACK]

71. On the history of "hystero-epilepsy" see Thornton, Hypnotism, Hysteria, and Epilepsy , and U. H. Peters, "Hysteroepilepsie: Die Kombination von epileptischen und hysterischen Anfällen," Fortschritte der Neurologie, Psychiatrie, und ihrer Grenzgebiete 46 (1978): 430-439. [BACK]

72. Cesare Lombroso, Criminal Man (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1911), 62. See the plate accompanying summary of Lombroso's views on p. 62. [BACK]

73. As in M. Gonzalez Echeverria, On Epilepsy: Anatomo-Pathological and Clinical Notes (New York: William Wood, 1870) in which all of the images are cystological. [BACK]

74. Charles Féré, "Note sur un cas de mélanodermie récurrente chez un épileptique apathique," Nouvelle iconographie de la Salpêtrière 10 N.F. (1897): 332-339. [BACK]

75. I. Valobra, "Contribution a l'étude des gangrènes cutanées spontanées chez les sujets hystériques," Nouvelle iconographie de la Salpêtrière 21 (1908): 481-505 (plate opposite p. 484). [BACK]

76. L. Pierce Clark, "Tetanoid Seizures in Epilepsy," American Journal of Insanity 55 (1898-99): 583-593 (plate opposite 589). [BACK]

77. See the image of the brain in a case of "Jacksonian" epilepsy in Byrom Bramwell, Studies in Clinical Medicine: A Record of Some of the More Interesting Cases Observed, and of Some of the Remarks Made, at the Author's Out-patient Clinic in the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary (Edinburgh/London: Young J. Pentland, 1880): plate opposite p. 322. Such images even appear in the work generated at the Salpê-trière, as S.-F. Danillo, "Encéphalite parenchymateuse limitée de la substance grise, avec épilepsie partielle (Jacksonienne) comme syndrome clinique," Archives de neurologie 6 (1883): 217-236 with cytological images. [BACK]

78. On the misshapen hands (as a sign of inherited capacity for epilepsy) see F. Raymond and Pierre Janet, "Malformations des mains en 'pinces de humard,'" Nouvelle iconographie de la Salpêtrière 10 (1897): 369-373 (an extract from their book Nécroses et idées fixes [Paris: F. Alcan, 1898]); and in the same essay (plate 41) the plate "Asymetrie du corps chez une epileptique." [BACK]

79. William Alexander, The Treatment of Epilepsy (Edinburgh and London: Young J. Pentland, 1889), 107. [BACK]

80. On baldness see Charles Féré, "La pelade post-épileptique," Nouvelle iconographie de la Salpêtrière 8 (1895): 214-217 (plate opposite p. 216). [BACK]

81. Dr. Räiuber, "Ein Fall von periodisch wiederkehrender Haarveränderung bei einem Epileptiker," [ Virchows ] Archiv für pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie 97 (1884): 50-83 (plate no. 2). [BACK]

82. See for example, A. Maberly, "Epilepsy: A Brief Historical Overview," Alberta Medical Bulletin 29 (1964): 65-72; the "Antrittsvorlesung" of the professor for pediatrics at the University of Kiel, H. Doose, "Aus der Geschichte der Epilepsie," Münchener medizinische Wochenschrift 107 (1965): 189-196; anon., ''Ancient Ailment," MD 19 (1975): 151-160; F. L. Glötzner, "Die Behandlung der Epilepsien in Vergangenheit und Gegenwart," Medizinische Wochenschrift 30 (1976): 123-128. [BACK]

83. J.-M. Charcot and P. Richer, "Note on Certain Facts of Cerebral Automatism Observed in Hysteria during the Cataleptic Period of Hypnotism," Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 10 (1883): 1-13, here p. 9 (plates opposite p. 10). [BACK]

84. Walter Benjamin, Illuminationen (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 1961), 148-184. [BACK]

85. H. V. Eggeling, "Die Leistungsfähigkeit physiognomischer Rekonstruktionsversuche auf Grundlage des Schädels," Archiv für Anthropologie 12 (1913): 44-46 (with extensive plates), and Franz Stadtmüller, "Zur Beurteilund der plastischen Rekonstruktionsmethode der Physiognomie auf dem Schädel," Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Anthropologie 22 (1921-22): 227-272. [BACK]

86. Francis Warner, "The Study of the Face as an Index of the Brain," The British Medical Journal 2 (1882): 314-315. [BACK]

87. James Shaw, The Physiognomy of Mental Disease and Degeneracy (Bristol: John Wright, 1903), p. 40. [BACK]

88. Gilman, Seeing the Insane , 204. [BACK]

89. Hermann Heinrich Ploss, Das Weib in der Natur- und Völkerkunde: Anthropologische Studien , 2 vols. (Leipzig: T. Grieben, 1885). [BACK]

90. Arthur F. Hurst, "Hysterical Left Facial Paralysis, Right Facial Spasm, Left Ptosis, Strabismus, Aphonia, Dysarthria, Paralysis of the Tongue, Paralysis of Right Arm and Both Legs, and Amblyopia following Gassing, Rapidly Cured by Persuasion and Re-education," Seale-Hayne Neurological Studies 1 (1918): 78-80. [BACK]

91. Walter Baer Weidler, "Some Ocular Manifestations of Hysteria," International Clinics , 22d ser. 2 (1912): 249-261 (plate [fig. 5] opposite p. 252). [BACK]

92. L. Lattes and A. Sacerdote, "Un caso di sindrome isterica oculare con simulazione di emorragia," Archivo di Antropologia Criminale, Psichiatira, Medicina legale e Scienze Affini 47 (1927): 21-47. [BACK]

93. Jules Luys, "Recherches nouvelles sur les hémiplégies émotives," L'En-cephale: Journal des Maladies Mentales et Nerveuses 1 (1881): 378-398 (plate 7). [BACK]

94. E. Siemerling, "Ueber einen mit Geistesstörung complicirten Fall von schwerer Hysterie, welcher durch congenitale Anomaliern des Centralnervensystem ausgezeichnet war," Charité-Annalen 15 (1890): 325-348 (plate p. 349), and Grasset, "Des associations hystéro-organiques: Un cas de sclérose en plaques et hystérie associées avec autopsie," Nouveau montpellier médical , n.s. Suppl. 1 (1892): 227-252 (plate 7). [BACK]

95. Paul Steffens, "Obductionsbefund bei einem Fall von Hystero-Epilepsie," Archiv für Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten 35 (1902): 542-546 (plate 12). [BACK]

96. C. yon Hößlin and A. Alzheimer, "Ein Beitrag zur Klinik und pathologischen Anatomie der Westphal-Strümpellschen Pseudosklerose," Zeitschrift für die gesamte Neurologie und Psychiatrie 8 (1911): 183-209 (plate, p. 203). [BACK]

97. See Sander L. Gilman, Sexuality: An Illustrated History (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1989), 205-210. [BACK]

98. Dr. Mesnet, "Autographisme et Stigmates," Revue de l'hypnotisme et de la psychologie physiologique 4 (1889-90): 321-335 (plate 2). [BACK]

99. Jeannot Hackel, "Über einen schweren Fall von Hysterie," St. Petersberger Medizinische Wochenschrift 11 (1894): 163-165. [BACK]

100. S. Weir Mitchell, "Hysterical Rapid Respiration, With Cases; Peculiar Form of Rupial Skin Disease in an Hysterical Woman," Transactions of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia 14 (1892): 228-237 (plate, p. 233). See also Kenneth Levin, "S. Weir Mitchell: Investigation and Insights into Neurasthenia and Hysteria," Transactions and Studies of the College of Physicians, Philadelphia 38 (1971): 168-173. [BACK]

101. S. Róna, "Über 'Herpes zoster gangrænosus hystericus—Kaposi,'" Fest-schrift gewidmet Moriz Kaposi zum fünfundzwanzigjähringen Professoren Jubiläum (Vienna and Leipzig: W. Braumüller, 1900), 209-221 (plate 12). [BACK]

102. Thomas D. Savill, "A Clinical Lecture on Hysterical Skin Symptoms and Eruptions," The Lancet (January 30, 1904): 273-278. [BACK]

103. Dr. Bettmann, "Über die Hautaffectionen, der Hysterischen und den atypischen Zoster," Deutsche Zeitschrift für Nervenheilkunde 18 (1900): 345-388; Grover William Wende, "Dermatitis Vesico-Bullosa et Gangrenosa Mutilans," Transactions of the American Dermatological Association 15 (1901): 29-50; Giuseppe Bertolini, ''Due casi di gangrena cutanea in sogetto isterico," Giornale italiano delle malattie veneree e della pelle 60 (1919): 311-322; Roberto Casazza, "Sull'importanza di fattori psichici in dermatologia," Bollentino della societa medico-chirurgia, Pavia 44 (1930): 115-162. [BACK]

104. Dr. De Sinéty, "Examen des organes génitaux d'une hystérique," Archives de physiologie normale et pathologique , 2d ser. 3 (1876): 803-807; idem, "Examen des organes génitaux d'un hystérique," Bulletins de la société anatomique de Paris , 4th ser. 1 (1876): 679-684; idem, "Examen anatomique des organes génitaux d'une hystérique," Le progrès nédical 5 (1877): 113-114. [BACK]

105. Jose M. Jorge, "Coxalgia histérica," Revista de la Asociacion Medica Argentina 32 (1920): 18-29 (plate opposite p. 80). [BACK]

106. Paul Bercherie, "Le concept de folie hystérique avant Charcot," Revue international d'histoire de la psychiatrie 1 (1983): 47-58. [BACK]

107. Eliogoro Guitti, "Osservazioni Cliniche," Giornale per Servire ai Progressi della Patologia e della Terapeutica , 2d ser. 22 (1847): 229-258 (plate following p. 258). [BACK]

108. Paul Sollier, "Contracture volontaire chez un hystérique," Nouvelle iconographie de la Salpêtrière 4 (1891): 100-106 (plate opposite p. 106). [BACK]

109. Georges Gilles de la Tourette and A. Dutil, "Contribution a l'étude des troubles trophiques dans l'hystérie," Nouvelle iconographie de la Salpêtrière 2 (1889): 251-282. [BACK]

110. Arthur F. Hurst and S. H. Wilkinson, "Hysterical Anæsthesia, With Special Reference to the Hysterical Element in the Symptoms Arising from Injuries to the Peripheral Nerves," Seale-Hayne Neurological Studies 1 (1918-19): 171-184 (plate 38); Walter Riese, "Zwei Fäille yon hysterischcn Oedem," Archiv für Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten 56 (1916): 228-234 (plates 3-4). [BACK]

111. Stewart, "Two Lectures on the Diagnosis of Hysteria," 457-471, 657-665 (plate 17). [BACK]

112. Vittorio Codeluppi, "Sopra un caso di grande isterismo maschile attachi d'istero epilessa cessati per suggestlone," Rivista sperimentale di freniatria e medicina legale delle alienazioni mentali 13 (1887-88): 414-424. See also M. Carrieu, "Syndrome Vaso-Moteur dans l'Hystérie," Montpelier médicale , ser. 2A 1 (1892): 544-553, 566-572, 583-589; Luigi Abbamondi, "Su di un caso d'isterismo mashile," Annall di medicina navale 1 (1895): 185-204; D. Ferrier, "Hémip-légie et mutisme hystériques," Congres français de médicine 3 (1896-97): 370-375; Motta Rezende, ''Reflexes na histeria," Arquivas brasileros de medicina 16 (1926): 53-74. [BACK]

113. Henri Lamarque and Émile Bitot, "Sur un cas d'hystérotraumatisme chez l'homme," Bulletins de la société d'anatomie et de physiologie normales et pathologiques de bordeaux 9 (1888): 242-257 (plate with figs. 6 and 8). [BACK]

114. Georges Gilles de la Tourette, "L'Attitude et la marche dans l'hemiplégie hystérique," Nouvelle iconographie de la Salpêrière 1 (1888): 1-12 (plates opposite p. 8 and p. 11). [BACK]

115. Byrom Bramwell, "Clinical Lecture on a Case of Hysterical Contracture," Edinburgh Medical Journal , n.s. 1 (1897): 128-138 (plate v). [BACK]

116. A. Steindler, "On Hysterical Contractures," International Clinics , 4th ser. 45 (1935): 221-229 (fig. 2, opposite p. 222). [BACK]

117. Peter Davidson, "Unusual Cases at the Infirmary for Children," Liverpool Medico-Chirurgical Journal 35 (1915): 297-308 (plate 4). [BACK]

118. Prince P. Barker, "The Diagnosis and Treatment of Hysterical Paralysis," United States Veteran's Bureau Medical Bulletin 6 (1930): 663-670 (three plates following p. 670). [BACK]

119. See, for example, the visual representation of the unconscious in the essay by L. Laurent, "De l'état mental des hystériques," Archives clinique de Bordeaux 1 (1892): 416-433 (plate opposite p. 430). [BACK]

120. As in the image of psychic forces in H. Nishi, "Male Hysteria Cured by Suggestion" (in Japanese), Chugai Iji Shinpo 405 (1897): 5-9; 406 (1897): 11-16 (image on p. 9). [BACK]

121. See the evaluation of operations on the hearing of the hysteric in K. Rudolphy, "Ohroperationen bei Hysterischen," Zeitschrift für Ohrenheilkunde und für die Krankheiten der Luftwege 44 (1903): 209-221 (plate 17, opposite p. 220). [BACK]

122. This is the "myth" that Frank Sulloway ( Freud: Biologist of the Mind [New York: Basic, 1979], P. 592) wishes to identify as "Myth One," the primal myth, in Freud's falsification of his own history. It is clear that this (and the other ''myths") are fascinating insights into Freud's understanding of his own career and provide the material for interpretation, not censure. [BACK]

123. Freud, SE 20:15. [BACK]

124. In this context see John Marshall Townsend, "Stereotypes of Mental Illness: A Comparison with Ethnic Stereotypes," Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry 3 (1979): 205-229. See M. J. Gutmann, Über den heutigen Stand der Rasse- und Krankheitsfrage der Juden (München: Rudolph Müller & Steinicke, 1920), and Heinrich Singer, Allgemeine und spezielle Krankheitslehre der Juden (Leipzig: Benno Konegen, 1904). For a more modern analysis of the "myths" and "realities" of the diseases attributed to the Jews see Richard M. Goodman, Genetic Disorders among the Jewish People (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1979). [BACK]

125. Maurice Fishberg, The Jews: A Study of Race and Environment (New York: Walter Scott, 1911), 6. Compare his statement in The Jewish Encyclopedia , 12 vols. (New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1904), s.v. "Nervous Diseases," 9:225-227, here p. 225: "Some physicians of large experience among Jews have even gone so far as to state that most of them are neurasthenic and hysterical." [BACK]

126. Fishberg, "Nervous Diseases," 9:225.

127. Ibid.

128. Ibid. [BACK]

126. Fishberg, "Nervous Diseases," 9:225.

127. Ibid.

128. Ibid. [BACK]

126. Fishberg, "Nervous Diseases," 9:225.

127. Ibid.

128. Ibid. [BACK]

129. Fishberg, The Jews , 324-325. [BACK]

130. "La population israélite fournit à elle seule presque tout le contingent des hystériques mâdes," Fulgence Raymond, L'Étude des Maladies du Système Nerveux en Russie (Paris: O. Doin, 1889), 71. [BACK]

131. As quoted, for example, in Hugo Hoppe, Krankheiten und Sterblichkeit bei Juden und Nichtjuden (Berlin: S. Calvary & Co., 1903), 26. [BACK]

132. Protokolle der Wiener Psychoanalytischen Vereinigung , ed. Herman Nunberg and Ernst Federn, 4 vols. (Frankfurt am Main: Fischer, 1976-81), 2:40; translation from Minutes of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society , trans. M. Nunberg, 4 vols. (New York: International Universities Press, 1962-75), 2:44. [BACK]

133. J.-M. Charcot, Leçons du mardi a la Salpêtrière , 2 vols. (Paris: Progrès médical, 1889), 2:347-353. See the translation of the Poliklinische Vorträge von Prof. J. M. Charcot , trans. Sigmund Freud [vol. 1] and Max Kahane [vol. 2] (Leipzig: Deuticke, 1892-95), 2:299-304. [BACK]

134. H. Strauss, "Erkrankungen durch Alkohol und Syphilis bei den Juden," Zeitschrift für Demographie und Statistik der Juden , 4 N.F. (1927): 33-39, chart on P. 35. [BACK]

135. Moriz Benedikt, Die Seelenkunde des Menschen als reine Erfahrungswissenschaft (Leipzig: O. R. Reisland, 1895), 186-187, 223-226. [BACK]

136. Cecil F. Beadles, "The Insane Jew," Journal of Mental Science 46 (1900): 736. [BACK]

137. Frank G. Hyde, "Notes on the Hebrew Insane," American Journal of Insanity 58 (1901-1902): 470. [BACK]

138. William Thackeray, Works , 10 vols. (New York: International Book Co., n.d.), 10:16-28, here p. 17. [BACK]

139. Cited (with photograph) in Joseph Jacobs, Studies in Jewish Statistics (London: D. Nutt, 1891), xl. [BACK]

140. Robert Burton, The Anatomy of Melancholy , ed. Holbrook Jackson (New York: Vintage, 1977): 211-212. [BACK]

141. Redcliffe N. Salaman, M. D., "Heredity and the Jew," Eugenics Review 3 (1912): 190. [BACK]

142. Gutmann, Über den heutigen Stand , 17. [BACK]

143. Freud, SE 5:649; 4:293; 4:139; 5:494. [BACK]

144. Henry Meige, Etude sur certains néuropathes voyageurs: Le juif-errant a la Salpêtrière (Paris: L. Battaille, 1893). On Meige and this text see Jan Goldstein, "The Wandering Jew and the Problem of Psychiatric Anti-Semitism in Fin-de-Siècle France," Journal of Contemporary History 20 (1985): 521-552. [BACK]

145. Richard Andree, Zur Volkskunde der Juden (Leipzig: Velhagen & Klasing, 1881), 24-25, cited by Maurice Fishberg, "Materials for the Physical Anthropology of the Eastern European Jew," Memoires of the American Anthropological Association 1 (1905-1907): 6-7. [BACK]

146. Beadles, "Insane Jew," 732. [BACK]

147. Fishberg, The Jews , 349. [BACK]

148. See L. Chertok, "On Objectivity in the History of Psychotherapy: The Dawn of Dynamic Psychology (Sigmund Freud, J. M. Charcot)," Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases 153 (1971):71-80, as well as Charles Coulston Gillispie, The Edge of Objectivity: An Essay in the History of Scientific Ideas (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1960). [BACK]

149. George Herbert Mead, Movements of Thought in the Nineteenth Century (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1936), 176. [BACK]

150. Freud, SE 1:17. [BACK]

151. Toby Gelfand, "'Mon Cher Docteur Freud': Charcot's Unpublished Correspondence to Freud, 1888-1893," Bulletin of the History of Medicine 62 (1988): 563-588, here p. 571. [BACK]

152. Freud, SE 26:29-43. While this paper was published only in 1893, it was conceptualized if not written before Freud left Paris in 1886. [BACK]

153. Toby Gelfand, "Charcot's Response to Freud's Rebellion," Journal of the History of Ideas 50 (1989): 293-307. [BACK]

154. See the discussion in my Difference and Pathology: Stereotypes of Sexuality, Race, and Madness (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1985), 15o-162. See also Yves Chevalier, "Freud et l'antisemitisme—jalousie," Amitié judéo-chretienne de France 37 (1985): 45-50. [BACK]

155. Wesley G. Morgan, "Freud's Lithograph of Charcot: A Historical Note," Bulletin of the History of Medicine 63 (1989): 268-272. [BACK]

156. Freud, SE 1:98. [BACK]

157. See, for example, George Frederick Drinka, The Birth of Neurosis: Myth, Malady and the Victorians (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1984), 108-122. See also Esther Fischer-Homburger, Die traumatische Neurose: Vom somatischen zum sozialen Leiden (Bern: Hans Huber, 1975). [BACK]

158. Sir Clifford Allbutt, "Nervous Disease and Modern Life," Contemporary Review 67 (1895): 214-215. [BACK]

159. C. E. Brown-Séquard, "On the Hereditary Transmission of Effects of Certain Injuries to the Nervous System," The Lancet (January 2, 1875): 7-8. [BACK]

160. As in John Eric Erichsen, On Concussion of the Spine, Nervous Shock, and Other Obscure Injuries to the Nervous System in their Clinical and Medico-Legal Aspects (New York: William Wood, 1886), 2, or in Hans Schmaus, "Zur Casuistik und pathologischen Anatomie der Rückenmarkserschütterung," Archiv für klinische Chirurgie 42 (1891): 112-122 with plates. [BACK]

161. Compare Otto Binswanger, Hysterie (Vienna: Deuticke, 1904), 82. [BACK]

162. Richard von Krafft-Ebing, Psychopathia Sexualis: A Medico-Forensic Study , red. ed., trans. Harry E. Wedeck (New York: Putnam, 1965), 24. [BACK]

163. August Forel, The Sexual Question: A Scientific, Psychological, Hygienic and Sociological Study , trans. D. F. Marshall (New York: Physicians & Surgeons Book Co., 1925), 331-332. [BACK]

164. Richard von Krafft-Ebing, Text-Book of Insanity , trans. Charles Gilbert Chaddock (Philadelphia: F. A. Davis, 1904), 143. [BACK]

165. Martin Engländer, Die auffallend häufigen Krankheitserscheinungen der jü-dischen Rasse (Vienna: J. L. Pollak, 1902), 12. [BACK]

166. Gilman, Difference and Pathology , 182-184. [BACK]

167. The discussion of this case is documented in Charles Bernheimer and Claire Kahane, eds., In Dora's Case: Freud—Hysteria—Feminism (New York: Columbia University Press, 1985). See also Dianne Hunter, "Hysteria, Psychoanalysis, and Feminism: The Case of Anna O.," Feminist Studies 9 (1983): 465-488; Maria Ramas, "Freud's Dora, Dora's Hysteria: The Negation of a Woman's Rebellion," Feminist Studies 6 (1980): 472-510; Arnold A. Rogow, "A Further Footnote to Freud's 'Fragment of an Analysis of a Case of Hysteria,'" Journal of the American Psychoanalytical Association 26 (1978): 330-356; Hannah S. Decker, Freud, Dora and Vienna 1900 (New York: Free Press, 1990). [BACK]

168. Catherine Clément and Hélène Cixous, La jeune née (Paris: 10/18, 1975), 283. [BACK]

169. Freud, SE 2:134, n. 2 (added in 1924). [BACK]

170. See the discussion in Robert S. Wistrich, The Jews of Vienna in the Age of Franz Joseph (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989), 483-485. [BACK]

171. Bertha Pappenheim (writing as P. Bertold), Zur Judenfrage in Galizien (Frankfurt am Main: Knauer, 1900), 23. [BACK]

172. Jacques Lacan, "Intervention on Transference," reprinted in Bernheimer and Kahane, In Dora's Case , 92-105. On the working out of the implications of this theme see the essays by Neil Hertz, "Dora's Secrets, Freud's Techniques" (pp. 221-242) and Toril Moi, "Representation of Patriarchy" (pp. 181-199), reprinted in Bernheimer and Kahane, In Dora's Case . [BACK]

173. Freud, SE 7:84.

174. Ibid., 7:19.

175. Ibid.

176. Ibid., 7:21. [BACK]

173. Freud, SE 7:84.

174. Ibid., 7:19.

175. Ibid.

176. Ibid., 7:21. [BACK]

173. Freud, SE 7:84.

174. Ibid., 7:19.

175. Ibid.

176. Ibid., 7:21. [BACK]

173. Freud, SE 7:84.

174. Ibid., 7:19.

175. Ibid.

176. Ibid., 7:21. [BACK]

177. See the discussion of the inheritance of disease in the seventeenth chapter of Paolo Mantegazza's study of the hygiene of love, in the German translation, Die Hygiene der Liebe , trans. R. Teutscher (Jena: Hermann Costenoble, [1877]), 366. [BACK]

178. Freud, SE 7:78. [BACK]

179. Mantegazza notes this quite literally, stating that diseases such as syphilis, cancer, and madness can merge one into the other through the power of the inherited characteristics; see his Die Hygiene der Liebe , trans. Teutscher, 369. [BACK]

180. Freud, SE 7:16-17.

181. Ibid., n. 2. [BACK]

180. Freud, SE 7:16-17.

181. Ibid., n. 2. [BACK]

182. Joseph Babinski, "Sur le réflexe cutané plantaire dans certains affections organiques du système nerveux central," Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de la Societé de biologie (Paris) 48 (1896): 207-208. [BACK]

183. On the history of this concept see W. Erb, "Über das 'intermittirende Hinken' und andere nervöse Störungen in Folge von Gefässerkrankungen," Deutsche Zeitschrift für Nervenheilkunde 13 (1898): 1-77. [BACK]

184. P. Olivier and A. Halipré, "Claudication intermittente chez un homme hystérique atteint de pouls lent permanent," La Normandie Médicale 11 (1896): 21-28 (plate on p. 23). [BACK]

185. Freud, SE 7:101-102.

186. Ibid., 7:102. [BACK]

185. Freud, SE 7:101-102.

186. Ibid., 7:102. [BACK]

187. Felix Deutsch, "A Footnote to Freud's 'Fragment of an Analysis of a Case of Hysteria,'" reprinted in Bernheimer and Kahane, In Dora's Case , 41. [BACK]

188. Joseph Rohrer, Versuch über die jüdischen Bewohnener der österreichischen Monarchie (Vienna: n.p., 1804), 26. [BACK]

189. Freud, SE 7:84.

190. Ibid.

191. Ibid.

192. Ibid.

193. Ibid., 7:64.

194. Ibid., 7:90.

195. Ibid., 7:91. [BACK]

189. Freud, SE 7:84.

190. Ibid.

191. Ibid.

192. Ibid.

193. Ibid., 7:64.

194. Ibid., 7:90.

195. Ibid., 7:91. [BACK]

189. Freud, SE 7:84.

190. Ibid.

191. Ibid.

192. Ibid.

193. Ibid., 7:64.

194. Ibid., 7:90.

195. Ibid., 7:91. [BACK]

189. Freud, SE 7:84.

190. Ibid.

191. Ibid.

192. Ibid.

193. Ibid., 7:64.

194. Ibid., 7:90.

195. Ibid., 7:91. [BACK]

189. Freud, SE 7:84.

190. Ibid.

191. Ibid.

192. Ibid.

193. Ibid., 7:64.

194. Ibid., 7:90.

195. Ibid., 7:91. [BACK]

189. Freud, SE 7:84.

190. Ibid.

191. Ibid.

192. Ibid.

193. Ibid., 7:64.

194. Ibid., 7:90.

195. Ibid., 7:91. [BACK]

189. Freud, SE 7:84.

190. Ibid.

191. Ibid.

192. Ibid.

193. Ibid., 7:64.

194. Ibid., 7:90.

195. Ibid., 7:91. [BACK]

196. Sigmund Freud, "Some Early Unpublished Letters," trans. Ilse Scheier, International Journal of Psychoanalysis 50 (1969): 420. [BACK]

197. See my Jewish Self-Hatred: Anti-Semitism and the Hidden Language of the Jews (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986). [BACK]

198. Cited by Saul Friedländer, Kurt Gerstein: The Ambiguity of Good , trans. Charles Fullman (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1969), 148-149. [BACK]

199. Martin Freud, "Who Was Freud?" in Josef Fraenkel, ed., The Jews of Austria: Essays on Their Life, History and Destruction (London: Vallentine, Mitchell, 1967), 202. See also Franz Kobler, "Die Mutter Sigmund Freuds," Bulletin des Leo Baeck Instituts 19 (1962): 149-170. [BACK]

200. Freud, SE 7:51.

201. Ibid., 7:36, n. 1.

202. Ibid., 7:62. [BACK]

200. Freud, SE 7:51.

201. Ibid., 7:36, n. 1.

202. Ibid., 7:62. [BACK]

200. Freud, SE 7:51.

201. Ibid., 7:36, n. 1.

202. Ibid., 7:62. [BACK]

203. On Mantegazza see Giovanni Landucci, Darwinismo a Firenze: Tra scienza e ideologia (1860-1900 ) (Florence: Leo S. Olschki, 1977), 107-128. [BACK]

204. The authorized German editions of Mantegazza that Freud and Ida Bauer could have read are: Die Physiologie der Liebe , trans. Eduard Engel (Jena: Hermann Costenoble, 1877); Die Hygiene der Liebe , trans. R. Teutscher (Jena: Hermann Costenoble, 1877); Anthropologisch-kulturhistorische Studien über die Geschlechtsverhältnisse des Menschen (Jena: Hermann Costenoble, 1891). [BACK]

205. Reprinted in Bernheimer and Kahane, In Dora's Case , 273. [BACK]

206. The relevant passages in the German edition, Anthropologisch-kulturhis-torische Studien are on pp. 132-137. All the quotations from Mantegazza are from the English translation: Paolo Mantegazza, The Sexual Relations of Mankind , trans. Samuel Putnam (New York: Eugenics Publishing Co., 1938). [BACK]

207. Armand-Louis-Joseph Béraud, Étude de Pathologie Comparée: Essai sur la pathologie des sémites (Bordeaux: Paul Cassignol, 1897), 55. [BACK]

208. There is no comprehensive study of the German debates on circumcision. See J. Alkvist, "Geschichte der Circumcision," Janus 30 (1926): 86-104, 152-171. [BACK]

209. See the discussion by Dr. Bamberger, "Die Hygiene der Beschneidung," in Die Hygiene der Juden: Im Anschlu b an die internationale Hygiene-Ausstellung, ed. Max Grunwald (Dresden: Verlag der historischen Abtteilung der internationale Hygiene-Ausstellung, 1911), 103-112 (on the Jewish side), and W. Hammer, "Zur Beschneidungsfrage," Zeitschrift für Bahnärzte 1 (1926): 254 (on the non-Jewish side). [BACK]

210. See for example the discussion by Em. Kohn in the Mittheilung des Ärtz-lichen Vereines in Wien 3 (1874): 169-172 (on the Jewish side), and Dr. Klein, "Die rituelle Circumcision, eine sanitätspolizeiliche Frage," Allgemeine Medizinische Central-Zeitung 22, (1853): 368-369 (on the non-Jewish side). [BACK]

211. Max Grunwald, Vienna , Jewish Communities Series (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America, 1936), 376. [BACK]

212. See the letter to Sándor Ferenczi of 6 October 1910 in which Freud wrote: "Since Fliess's case, with the overcoming of which you recently saw me occupied, that need has been extinguished. A part of my homosexual cathexis has been withdrawn and made use of to enlarge my own ego. I have succeeded where the paranoiac fails." Cited in Ernst Jones, The Life and Work of Sigmund Freud , 3 vols. (New York: Basic Books, 1955), 2:83. [BACK]

213. See the discussion in Gilman, Jewish Self-Hatred , 293-294. [BACK]

214. Ludwik Fleck, Entstehung und Entwicklung einer wissenschaftlichen Tatsache (1935; Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 1980). I am indebted to Fleck's work for the basic conceptual structure presented in this essay. [BACK]

215. Theodor Fritsch, Handbuch der Judenfrage (Leipzig: Hammer, 1935), 408. [BACK]

216. Bertha Pappenheim with Sara Rabinowitsch, Zur Lage der jüdischen Be-völkerung in Galizien: Reise-Eindrücke und Vorschläge zur Besserung der Verhältnisse (Frankfurt am Main: Neuer Frankfurter Verlag, 1904), 46-51. [BACK]

217. Adolph Hitler, Mein Kampf , trans. Ralph Manheim (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1943), 247. [BACK]

218. Compare Edward J. Bristow, Prostitution and Prejudice: The Jewish Fight against White Slavery, 1870-1939 (Oxford: Clarendon, 1982). [BACK]

219. N. Balaban and A. Molotschek, "Progressive Paralyse bei den Bevö1-kerungen der Krim," Allgemeine Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie 94 (1931): 373-383. [BACK]

220. H. Budul, "Beitrag zur vergleichenden Rassenpsychiatrie," Monatsschrift für Psychiatrie und Neurologie 37 (1915): 199-204. [BACK]

221. Max Sichel, "Die Paralyse der Juden in sexuologischer Beleuchtung," Zeitschrift für Sexualwissenschaft 7 (1919-20): 98-114. [BACK]

222. H. Strauss, "Erkrankungen durch Alkohol und Syphilis bei den Juden," Zeitschrift für Demographie und Statistik der Juden 4 (1927): 33-39. [BACK]

223. Houston Stewart Chamberlain, Foundations of the Nineteenth Century , trans. John Lees, 2 vols. (London: John Lane, 1910), 1:388-389. [BACK]

224. Nathan Birnbaum, "Über Houston Stewart Chamberlain," in his Aus-gewählte Schriften zur jüdischen Frage , vol. 2 (Czernowitz: Verlag der Buchhandlung Dr. Birnbaum & Dr. Kohut, 1910), 201. [BACK]

225. Adam G. de Gurowski, America and Europe (New York: D. Appleton, 1857), 177. [BACK]

226. Saul K. Padover, ed. and trans., The Letters of Karl Marx (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1979), 459. [BACK]

227. W. W. Kopp, "Beobachtung an Halbjuden in Berliner Schulen," Volk und Rasse 10 (1935): 392. [BACK]

228. M. Lerche, "Beobachtung deutsch-jüdischer Rassenkreuzung an Berliner Schulen," Die medizinische Welt (17 September 1927): 1222. [BACK]

229. Wertphilosophie und Ethik: Die Frage nach den Sinn des Lebens als Grundlage einer Wertordnung (Vienna: W. Braumüller, 1939), 29. [BACK]


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