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Notes

Introduction

1. Foucault, Order of Things, xx. [BACK]

2. See Katz, Secret War in Mexico, 20. [BACK]

3. See Anderson, Imagined Communities, 14-15. [BACK]

4. See Vasconcelos, Breve historia de Mexico, 584. Vasconcelos described Alvaro Obregón as "tall, white, clear eyes and robust, resembling a criollo of Spanish heritage." See also Hernan Solis Garza, Los mexicanos del norte, (México: Editorial Nuestro, Tiempo, 1971), 51-72. For contemporary depictions, see Jesús Felix Uribe, "El desfile de los ganaderos," Unisono (Hermosillo), May 18, 1988, 2; and Nugent, Spent Cartridges of the Revolution, 15. [BACK]

5. Bernal, "Cultural Roots," 25-33; Iturriaga, La estructura, 241. [BACK]

6. See for example, Solis, Los mexicanos del norte . [BACK]

7. Willens, "Social Change," 259. Willens observed that "the society emerging out of the frontier condition may be relatively egalitarian or seigniorial, it may be composed of small holders or large estates or a mixture of both." [BACK]

8. See Voss, On the Periphery, 9, 29. [BACK]

9. See Alejandra Moreno Toscano and Enrique Florescano, El sector externo y la organización espacial y regional de México 1521-1910 (Puebla: Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, 1977), 13-14. [BACK]

10. For Texas/Chihuahua, see Martínez, Border Boomtown, 9. [BACK]

11. See Thomas D. Hall, Social Change, 209. [BACK]

12. Martínez, Border Boomtown, 22. [BACK]

13. Bustamante, "Frontera México-Estados Unidos," 20. [BACK]

14. Domingo Sarmiento, Life in the Argentine Republic in the Days of Tyrants: or, Civilization and Barbarism (in Spanish) (1845), trans. Mrs. Horace Mann (1868; reprint, New York: Hafner, 1971). [BACK]

15. See Hart, Revolutionary Mexico, 9. [BACK]

16. See Knight, U. S.-Mexican Relations . [BACK]

17. Simpson, Many Mexicos . [BACK]

18. See Ruiz, The People of Sonora; Cerutti, Burguesía y capitalismo; Saragoza, The Monterrey Elite; and Wasserman, Capitalist, Caciques, and Revolution . [BACK]

19. See Martínez, Troublesome Border, 111. [BACK]

20. This process also took place in southern states. See Wells, Yucatán's Gilded Age . [BACK]

21. Bonfil Batalla, México profundo, 75. [BACK]

22. See Jane Dale Lloyd, El proceso de modernización, 13. [BACK]

23. For example see León-Portilla, "The Norteño Variant," 77-114. See Carr, "Las peculiaridades," 327. [BACK]

24. Paasi, "Institutionalization of Regions," 120. [BACK]

25. BCUSCN, Colección Pesqueira, serie 1, tomo 4, October 13, 1830, decree which divided Sonora and Sinaloa. [BACK]

26. See Voss, On the Periphery, 107. [BACK]

27. Ibid., 33-34. [BACK]

28. "Letter from Ignacio Zúñiga to Carlos María Bustamante," December 1, 1842, 6. (Yale Latin American Pamphlet Collection). [BACK]

29. Nicoli, El estado de Sonora, 10 [BACK]

30. ABO, Ramón Corral, "El Estado," La Constitución, March 1, 1889, 1. [BACK]

31. Galindo y Villa, Geografía de México, 114. [BACK]

32. See Bassols Batalla, ed. Lucha por el espacio social . [BACK]

33. Harris, A Mexican Family Empire, 153. [BACK]

34. See Bassols Batalla, ed. Lucha por el espacio social; and Bassols Batalla, El noroeste de México . [BACK]

35. See Acuña, Sonora Strongman; and Wasserman, Capitalist, Caciques, and Revolution, 47. [BACK]

36. Harris, A Mexican Family Empire, 27. [BACK]

37. See Carr "Las peculiaridades," 327. [BACK]

38. Cerutti, Burguesía y capitalismo; Saragoza, The Monterrey Elite, 32. [BACK]

39. See Cerutti, "Monterrey y su ambito regional," 8-10. [BACK]

40. See Von Mentz, et al., Los pioneros del imperialismo, 127-30. [BACK]

41. José Velasco, Noticias estadísticas, 69. [BACK]

42. See Wasserman, Capitalist, Caciques, and Revolution, 94. [BACK]

43. Alfonso Luis Velasco Geografía y estadística, 206. [BACK]

44. See Ruiz, The People of Sonora . [BACK]

45. Alfonso Luis Velasco, Geografía y estadística, 205-6. [BACK]

46. Saragoza, The Monterrey Elite; and Cerutti, Burguesía y capitalismo . [BACK]

47. See Wasserman, Capitalist, Caciques, and Revolution, 6. [BACK]

48. Aguilar Camín, La frontera nómada, 88-89. [BACK]

49. See Monroy, Thrown among Strangers, 100, 135. Also Pitts, Decline of the Californios, 109. [BACK]

50. See Hu-DeHart, Yaqui Resistance and Survival, 8-9. [BACK]

51. Peñafiel, Estadísticas de la República Mexicana, n.p. [BACK]

52. Voss, On the Periphery, 300. [BACK]

53. See Katz, Secret War in Mexico, 7. [BACK]

54. APD, caja 3, legajo 5, no. 1122, May 11, 1880, Manuel González to José G. Carbó. [BACK]

55. APD, caja 26, legajo 10, no. 012619, January 12, 1883, Luis Torres to Lic. José Negrete. [BACK]

56. See Coerver, "Federal-State Relations," 568-69. [BACK]

57. APD, caja 4, legajo 5, no. 001762, April 16, 1880, José G. Carbó to Porfirio Díaz. [BACK]

58. APD, caja 26, legajo 10, no. 012654, May 25, 1883, Ramón Corral to José G. Carbó. Espríu, a native of Alamos, was elected an alternative delegate from Guaymas. [BACK]

59. Coerver, "Federal-State Relations," 571. [BACK]

60. APD, caja 26, legajo 10, no. 012619, January 12 1883, Luis Torres, Hermosillo, to Lic. José Negrete, Guaymas. [BACK]

61. APD, caja 26, legajo 10, no. 12793; January 24, 1885, Ramón Corral to José G. Carbó. [BACK]

62. See La Constitución, April 12, 1887, 1. [BACK]

63. Ruibal Corella, Carlos R. Ortiz, 126. [BACK]

64. APD, caja 26, legajo 10. no. 012587, August 12, 1882, General José G. Carbó, Mazatlán, to Rafael Izábal, Hermosillo. [BACK]

Chapter 1 "Dust and Foam:" Life in the Mexican Northwest

1. For the application of this idea to other environments see Giddens, "Time, Space and Regionalisation," 274. Also see Habermas, Communication, 106 [BACK]

2. Braudel, The Mediterranean, 231. [BACK]

3. See Voss, On the Periphery, 24. [BACK]

4. Vicente Calvo, Descripción política, 135. Also Voss, On the Periphery, 24-92. [BACK]

5. Herskovits, Cultural Dynamics, 202. [BACK]

6. Warren, Dust and Foam, 169. Also Stone, Notes on Sonora, 11. [BACK]

7. Ober, Travels in Mexico, 654. [BACK]

8. C. Combier, Voyage au Golfe de California, (Paris: Arthus Bertrand Editeur, 1864), 174. [BACK]

9. Bird, Land of Nayarit, 18. [BACK]

10. AHGES, carpeton 433, January 15, 1871, prefect reports, Guaymas and Hermosillo. Also see, Dispatches of United States Consuls, Guaymas, Mexico, December 4, 1861, statement of U.S. Consul Alden, and July 8, 1868, A. Willard, annual report. [BACK]

11. "Guaymas, Sonora," New York Times, December 10, 1858, 6. [BACK]

12. Combier, Voyage, 174. [BACK]

13. Ober, Travels in Mexico, 653. [BACK]

14. Alfonso Luis Velasco, Geografía y estadística, 168. [BACK]

15. John Hall, Travel and Adventure in Sonora, 33. [BACK]

16. Alfonso Luis Velasco, Geografía y estadística, 205. [BACK]

17. Gulllet, "Notas sobre Sonora," 8. [BACK]

18. John Hall, Travel and Adventure in Sonora, 87. [BACK]

19. Guillet, "Notas sobre Sonora," 9. [BACK]

20. Stone, Notes on Sonora, 8. [BACK]

21. Hardy; Travels, 96. [BACK]

22. John Hall, Travel and Adventure in Sonora, 88. [BACK]

23. AHGES, carpeton 422, December 31, 1869, quarterly report of the prefect of Hermosillo to the governor. [BACK]

24. Charles Poston, cited in Browne, Adventures in Apache Country, 245. [BACK]

25. "Sonora and Guaymas," New York Times, December 10, 1858, 6. [BACK]

26. Bird, Land of Nayarit, 14. [BACK]

27. See Warren, Dust and Foam, 165; Vicente Calvo, Descripción política, 36. Also Voss, On the Periphery xiii. [BACK]

28. Warren, Dust and Foam, 168; Bird, Land of Nayarit, 14. [BACK]

29. Warren, Dust and Foam, 169. Also Browne, Adventures in Apache Country, 133. [BACK]

30. Combier, Voyage, 237. [BACK]

31. For Guaymas, see Ober, Travels in Mexico, 654. [BACK]

32. John Hall, Travel and Adventure in Sonora, 34. Also Pinart, "Voyage en Sonora," 220. [BACK]

33. Browne, Adventures in the Apache Country, 171. [BACK]

34. Ibid. [BACK]

35. Vicente Calvo, Descripción política, 153. [BACK]

36. Ibid., 153. [BACK]

37. AHGES, carpeton 594 [Paris], 1888-1889, and carpeton 832 [Chicago], 1892-93. [BACK]

38. AHGES, carpeton 433, "Noticias estadísticas," January 15, 1871, report of the prefect of Hermosillo to the governor. [BACK]

39. Vicente Calvo, Descripción política, 157. [BACK]

40. "Industria Local," El Eco del Valle (Ures), August 9, 1894, 2. [BACK]

41. Also see Lumholtz, El México desconocido, 26; and Bartlett, Personal Narratives, 268. [BACK]

42. Vicente Calvo, Descripción política, 43; Iberri, El viejo Guaymas, 14. [BACK]

43. Warren, Dust and Foam, 166-67. [BACK]

44. Ibid., 166. For another example, see AHGES, carpeton 354, September 15, 1860, inventory of the house of Manuel Sosa in Guaymas. The inventory included both Sosa's business as well as residence. His property was confiscated in order to cover unpaid taxes. [BACK]

45. See Urrea de Figueroa, My Youth in Alamos, 16. [BACK]

46. See Acuña, Ignacio Pesqueira; and Voss, On the Periphery, 74. Also see Ruibal Corella, Carlos Ortiz, 34. [BACK]

47. Vicente Calvo, Descripción política, 158. [BACK]

48. "Late from Sonora," New York Times, April 26, 1854, 7. Also "Letter from Guaymas," New York Times, March 5, 1865, 6. [BACK]

49. León-Portilla, "The Norteño Variant," 102. [BACK]

50. See ACMH, caja 14, 1858-1870, and caja 16, 1874-1890. Church archives contained extensive records of marriages between Sonorans and foreigners. Also Vicente Calvo, Descripción política, 159; and Warren, Dust and Foam, 179. [BACK]

51. ACMH, caja 14, Marriage records, 1858-1870. [BACK]

52. "Statement of Don 'Juan' John A. Robinson," Bancroft Library, m-m 375, reel 97, (hereafter cited as Robinson, "Statement"). Also see in Nogales, private collection of Eduardo Robinson (AER), a direct descendant of "don Juan," no. 105, January 10, 1882, Juan Robinson to his daughter Francisquita Robinson (in Spanish). [BACK]

53. Dispatches of United States Consuls in Mexico, Guaymas, record group 59, microcopy 284, reel 1, November 12, 1859, Farrelly Alden to the State Department. [BACK]

54. Guillet, Notas sobre Sonora, 22. [BACK]

55. Ibid., 22. [BACK]

56. AHGES, carpeton 368, March 7, 1861, Juan Camou to Ayuntamiento de Guaymas. In letters to the town council, Camou refers to himself as a súbdito Francés ( French subject). [BACK]

57. Also see Davila, Sonora histórico y descriptivo, 113. [BACK]

58. AHMRUS, Copiadoras Camou, April 7, 1889, José Camou in Hermosillo to Juan P. Camou in Guaymas. [BACK]

59. Browne, Adventures in Apache Country, 171. [BACK]

60. See "Description of Sonora," New York Times, December 10, 1858, 6. The actual number of inhabitants may be exaggerated. Other accounts place the population at between 3,500 and 4,000. [BACK]

61. "Guaymas, Sonora," San Francisco Chronicle, December 4, 1861, 4. [BACK]

62. ACMH, caja 14, 1858-1870, and caja 16, 1874-1890. [BACK]

63. Combier, Voyage, 207. [BACK]

64. Ibid., 221. [BACK]

65. See for example Vicente Calvo, Descripción politica, 38-39, 111-59. [BACK]

66. Marie Robinson Wright, Picturesque Mexico (Philadelphia: J. B. Lippicott, 1897), 305. [BACK]

67. Vicente Calvo, Descripción politica, 155. [BACK]

68. AHGES, carpeton 832, January 26, 1892, list of materials sent to Chicago exhibit. [BACK]

69. Warren, Dust and Foam, 198. [BACK]

70. Combier, Voyage, 166. [BACK]

71. Alfonso Luis Velasco, Geografía y estadística, 184. [BACK]

72. Vicente Calvo, Descripcíon politica, 158. [BACK]

73. Officer, Hispanic Arizona, 20. [BACK]

74. Vicente Calvo, Descripción política, 122-23. [BACK]

75. Ibid., 123. [BACK]

76. See Voss, On the Periphery, 80. [BACK]

77. Officer, "El año negro," 2:89. [BACK]

78. Poston, Building a State, 74. [BACK]

79. Officer, Hispanic Arizona, 210. [BACK]

80. AHCES, tomo 25, exp. 766, February 1, 1861, Manuel Monteverde, iniciativa por derechos de mujer. [BACK]

81. Miguel León Portilia, Endangered Cultures (Dallas: Southern Methodist University, 1990), 206. [BACK]

82. José Velasco, Noticias estadísticas, 65-74. [BACK]

83. Horacio Sobarzo. Vocabulario Sonorense (Hermosillo: Gobierno del Estado, 1984), 21. [BACK]

84. Sec Foster, "Speech Forms and Perception." The analysis on interpersonal relations draws primarily from Foster and the research on the collection of letters from the Camou family in the Museo Histórico de la Universidad de Sonora, church records in Hermosillo, criminal proceedings, and newspapers of the period found in the state archives. [BACK]

85. AHMRUS. Copiadoras Camou, no. 180, January 7, 1888, José Camou to Juan Ochoa. [BACK]

86. AHGES, carpeton 457, October 7, 1877, Prefect of Alamos to the governor. [BACK]

87. AHGES, carpetons 812-17, 1892-1899. Also see La Constitución, April 15, 1880, 3, report of the Superior Court. Defendants were listed by name and apodo. [BACK]

88. Foster, "Speech Forms and Perception," 119. [BACK]

89. For example, see ACMH, caja 7, 1892, marriage of Javiela Alvarez and Juan (John) Ames, and caja 14, 1905, Marriage of Artemisa Rodriguez and Robert Keith. Also AHGES, carpeton 1049, November 6, 1881, Neupomuseno Quijada to the governor. [BACK]

90. See ABO, "Teatro de aficionados" in Ures performed "Un novio para la niña," La Voz de Sonora, January 25, 1856, 3. Also see "Teatro de aficionados en Ures," La Estrella de Occidente, February 12, 1875, 4. [BACK]

91. ABO, Boletín Oficial, March 29, 1878. Also see AHGES, carpeton 433, March 31, 1871, quarterly report of the prefect of Guaymas. The prefect reported the opening of a theater operated by José Parra y Alvarez. [BACK]

92. ABO, "Opera Iraliana," La Estrella de Occidente, June 13, 1873, 3. [BACK]

93. AHGES, carpeton 448, January 6, 1873, G. Corrella, prefect of Guaymas. [BACK]

94. AHGES, carpeton 354, December 4, 1860, prefect of Guaymas to Governor Pesqueira. [BACK]

95. See Consul Louis Hostetter, Annual Report of Commercial Relations, North America, 2:169. [BACK]

96. Lange and Riley, The Southwestern Journal, 223. Bandelier reported on the popular use of the accordion. [BACK]

97. AHGES, carpeton 433, January 15, 1871, district prefect of Hermosillo to the governor, "Noticias estadísticas." [BACK]

98. Vicente Calvo, Descripción política, 42. Dances among the elite, according to Calvo, included the Spanish contradanzas, vals, minuet, and cuadrillas . Popular dances among the masses, or muchedumbre, as they were called, included the fandango, guaco, jaranda, and the cigueña . [BACK]

99. See Reyna, "Notes on Tejano Music," 81-94. [BACK]

100. Audubon, Western Jounal, 140. [BACK]

101. AHGES, carpeton 433, January 15, 1871, district prefect of Hermosillo to the governor, "Noticias estadísticas." [BACK]

102. Vicente Calvo. Descripción política, 177. [BACK]

103. John Hall, Travel and Adventure in Sonora, 79. [BACK]

104. Ibid., 79. [BACK]

105. ABO, Boletín Oficial, May 11, 1877, 2. [BACK]

106. See Beene, "Sonora," 10. [BACK]

107. Vicente Calvo, Descripción politica, 167. Also see Bishop, Old Mexico, 330. Bishop observed similar practices among the predominantly Sonoran population of San Francisco. [BACK]

108. AHMRUS, Colección Camou, no. 301, March 6, 1889, Juan Camou in Hermosillo to his brother José Camou in Guaymas. [BACK]

109. Vicente Calvo, Descripción politica, 168. [BACK]

110. AHMRUS, Colección Camou, no. 126, December 17, 1888. [BACK]

111. AHMRUS, December 17, 1888, José Camou to Ernesto y Eugenio Camou. [BACK]

112. ABO, La Estrella de Occidente, December 1865, several issues; and La Constitución, October 23, 1879. Also John Hall, Travel and Adventure in Sonora, 42-43. [BACK]

113. Stone, Notes on Sonora, 13. Also Zamora, La Cohetera, mi barrio . [BACK]

114. "Correspondencía de Magdalena," Las Dos Republicas (Tucson), August 31, 1878, 1. [BACK]

115. John Hall, Travel and Adventure in Sonora, 41. [BACK]

116. AHGES, carpeton 1039, April 26, 1892, Junta Patriotica de Guaymas. [BACK]

117. AHGES, carpeton 454, August 9, 1873, Junta Patriotica. Also see La Constitución, September 19, 1884. [BACK]

118. 16 de Septiembre," Las Dos Republicas, September 23, 1877, 2. [BACK]

119. Don Nestor Fierros, interview by author, Hermosillo, Sonora, June 6, 1990. For most of his life, Don Nestor worked as a cowboy; in later years, he became an amateur historian. [BACK]

120. AHGES, tomo 2471, exp. 3, February 10 1909, report on the number of Plazas de Toros in Sonora. [BACK]

121. "Toros el Domingo," Revista Popular (Alamos), April 6, 1903, 3. Also La Razón Social (Guaymas), November 22, 1897; "Gacetilla, Toros," El Imparcial (Guaymas), February 19, 1908; "Toros," El Doctor Ox, August 23, 1894. [BACK]

122. See Vicente Calvo, Descripción política, 123. Also Ulluoa, El Estado de Sonora, 32. [BACK]

123. Vicente Calvo, Descripción política, 123. [BACK]

124. ABO, "Fiestas en el pueblo de Caborca," La Estrella de Occidente, January 13, 1870. Also AHGES, carpeton 469, August 15, 1876, plan de Propios y Arbitros del Ayuntamiento de Altar. In Altar people also engaged in a game of pelota (ball): however, no descriptions exist as to the nature of the game. Also see Pfefferkorn, Description of Sonora, 185. Pfefferkorn was a German missionary who lived in Sonora from 1767 to 1778. He describes how he was beaten in a race by a man on foot even though he was on horseback. [BACK]

125. ABO, "Fiestas en el pueblo de Caborca," La Estrella de Occidente, January 13, 1870, 6. [BACK]

Chapter 2 Merchants, Miners, and Labor in the Northwest

1. See Hogan, "The Frontier as Social Control," 35-52. [BACK]

2. See Voss, On the Periphery, 80. Also Ingersoll, In and under Mexico, 87. [BACK]

3. This pattern holds true for other northern states. See for example Iturriaga, La estructura, 244. The five northern border states of Sonora, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, and Tamaulipas had only 682 Catholic churches. By contrast, the central state of Puebla had 1,899. [BACK]

4. See Lázaro de la Garza y Ballesteros, Pastoral de Lázaro de la Garza y Ballesteros, Obispo de Sonora as sus diocesanos (México: Impreso ,Juan Ojeda, 1837), 4. [BACK]

5. See Corbala Acuña, Sonora y sus constituciones, 86. [BACK]

6. Ibid., 128. [BACK]

7. See John Hall, Travel and Adventures in Sonora, 256-57. [BACK]

8. AHGES, carpeton 365, February 5, 1861, Pedro Tato, prefect of Guaymas. Also carpeton 422, June 6, 1870, Francisco Serna, interim prefect of Hermosillo, to the governor. [BACK]

9. AHGES, carpeton 365, January 8, 1816 and January 30, 1861, Judges Manuel Cordova and Agustin Muñoz. [BACK]

10. AHGES, carpeton 397, March 6, 1867, report of prefect and military commander of Hermosillo. [BACK]

11. AHGES, carpeton 397, April 26, 1867, district of Hermosillo. [BACK]

12. AHGES, carpeton 448, November 21, 1873, and May 1, 1875. [BACK]

13. Dispatches from United States Consuls in Mexico, Guaymas, Sonora, record group 59, microcopy 284, reel 1, September 1854, Juan Robinson, annual report. [BACK]

14. See Mora, ''Entrepreneurs in Sonora," 181. [BACK]

15. See Estrella de Occidente, March 29, 1872, 3. General Francisco Serna headed the committee. [BACK]

16. AHGES, carpeton 397, April, 26, 1867, Junta Cotadizadora del Asunto del Rio. In total, the committee collected over 7,000 pesos for the river project. Wealthy merchants such as Celedonio Ortiz gave 500 pesos; Francisco Noriega and the Camou brothers donated 250 each. To avoid public criticism and maintain their standing, a host of individuals including public officials, small retailers, foreigners, and widows also donated. [BACK]

17. AHCES, caja 44, June 15, 1875, contract between ayuntamiento of Guaymas and Guillermo Randall, Juan Luken and Iberri and Huerta for the establishment of public lighting in Guaymas. [BACK]

18. AHGES, carpeton 458, July 10, 1874, contract between ayuntamiento de Hermosillo and Eduardo Rodríguez. [BACK]

19. AHGES, carpeton 865, June 23, 1887, contrato de iguala between state government and Napoleon Graff. [BACK]

20. AHGES, carpeton 865, June 8, 1888, contrato de iguala between state government and Vicente A. Almada. [BACK]

21. The Camou family made it a practice to rent their buildings to the local authorities. In Hermosillo the local jail from 1860 to the 1870s was leased from the Camous. [BACK]

22. José Velasco, Noticias estadísticas, 19. [BACK]

23. AHMRUS, Periódicos El Voto de Sonora, February 1, 1842. The local press reported on the arrival and departures of ships and their cargoes. [BACK]

24. ABO, La Estrella de Occidente, various issues, 1860-1870; also

AHGES, carpeton 293, December 16, 1856, report of the port captain of Guaymas, Tomas Spence; Stone, Notes on Sonora, 8. Also Browne, Adventures in Apache Country, 245. Also see Iberri, El viejo Guaymas, 11-14 [BACK]

25. Warren, Dust and Foam, 171. Also Audubon, Western Journal, 121 While visiting the mining town of Jesús María in Chihuahua, Audubon observed that everything "used here is brought from . . . Sonora which is ten days travel." [BACK]

26. See Warren, Dust and Foam, 176-77. [BACK]

27. Annual Report of Commercial Relations (September 1870), 297. Consul Willard describes one incident in which a German ship, unable to strike a bargain at Guaymas, docked at Mazatlán and then reappeared at Guaymas with its goods already "naturalized." [BACK]

28. See Warren, Dust and Foam, 177. [BACK]

29. Combier, Voyage, 176. [BACK]

30. Ibid., 179. [BACK]

31. See Warren. Dust and Foam, 177. [BACK]

32. Vicente Calvo, Descripción política, 41. [BACK]

33. Iberri, El viejo Guaymas, 13-14. [BACK]

34. Ibid., 15. It was never know what the last box contained; on occasion it was filled with luxury items, while at others, simply bricks or cement for ballast. [BACK]

35. Combier, Voyage, 217. [BACK]

36. Ibid., 218. [BACK]

37. Annual Report of Commercial Relations (1871), 297. [BACK]

38. Dispatches from United States Consuls in Mexico, Guaymas, record group 59, microcopy 284, September 3o, 1872, report, consular office of Guaymas. [BACK]

39. Ibid. [BACK]

40. See Combier, Voyage, 261. Also see Scheina, "Unexplored Opportunities," 400. [BACK]

41. Reid, Reid's Tramp, 245. Also see Browne, Adventures in Apache Country, 245. [BACK]

42. Stone, Notes on Sonora, 8. [BACK]

43. AHGES, carpeton 365, January 31, 1861, order prohibiting individual travel. Also carpeton 354, December 24, 1860, prefect of Guaymas to the governor. The prefect reports that he had dispatched a platoon of soldiers to patrol the road from Guaymas to La Cieneguita and that the prefect of Hermosillo would organize a platoon to patrol from La Cieneguita to Hermosillo. [BACK]

44. AHGES, carpeton 365, April 5, 1861, list of merchants that had donated funds to keep the road open. [BACK]

45. Stone, Notes on Sonora, 8. [BACK]

46. Galaz, Dejaron huella, 325. Annual Report of Commercial Relations (1868), 646. The bulk of the mint's silver production was either coined or turned into paste. [BACK]

47. Annual Report of the Commercial Relations (1868), 646. [BACK]

48. Vicente Calvo, Descripción politica, 52. [BACK]

49. AHGES, carpeton 433, 1870-1871, reports of district prefect of Her-

mosillo and Guaymas to the governor of the state. Also carpeton 448, April 30, 1873, prefect of Arizpe to the governor. [BACK]

50. Warren, Dust and Foam, 172. [BACK]

51. Ibid., 176. [BACK]

52. See Mora, "Los comerciantes," 215. [BACK]

53. AHGES, carpeton 865, January 4 and 24, 1888, governor to G. Möller, Guaymas. [BACK]

54. AHGES, carpeton 466, March 8, 1875, Guaymas Ayuntamiento, Juan Robinson, president. [BACK]

55. Combier, Voyage, 216 [BACK]

56. AHMRUS, Cartas Camou, May 6, 1891, Escobosa and Sons to Miguel Carreaga Bilbao, Spain. [BACK]

57. AER, Copiadoras Mascareñas (April/July 1886), April 4, 1886, Manuel Mascareñas to Don Antonio Hoyas. [BACK]

58. AER, Copiadoras Mascareñas (April/July 1886), December 26, 1886, Pascual Camou, Hermosillo, to Manuel Mascareñas. Unable to visit the area, Camou asked Mascareñas to inspect the ranches and determine the actual value of the land. [BACK]

59. See J. M. Luttrell, "A Trip in Sonora," Arizona Quarterly Illustrated (January 1881) 3:23. [BACK]

60. AHMRUS, Cartas Camou, April 2 1897, Juan P. M. Camou, Hermosillo, to Juan P. Camou in Guaymas. [BACK]

61. AHGES, carpeton 467, March 8, 1875, Juan Robinson, Jr., Guaymas Ayuntamiento to the governor. [BACK]

62. AHGES, carpeton 647, September 5, 1892, Guaymas economic census. [BACK]

63. Vicente Calvo, Descripción política, 64. Also see Pfefferkorn, Descriprion of Sonora, 43-44. Pfefferkorn supports Calvo's contention, adding that it was necessary to "procure from Spain practically all necessities" in Sonora. [BACK]

64. AHGES, carpeton 448, January 6, 1873, report of Guaymas prefect. [BACK]

65. AHGES, carpeton 11, August 8, 1874, petition from merchants in Guaymas to Governor Pesqueira. Pesqueira denied the petition, arguing that Sonoran lumber products would cost three time more than foreign lumber. [BACK]

66. AHGES, carpeton 448, January 6, 1873, report prefect of Guaymas. The tile used to decorate the central plaza of Guaymas, for example, had been imported from Italy. [BACK]

67. Cummings, Cincinnati & Sonora Mining Association, 45. Also Hamilton, Border States, 24, 25. And Lange and Riley The Southwestern Journal 2:229. [BACK]

68. Alfonso Luis Velasco, Geografía y estadística, 166. [BACK]

69. BCUSCN, Colección Pesqueira, tomo 2 El Sonorense, February 27, 1852, 1. Also see El Sonorense, December 7, 1855, 1. [BACK]

70. See for example BCUSCN, Decreto del Gobernador Manuel María Gándara, LA Voz de de Sonora, December 7, 1855. [BACK]

71. See BCUSCN, El Sonorense, February 27, 1852, 1. [BACK]

72. See Gracida Romo, El Problema de la harina, 6-10. [BACK]

73. Pavía, Los Estados, 322. [BACK]

74. See Tutino, From Insurrection to Revolution, 7. [BACK]

75. Combier, Voyage, xv, ,66. [BACK]

76. Alfonso Luis Velasco, Geografía y estadística, 69. [BACK]

77. John Hall, Travel and Adventure in Sonora, 51. [BACK]

78. Alfonso Luis Velasco, Geografía y estadística, 91-199. And Pérez Hernández, Geografía de Sonora, 74-116. [BACK]

79. John Hall, Travel and Adventure in Sonora, 62. [BACK]

80. Ibid., 65. [BACK]

81. See AHGES, carpeton 454, July 30, 1858, Charles Stones to the governor. Stone represented a commercial house in Mexico City which had contracted with the federal government to measure the terrenos baldios in the state. [BACK]

82. Most opposition centered on the efforts of Captain Charles Stone. Regarding elsewhere in Latin America, see Fifer, United States Perceptions, 6. The United States was on an extensive mapping enterprise throughout Latin America. [BACK]

83. John Hall, Travel and Adventure in Sonora, 61. [BACK]

84. See AHGES, carpeton 422, August 3, 1870, prefect of Guaymas to the governor. [BACK]

85. See Camou Healy, Cocina Sonorense, 59. [BACK]

86. See Bassols Batalla, El noroeste de Mexico, 125. [BACK]

87. González Navarro, "El trabajo forzoso en México," 588. [BACK]

88. See Knight, "Mexican peonage," 45. [BACK]

89. See John Hall, Travel and Adventure in Sonora, 269. [BACK]

90. Cornbier, Voyage, 213. Also see John Hall, Travel and Adventure in Sonora, 52. [BACK]

91. John Hall, Travel and Adventure in Sonora, 52. [BACK]

92. Vicente Calvo, Descripción política, 69. [BACK]

93. AER, Coleccción Manuel Mascareñas, no. 245, July 3, 1897, Mascareñas to Luis Torres. [BACK]

94. González Navarro, "El trabajo forzoso en México," 590-91. As early as 1835, peons in Coahuila escaped to the north. [BACK]

95. Ibid. [BACK]

96. BCUSCN, Colección Pesqueira, tomo 4, 1830, "Ley de Sirvientes que establece relación entre amo y sirviente," 218-34. [BACK]

97. John Hall, Travel and Adventure in Sonora, 270. [BACK]

98. AHMRUS, Cartas Camou, no. 180, January 7, 1888, José Camou to Juan Ochoa. [BACK]

99. Galaz, Dejaron huella, 289. According to notarial records, on February 13, 1849, amos Antonio Uruchurtu and Juan Camou entered into contracts with servants Pedro Silva, Rafael Villa, Luis Ramírez, and others to mine for gold in California. The servants were to be paid a salary of ten pesos for twenty-four days of work a month. [BACK]

100. González Navarro, "El trabajo forzoso en México," 591. The following year the governor managed to overturn the legislatures decree. [BACK]

101. AHGES, carpeton 448, July 10, 1873, Mineral de los Llanos, prefect, to secretario de estado. [BACK]

102. AHMRUS, Cartas de la Familia Camou. The Camous utilized servant labor to maintain their ranches. See, for example, January 7, 1888, José Camou to Juan Ochoa (sirviente). [BACK]

103. AHGES, carpeton 365, March 25, 1861, M. Escalante, prefect, to Governor Pesqueira. [BACK]

104. Ibid. [BACK]

105. See Manuel González Ramírez, "Fuentes para la historia de la Revolución mexicana, patronto de la historia de Sonora, 1900-1950," (Hermosillo, 1950, manuscript), 4:977. List of Yaqui women and children distributed among elites of Hermosillo in 1902. [BACK]

106. AHGES, carpeton 355, 1860, Ures, Manuela Celedonia to Francisco Salcido. [BACK]

107. AHGES, carpeton 365, March 25, 1861, M. Escalante, prefect, to Governor Pesqueira. [BACK]

108. Ibid. [BACK]

109. González Navarro, "EI trabajo forzoso en México," 591-601. [BACK]

110. See AER, Copiadora, February 1905, no. 162, records of Rancho Santa Barbara, "Noticia de Indios Yaquis que tengo en Buena Vista." Mascareñas, who produced cattle for export to the United States, kept precise records of each peon and what they owed. [BACK]

Chapter 3 "The Repose of the Dead:" Conflict and Power on the Frontier

1. Lorenzo García, Apuntes sobre la campaña contra los salvajes en el estado de Sonora, (Hermosillo: Imprenta de Roberto Bernal, 1883 ), 6. [BACK]

2. Hogan, "The Frontier as Social Control," 35-52. [BACK]

3. González Ramírez, "Fuentes para la historia," 2: 400-409. [BACK]

4. Warren, Dust and Foam, 202. Also William Perkin, William Perkin's Journal of Life at Sonora, 1848-1852, ed. James Scobie (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1964), 312. [BACK]

5. M. Theirs, speech in the French Chamber, cited in John Hall, Travel and Adventures in Sonora, 145. [BACK]

6. Silvio Zavala, "The Frontiers of Hispanic America," in The Frontier in Perspective, ed. Walker D. Wyman and Clifton B. Kroeber (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1957), 48. [BACK]

7. Ernesto de Vigneaux, Viaje a México (Guadalajara: Banco Industrial de Jalisco, 1950), 11. [BACK]

8. León-Portilla, "The Norteño Variant," 103. [BACK]

9. Aguilar Camín, "The Relevant Tradition," 107. [BACK]

10. See AHGES, carpeton 293, January 19, 1856, governor of Sonora to president of the Junta de Fomento of Guaymas. [BACK]

11. de Vigneaux, Viaje a México, 11. [BACK]

12. . García, Apuntes sobre la campaña, 6. [BACK]

13. See Hu-DeHart, Yaqui Resistance and Survival, 94. The Yaquis were repeatedly accused of seeking to maintain "a nation within the state." [BACK]

14. José Velasco, Noticias estadsticas, 96. Velasco feared that if ever the

Apaches in the north and the Yaqui in the south formed an alliance, Mexican Sonora would be lost. [BACK]

15. Hu-Dehart, Yaqui, Resistance and Survival, xii. Hu-Dehart places the number of Yaquis at approximately 11,501. See also Stone, Notes on Sonora, 18. Stone places their numbers at between 10,000 and 12,000. [BACK]

16. AHGES, carpeton 365, March 25, 1861, prefect of Hermosillo, M. Escalante, to Governor Ignacio Pesqueira. [BACK]

17. AHGES, tomo 2193, exp. 4, 1907, list of persons in Guaymas who had taken captured Yaqui children as servants. [BACK]

18. Sergio Ortega Noriega, "La Mision de la Pimeria Alta," in Historia general de Sonora, de la conquista al estado libre y soberano de Sonora, ed. Ignacio del Río y Sergio Ortega Noriega (Hermosillo: Gobierno del Estado, 1985), 124. Also Corral, Obras históricas, 257. [BACK]

19. Spicer, Cycles of Conquest, 115-16. [BACK]

20. Corral, Obras históricas, 259. [BACK]

21. BCUSCN, tomo 3, 1850, May 18, 1852, Cayetano Navarro, prefect of Salvación, to acting governor, Fernando Cubillas. [BACK]

22. Manuel González Ramírez, "Patronato de la historia de Sonora 1900-1950," vol. 2, Cayetano Navarro, April 25, 1850, 556-57. [BACK]

23. BCUSCN, Colección Pesqueira, tomo 3, May 18, 1852, Cayetano Navarro to acting governor Fernando Cubillas. [BACK]

24. BCUSCN, Colección Pesqueira, tomo 3, May 25, 1852, Fernando Cubillas to General Miguel Blanco. [BACK]

25. González Ramírez, "Patronato de la historia de Sonora," 2: 559. Contract between José de Aguilar, acting governor, and Pablo Rubio and Jesús Moreno for Tiburón. The two speculators took possession of the island but eventually lost the contract. [BACK]

26. Corral, Obras históricas, 212. [BACK]

27. See Lejeune, La guerra Apache, 21. Also see AHGES, carpeton 449, June 23, 1873, prefect of Moctezuma, J. Aragón, to secretary of state. [BACK]

28. BCUSCN, Colección Pesqueira, Serie 3, 1851-1856, La Voz de Sonora, tomo I, no. 10, November 30, 1855. The secretaría de gobierno reports the state's population at 124,979 inhabitants. Of that figure, only 33,118 resided in the four northern districts. Statistics by district were as follows: Altar, 5,311 San Ignacío (later known as Magdalena), 6,987 (this figure still included settlements such as Tucson which no longer belonged to México); Arizpe, 8,488; and Moctezuma, 12,332. Velasco argued that the state's population did not exceed 100,000 between 1845 and 1850 (José Velasco, Noticias estadísticas ). Also see Forbes, Apache, Navajo, and Spaniard, 207-8. [BACK]

29. Stone, Notes on Sonora, 21-23. [BACK]

30. José Velasco, Noticias estadísticas, 96. [BACK]

31. Annual Report of the Commercial Relations ( 1871 ), 904. Consul Alexander Willard, Guaymas, Sonora. Willard reported that the state's population had decreased from 150,000 during the 1830s to 108,211 in 1869. [BACK]

32. Ibid. A large percentage of births, especially in rural areas, were never recorded. This may account for the large discrepancy between deaths and births. Nonetheless the figure serves to underscore the calamitous situation confronted by the state as a result of the wars with Apaches and Yaquis. [BACK]

33. AHGES, carpeton 344, February 16, 1859, residents of Altar to the governor. The letter argued that Apache raids made it impossible to engage in commercial relations with other parts of the state. [BACK]

34. AHMRUS, Periódicos, La Voz del Pueblo (Ures), December 1, 1852, 2. [BACK]

35. See Valencia Ortega, "La formación," 6-9. [BACK]

36. Cummings, Cincinnati and Sonora Mining Association, 8. [BACK]

37. Ibid., 4. [BACK]

38. González Ramírez, "Patronato de la historia de Sonora," 2: 467; El Sohorense (Ures), February 7, 1850, tomo 3, no. 7, governor to inhabitants. [BACK]

39. See Treutlein, Missionary in Sonora . [BACK]

40. "Nacionales de Cumpas," Estrella de Occidente, March 19 1869. Payment for scalps. Also Estrella de Occidente, December 31, 1869. During 1869 the government earmarked 12,000 pesos for Apache scalps. [BACK]

41. AHMRUS, Colección Periódicos, El Sonorense (Ures), June 14, 1850, 3. [BACK]

42. AHGES, carpeton 422, September 28, 1870, prefect of Hermosillo to municipal authorities. Also see Annual Report of the Commercial Relations (1871), 299. [BACK]

43. John Hall, Sonora, 148. [BACK]

44. Lejeune, La guerra Apache, 21. [BACK]

45. Corral Obras históricas, 85. Corral described one battle in 1871 between Tohono O'odhams and Apaches which left over one hundred dead. [BACK]

46. Zuñiga, Rapida ojeada, 113. [BACK]

47. Corral Obras históricas, 107. Also Wyllys, The French in Sonora, 50. [BACK]

48. García, Apuntes sobre la campaña, 10. [BACK]

49. Mowry, Arizona and Sonora, 35. [BACK]

50. See Reminiscences of John B. Frisbee, 1823-1909, Bancroft Library, m-m 351, HG 79-80. Frisbee was a young army officer during the Mexican-American war. [BACK]

51. Stone, Notes on Sonora, 23. [BACK]

52. González Ramírez, "Patronato de la historia de Sonora," 2: 483. [BACK]

53. AHGES, carpeton 422, January 26, 1870, report of Wenceslao Martínez to governor. Martínez informed the governor that Apaches had been seen in the vicinity of San José de Guaymas, 5 miles southeast of Guaymas. [BACK]

54. See Zamora, La Cohetera, mi barrio, 47. [BACK]

55. Warren, Dust and Foam, 170 [BACK]

56. AHGES, carpeton 433, March 14, 1871, prefect of Hermosillo to governor. [BACK]

57. González Ramírez, "Patronato de la historia de Sonora," 3: 644. [BACK]

58. Ibid., 2: 401, 649-50, December 20, 1842, testimony of Ignacio Peraza and Ignacio Gálvez before the prefect of Hermosillo. [BACK]

59. See El Sonorense (Ures), October 13, 1848, Gándara to Ministro de Guerra y Marina. [BACK]

60. Eduardo W. Villa, Historia del Estado de Sonora (Hermosillo: Gobierno del Estado, 1984), 242. [BACK]

61. González Ramírez, "Patronato de la historia de Sonora," 2: 403-6. [BACK]

62. Ibid., 2: 658. Also see Beene, "Sonora," 20. [BACK]

63. González Ramírez, "Patronato de la historia de Sonora," 1: 38. [BACK]

64. See, for example, AHGES, carpeton 424, September 6, 1845, ranch of José Terminel. Terminel cast forty-five votes, in the name of all Indian employees. [BACK]

65. AHGES, carpeton 449, January 20, 1873. See "Petition of the Residents of Sahuaripa concerning Constitutional Reforms number 36, to Governor and State Assembly." (Reform no. 36 dealt with the Yaqui and Mayo right to vote.) Also see ABO, "Reformas Constitucionales," La Estrella de Occidente, November 29, 1872, 3. [BACK]

66. ABO, "Reformas Constitucionales," La Estrella de Occidente, November 29, 1872, 3. [BACK]

67. Manuel Corbala Acuña, Sonora y sus constitucioñes (Hermosillo: Editorial libros de México, 1972), 114. Copy of the 1861 Constitución and the applicable reforms incorporated in 1872-1873. [BACK]

68. Corral, Obras históricas, 81. [BACK]

69. AHGES, carpeton 422, May 28 and May 30, 1870, prefect Guaymas to interim prefect, Francisco Serna. Attack on Guaymas by Fortino Vizcaíno. [BACK]

70. See "Juan Sin Miedo," Mazatlán, June 20, 1870, in Dispatches from the United States Consuls, Guaymas, September 30, 1870, Alexander Willard. [BACK]

71. See Hobsbawm, Bandits, 24. [BACK]

72. Slatta, Bandidos, 3. [BACK]

73. Corral, Obras históricas, "Biografía de José María Leyva Cajeme." [BACK]

74. For a similar experience, see Paul Vanderwood, "Nineteenth-Century Mexico's Profiteering Bandits," in Slatta, Bandidos, 11. [BACK]

75. Cornbier, Voyage, 219. [BACK]

76. AHGES, carpeton 449, January 25, 1873, prefect of Hermosillo to governor. [BACK]

77. AHGES, carpeton 458, June 1, 1874, pena de muerte segun ley de saltadores y plagarios de 1873, P. Ramírez and Santiago Campbell. [BACK]

78. AHGES, carpeton, July 23, 1860, list of articles stolen from the Mina San Pedro. [BACK]

79. AHGES, carpeton 433, May 13, 1871, Guaymas District, G. Corella. [BACK]

80. AHGES, carpeton 433, August 18, 1871, captain of artillery to municipal president of San Marcial. [BACK]

81. AHGES, carpeton 448, December 4, 1873, District of Altar prefect, F. Redondo, to governor. [BACK]

82. AHGES, carpeton 433, August 14, 1871, Prefect G. Corella to governor. [BACK]

83. AHGES, carpeton 324, December 19, 1858, prefect of Arizpe to commander of Fronteras. [BACK]

84. APD, Sección Carbó, legajo 10, caja 27, no. 13050, May 21, 1885, report from the San Diego newspaper The Sun . [BACK]

85. AHGES, carpeton 365, April 19, 1861, Ventura Angulo to prefect of Guaymas. Angulo demanded 250 pesos as compensation for his crops. [BACK]

86. "Lamentable Escandalo," La Constitución, November 25, 1880, 3. [BACK]

87. AHGES, carpeton 422, May 17, 1870, prefect of Hermosillo to governor. [BACK]

88. AHGES, carpeton 433, March 6, 1871, petition from residents of Magdalena to governor concerning theft of cattle and horses in their border district. The petitioners claimed that the brands of their cattle were being changed and sold in Arizona. [BACK]

89. AHGES, carpeton 471, July 1, 1879, prefect of district of Altar to governor. A special delegation was commissioned to find a solution to the problem. [BACK]

90. AHGES, carpeton 596, Municipio de Arizpe to governor regarding the constant theft of cattle. [BACK]

91. AHGES, tomo 2376, exp. 7, October 31, 1908, Manuel Mascareñas to Governor Luis Torres. [BACK]

92. AHGES, carpeton 433, March 6, 1871, suplica de los ciudadanos de Magdalena. [BACK]

93. AHGES, tomo 2376, exp. 7, October 23, 1908, Prefect M. Martínez to secretary of state. [BACK]

94. AHGES, tomo 2376, exp. 8, May 29, 1908, Dionisio González to governor. [BACK]

95. AHGES, carpeton 462, February 5, 1875, prefect of Alamos to citizens, regarding registration for the Guardia Nacional. For a view of the Guardia elsewhere in Mexico; see Thomson, "Bulwarks of Patriotic Liberalism," 22:1, 31-68. [BACK]

96. González Ramírez, "Patronato de la historia de Sonora," 400-401, September 7, 1835, decree number 85, Manuel Escalante y Arvizu y Joaquin V. Elías. [BACK]

97. AHCES, carpeton 25, exp. 760, Julian Escalante, January 21, 1861, instructions for inscription in Guardia. [BACK]

98. Annual Report of Commercial Relations (1869), September 30 1868. Consul Alexander Willard reported the military change. [BACK]

99. AHGES, carpeton 424, February 15, 1870, Rosario Campo, jefe of the Guardia Nacional, to conscripts. The draftees also complained about being trained by army officers who expected them to act as professional soldiers. [BACK]

100. AHGES, carpeton 365, March 1, 1861, and carpeton 366, July 1, 1861, list of exonerated individuals. [BACK]

101. AHGES, carpeton 457, September 26, 1877, prefect of Hermosillo to governor. Also see carpeton 990, July 11, 1885, report of municipal authorities of Los Bronces. [BACK]

102. AHGES, carpeton 457, July 13, 1877, pres. municipal de San Marcial to prefect of Guaymas. Ayuntamiento de San Marcial needs arms to quell public disorder and drunks. [BACK]

103. AHGES, carpeton 324, November 13, 1858, Santiago García, prefect of Arizpe, to military commander of Fronteras. And see AHGES, carpeton 433, January 15, 1871, statistical reports, Hermosillo. [BACK]

104. AHGES, carpeton 397, January 21, 1867, report of prefect of Guaymas, Remigio Riviera, to governor. Weapons in the state were obtained from both private merchants and government sources. Private merchants imported arms to Sonora at first from Europe and later from the United States. For ex

ample, the American ship Continental arrived at Guaymas January 21, 1867, with a cargo of 500 Enfield rifles, 500 Springfield rifles, 126 Mr. Storm carbines, 21 sables, 50 Colt revolvers, 25 Remington revolvers, and an assortment of munition belts, 60 barrels of powder, and 11,000 bullets for rifles and 7,500 for pistols. [BACK]

105. BCUSCN, Colección Pesqueira, Segunda Serie, tomo 4, 1852-1892, Capitan Guillet, Notas sobre Sonora, 1864-1866 (University of Sonora, 1866, manuscript), 15. [BACK]

106. AHGES, carpeton 324, May 25, 1858, prefect of Arizpe, Santiago García, to governor. [BACK]

107. AHGES, carpeton 433, August 14, 1871, report of Prefect Guaymas. [BACK]

108. AHGES, carpeton 457, Hermosillo, January 8, 1877, Francisco Espino, Jefe militar, Proclamation to citizens. [BACK]

109. AHGES, carpeton 448, December 31, 1872, district prefect of Arizpe to governor. [BACK]

110. AHGES, carpeton 422, October 31, 1870, prefect of Magdalena to governor. Also see carpeton 433, June 30, 1871, prefect of Magdalena, quarterly report. [BACK]

111. AHGES, carpeton 457, October 10, 1877, visit of prefect to Altar. [BACK]

112. AHGES, carpeton 433, February 6, 1871, Prefect P. Ramírez to governor. The towns of San Ignacío, Imuris, and Magdalena requested exemption from the service. [BACK]

113. AHGES, carpeton 449, November 11, 1873, rancher Jesús Provencio to the local district prefect of Moctezuma. [BACK]

114. AHGES, carpeton 324, December 19, 1858, prefect of Arizpe to commander of military presidio at Fronteras. The prefect lectured the commander about the problems that the draft and his actions caused to local farmers. [BACK]

115. AHGES, carpeton 354, October 22, 1860, petition from the town of Baviacora, Arizpe, to Governor Pesqueira. The residents insisted that they were unable to pay the sum the governor had imposed on the town. The petition was signed by over fifty residents. [BACK]

116. AHGES, carpeton 354, October 14, 1860, petition of the towns people of Baviacora to governor of Sonora. [BACK]

117. Ibid. [BACK]

118. See for example AHGES, carpeton 467, February 6, 1875, commercial census of Arizpe. Also carpeton 354, July 1, 1860, "loan" requested of Guaymas merchants by government to fight the Yaqui. Also carpeton 365, February 24, 1861, residents of Guaymas to governor. The Guaymenses opposed the imposition of any new taxes. [BACK]

119. AHGES, carpeton 324, December 16, 1858, and January 8, 1859, prefect of Arizpe to commander of presidio at Fronteras. [BACK]

120. AHGES, carpeton 458, March 9, 1874, municipal president of Santa Cruz to prefect of district of Magdalena. [BACK]

121. Ibid. [BACK]

122. AHGES, carpeton 324, January 8, 1859, prefect of Arizpe to commander of Fronteras, reported noticing increases in deserters over previous years. Also carpeton 448, April 30, 1873, quarterly report of prefect of Arizpe

to governor. The situation of Arizpe mirrors that occurring in other northern districts. [BACK]

123. ABO, La Estrella de Occidente, December 24, 1869, 3. [BACK]

124. AHGES, carpeton 398, December 30, 1869, prefect of Magdalena to municipal presidents of the district. [BACK]

125. AHGES, carpeton 448, July 2, 1873, correspondence received by governor from American consul in Guaymas, Alexander Willard, regarding case of Frank J. Boisville. [BACK]

126. APD, Sección Carbó, legajo 10, caja 27, no. 12127, June 24, 1885, Pedro Hinojosa to Carbó. [BACK]

127. AHGES, carpeton 448, July 22, 1873, Prefect Lucas Llain to secretary of state. After the rape, the men brutally beat the woman. [BACK]

128. AHGES, carpeton 448, July 17, 1873, Lucas Llain to secretary of state. [BACK]

129. AHGES, carpeton 422, April 30, 1870, prefect of Hermosillo to governor. Francisco Gutiérrez murdered Anastasio Vega after the race. None of the participants attempted to apprehend Gutiérrez because they were disarmed. [BACK]

130. AHGES, ''Problemas con armas," La Gaceta de Cananea, August 7, 1910. [BACK]

131. AHGES, carpeton 471, decree to citizens, law passed March 23, 1872, prohibiting weapons in town. Also AHGES, carpeton 468, July 17, 1875, laws governing the use of arms. [BACK]

132. AHGES, carpeton 471, May 15, 1876, José María Rangel, Colonel 15 Batallon de Linea y Comandante Militar del Distrito, Guaymas. [BACK]

133. AHGES, carpeton 812, 813, and 814, Ramo Justicia, 1892-1893-1894. Contains several cases of "attempted escapes." Also AHGES, carpeton 831, January 23, 1893, January 26, 1893, Ramo Justicia, municipal president of Arizpe, to prefect. [BACK]

134. León-Portilla, "The Norteño Variant," 105. [BACK]

135. See, for example, Rafael Izábal staged invasion of Tiburon, "En la isla de Tiburon," Mundo Ilustrado, México, February 19, 1905, 21:8. [BACK]

Chapter 4 Sonora and Arizona: A Legacy of Distrust

1. Mañach, Frontier in the Americas, 4-8. [BACK]

2. Navarro García, Sonora y Sinaloa, 67. [BACK]

3. Hugh Murray, "Mexico" in The Encyclopedia of Geography (Philadelphia: George W. Gorton, 1841) 5:331. Also see Pattie, Personal Narrative, 249. And Hardy, Travels, 96. [BACK]

4. Combier, Voyage, 225. [BACK]

5. McWilliams, North From Mexico, 53. [BACK]

6. Dunbier, The Sonoran Desert, 105. [BACK]

7. See Dakin, A Scotch Paisano, 36-37. [BACK]

8. John Hall, Travels and Adventures in Sonora, 50. [BACK]

9. See Southworth, El Estado de Sonora, 19. See also McWilliams, North from Mexico, 137-38. [BACK]

10. See Officer, Hispanic Arizona, 270. [BACK]

11. See Camarillo, Chicanos in a Changing Society, 60. [BACK]

12. Bartlett, Personal Narrative, 290. [BACK]

13. See José Velasco, Noticias estadísticas, 243. [BACK]

14. Also see Beene, "Sonora," 71. [BACK]

15. AHGES, Exp. 110.1/879, Memoria de Ignacio Pesqueira al Congreso del Estado, 1870, 2-3. [BACK]

16. José Velasco, Noticias estadísticas, 97-108. [BACK]

17. Two other routes originated at Magdalena. The first turned east toward Cocospera and the old presidio at Santa Cruz. The other proceeded north towards Imuriz and San Ignacio across Los Nogales in the direction of the presidios at Tubac and Tucson. [BACK]

18. See Brunckow, Report to Stockholders, 5. [BACK]

19. Walker, "Freighting from Guaymas," 293. [BACK]

20. Poston, Building a State, 73. Poston's publication originally appeared in the Overland Monthly in 1894.

21. See ibid. Also see Pumpelly, Across America and Asia, 7. [BACK]

20. Poston, Building a State, 73. Poston's publication originally appeared in the Overland Monthly in 1894.

21. See ibid. Also see Pumpelly, Across America and Asia, 7. [BACK]

22. See Jay J. Wagoneer, Early Arizona, 389. [BACK]

23. Poston, Building a State, 71. [BACK]

24. John Hall, Travel and Adventure in Sonora, 133, 150. [BACK]

25. Poston, Building a State, 72-74. [BACK]

26. Alphonse Pinart Collection, Bancroft Library, Univ. of California, Berkeley, HG 175-77, mm-381, documents relating to Northern Mexico, Series 3, 1842-1861 (hereafter Pinart Collection, BL), June 20, 1857, prefect and military commissioner of the district of Santa Cruz, (later Magdalena) to governor. [BACK]

27. John Hall, Travel and Adventure in Sonora, 38. [BACK]

28. AHGES, carpeton 347, May 17, 1859, Alphonse Coindreau to governor. [BACK]

29. AHGES, carpeton 354, June 1, 1860. Governor Pesqueira named Captain Antonio Aguilar to inspect the newly established port of La Libertad. Also see Uribe García, "El desarrollo de las comunicaciones," 156. [BACK]

30. BCUSCN, Colección Pesqueira, Segunda Serie, tomo 4, 1857-1892, Capitan Guillet, "Notas sobre Sonora," 21. [BACK]

31. Wagoneer, Early Arizona, 409. [BACK]

32. PAHS, Customs Records, National Archives, record group 56, January 1859, Calabazas inspector, Jack Donalson, to Sam Jones, collector of customs, Las Cruces, New Mexico. [BACK]

33. North, Samuel Peter Heintzelman, 145. Cerro Colorado, December 13, 1858. [BACK]

34. August 15, 1857, Charles Poston to Mowry, in Mowry, Memoir of the Proposed Territory, 22. [BACK]

35. John Hall, Travel and Adventure in Sonora, 140. [BACK]

36. See Annual Report of the Commercial Relations (1870), Mexico, Guaymas, 296, October 1, 1870, Consul Alexander Willard. The consul estimated that less than one-third of the exported silver ever passed through customs. The regular duty on exports was 8 percent. [BACK]

37. PAHS, Customs Records, National Archives, record group 56, no. 231, July 25, 1859, Calabazas inspector, Jack Donalson, to Sam Jones, collector of customs, Las Cruces, New Mexico. [BACK]

38. AHGES, carpeton 291, November 10, 1856, report from the district prefect of San Ignacio to the governor of the state. [BACK]

39. See North, Samuel Peter Heintzelman, 145. [BACK]

40. AHGES, carpeton 291, November 10, 1856, prefect of San Ignacio to governor. [BACK]

41. See North, Samuel Peter Hientzelman, 25. [BACK]

42. "Carpenter wanted," "Laborers wanted," The Weekly Arizonian (Tucson), August 11, 1859, 4. [BACK]

43. See North, Samuel Peter Heintzelman, 112. Cerro Colorado, October 28, 1858. [BACK]

44. Ibid., 101. Cerro Colorado, October 10, 1858. [BACK]

45. See John Hall, Travel and Adventure in Sonora, 270. [BACK]

46. Poston, Building a State, 73. [BACK]

47. Parks, "The History of Mexican Labor," vi. See Pumpelly, Across America and Asia, 26. [BACK]

48. John Hall, Travel and Adventure in Sonora, 151, 186. [BACK]

49. "Ran Away," Weekly Arizonian, June 16, 1859, 3. [BACK]

50. John Hall, Travel and Adventure in Sonora, 186. [BACK]

51. "A Great Outrage," The Arizonian, May 19, 1859, 2. [BACK]

52. Ibid. [BACK]

53. John Hall, Travel and Adventure in Sonora, 191. [BACK]

54. "The Sonoita Valley Massacre," The Arizonian, May 19, 1859, 2. Also see Sheridan, Los Tucsonenses, 36. [BACK]

55. "A Great Outrage," The Arizonian, May 19, 1859, 2. [BACK]

56. Ibid. [BACK]

57. See North, Samuel Peter Heintzelman, 110. Cerro Colorada, October 25, 1858. [BACK]

58. August 15, 1857, Charles D. Poston to Mowry, in Mowry, Memoir of the Proposed Territory, 21. [BACK]

59. Browne, Adventures in Apache Country, (New York: Arno Press, 1971), 133-34. [BACK]

60. See Sonnichsen, Tucson, 45. [BACK]

61. See North, Samuel Peter Heintzelman, 66. Tucson, August 28, 1858. [BACK]

62. For Texas, see De León, They Called Them Greasers, 9. [BACK]

63. Wagoneer, Early Arizona, 388. [BACK]

64. John Hall, Travel and Adventure in Sonora, 150-51. [BACK]

65. See Mowry, Memoir of the Proposed Territory, 26. [BACK]

66. Sheridan, Los Tucsonenses, 36. [BACK]

67. Raphael Pumpelly cited in Parks, "The History of Mexican Labor," 39. [BACK]

68. Ibid., 95. [BACK]

69. October 1, 1857, J. A. Douglas to Mowry, in Mowry, Memoir of the Proposed, 21. [BACK]

70. Ibid., 20. [BACK]

71. See "Territorial Prison in Yuma," New York Times, March 1, 1896, 5. [BACK]

72. See Exposición de la Hacienda, 282. The Mexican foreign affairs office compiled a partial list of Mexicans who had been lynched or killed by Americans. Also see John G. Bourke, "A Lynching in Tucson," New Mexico Historical Review 19 (4) (July 1944): 233-42. [BACK]

73. Wagoneer, Early Arizona, 394. [BACK]

74. "Mexican Horse Thief Killed," Weekly Arizona, March 3, 1859. [BACK]

75. John Hall, Travel and Adventure in Sonora, 150-51. [BACK]

76. Mowry, Memoir of the Proposed Territory, 19. [BACK]

77. "Sopori Ranch," Weekly Arizonan, March 3, 1859, 2. [BACK]

78. ABO, La Estrella de Occidente, April 19, 1872, 4. [BACK]

79. ABO, La Estrella de Occidente, January 26, 1872, 4. [BACK]

80. Charles Poston to Sylvester Mowry in Mowry, Memoir of the Proposed Territory, 22. [BACK]

81. Pumpelly, Across America and Asia, 6. [BACK]

82. John Hall, Travel and Adventure in Sonora, 198. [BACK]

83. Thompson, "Time," 91-92. [BACK]

84. See North, Samuel Peter Heintzelman, 92. Tubac, September 28, 1858. [BACK]

85. BCUSCN, Colección Pesqueira, La Voz de Sonora, December 14, 1855. Over one hundred residents of Guaymas signed a petition swearing that never again would they allow Sonora to lose territory (Browne, Adventures in Apache Country, 164). Browne visited Sonora on the eve of the French intervention, and reported that Sonorans still looked at Americans with "a lurking suspicion . . . notwithstanding our peaceful profession." [BACK]

86. Wagoneer, Early Arizona, 390. [BACK]

87. John Hall, Travel and Adventure in Sonora, 181. [BACK]

88. Browne, Adventures in Apache Country, 134. [BACK]

89. AHGES, carpeton 384, gaveta 16-1, May 2, 1862, United States Colonel James Carleton, California Volunteers, to governor of Sonora. [BACK]

90. ABO. See "Asesinatos y desordenes en Arizona," La Estrella de Occidente, March 15, 1872, 1-2. [BACK]

91. See Roberts, "Francisco Gándara," 227. [BACK]

92. See Uribe García. "El desarrollo de las comunicaciones," 157-58. Also see BCUSCN, tomo 3, Colección Pesqueira, La Voz de Sonora, December 7, 1855, advertisement for stagecoach service between Hermosillo and Guaymas; and ABO, La Estrella de Occidente, February 5, 1869, advertisement for service between Hermosillo and Tucson. [BACK]

93. AHGES, carpeton 365, April 15, 1861, Alfonso Coindreau to Governor. [BACK]

94. Hamilton, Border States, 35. [BACK]

95. See Browne, Adventures in Apache Country, 173. [BACK]

96. "Letter from United States Consul Farrelly Alden and W. G. Moody," San Francisco Chronicle, December 4, 1861. [BACK]

97. Dispatches of United States Consuls in Mexico, Guaymas, Mexico, record group 59, microcopy 284, reel 1, December 4, 1861, Farrelly Alden to Department of State. Also see Annual Report of Commercial Relations (1864), 719, Consul Farrelly Alden Guaymas. Americans miners by 1863 had invested

more than one million dollars in over eighteen mining projects throughout the state. [BACK]

98. AHGES, carpeton "País de México," Representación que el vecindario de la capital del Estado de Sonora dirige al supremo gobierno de la nación por conducto del gobierno del estado (Ures: Imprenta del Gobierno del Estado, 1856), 13. [BACK]

99. BCUSCN, Colección Pesqueira, tomo 3, 1851-1856, La Voz de Sonora, tomo 1, no. 13, December 21, 1855, "Excepción de Sonora y demas estados fronterizos," 2. [BACK]

100. Mañach, Frontier in the Americas, 4-8. [BACK]

101. John Hall, Travel and Adventure in Sonora, 133. [BACK]

Chapter 5 Sonora and Arizona: "A New Border Empire"

1. "Yuma Territorial Prison," New, York Times, March 1, 1896, 5. [BACK]

2. As examples, see V. A. Malte-Brun, La Sonora et ses Mines . Also Cummings, Cincinnati and Sonora Mining Association; Moody, Mines in Mexico; Stone, Notes on Sonora; Mowry, Arizona and Sonora . Also "Letter from Consul Farrelly Alden," San Francisco Chronicle, December 4, 1861. Similar articles appeared in the New York Times -see "Description of Sonora," January 1, 1865. [BACK]

3. AHS, Biographical file: Ada E. Jones, ms. 389, 2, folder 9. Jones's father was Robert Ekey. Also see ms. 652. Arthur Peck arrived in southern Arizona in 1872 from Nevada, where he worked as a miner. [BACK]

4. AHS, Tucson, Biographical file: Rena Matthews, ms. 125, January 21, 1903. [BACK]

5. See Hamilton, Border States of Mexico, 193. [BACK]

6. ABO, "Necesidad de un Cónsul Mexicano en Tucson," La Estrella de Occidente, July 23, 1873, 3. [BACK]

7. "Unworked Mining Lands," New York Times, December 12, 1878. Also "Farms in the Great West," New York Times, June 4, 1880. [BACK]

8. "Mexican consul in Tucson," Arizona Citizen, December 18, 1875, 2. [BACK]

9. See "Inmigración," El Fronterizo, Tucson, October 13, 1878, 2. [BACK]

10. See Exposición de la Secretaría de Hacienda, 282. What the Mexican publication did not say was that Mexican elites in Tucson supported the action. [BACK]

11. AGN, Gobernación, 881 (11)7, July 14, 1881, Mexican consul at Tucson to Luis Torres. [BACK]

12. AGN, Gobernación, 881(11)7, August 4, 1881, report of District of Altar, Luis Torres to Gobernación. [BACK]

13. AHGES, carpeton 531, July 11, 1884, prefect of Magdalena. [BACK]

14. AHGES, carpeton 823, September 7, 1878, Manuel Escalante, Tucson, Mexican consul, to Secretaría de Relaciones Exteriores. [BACK]

15. "De la discusión nace la luz," Las Dos Republicas, July 22, 1877, 4. The term Latino appeared in the original Spanish. [BACK]

16. "Citizenship and the Ballot," Arizona Daily Star, January 29, 1879, 2. [BACK]

17. ABO, La Estrella de Occidente, November 20, 1874, 4. [BACK]

18. See Arizona Daily Star, February 17, 1879, 1. [BACK]

19. "Tucson," San Francisco Chronicle, July 19, 1891, 4:2. [BACK]

20. ABO, "Sonora y los americanos," La Constitución, March 24, 1881, 2-3. [BACK]

21. See El Fronterizo, Tucson, October 24, 1880, 2. [BACK]

22. Ibid. [BACK]

23. Archivo del General Porfirio Díaz, , tomo 30 (1961): 140-41, December 18, 1879, Francisco Prieto to Porfirio Díaz. [BACK]

24. AGN, Gobernación, 881(10)5, June 1, 1881, Luis E. Torres to Gobernación. [BACK]

25. AGN, Gobernación, 881(10)5, June 1, 1881, Luis E. Torres to Gobernación. [BACK]

26. The term Sonorenses americanizados was coined by La Estrella de Occidente, November 20, 1874, 4. [BACK]

27. AHS, Newspapers, El Fronterizo (Tucson), December 28, 1879, 2, prefect of Altar L. M. Redondo to Carlos I. Velasco. [BACK]

28. "General Serna," Arizona Daily Citizen, October 30, 1875, 2. [BACK]

29. AGN, Gobernación, 2a-879-(5)-(2)-(51), June 4, 1879, acting governor, Francisco Serna, to Secretaría de Estado, despacho de Gobernación. [BACK]

30. El Fronterizo, October 13, 1878, 2. [BACK]

31. See Arizona Daily Citizen, March 18, 1876, 3. Visit to Mariscal by Carrillo. Also Arizona Daily Citizen, June to, 1876, 3. Tucson city council discussed upcoming visit to town by General Mariscal. [BACK]

32. The founding of the Alianza Hispano-Americana on January 14, 1894, was proudly reported in the Sonoran press. Ads appeared regularly in the local press encouraging Sonorans headed north to join. See, for example, El Estado de Sonora, April 13, 1897, 3. For a study of the Mexican community in Tucson, see Sheridan, Los Tucsonenses . [BACK]

33. Combier, Voyage, 210. [BACK]

34. AHGES, carpeton 365, May 29, 1861, prefect of Guaymas, to governor. [BACK]

35. AHGES, carpeton 354, June 21, 1860, prefect of Guaymas to governor; AHGES, carpeton 397, March 6, 1867, prefect of Guaymas to governor. In 1867 Federico Fiedemann, a merchant, disavowed his German past and requested Mexican citizenship. [BACK]

36. AHGES, carpeton 422, June 10, 1870, Wenceslao Martínez to governor. [BACK]

37. Archivo del General Porfirio Díaz, tomo 26 (1958): 39, July 29, 1877, C. E. Treviño to Díaz. [BACK]

38. AHGES, carpeton 605, several requests, April 15 to December 14, 1889, Díaz to governor of Sonora. [BACK]

39. AHGES, carpeton 12, September 10, 1877, governor of Sonora. [BACK]

40. See Gibson, The Kickapoos . [BACK]

41. AHGES, carpeton 11, February 10, 1873, report of district prefect of Ures. [BACK]

42. See Spicer, Cycles of Conquest, 138-39. [BACK]

43. AHGES, carpeton 1047, January 31, 1889, William Struges to Ramón Corral. [BACK]

44. AHGES, carpeton 1047, April 8, 1887, Ortiz to administrator of Aduana Sasabe. Ortiz had to pay one thousand pesos as bond until the matter was resolved. [BACK]

45. AHGES, carpeton 344, February 16, 1859, petition of residents of Altar to governor. [BACK]

46. Ibid. [BACK]

47. ABO, "Report of the district prefect of Altar," La Estrella de Occidente, November 19, 1869, 3. [BACK]

48. Ibid. Also see AHGES, carpeton 449, June 9, 1873, report of prefect of Magdalena. [BACK]

49. See Arizona Daily Citizen, March 18, 1876, 3. L. M. Jacobs and Company Agents for the Celebrated Terrenate Flour Mills of Joseph Pierson, Manufacturers of flour Imuris, Sonora, Mexico. [BACK]

50. AHMRUS, Periódicos, "Una ojeada a nuestra Frontera del Norte," La Reconstrucción (Hermosillo), June 5, 1877Also see Lange and Riley, The South-western Journal, 2: 283. [BACK]

51. Dispatches of United States Consuls in Mexico, Guaymas, record group 59, microcopy 284, roll 2, September 30, 1875, Alexander Willard, annual report. [BACK]

52. AHGES, carpeton 422, October 31, 1870, quarterly report of the prefect of Magdalena. [BACK]

53. ABO, La Estrella de Occidente, November 19, 1869, 3, prefect of Altar to governor. [BACK]

54. ABO, La Estrella de Occidente, May 21, 1869, 2, prefect of Magdalena, quarterly reports. See AHGES, carpeton 365, March 11, 1861, prefect of Guaymas quarterly report to governor. [BACK]

55. SCUA, Manuel Mascareñas Papers, ms. 14, El Municipio, órgano del ayuntamiento de Guaymas, April 2o, 1878, 1-3. [BACK]

56. Ibid. [BACK]

57. Ibid. [BACK]

58. See Archivo del General Porfirio Díaz, tomo 30 (1961): 168. [BACK]

59. See Archivo del General Porfirio Díaz, tomo 29 (1960): 118. June 10, 1878, Ignacio M. Escudero, in charge of hacienda, to Porfirio Díaz. [BACK]

60. AER, Colección Camou, November 22, 1891, Juan P. Camou, Hermosillo, to J. P.M. Camou, Guaymas. [BACK]

61. AER, Colección Camou, March 31, 1892, Juan P.M. Camou, Hermosillo, to Juan P. Camou, Guaymas. [BACK]

62. AER, Colección Camou, September 20, 1895, Stockton Milling Company, San Francisco to P. Camou, Guaymas. [BACK]

63. Dispatches of the United States Consul in Mexico, Guaymas, record group 59, microcopy 284, roll 2, September 30, 1877, Alexander Willard. Willard reports that the voyage up the Colorado took approximately twenty days. [BACK]

64. AHGES, carpeton 464, August 5, 1875, list of passengers on board the Montana. The Montana returned on September 29, 1875, with twelve more American soldiers. [BACK]

65. Walker, "Freighting from Guaymas to Tucson," 293. [BACK]

66. Dispatches of the United States Consul in Mexico, Guaymas, record group 59, microcopy 284, roll 2, September 30, 1877, Alexander Willard. [BACK]

67. Walker, "Freighting from Guaymas," 294. [BACK]

68. Ibid., 300. [BACK]

69. See Annual Report of the Commercial Relations (1872), Mexico, Guaymas, 687. September 30, 1872, Consul A. F. Garrison, report. American interests had repeatedly lobbied for this privilege. [BACK]

70. AHGES, carpeton 422, June 29, 1870, prefect of Guaymas to governor. [BACK]

71. AHGES, carpeton 448, February 21, 1873, prefect of Guaymas to governor. [BACK]

72. Annual Report of Commercial Relations, Mexico, Guaymas (1879), 1:432, Consul A. Willard. [BACK]

73. See Exposición de la Secretaría de Hacienda, 35. [BACK]

74. Archivo del General Profirio D í az, tomo 20 (1955): 222. Guaymas, March 31, 1877, Quirino García to Porfino Díaz. [BACK]

75. AGN, Gobernación, 2a-871-(2)4, "Apuntes sobre un viaje al Colorado," December 21, 1870, Alfredo V. Sandoval. [BACK]

76. Ibid. [BACK]

77. AGN, Gobernación, 2a-871(2)-(4)-[51], April 15, 1871. [BACK]

78. Myrick Railroads of Arizona, , 1:20. [BACK]

79. AGN, Gobernación, 881(10)6, April 26, 1877, B. Zelma to Secretaría de Hacienda. [BACK]

80. AHGES, carpeton 11 August 14, 1874, W. Iberri to Secretaría de Fomento. Iberri complained that despite many promises federal agents had yet to arrive. [BACK]

81. See Exposición de la Secretaría de Hacienda, 34-35. [BACK]

82. Ibid., 296. In Mazatlán, local officials detained the U.S. ship Montana for transporting 349 bundles not listed on its manifest. [BACK]

83. AGN, Gobernación, 880(10)6, August 6, 1880, Luis Torres to Secretario de Gobernación. [BACK]

84. See Exposición de la Secretaría de Hacienda, 35. [BACK]

85. Dispatches of United States Consuls in Mexico, Guaymas, record group 59, microcopy 284, roll 2, September 30, 1877. Also see APD, legajo 5, caja 3, no. 1191, July 27, 1880, General Manuel González to Díaz. González reported that contraband in Sonora had become scandalous. [BACK]

86. Annual Report of Commercial Relations, 430. Report year 1879. [BACK]

87. See, El Torito (Guaymas), July 26, 1878, 2. [BACK]

88. Archivo del General Porfirio Díaz, tomo 27 (1958): 207. August 7, 1877, Eugenio Duran to Díaz. [BACK]

89. Dispatches of United States Consuls in Mexico, Guaymas, record group 59, microcopy 284, roll 2, September 30, 1875 and September 30, 1877, A. Willard. [BACK]

90. See J. M. Luttrell, "A trip in Sonora," Arizona Quarterly Illustrated, January 1881 24. [BACK]

91. Archivo del General Porfirio Díaz, tomo 26 (1957): 10. May 15, 1877, Patrick) Avalos to Díaz. [BACK]

92. Ibid., 10. [BACK]

93. Archivo del General Porfirio Díaz, tomo 29 (1960): 118-19. June 10, 1878, Ignacio Escudero, customshouse director, Tepic, to Porfirio Díaz. [BACK]

94. Ibid., 10. [BACK]

95. Annual Report of Commercial Relations, 430. Report year 1879. [BACK]

96. See El Torito, Guaymas, July 26, 1878. The newspaper represented Guaymas interests and attacked Serna, who they claimed engaged in contraband. [BACK]

97. AHGES, Justicia, carpeton 823, April 15, 1879, Martin Palacios, customs agent, Guaymas, to governor. Also see La Constitución, July 17, 1879. [BACK]

98. Pinart, "Voyage en Sonora," October 26, 1878, Bulletin de la Société de Géographie, (September 1880), serie 6, no. 20 July-Dec. 1880, (Paris: Librairie Ch. Delagrave, 1880), 219. [BACK]

99. "Decreto que establece pena de prision," La Constitución, July 1879, 1. Repeat offenders had jail terms doubled and tripled. [BACK]

100. ABO, La Constitución, September 23, 1880, 3-4. [BACK]

101. Archivo del General Porfirio Díaz, tomo 23 (1957): 12. May 15, 1879, Patricio Avalos to Porfirio Díaz. [BACK]

102. ABO, "Contrabando," La Constitución, December 23, 1880, 4. [BACK]

103. ABO, La Constitución, several issues: January 27, 1881; March 24, 1881; March 31, 1881, August 1, 1881. [BACK]

104. Annual Report of Commercial Relations Nations (1879), Mexico, Guaymas, 1: 430. [BACK]

105. Ibid., 431. [BACK]

106. ABO, "Contrabando," La Constitución, March 13, 1880, 4. [BACK]

107. ABO, La Constitución, August 8, 1881, 4. [BACK]

108. See Annual Report of Commercial Relations (1876), Mexico, Guaymas, 756. October 1, 1876, Consul A. E Garrison, report. [BACK]

109. See "Smuggling into Sonora," Arizona Quarterly Illustrated, October 1880, 7. [BACK]

110. See Annual Report of Commercial Relations (1885), North America, 664. [BACK]

111. Dispatches of United States Consuls, Mexico, Guaymas, record group 59, microcopy 284, roll 2, September 30, 1875, Alexander Willard to state department, annual report. [BACK]

112. Ibid. [BACK]

113. AHMRUS, La Reconstrucción (Hermosillo), June 5, 1877. Also ABO, "El Contrabando," Boletín Oficial, May 17, 1878. [BACK]

114. AHMRUS, Periódicos, La Era Nueva, January 13, 1878, and July 23, 1878. [BACK]

115. Ibid., La Era Nueva (Hermosillo), July 23, 1878. [BACK]

116. Dispatches of United States Consuls in Mexico, Guaymas, record group 59, microcopy 284, roll 2, September 30, 1878, A. Willard. [BACK]

117. Schwatka, Cave and Cliff Dwellers, 92. [BACK]

118. Annual Report of Commercial Relations (1871), 297. Report year 1870. [BACK]

119. See Exposición de la Secretaría de Hacienda, 13. [BACK]

120. AHGES, carpeton 433, January 21, 1869, report Junta Revisora de Guaymas. [BACK]

121. AHGES, carpeton 467, December 14, I874, Censo Económico de Guaymas. [BACK]

122. AHGES, carpeton 464, August 5, 1875, list of passengers on board the Montana . List included Fermin Camou and several other Guaymas merchants. [BACK]

123. See AER, business records of Rafael Escobosa and Juan P. Camou. 1880 through 1900. [BACK]

124. AER, Colección Camou, folio 216, December 31, 1898, invoice from Wenceslao Loaiza and Cornpany San Francisco California to J.P. Camou. [BACK]

125. W. Iberri, G. A. Iberri, G. A. Iberri, Agentes Comerciales, and Miguel Latz agentes, El Comercio, June 18, 1897, 2. Also see AER, Colección Camou, April 6, 1894, Miguel Latz to J. P. Camou. Also El Imparcial October 27, 1906, Antonio E González, representative of Armour Packing Company, Kansas City; Mo.; and El Imparcial , February 19, 1908. Antonio González and A. Albeldi represented the Armour Packing Company and the Swift Meat Company. [BACK]

126. AHGES, carpeton 422, March 18, 1870, Wenceslao Martínez, Guaymas prefect, to governor. [BACK]

127. AHGES, carpeton 424, July 11, 1870, petition of Guillermo Andrade and Nicolas Gaxiola submitted to governor by prefect of Guaymas, W. Loaiza. [BACK]

128. See Caballero, Almanaque Histórico, 189-90. Also see Artes y Letras, Mexico, October 11, 1908. [BACK]

129. AER, Colección Camou, several, April 11 and 16, 1891, Puerto de Santa Rosalia, Le Directur General Boleo to J. E Camou. [BACK]

130. See AER, Colección Camou, August 25, 1891, M. Borquez, Globe, Arizona, to J.P. Camou, Guaymas. Also November 10, 1891, C. A. Wilson, Wilcox, Arizona, to J.P. Camou. In most cases a younger Camou, usually the son, serviced the American clients. [BACK]

Chapter 6 "To Be or Not to Be:" The Coming of the Iron Horse

1. ABO, "Quien vencera siempre es el progreso," La Constitución, June 4, 1881, 4. "To be or no to be" appeared in English. [BACK]

2. See "México, España y Estados Unidos," La Reserva (Hermosillo), February 3, 1892, 1. [BACK]

3. ABO, "La prensa en Sonora," La Constitución, August 15, 1881, 3. [BACK]

4. See La Estrella del Occidente, March 29, 1872, 1. [BACK]

5. Exposición de la Secretaría de Hacienda, 117. [BACK]

6. AGN, SCOP, Ferrocarril, no. 6/771, 1865. Also AHCES, tomo 25 exp. 760, March 4, 1861, contract between Angel Trías and state government. [BACK]

7. Pletcher, "American Capital," 59-69. [BACK]

8. AGN, SCOP, Ferrocarril, no. 6/771 1865, contract for rail line by General Angel Trías. Also see Almada, Diccionario de historia, 240. [BACK]

9. See Suplemento to Estrella de Occidente, December 13, 1872, 5. [BACK]

10. Ibid. Willard continued lobbying on behalf of the Sonoran state government. In 1876 Willard was once again promoting a railroad in California and on the U.S. East Coast. See Estrella de Occidente, August 1, 1876, 3. The publication described Willard as Sonora's most active promoter in the United States. [BACK]

11. AHGES, Carpeton 10 June 1, 1872, contract for railroad between Guaymas and Arizona, James Eldredge to governor. [BACK]

12. ABO, Editorial ''Sonora demanda el derecho," La Estrella de Occidente, May 31, 1872, 3. [BACK]

13. AGN, SCOP, no. 6/97-1 June 1875, contract with David Boyle Blair. [BACK]

14. AGN, SCOP, no. 6/99-1 1876, Guillermo Andrade y Compañía, México, project to build railroad between Guaymas and San Francisco, passing through Yuma, Arizona. Andrade had ties to Wells Fargo. [BACK]

15. Sebastían Lerdo de Tejada, cited in Pletcher, "Railroads in Sonora," 15. [BACK]

16. See Alexander Willard, Consul of the United States, in Annual Report of Commercial Relations (1880), 434. Report year 1879. [BACK]

17. See reprint of speech by Bias Balcarcel, Estrella de Occidente, February 27, 1875. [BACK]

18. ABO, La Estrella de Occidente, April 12, 1872, 3-4. [BACK]

19. ABO, "Profecía del diputado Lemus," La Estrella de Occidente, December 10, 1869, 4. [BACK]

20. ABO, La Estrella de Occidente, March 29, 1872. [BACK]

21. ABO, La Estrella de Occidente, May 31, 1872, 3; and April 12, 1872, 3-4. [BACK]

22. AHS, Newspaper collection, "Suplemento," El Fronterizo, February 29, 1880. [BACK]

23. See the Arizona Daily Citizen, June 6, 1877, 3. Report on trip by Quiroga and A. Almada. [BACK]

24. AHS, "La Sonora," El Fronterizo, February 8, 1880. The rebuttal was written by F. T. Davila, who later authored Sonora histórico y descriptivo . [BACK]

25. AHS, El Fronterizo, February 15, 1880, 1 [BACK]

26. AHS, El Fronterizo, March 14, 1880, 1. [BACK]

27. Pletcher, "American Capital," 66. [BACK]

28. Ibid., 64. [BACK]

29. Pradeau Collection, Arizona State University, series 4, box 3, folder 4. [BACK]

30. Exposición de la Secretaría de Hacienda, 57. Also, AGN, SCOP, no. 6/82-1 [October 12, 1877] and 6/90-1, revised October 21, 1881, contract between Mexican government and David Ferguson, Sebastian Camacho, and Robert R. Symons. These men were principals in the actual construction of the Sonoran railroad, which was completed October 25, 1882, at a cost of $5,032,128 and extended 422 kilometers from Guaymas to Nogales, Arizona. [BACK]

31. ABO, "Quien vencera siempre es el progreso," La Constitución , June 4, 1881, 4. [BACK]

32. ABO, "El ferrocarril de Sonora y el peligro de anexión," La Estrella de Occidente, December 13, 1872, special issue, 5. [BACK]

33. Annual Report of Commercial Relations (1877), 757. Report Year 1876. The consul noted a general decline of population both foreign and native. [BACK]

34. ABO, "Gacetilla, E1 Ferrocarril," La Constitución, April 29, 1880, 3-4. [BACK]

35. AGN, SCOP, 6/41-1 March 10, 1882, Sebastian Camacho to SCOP. First annual report of Sonoran Railroad. [BACK]

36. SAMC, reel 44, "Exitación en Guaymas," October 27 1880, José M. Fernández. [BACK]

37. Pletcher, "American Capital," 68. Also see, Iberri, El viejo Guaymas, 8. One such person, named Chale, worked as guard for the railroad. He eventually married a local Mexican woman. On Sunday he would dress as a charro and parade on horseback down the streets of Guaymas. [BACK]

38. Annual Report of Commercial Relations (1881 ), 59, A. Willard. Report year July 1880. [BACK]

39. AGN, SCOP, 6/70-1, February 1, 1883, report of Leopoldo Zamora to SCOP. The number of Americans included the two hundred blacks brought by the railroad [BACK]

40. Ibid. [BACK]

41. AGN, SCOP, 6/70-1, February 13, 1883, report of Mexican government engineer Leopoldo Zamora to SCOP. Also AGN, SCOP, 6/60-4 October 23, 1883, Sebastian Camacho to SCOP. "Clasificación local de Fletes, Tarifas, Sonoran Railway Company." All railroad circulars for merchandize and passengers rates appeared in Spanish and English. [BACK]

42. Ibid. [BACK]

43. "Far Reaching Designs of Boston Capitalist," New York Times, February 27, 1880. [BACK]

44. Ibid. [BACK]

45. "Prueba del ferrocarril," La Constitución, November 18, 1880, I. [BACK]

46. SAMC, reel 44, October 27 1880; "Exitación en Guaymas," José M. Fernández. [BACK]

47. El Monitor del Comercio, cited in the New York Times, September 24, 1880, 4. [BACK]

48. Ibid. [BACK]

49. La Constitución, February 17, 1881, 3. [BACK]

50. SAMC, reel 44, December 14, 1880, governor to Secretaría de Fomento. [BACK]

51. La Constitución, February 17, 1881, 3. [BACK]

52. SAMC, reel 44, telegram from D. B. Robinson to Carlos Ortiz, October 1, 1881. [BACK]

53. SAMC, reel 44, July 13, 1882, letter to Secretaría de Fomento. [BACK]

54. SAMC, reel 6, May 18, 1881, José Maytorena to secretary of state. [BACK]

55. See New York Times, September 24, 1880, 4. Also Thomas Philip Terry, Terry's Guide to Mexico (New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1933), 92. [BACK]

56. New York Times, September 24, 1880, 4. [BACK]

57. SAMC, reel 44, "Exitación en Guaymas," October 27, 1880, José M. Fernández. [BACK]

58. Annual Report of Commercial Relations (1884), 230. Report year ending December 1883. [BACK]

59. AHS, papers of Rena Matthews, ms. 125, folder 5, description of Empalme, 1920. [BACK]

60. Also see AHS, papers of Rena Matthews ms. 125, folder 6, 1920. [BACK]

61. Cy Warman, cited in Pletcher, "American Capital," 68. [BACK]

62. SAMC, reel 6, December 28, 1880, Luis Torres to Juan Torres and Capitan Liborio Miranda Policia de Campo del Ferrocarril. [BACK]

63. ABO, La Constitución, November 2, 1881, 2. [BACK]

64. AHGES, carpeton 1049, November 6, 1881, Nepomuseno Quijada to governor. [BACK]

65. ABO, "Gacetilla, El Ferrocarril," La Constitución, April 29, 1880, 3-4. [BACK]

66. La Constitución, September, 30, 1880, 2. [BACK]

67. Annual Report of Commercial Relations (1884), 230. Report year ending December 1883. [BACK]

68. ABO, "Edicto, Juzgado del Distrito de Sonora," La Constitución, September 9, 1880, 4. [BACK]

69. "Denuncias," La Constitución, July 21, 1880, 3. Andres Camou placed land under Victoria, Esperanza, and Carlos Camou. In addition, Francisco, José J., Luis T., and Juan P. M. Camou acquired land. [BACK]

70. La Constitución, January 29, 1881, 4. [BACK]

71. "Nacori Chico," La Constitución, June 1, 1881, 4. [BACK]

72. SAMC, reel 44, August 13, 1881, Joaquin Monroy, prefect of Magdalena to governor. [BACK]

73. AGN, SCOP, Ferrocarril, no. 6/73-1, October 25, 1885. [BACK]

74. Annual Report of Commercial Relations (1891 ), 151. Report year 1890. [BACK]

75. Díaz Duffo, cited in Pletcher, "American Capital," 54. [BACK]

76. Annual Report of Commercial Relations (1885), 56. Report year 1884. [BACK]

77. Annual Report of Commercial Relations (1886), 663. Report Year 1885. And Dispatches from United States Consuls in Mexico (1887), vol. 23, microcopy 274, July-September 1887. Report year 1886. [BACK]

78. Annual Report of Commercial Relations (1886), 663. Report Year 1885. [BACK]

79. AGN, SCOP, 6/60-4, January 13, 1882, Sebastian Camacho to Ministro de Fomento. [BACK]

80. AGN, SCOP, 6/90-1, September 14, 1880, contract between Mexican government and David Ferguson and Robert Symon. Although the contract was subsequently revised, the rate structure remained the same. [BACK]

81. Annual Report of Commercial Relations (1884), 229. Report year ending December 1883. [BACK]

82. AGN, SCOP, 6/60-4 July 20, 1883, Felizardo Torres and Ramón Corral to Ministro de Fomento. [BACK]

83. See report of Consul Willard, Annual Report of Commercial Relations (1884), 227. Also Annual Report of Commercial Relations (1888), 274. [BACK]

84. AGN, SCOP, 6/42-1, December 31, 1885, annual report of Sonora Railroad. [BACK]

85. AGN, SCOP, 6/42-1, 1882-1911, annual reports of Sonora Railroad. [BACK]

86. AGN, SCOP, 6/42-1, February 17, 1883, Leopoldo Zamora, government engineer, to SCOP. In February 1883, for example, from Hermosillo the company sold 219 tickets for Guaymas, 89 for Torres, the junction of the Minas Prietas road, 67 for Pesqueira, 64 for Magdalena, 73 for Nogales, and 69 for the rest of the stations. [BACK]

87. See Ruiz, The People of Sonora, 51-62. [BACK]

88. See Salazar, Mexican Railroads, 22. [BACK]

89. Dispatches of United States Consuls in Mexico, no. 63, vol. 19, April-

Sept. 1886, report from Consul Willard, Guaymas. Also "Mexican Oranges," San Francisco Chronicle, June 6, 1891. [BACK]

90. AGN, SCOP, 6/42-1, March 11, 1896, J. A. Naugle to SCOP, report. [BACK]

91. AHMRUS, Cartas Camou, February 22, 1889, José Camou to Juan Camou in Guaymas. [BACK]

92. AHMRUS, Cartas Camou, May 7, 1889, José Camou to Juan Camou. The entire family planned a weekend at the beaches of Guaymas. [BACK]

93. AGN, SCOP, 6/70-1, January 27, 1883, Leopoldo Zamora to SCOP. [BACK]

94. AHMRUS, May 6, 1889, José Camou to Juan Camou in Guaymas. Special train from Guaymas for concert in Hermosillo. [BACK]

95. "Excursion," El Monitor, February 5, 1893. [BACK]

96. AGN, SCOP, 6/60-4, April 13, 1883, Leopoldo Zamora to SCOP. [BACK]

97. Greenville Holms, "Sonora," Chamber's Journal (September 14, 1901) 198 (4): 658. [BACK]

98. "Interrupción." La Constitución, July 13, 1894, 1. "Los Ferrocarriles del Estado de Sonora," El Porvenir, March 23, 1902. [BACK]

99. Annual Report of Commercial Relations (1886), 668. Report year 1885. [BACK]

100. "A Mexican Night: The Toast and Responses," (New York: Democratic Club, 1892) 49. [BACK]

101. "Notable Nuptials in Sonora: A Wedding in Mexico," New York Times, March 9, 1881, 2. [BACK]

102. La Voz del Estado, June 1904, excursions to San Francisco ($69.50), Los Angeles ($50), St. Louis Exposition ($98.40); El Heraldo de Cananea, February 1, 1903, excursions to Santa Monica, Long Beach, and Santa Catalina. [BACK]

103. See ABO, La Constitución, October 7, 1880, 2-4. [BACK]

Chapter 7 Between Cultures: Towns on the Line

1. See Martínez, Border Boom Town, 22. As a major hub in United States east-west transportation, El Paso did not rely exclusively on Ciudad Juárez for its development. [BACK]

2. See Goodenough, Culture Language and Society, 99. Also Rosaldo, Culture and Truth, 209-10. [BACK]

3. Emory, Boundary Survey, no. 3, 118. [BACK]

4. "Settlers win in the Nogales, de Elías Grant, Nogales Sunday Herald, December 17, 1893, 1. For a detail account of the land grant, see Suarez Barnett, "La reclamación," 1(1), 5. [BACK]

5. See "Los Dos Nogales." El Monitor, February 5, 1893, 1. [BACK]

6. "Nogales: Its Past, Present, and Future," The Oasis, May 13, 1899, 1. [BACK]

7. ABO, La Constitución, September 23, 1880, 3-4. [BACK]

8. AHS, Biographical file: John T. Brickwood, 1849-1912, 1. [BACK]

9. PAHS, January 24, 1883, Secretaría de Relaciones Exteriores to governor of Sonora. The letter was a copy of a communiqué sent by the Mexican consul in Tucson on October 12, 1882. [BACK]

10. Ripley Hitchcock, cited in Cy Warman, The Story of the Railroad (New York: D. Appleton, 1913), 248. [BACK]

11. PAHS, Biographical file: Edward Titicomb, 41. Also see Flores García, Nogales, 28. [BACK]

12. "Los Dos Nogales," El Monitor, February 5, 1893; 1. [BACK]

13. Agnes Morley Cleaveland, No Life for a Lady (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1977), 23-24. [BACK]

14. ABO, La Constitución, July 11, 1884, 3, law which decrees Municipality of Nogales, Sonora. Also see AHGES, carpeton 616, census of the district of Magdalena, of which Nogales was a part. [BACK]

15. ABO, La Voz de Sonora, March 5, 1858, President Benito Juárez to governor of Sonora. [BACK]

16. See Flores García, Nogales, 40. [BACK]

17. PAHS, "Aviso al Público," November 17, 1884, Aduana Fronteriza, Nogales, Sonora, J. Venegas and J. Duplant, Administradores. [BACK]

18. See Martínez, Border Boom Town, 23. [BACK]

19. Ibid., 20. [BACK]

20. See AER, payroll records of Santa Barbara ranch, 1890-1910. [BACK]

21. Oasis, November, 30, 1895, 2. [BACK]

22. PAHS, Biographical file: dictation of John T. Brickwood, taken by J. M. Long, January 6, 1889. Long was a book agent for the Bancroft History Company. [BACK]

23. PAHS, Biographical file: dictation of Louis Proto, taken by J. M. Long, January 8, 1889. [BACK]

24. AHGES, carpeton 596, November 20, 1889, Alfonso Luis Velasco, president Club Romero to Ramón Corral. [BACK]

25. AHGES, tomo 1625, May 19, 1900, petition from the residents and merchants of Santa Cruz in opposition to the zona libre. [BACK]

26. AHGES, La Justicia, March 29, 1914, 1. During the revolution, the border was periodically closed. The newspaper lamented the effects of the closure on Sonora's border merchants; in particular, on grocery stores who depended on this trade. [BACK]

27. AHS, Arizona Graphic, October 7, 1899, 2. [BACK]

28. Reed, Insurgent Mexico, 245. [BACK]

29. Oasis, May 13, 1899, 2. [BACK]

30. Rochlin and Rochlin, "Heart of Ambos Nogales," 161-80. In 1893 the simple stone monument was replaced by a permanent steel fixture. For a map of Nogales, see AHGES, El Monitor, February 5, 1893, 1. Also see AHGES, Mapoteca #11-13, Plano de Nogales. [BACK]

31. Oasis, July 9, 1909, 4. [BACK]

32. El Monitor, May 13, 1899, 2. [BACK]

33. "Los Dos Nogales," El Monitor, February 5, 1893, 1. [BACK]

34. Ibid. [BACK]

35. Nogales Frontier, November 7, 1885, 1. [BACK]

36. El Monitor, July 7, 1893, 1 [BACK]

37. Bird, Sonora and The Land of Nayarit . [BACK]

38. Dispatches from United States Consuls in Mexico, Nogales, Sonora, record group 59, microcopy 283, July 18, 1890, Consul Delos Smith. [BACK]

39. Robert Bracket, conversation with author, Nogales, Arizona, February 4, 1991. Mr. Bracker attended the Colegio Franco Español in Mexico City in the 1940s. [BACK]

40. Henry J. Lloyd, Freemasonry in Arizona, 8. [BACK]

41. PAHS, Ephemeral collection, "Societies and Fraternal Organization, Masons," records of Nogales, Arizona, Masonic Lodge no. 11, charter August 6, 1892. The early meetings of the Masonic lodge were held in a building called el Charito. Dispensation granted October 15, 1897. [BACK]

42. SCUA, ms.14, box 5, folder 3, August 21, 1893, Free and Accepted Order of Masons, Nogales, Lodge no. 11 to Manuel Mascareñas. [BACK]

43. See El Monitor, Nogales, July 7, 1893, 1; and Ready, Nogales, 8. [BACK]

44. PAHS, Nogales Women's Clubs, Women's Beneficence Club, 1890, Women's Auxiliary founded 1915, Women's Club of Nogales, 1922. [BACK]

45. PAHS, Nogales Women's Clubs, general club minutes, 1923-1924. The program on "Negro folk songs" may reflect the earlier presence of large numbers of Buffalo Soldiers in Nogales, Arizona. [BACK]

46. "El baile de traje," El Estado de Sonora, February 28, 1896, 1. [BACK]

47. PAHS, Biographical file: Ada Jones, manuscript "Early Schools of Nogales," n.d. [BACK]

48. Cited in Aguilar Camín, La frontera nomada, 108. [BACK]

49. AHGES, tomo 1583, exp. 2, April 11, 1898. [BACK]

50. Oasis, May 15, 1899, 2; Oasis, April 18, 1896, 2. [BACK]

51. Oasis, December 6, 1894, 5. [BACK]

52. Oasis, December 6, 1894, 5. [BACK]

53. "Nogales," Oasis, May 13, 1899, 2. [BACK]

54. See for example, El Estado de Sonora, Abril 13, 1897, preparations for celebration of May 5, 1862. [BACK]

55. Oasis, January 19, 1895, 4. [BACK]

56. New York Times, March 24, 1895, 29:6. [BACK]

57. "Ecos Sociales," El Estado de Sonora, February 28, 1896. [BACK]

58. New York Times, March 24, 1895, 29. [BACK]

59. AHGES, carpeton 825, June 27, 1885, and August 15, 1885. [BACK]

60. AHGES, El Eco del Valle (Magdalena), August, 3, 1893. [BACK]

61. "Arizona," San Francisco Chronicle, January 1, 1891. [BACK]

62. James Speedy bad been born in Valparaiso, Chile, in 1846. His parents came to California in 1849 during the gold rush. [BACK]

63. AER, Copiadora Manuel Mascareñas, February 1891-July 1892, April 18, 1892, Mascareñas to Corral. [BACK]

64. AGN, SCOP, Ferrocarril, March 17, 1884, L. Gutiérrez Guaymas to Secretaría de Fomento. [BACK]

65. "Nogales," Oasis, May 13, 1899, 1. [BACK]

66. AGN, SCOP, Ferrocarril, April 15, 1884, S. Echeverría, Secretaría de Fomento, to L. Gutiérrez Guaymas; also August 19, 1884, Secretaría de Fomento José Peñas to S. Camacho Ferrocarril de Sonora, Guaymas. [BACK]

67. AGN, SCOP, Ferrocarril, August 19, 1884, Secretaría de Fomento José Peñas to S. Camacho Ferrocarril de Sonora, Guaymas. [BACK]

68. The name Naco came from the last syllables in Arizona, (Na) and the last two in Mexico (co). [BACK]

69. See Sandomingo, Historia de Agua Prieta, 43. This is also the case with the 1907 founding of Calexico and Mexicali. [BACK]

70. AHGES, tomo 1633, exp. 1, November 15, 1899, registro de Naco. Comisario L. de la Fuente. [BACK]

71. AHGES, tomo 1633, exp. 1, November 15, 1899, registro de Naco. Comisario L. de la Fuente. [BACK]

72. AHGES, romo 1633, exp. 1, June 19, 1901, 3, petition by Naco residents to governor. [BACK]

73. AHGES, tomo 1633, exp. 1, July 15, 1901, Ramón Cárdenas, prefect of Arizpe, to governor. [BACK]

74. AHGES, tomo 1633, exp. 1, November 15, 1899, registro de Naco, Comisario L. de la Fuente. [BACK]

75. AHGES, tomo 1633, June 19, 1901, petition from Naco residents to governor. [BACK]

76. AHGES, tomo 1633, exp. 1, July 26, 1901, Comisario of Naco, Jacobo Mendóza, to prefect of Arizpe, Ramón Cárdenas. [BACK]

77. AHGES, tomo 1633, exp. 1, May 23, 1900, secretary of state to Comisario de Policia. [BACK]

78. AHGES, tomo 1633, exp. 1, July 28, 1902, petition of residents of Naco to governor. This petition was signed exclusively by Mexicans. [BACK]

79. Cartas Camou, August 24, 1904, Rafeal Camou to Juan P. Camou, cited in Valencia Ortega, "La formación," 14. [BACK]

80. AHGES, tomo 1695, exp. 1., March 22, 1901, district prefect of Arizpe, Ramón Cárdenas, to governor of Sonora. [BACK]

81. AHGES, tomo 2190, May 3, 1907, governor to police commisioner. [BACK]

82. El Estado de Sonora, April 1, 1899, 2. [BACK]

83. Hizinger, Treasure Land, A Story, 143. [BACK]

84. See Arizona Graphic (Phoenix), October 7, 1899, 1. [BACK]

85. Incidents of American officers involved with Mexican women proved equally conflictive. See Meed, Bloody Border, 205-9. [BACK]

86. APD, legajo 12, caja 5, no. 002440, The Daily News (Nogales, Arizona), March 7, 1887, 2. [BACK]

87. Ibid. [BACK]

88. APD, legajo 12, caja 5, no. 002439, "A Frontier Fight," San Francisco Chronicle, March 4, 1887, 3. [BACK]

89. APD, legajo 41, caja 5, March 10, 1887, March 12, 1887, March 31, 1887, communication between Porfirio Díaz and Luis Torres. [BACK]

90. APD, legajo 12, caja 5, no. 002492, San Francisco Morning Call, March 8, 1887. [BACK]

91. APD, legajo 12, caja 7, no. 03338, El Eco de La Frontera, March 27, 1887. [BACK]

92. See New York Times, December 6, 1886, 1. [BACK]

93. APD, legajo 46, caja 3, no. 1214, April 5, 1887, telegram, Torres to Díaz. [BACK]

94. AHGES, El Eco del Valle, August, 3, 1893. In describing an incident involving Sheriff Roberts of Nogales, the paper mentioned that Sonorans still have not forgotten the Arvizu case. [BACK]

95. APD, legajo 41, caja 3, no. 192, April 5, 1887, Porfirio Díaz to Luis Torres. [BACK]

96. Ibid. [BACK]

97. "An Outrage," The Arizona Weekly Citizen, March 19, 1887, 2. [BACK]

98. APD, legajo 12, caja 5, no. 002452, March 25, 1887, Torres to Díaz. [BACK]

99. APD, legajo 12, caja 5, no. 002450, March 5, 1887, Torres to Díaz. [BACK]

100. SCUA, Manuel Mascareñas Papers, ms. 14, box 5, folder 6, December 21, 1899, Mascareñas to Ignacio Mariscal, foreign relations, Mexico. Also in AHGES, tomo 1567, March 1, 1900, consul of Nogales to governor of Sonora. [BACK]

101. Ibid. [BACK]

102. APD, legajo 12, caja 5, no. 002452, March 25, 1887, Díaz to Torres. [BACK]

103. "How It Was Done: Settlers Win in the Nogales de Elías Grant," Nogales Sunday Herald, December 17, 1893, 1. [BACK]

104. Ibid. [BACK]

105. PAHS, Biographical file: Henry O. Flipper. [BACK]

106. PAHS, Ada Jones, "The Early School of Nogales," statement of Doris K. McGuire, supervisor, Nogales elementary schools, 10. [BACK]

107. El Mundo, México D. F., August 30, 1896, Asalto a la Aduana de Nogales. [BACK]

108. PAHS, chamber of commerce, minute no. 13, Sept 6, 1906, telegram of protest to the Los Angeles Examiner . [BACK]

109. For an eyewitness account of the events of March 1913, see PAHS, Battle for Nogales, by Ada Jones. [BACK]

110. Ivey and French, Army Life (Douglas: Douglas Printing Company, 1917), 19; and Camp, Mexican Border Ballads . [BACK]

111. Jones, Prohibition Laws, 3. Jones was the attorney general of Arizona. [BACK]

112. See Suárez Barnett, "El 27 de Agosto de 1918," 2. [BACK]

113. PAHS, "Report on Recent Trouble at Nogales," September 1, 1918, General D. R. Cabell to commanding general, Southern Divisions, 2. [BACK]

114. PAHS, September 2, 1918, José Garza Zertuche, Mexican consul to Nogales, Arizona, to Secretaría de Relaciones Exteriores. [BACK]

115. PAHS, "Report on Recent Trouble at Nogales," September 1, 1918, General D. R. Cabell to commanding general, Southern Divisions. [BACK]

116. See Suárez Barnett, "El 27 de Agosto de 1918," 3. [BACK]

117. Martínez, Fragments, 196. [BACK]

118. PAHS, August 29, 1918, Carrol M. Counts, district intelligence officer, El Paso Texas, to Department of Intelligence Office, Fort Sam Houston, Texas. [BACK]

119. PAHS, September 2, 1918, José Garza Zertuche, Mexican consul to Nogales, Arizona, to Secretaría de Relaciones Exteriores. [BACK]

120. Martínez, Fragments, 194-95 [BACK]

121. PAHS, August 27, 1918 file, November 29, 1918, Lieutenant James Potter, 10th Cavalry, to Adjunct General of the Army. [BACK]

122. See "Fresh Fields for Rod and Gun, Sonora, Mexico" Sunset 8 (3) (January 1902): 106. [BACK]

123. Folleto de Recuerdo, 74. [BACK]

124. "The Relation between Nogales, Arizona, and the West Coast of Mexico," Revista ComerciaI de Sonora y Sinaloa, December 1924, 1. [BACK]

125. PAHS, chamber of commerce, minutes, pro-Nogales advertising in 1927-1930; a total of $12,892.25 was spent. The chamber received 5,546 inquiries from throughout the world. [BACK]

126. PAHS, Nogales, Arizona, chamber of commerce, summary of 1930 and 1933 activities. International Relations Committee included A. A. Castaneda, Louis Escalada, Joel Quiñones, O. A. Smith, and Thomas H. Robinson. [BACK]

127. Folleto de Recuerdo, 19. [BACK]

128. See AHGES, tomo 2376, exp. 4, March 9, 1908, Mexican consul in Tucson, Arturo Elías, to governor of Sonora. [BACK]

129. Folleto de Recuerdo, 19. [BACK]

130. G. R. Michaels, "Nogales is the Largest Port of Entry on the Mexican Border," Arizona Highways (February 1931), 12. [BACK]

Chapter 8 "The Greatest Mining Camp in Northwest Mexico:" Minas Prietas and La Colorada

1. See Greenville Holms, "Sonora," Chambers Journal (September 4, 1901) 198(4): 658. [BACK]

2. For Cananea, see Ruiz, The People of Sonora, 85. Also Sonnichsen, Colonel Greene, 39. [BACK]

3. "Estado de Sonora," in Southworth, Las minas de México ( 1905), 2lO-35. [BACK]

4. Oasis, July 2, 1904, 3. [BACK]

5. Davila, Sonora histórico 3, descriptivo, 199. [BACK]

6. Southworth, El Estado de Sonora, 49. [BACK]

7. Bird, Land of Nayarit, 28. [BACK]

8. AHMLC, Presidencia, caja 2, 1905-1907, Teniente Colonel C. Romero to Luis Torres, La Colorada. Several reports on attacks by Yaquis. [BACK]

9. Combier, Voyage, 209-13. [BACK]

10. José Velasco, Noticias estadísticas, 186. [BACK]

11. Oasis, April, 4, 1896. Johnson sold El Yaqui and El Tiro mines in Altar to an American firm. [BACK]

12. Oasis, December 28, 1895. [BACK]

13. "History of Amarillas," Oasis, December 30, 1899. [BACK]

14. Gracida Romo, "Auge y crisis," 397. [BACK]

15. Ibid., 397. [BACK]

16. Oasis, June 13, 1896, 1, survey of Ignacio Bonillas. [BACK]

17. Southworth, El Estado de Sonora, 49-51. Also see Bird, The Land of Nayarit, 31. In the early 1900s, the Ohio group sold their interest in the mine for close to $5 million to a New York company headed by John W. Gates. See "Rothchilds buy Amarillas, Gran Central, Crestón, Minas Prietas, La Colorada," Oasis, August 26, 1896; and "Rothchilds to buy mines. . . September 5, 1896 sale for $10,000,000," Arizona Silver Belt, April 16, 1896, 1. [BACK]

18. Annual Report of Commercial Relations (1908), 2: 170. [BACK]

19. See, for example, "Pan American Mining Company," Oasis, August 31, 1895, Minas Prietas. Also see Oasis, November 12, 1898. [BACK]

20. Clarence King, The Minas Prietas Report (New York: Minas Prietas Mining Company, 1881), 1-2; Oasis, December 28, 1895. [BACK]

21. "Minas Prietas Camp, Sonora, Mexico," Mining and Scientific Press, April 27, 1895, 260. [BACK]

22. Oasis, July 10, 1897. [BACK]

23. Oasis, September 23, 1899. [BACK]

24. Annual Report of Commercial Relations (1903), 452. [BACK]

25. Ruiz, The People of Sonora, 60. Also see Federico García y Alva, Album Directorio del Estado de Sonora (Hermosillo: Imprenta Antonio Monteverde, 1907). [BACK]

26. Oasis, May 23, 1896. [BACK]

27. Annual Report of Commercial Relations (1903), 463. [BACK]

28. After Torres's ouster, the station was renamed Estación Serdan. [BACK]

29. García y Alva, Album crónica . Seymour gave several speeches on behalf of the foreign community. [BACK]

30. Alfonso Luis Velasco, Geografía y estadística, 174. Minas Prietas had 1,607 inhabitants, Comisaría de Estación Torres 350, La Colorada 200, and Zubiate 150. [BACK]

31. Southworth, El Estado de Sonora, 48. Also see Annual Report of Commercial Relations (1903), 496. [BACK]

32. Bird, Land of Nayarit, 28. [BACK]

33. "Mexico," Mining and Scientific Press, February 5, 1898, 164. [BACK]

34. Oasis, August 22, 1895. [BACK]

35. Annual Report of Commercial Relations (1908), 2:170. [BACK]

36. Southworth, El Estado de Sonora, 50. [BACK]

37. Almada, Diccionario de historia, 166. [BACK]

38. Southworth, El Estado de Sonora, 50. [BACK]

39. Corral, Memoria de la Administración, 480. Also see Alfonso Luis Velasco, Geografía y estadística, 174. Velasco puts the population at 1,807 during the earlier years. [BACK]

40. "Aviso," La Constitución, November 23, 1894, 3. [BACK]

41. Gracida Romo, "El Sonora moderno," 4:84. [BACK]

42. Arizona Silver Belt, April 16, 1896, 1. [BACK]

43. "Minas Prietas," Mining and Scientific Press, April 27, 1895, 260. [BACK]

44. Resumenes del Censo del Estado de Sonora 1895 (Guaymas: Imprenta Eduardo Gaxiola, 1895), 36. [BACK]

45. Ruiz, The People of Sonora, 59. [BACK]

46. AHMLC, Presidencia, caja 3, 1907-1908, September 10, 1908, La Colorada, Plaza Luis Torres. [BACK]

47. Oasis, April 13, 1895. Also "Minas Prietas," Mining and Scientific Press, April 27, 1895, 260. [BACK]

48. AHMLC, Tesoreria, caja 1, 1894-1903, March 1, 1897, purchase agreement between agente Fiscal Pedro Oriol and Oscar Raintree, company treasurer. [BACK]

49. See Gracida Romo, "Auge y crisis," 401. [BACK]

50. AHMLC, Presidencia, caja 4, 1909-10, October 27, 1909, Crestón Colorada to municipal president. [BACK]

51. AHMLC, Presidencia, caja 1, October 3, 1899, W. T. Barrett, manager, Prietas store, to Comisario, La Colorada. [BACK]

52. Oasis, February 29, 1896. Ramón Corral, Victor Aguilas, Ignacio Bonillas, and Gustavo Torres visited the camp. [BACK]

53. Oasis, April 20, 1895. Izábal visits La Colorada. [BACK]

54. See Gracida Romo, ''Auge y crisis," 403. [BACK]

55. Resumenes del Censo, 36. [BACK]

56. See AHMLC, caja 1, 1894-1903, Tesoreria y Justicia. [BACK]

57. Ulloa, El Estado de Sonora, 123. [BACK]

58. Resumenes del Censo, 8-14. [BACK]

59. Ibid., 20. [BACK]

60. Ibid. [BACK]

61. Ibid., 32. [BACK]

62. See Ingersoll, In and under Mexico, 106-7. [BACK]

63. AHMLC, Presidencia, caja 1, 1898-1904, May 25, 1900, F. Verdugo to municipio; AHMLC, Presidencia, caja 2, 1905-1907, June 20, 1906, school director Minas Prietas to Comisario. [BACK]

64. Corral, Memoria de la Administración, 506-7. [BACK]

65. Resumenes del Censo, 15-19. [BACK]

66. Ibid., 34. [BACK]

67. Southworth, El Estado de Sonora, 50. [BACK]

68. Ibid., 53. [BACK]

69. Corral, Memoria de la Administración, 506-7. [BACK]

70. García y Alva, Album Directorio, sn. [BACK]

71. Ingersoll, In and under Mexico, 37. [BACK]

72. See Thompson, "Time," 91-92. [BACK]

73. Oasis, May 23, 1896. [BACK]

74. Romero Gil, "Crisis y resistencia," n.p. [BACK]

75. Resumenes del Censo, 22-34. [BACK]

76. AHMLC, Presidencia, caja 1, 1898-1904, Corte de Caja, Prietas Store and Gran Central Stores, August 1902. [BACK]

77. AHMLC, Tesoreria sn., caja 1, 1894-1903, "Impuestos de García y Bringas," January 21, 1899, Comisarío, Eduardo Muñoz, La Colorada. [BACK]

78. See Gracida Romo, "Auge y crisis," 402. [BACK]

79. AHMLC, Presidencía, caja 1, 1898-1904, October 31, 1901, list of merchandise, saloons, and industry in Minas Prietas and La Colorada. [BACK]

80. García y Alva, Album Directorio, n.p. [BACK]

81. Ibid., n.p., Rancho el Tecolote. Alejandro, Roberto, Eugenio, y Ricardo Rodríguez propietarios. [BACK]

82. Resumenes del Censo, 46. [BACK]

83. Ibid. [BACK]

84. Bird, Sonora, 34. [BACK]

85. Holms, "Sonora," 658. See also Bird, Sonora, 34. [BACK]

86. Annual Report of Commercial Relations (1908), 2:170. [BACK]

87. Oasis, June 9, 1900. [BACK]

88. See "From Benson to Bocoachi," Sunset, (March 1899) 11 (5):94. [BACK]

89. El Explorador, April 21, 1901. [BACK]

90. AHGES, tomo 1645, exp. 5, June lO, 1901, Manuel Uruchurtu to state treasurer. Uruchurtu had dispatched three separate caravans to La Colorada with between twenty and thirty damajuanas of mezcal each. [BACK]

91. Holms, "Sonora," 658. [BACK]

92. See Gracida Romo, "El Sonora moderno," 85. [BACK]

93. "Los Hermanos Quiroz," Oasis, June 17, 1900. [BACK]

94. Oasis, December 8, 1900. [BACK]

95. AHMLC, Presidencia, caja 4, 1909-1910, October 27, 19O9, E. F. Rowell, president, La Colorada International Organization of Odd Fellows, no. 25, to municipal president La Colorada. [BACK]

96. AHMLC, Presidencia, caja 1, 1898-1904 January 39, 1901, R. Salazar, Treasurer. [BACK]

97. Resumenes del Censo, 22-34. [BACK]

98. AHMLC, Minas Prietas/La Colorada, Presidencia, caja 1, 1898- 1904, October 31, 1901, Tomas Rivera, list of assessed taxes. [BACK]

99. Officials at Cananea later adopted a similar practice. See AHGES, tomo 1807, exp. 1, September 16, 1902, report of Filiberto Vazquez Barroso, presidente municipal, Cananea, 14. [BACK]

100. AHMLC, Tesoreria, caja 1, 1894-1903, June 27, 1903. Luisa Juárez arrested and expelled from town. [BACK]

101. AHMLC, Tesoreria, May 31, 1898, Inspector Medico de Sanidad. See also Presidencia, caja 1, 1898-1904, December 30, 1904, "Infotree de las meretrices que hoy fueron inspeccionadas." [BACK]

102. AHMLC, Presidencia, caja 3, 1907-1908, January 8, 1907, Arthur Edwards, U.S. citizen, to presidente municipal regarding Luisa Moreno. [BACK]

103. See Holmes, "Sonora," 658. [BACK]

104. AHMLC, Presidencía, caja 3, 1907-1908, May 7, 1908, Chale Wong Sam, citizen of China, to municipal president. [BACK]

105. AHMLC, Presidencia, caja 1, 1898-1904, informe de prostitutas, December 30, 1904. [BACK]

106. AHMLC, Presidencia, caja 1, 1898-1904, Reportes Judiciales: March, April, May, June, July, and September 1898. [BACK]

107. AHALC, Presidencia, caja 4, October 23, 1909, October 27, 1909, report of women arrested for fighting. [BACK]

108. AHGES, tomo 1623, exp. 4, La Colorada, Minas Prietas, March 5, 1900. Delfino Jiménez killed Antonio Gil Samaniego at the billiard of Juan Miguel Salcido. [BACK]

109. AHMLC, Presidencia, caja 2, 1905-1907, July 7, 1907, Miguel Encinas. prefect of Sahuaripa, to municipal president of Minas Prietas regarding prisoner Guadalupe Hernández sent by cordillera. [BACK]

110. For a broader discussion of the Rurales in Mexico, see Vanderwood, Disorder and Progress, 63. [BACK]

111. AHMLC, Presidencia, caja 2, 1905-1907, December 9, 1907. Desertion of Leonardo Ramírez. [BACK]

112. AHMLC, Presidencia, caja 2, 1905-1907, April 28, 1907, Coronel

Manuel Tumborell, riña entre miembros de la Guardia Nacional. Also August 8, 1907, soldiers fighting, President Municipal to Luis Torres. [BACK]

113. AHMLC, Presidencia, caja 2, 1905-1907, June 14, 1907, Guardia del Cuerpo Rural Antonio Salazar and Domingo Telles killed Ramón López. [BACK]

114. AHMLC, Presidencia, caja 2, 1905-1907, May 20, 1907, governor to Colonel Manuel Tumborell. [BACK]

115. AHMLC, Presidencia, caja 2, 1905-1907, November 3, 1906, Lieutenant Carlos Pinal to Lieutenant Coronel Miguel Hermosa. [BACK]

116. AHGES, tomo 1807, exp. 1-2, and tomo 1808, exp. 14, report of Filiberto Vásquez Barroso, municipal president of Cananea, September 16, 1902 and September 16, 1903. [BACK]

117. AHMLC, Presidencía, caja 1, Justicia, 1898-1904, March, 1897. Antonio Madrid arrested for false boletas. [BACK]

118. "La Gran Central Store," Oasis, November 13, 1897. [BACK]

119. AHMLC, Tesoreria, caja 1, 1894-1903, report by Antonio Rivera regarding a Yaqui known as El Lapiz arrested for theft in mines. See also "Minas Prietas," Mining and Scientific Press, April 27, 1895, 260. [BACK]

120. Ruiz, The People of Sonora, 115. [BACK]

121. For examples of this practice, see AHGES, tomo 2442, exp. 30, May 1, 1909. At Mineral Chiapas workers complained about strip searches by a "despotic" Russian foreman. [BACK]

122. AHGES, tomo 1695, exp. 1, reports of accidents: March 27, 1901, Mina Gran Crestón, Hermosillo; July 1, 1901, Minas Prietas, Hermosillo; July 17, 1901, El Crestón, Minas Prietas. Tomo 1869, exp. 12, October 26, 1903 and November 5, 1903, El Crestón, Minas Prietas; November 18, 1903, Gran Central, Minas Prietas. [BACK]

123. Invariably Americans also became victims, but in much smaller numbers. See Oasis, May 14, 1898, death of John L. Miller who died in a premature explosion. [BACK]

124. Ingersoll, In and under Mexico, 64, 83. Also AHGES, tomo 3016, exp. [no number], April 1903, report of accident cases received in Cananea Hospital. [BACK]

125. Oasis, October 30, 1897; La Colorada. [BACK]

126. Oasis, January 15, 1898; La Creston. [BACK]

127. AHGES, La Colorada, Minas Prietas, tomo 1623, exp. 4, December 1898 to December 1900, Aguilar to prefect. December 26, 1899, Francisco García, died, car fell down tunnel. February 1, 1900, cave-in on tunnels 6 and 7, Juan Flores dead. March 3, 1900, La Gran Central, Juan Rocha, ladder gave way and Rocha fell down tunnel. March 7, 1900, unnamed Indian killed. April 26, 1900, Manuel Gardillas, Lazaro Ballesteros, Francisco Costa crushed by machinery which fell in tunnel 6; presidente municipal to prefect, July 4, 1900, Gran Central, José Peralta fell 50 feet serious injuries. July 4, 1900, El Crestón, Teodoro Estrada, Honesimo de La Mora, Gerardo Cerda, killed in cave at number 8 tunnel. September 15, 1900 Accident Gran Central, Pres Municipal Minas Prietas, several pieces of machinery fell down shaft killing unnamed two Mexican workers. The Oasis, April 2, 1898, two Mexicans killed in explosion. [BACK]

128. See Ingersoll, In and under Mexico, 86. [BACK]

129. Gracida Romo, "Auge y crisis," 404. [BACK]

130. Cosío Villegas, Historia Politica, 2:708. [BACK]

131. Oasis, June 12, 1897, strike by Yaquis at Pan American Mining Company. [BACK]

132. Oasis, August 28, 1897; and Oasis September 18, 1897. [BACK]

133. AHMLC, Presidenca, caja 1, 1898-1904, May 1897, arrest of Francisco Valenzuela at Las Amarillas . [BACK]

134. AHMLC, Tesorería, caja 1, 1894-1903, January 31, 1899, report of Comisario Miguel Hérmosa. Also see Presidencia, caja 1, 1897-1904, March 1897. [BACK]

135. "Guarida de fumadores de Opio La Colorada," El Correo de Sonora, November 19, 1901 1. [BACK]

136. AHMLC, Presidencía, caja 1, 1898-1904, March 1897, summary of crimes, Manuel Encinas store. [BACK]

137. AHMLC, Presidencia, caja 2, 1905-1907, June 10, 1907, Presidente Alberto Cubillas, interim governor, to Municipal de Minas Prietas, regarding a visit by an attache to the Chinese embassy to investigate the death of Tan Kan Lan of Minas Prietas. [BACK]

138. See Beene, "Sonora," 178. At La Trinidad in Sahuaripa, Mexican miners in one incident pelted the American manager with rocks and taunted him with shouts of "gringo cabrones." [BACK]

139. AHGES, La Colorada, Minas Prietas, tomo 1623, exp. 4, September 24, 1900, Feliciano Monteverde to Governor Izábal. Visiting the Hughes were Sr. Manuel Romero and Srta. Josefa Quiñones. [BACK]

140. Almada, Diccionario de historia, 166. [BACK]

141. AHMLC, Presidencia, caja 1, 1898-1904, J. Cruz, Club Politico Bernardo Reyes. [BACK]

142. AHMLC, Presidencia, caja 1, Junta Patriotica, August 12, 1901, Feliciano Monteverde presidente, Coronel Miguel Flores vocal. [BACK]

143. AHMLC, Presidencia, caja 1, Comisario de Policia. Junta patriotica, September 1, 1901, Gilberto López president and Manuel M. Dieguez vocal. [BACK]

144. AHMLC, Presidencia, caja 2, 1905-1907, September 11, 1906, Luis Torres to military commander La Colorada. [BACK]

145. Enrique Orduños, interview by author, La Colorada, August 15,1990. Orduños witnessed the collapse. [BACK]

146. Annual Report of Commercial Relations (1909), 170. [BACK]

147. Annual Report of Commercial Relations (1908), 2:170 [BACK]

148. Bird, Land of Nayarit, 32. Also Oasis, June 13, 1896, 1. [BACK]

149. For an example of water issues see AHGES, tomo 1693, exp. 2, prefect of Sahuaripa to governor, May 29, 1901. Conflict over water rights between residents of Mulatos and El Rey del Oro Mining Company . [BACK]

150. Gracida Romo, "Auge y crisis," 405. [BACK]

151. AHMLC, Presidencia, caja 2, 1905-1907, May 23, 1907, C. Romero, Colonel La Colorada. [BACK]

152. AHMLC, Presidencia, caja 4, 1909-1910, August 31, 1909, report of closure of several stores. [BACK]

153. AHMLC, Presidencia, caja 4, 1909-1910, March 25, 1909, Sorteo para el ejercito. [BACK]

154. AHMLC, Presidencia, caja 4, 1909-1910, October 5, 1909, complaint to municipal authorities signed by Miguel Valencia, Filomeno Ibarra, Navarro Arvizu, and a host of others. Also see November 27, 1909, J. Loustanau, new police Comisario. [BACK]

155. Taylor, "Massacre at San Pedro," 138. [BACK]

156. Enrique Orduños, interview by author, La Colorada, August 15, 1990. [BACK]

157. Gracida Romo, "Auge y crisis," 405. [BACK]

Chapter 9 "The Yankees of Mexico"

1. See García y Alva, Album crónica, n.p. [BACK]

2. Uruchurtu, Comentarios de la actualidad, 1. [BACK]

3. Annual Report of Commercial Relations, Mexico (1903), 436-39. American investments in Chihuahua amounted to $31.9 million of which $21.3 million was in mining. Oaxaca was ranked next with $13.6 million in "doubtful tropical agricultural companies." The United States embassy believed that if accurate figures could be made, Oaxaca's figure would be reduced and place Nuevo León fourth behind Chihuahua, with $11.4 million. [BACK]

4. ABO, La Constitución, August 3, 1883, 4, notice regarding opening of Guatemalan consulate. AHGES, carpeton 13, Don León Gutiérrez named Spanish consul in Guaymas, April 14, 1879. W. H. Koebel, ed. Anglo South American Handbook (New York: MacMillan and Co, 1921), 443. Lloyds of London also maintained an agent in Guaymas. [BACK]

5. Frederick Simpich, "A Mexican Land of Canaan," National Geographic 36 (4) (October 1919):309. [BACK]

6. ABO, La Estrella de Occidente, January 15, 1869, 4. The paper carried an ad for a "new" English school run by Carlos E Gompertz in the home of Florencio Monteverde. In Alamos, to the south, another English school opened later that same year. [BACK]

7. BCUSCP, tomo 3, 1851-1856, November 18, 1852. [BACK]

8. Ibid. [BACK]

9. SCUA, Manuel Mascareñas Papers, ms. 14, no. 39, September 18, 1888. [BACK]

10. AHGES, El Noticioso (Guaymas), July 27, 1910, 1. [BACK]

11. See Goodenough, Culture, Language, and Society, 31. [BACK]

12. SCUA, Manuel Mascareñas Papers, September 18, 1888, ms. 14, no. 39. Also, AHMRUS, Copiadoras Camou, August 16, 1898, Copper Queen Consolidated Mining Company, Bisbee Arizona, to Eduardo Camou. [BACK]

13. Annual Report of Commercial Relations (1899), report October 1, 1899. [BACK]

14. Annual Report of Commercial Relations (1903), 150. [BACK]

15. AHMRUS, Copiadoras Camou, January 4, 1889, no. 174, José Camou refers to "pipe"; March 1, 1889, no. 286, "taxes"; April 30, 1908, no. 73, refers to "depleted stock'' in writing to suppliers in France. [BACK]

16. AHMRUS, Copiadoras Camou, no. 17-19, November 7, 1888, José Camou in Hermosillo to Juan Camou in Guaymas. [BACK]

17. INAH, Cartas Camou February 15, 1908, José Camou to Harris and Frank Inc., Los Angeles. [BACK]

18. ABO, La Constitución, November 11, 1880, 3. And La Constitución, February 11, 1887, 4. The paper included an advertisement for the Santa Catalina Girls School in San Bernardino, California. [BACK]

19. SCUA, Manuel Mascareñas Papers, ms. 14, no. 14, August 7, 1888, Manuel Mascareñas to Rafael Ruiz. In preparation for the trip, Mascareñas asked Ruiz to secure American dollars for use during his trip. [BACK]

20. SCUA, Manuel Mascareñas papers, Manuel Mascareñas, ms. 14, no. 472, December 14, 1890, Mascareñas to Don Mariano Roman. [BACK]

21. AHMRUS, Copiadoras Camou, nos. 44-46, November 16, 1888, José Camou to his children Eugenio and Ernesto in Mexico City. AHGES, Colección Periódicos La Libertad (Guaymas), July 2, 1902, 105. Alejandro Ainslie was the editor of the state's official newspaper, La Constitución . He accompanied his children to Mexico City and enrolled them in the Colegio de Ingles de Tacubaya. [BACK]

22. SCUA, Manuel Mascareñas Papers, ms. 14, no. 39, September 18, 1888. Hoping to impress their parents, the Camou and Mascareñas children would write them in English. Also AHMRUS, Copiadoras Camou, April 4, 1906. Cristina Camous' letter to her father was written in English. Letters from her father reflected the growing influence of English. They were addressed "Dear Chamaca." [BACK]

23. AHMRUS, Copiadoras Camou, November 16, 1888, José Camou to Eugenio and Ernesto in Mexico City. [BACK]

24. ABO, La Constitución, January 25, 1884, 1. The actual decree was promulgated on December 14, 1883. [BACK]

25. See for example AHGES, carpeton 454, July 30, 1856, Charles P. Stone to Governor Pesqueira, translated and certified by Tomas Robinson. [BACK]

26. "In Fair Hermosillo," San Francisco Chronicle, January 8, 1893, 5. [BACK]

27. See El Fronterizo, January 25, 1880, 1. [BACK]

28. Goodenough, Culture, Language, and Society, 61. [BACK]

29. Ibid., 63. [BACK]

30. See El Distrito de Alamos, October 16, 1904, 3, soft-drink factory. [BACK]

31. AHGES, El Heraldo de Cananea, February 2, 1903, 1; and El Heraldo de Cananea October 28, 1905, 2. Also see Ingersoll, In and under Mexico, 53. ingersoll describes his surprise to find that the word quequi meant cake. [BACK]

32. AHGES, Periódicos, La Libertad, Guaymas, April 26, 1902, advertisement Hotel California "Estilo Moderno Americano" (modern American style). Also see Escobosa Gamez, Cronicas, 33. [BACK]

33. AHMRUS, Periódicos, El Hogar Catolico, January 1, 1903, 1. [BACK]

34. AHMRUS, Copiadoras Camou, no. 107, December 12, 1888, José Camou in Hermosillo to Francisco Seldner in Guaymas. [BACK]

35. El Correo de Sonora, November 19, 1901, 4 [BACK]

36. AHGES, El Imparcial (Guaymas), December 23, 1896, 3. [BACK]

37. "Gritura," El Imparcial, July 29, 1893, 3. [BACK]

38. AHGES, Periódicos, El Eco del Valle (Ures), May 31, 1894. [BACK]

39. ABO, La Constitución, April 17, 1885, 4, advertisement for Hotel

Palacio in Hermosillo. Also see AHGES, Periódicos, El Monitor Democrático (Hermosillo), February 8, 1912, 4, advertisement for Hotel Central. The hotel also claimed to serve fresh oysters and Mumms Champagne. [BACK]

40. AHGES, Periódicos, La Libertad (Guaymas), January 5, 1902, adverstisement Hotel Gambuston. [BACK]

41. AHGES, Periódicos, El Estado de Sonora, October 12, 1895. Also El Monitor, August 21, 1896. [BACK]

42. See La Razón Social (Guaymas), November 15, 1897, "La Central, "Sadwiches finos" and El Gladiador, Cananea, February 6, 1912, 1, opening of a Loncheria . [BACK]

43. AHGES, "La Luz Electrica," El Correo de Sonora, March 22, 1899, 4. [BACK]

44. "Gacetilla de Hermosillo," El Imparcial, September 2, 1900. [BACK]

45. AHGES, "Gacetilla," El Imparcial (Guaymas), September 2, 1900, 2. [BACK]

46. El Estado de Sonora, October 12, 1895; El Correo de Sonora, October 10, 1899. [BACK]

47. AHMRUS, Sonora Moderno, March 11, 1905, 3; and AHGES, El Porvenir (Caborca) November 4, 1909, advertisement for a bar named "La Chilena." [BACK]

48. Sonora Moderno, August 25, 1908. Destileria Sonorenses Whiskey de Kentucky. [BACK]

49. AHGES, "Struggle for Life," El Eco del Valle, JuLy 12, 1894. Ad appeared in English. [BACK]

50. El Noticioso (Guaymas), October 20, 1909, 1. Jesse Moore Whiskey. [BACK]

51. AHGES, Periódicos, El Monitor (Nogales), June 16, 1893, 2-3. Also El Eco del Valle, August 15, 1891. [BACK]

52. AHGES, Periódicos, El Trafico (Nogales), June 1, 1892, 4. [BACK]

53. AHGES, Sonora Moderno, March 11, 1905, 1, advertisement for a "thrift store" in Magdalena, used "Staples and Fancey Groceries, Descounts." [BACK]

54. See Exposición de la Secretaría de Hacienda, 267. [BACK]

55. See Cananea Herald, December 28, 1902. [BACK]

56. "Asociación Cristiana," La Asociación del Pueblo (Guaymas), July 15, 1870, 7. [BACK]

57. "La salvaguardia de la Patria," El Hogar Catolico, May 16, 1903. [BACK]

58. ACMH. caja 29, 1886-1910, November 17, 1900, Circular Arch-Diocesano. [BACK]

59. See Ulloa, El Estado de Sonora, 36. Ulloa cites less than 2,000 Protestants, 821 Buddhists, and 358 Mormons in the state in 1910. [BACK]

60. See PAHS, Religion, The Home Missionary, Protestant efforts in Nogales, March 1897, 532-33. [BACK]

61. AHGES, El Correo de Sonora, November 19, 1901, 3. [BACK]

62. See Arizona Daily Citizen, November 27, 1875, 2. [BACK]

63. AHGES, El Correo de Sonora, November 19, 1901, 3. [BACK]

64. El Nacional (Guaymas), November 12, 1912, Thanksgiving Day announcement. [BACK]

65. AHGES, El Heraldo de Cananea/The Cananea Herald, November 25, 1907. Advertisement for the Cananea Copper Company store. The paper was published in English and Spanish. [BACK]

66. AHGES, Cananea Herald-Heraldo, November 25, 1907. [BACK]

67. See Oasis, December 6, 1894, 5. [BACK]

68. El Imparcial (Guaymas), December 27, 1909, 3. [BACK]

69. El Grillo (Cananea), November 30, 1909, Botica Benito Juárez. [BACK]

70. PAHS, December 9, 19O7, petition from merchants of Nogales to town council. [BACK]

71. See Durazo, El beisbol en Sonora, 10, 22. [BACK]

72. See El Correo de Sonora, Mayo 21, 1900, Guaymas against Club La Colorada; and El Imparcial February, 19, 1908, 4., special excursion train for baseball championship between team Hermosillo and team Empalme. [BACK]

73. See El 13 de Julio Guaymas, June 2, 1894, concurso de Pelota, Jorge Boido, E. Martínez, Fernándo Castellanos, Carlos Cañez, Ignacio Iberri. [BACK]

74. Simpich, "A Mexican Land of Canaan," 4. [BACK]

75. AHGES, El Imparcial, Guaymas, October 22, 1892, 1. [BACK]

76. Sobarzo, Vocabulario sonorense, 192. Also see Angel Encinas Blanco, "En su origen pochis y pocho," El Imparcial, February 9, 1991, 2d. [BACK]

77. AHGES, La Constitución, December 12, 1910, 3. The ad read: "For Rent, A very beautiful home on the outskirts of town, seven rooms and kitchen, fine garden, roses, apply to Luis E. Torres." [BACK]

78. See, AHGES, EL Cuarto Poder, August 5, 1911. [BACK]

79. Ibid. [BACK]

80. AHGES, El Eco del Valle (Ures), March 14, 1895, 1. [BACK]

81. Ibid. [BACK]

82. Goodenough, Culture, Language, and Society, 62-63. [BACK]

83. INAH, Cartas Camou, November 28, 1906, José Camou to Leon Horvelieru requesting subscriptions of "La couturiere Parisienne" for Amelia Monteverde de Torres. [BACK]

84. INAH, Cartas Camou, February 15, 1907, José Camou. Request for Rafael Izábal. [BACK]

85. See Garcia y Alva, Album cronica, n.p. [BACK]

86. ABO, La Constitución, December 7, 1888, 2. [BACK]

87. See León Portilla, "The Norteño Variant." Also see González, La ronda de las generaciones . [BACK]

88. Bernal, "Cultural Roots," 25-32. [BACK]

89. See Braudel, The Mediterranean, 1:242-43. Braudel points out that harsh climates frequently impose a certain frugality on life, in which the practical is emphasized. [BACK]

90. AHCES, box 57, Ramón Corral, November 29, 1880. [BACK]

91. See Corral, Memoria de la administración, tomo 2, 4. Also see AHGES, carpeton 950, Education 1898. The director of the state girls school resigned because of the low pay. She reportedly received 75 pesos a month. [BACK]

92. SCUA, Manuel Mascareñas papers, ms.14, no. 223, August 1, 1889, Nogales, Sonora. Mascareñas became so frustrated with the absence of children that he ordered the teachers to visit the parents home to seek an explanation. [BACK]

93. For example, see SCUA, Manuel Mascareñas Papers, ms. 14, no. 14, August 7, 1888, Manuel Mascareñas to Rafael Ruiz. [BACK]

94. AHCES, box 57, November 29, 1880, speech by Ramón Corral. [BACK]

95. Ibid. [BACK]

96. Ibid. [BACK]

97. ABO, La Constitución, July 18, 1884, 3. Speech delivered to graduating school children by General Crispin de S. Palomares. [BACK]

98. AHCES, box 57, November 29, 1880, speech by Ramón Corral. [BACK]

99. Alfonso Luis Velasco, Geografía y estadística, 235-36. [BACK]

100. AHMRUS, Copiadoras Camou, no. 3I2, March 11, 1889, José Camou to Juan Camou. [BACK]

101. SCUA, Manuel Mascareñas Papers, ms. 14, 1888, vol. 14, no. 61. [BACK]

102. AER, Mascareñas Copiadora, 1896-1899, vol. 7, p. 257, July 21, 1897, Manuel Mascareñas to María Solan. [BACK]

103. Uruchurtu, Apuntes biográficos, 55. Uruchurtu was a personal friend of Corral. The work originally appeared 1910. See also Ruibal Corella, Carlos R. Ortiz, 81. [BACK]

104. Ruibal Corella, Carlos R. Ortiz, 81. [BACK]

105. Uruchurtu, Apuntes biográficos, 555. [BACK]

106. Much of the material for the schools was purchased in the United States. See AHGES, carpeton 865, 1888, "Informe de Ramón Corral," 11th legislature. The assembly allocated close to $8,000 to acquire furniture and materials in the United States. Also see Corral, Memoria de la administración, 2:2-5. [BACK]

107. ABO, La Constitución, August 28, 1891, speech by Ramón Corral concerning education. [BACK]

108. Ibid. The Colegio de Sonora opened its doors January 1, 1889, with 46 pupils. [BACK]

109. AHGES, carpeton 876, July 5, 1890, list of students attending night school. [BACK]

110. AHGES, tomo 2594, exp.9, year-end report 1900, state responses to federal questionnaire concerning education. Also see ABO, La Constitución, September 21, 1894, 1, speech by Rafael Izábal to state legislature. By comparison, in 1894 the state had allocated a budget of $143,736 for education. The government payroll included 258 instructors. [BACK]

111. AHGES, tomo 1584, exp. 2, September 7, 1900, William Melczer to Rafael Izábal; and September 24, 1900, contract between Melczer and state of Sonora. [BACK]

112. ABO, La Constitución, August 28, 1891, 2. [BACK]

113. See AHGES, tomo 2338, exp. 5, January 22, 1908. [BACK]

114. "La educación de la mujer," La Razón Social (Guaymas), December 8, 1897. Colaboradores, P. E. Calles. [BACK]

115. Dworak and Elías Calles, La Revista Escolar, September 3, 1901. [BACK]

116. AHGES, carpeton 924, September 4, 1896, list of instructors in the Guaymas School District. [BACK]

117. AHGES, carpeton 924, June 15, 1896, Ramón Corral, Law of Public Instruction. [BACK]

118. Ramón Corral, Obras históricas, biografía de José Maria Leyva Cajeme (Hermosillo: Biblioteca Sonorense de Geografía e Historia, 1959), 150-92. [BACK]

119. In this, the experience of Sonora is not unique. Under the Porfiriato, conscious attempts were undertaken to incorporate the Indian into the national mainstream by romanticizing past heroes. See APD, legajo 12, caja 21, no. 10132, October 2, 1887, letter from Vicente Rivas Palacios to Porfirio Díaz. In the letter, Rivas Palacios congratulated Díaz on the idea of building a monument to exalt Cuauhtémoc. Also see "En honor a Cuauhtémoc," in El Mundo Ilustrado (Mexico), August 24, 1902, año 9, tomo 2, n.p. [BACK]

120. See AHGES, tomo 1903, Miguel Lopez, Apuntamientos para la Historia de Sonora, Tesis de examen profesional, Hermosillo, Colegio de Sonora, 1903. [BACK]

121. Simpich, "A Mexican Land of Canaan," 311. [BACK]

122. See Weils and Joseph, "Moderninzing Visions." [BACK]

123. "EI adelanto de los pueblos, mejoras materiales," La Razón Social (Guaymas), November 15, 1897, 1. [BACK]

124. AHGES, tomo 1584, exp. 4, September 22, 1896, Junta de Mejoras, Alamos, to Governor Ramón Corral. [BACK]

125. "Necedidades Urgentes de Guaymas," El Doctor Ox, February 5, 1893, 5. [BACK]

126. See "Contrato Ayuntamiento de Hermosillo y St. L. W. Mix para la pavimentación y banquetas de la capital," La Constitución, May 27, 1898, 1. Also see Uribe Garcia, Breve Historia, 22. [BACK]

127. See "Contrato de Ayuntamiento de Hermosillo y Sr. L. W. Mix para construir unos edificios," La Constitución, June 7, 1898, 1. A few weeks later he also received a contract to build the Nogales, Sonora, water works. La Constitución, June 24, 1898, 1. [BACK]

128. "In Fair Hermosillo," San Francisco Chronicle, January 1, 1893, 5. [BACK]

129. "Nogales-Its Future," Oasis, May 13, 1899, 2. [BACK]

130. "Mejoras," Moctezuma Ideal, June 1, 1907, 1. [BACK]

131. "In Fair Hermosillo," San Francisco Chronicle, January 1, 1893, 5. [BACK]

132. Moctezuma Ideal, June 1, 1907, 1 [BACK]

133. El Hogar Catolico, May 16, 1903. [BACK]

134. El Guaymas Comico, May 11, 1899, 3. [BACK]

135. "Juegos de Harina." El Trafico, February 18, 1894, 3. [BACK]

136. "Necesidad de un mercado Público," El Doctor Ox, February 5, 1893,1. [BACK]

137. AHGES, "El vicío y la embriaguez." El Correo de Sonora, November 15, 1898, 2. [BACK]

138. Ibid. [BACK]

139. Vicente Cairo, Descripción política, 164. [BACK]

140. AHMRUS, El Correo de Sonora (Guaymas), March 22, 1899, 2. News from Hermosillo, March 21, 1899. [BACK]

141. "Moralidad Pública," El Doctor Ox, August 9, 1894, 1. [BACK]

142. Ibid. [BACK]

143. "Carrera de caballo es ahora sport," El Correo de Sonora, Marzo 5, 1903. [BACK]

144. See "Concurso de Belleza," El Domingo, April 3, 1898; and "Concurso de Belleza," El Nacional, November 21, 1912. [BACK]

145. "Partida de Pesca," El Imparcial, December 23, 1896. [BACK]

146. "Partida de Pesca," El Correo de Sonora (Guaymas), May 20, 1901, Vapores Jalisco y Lucile, Jalisco. [BACK]

147. See Beezley, Judas at Jockey, Club, 44. [BACK]

148. "Cuestion Palpitante," El Imparcial, November 21, 1894, 2. [BACK]

149. "Agencia de bicicletas, plantel de la corrupción," El Correo de Sonora (Guaymas), May 30, 1899. [BACK]

150. "Cuestion Palpitante," El Impartial, November 21, 1894, 2. The argument appeared in English. [BACK]

151. Ibid. [BACK]

152. Ibid. [BACK]

153. AHGES, El Eco del Valle (Ures), December 20, 1894. Excursiones al rancho de la Noria de Borques. [BACK]

154. "En bicicleta, bella Guapa elegante y gentil," La Linea Recta, November 13, 1894. [BACK]

155. AHGES, El Eco del Valle, June 14, 1891. Traveling phonographs in Ures. Also El Eco del Valle (Ures), May 31 , 1894. Record player exhibited at the hotel Killen. [BACK]

156. Annual Report of Commercial Relations (1909), 169. Report year 1908. [BACK]

157. "Cine de los Hermanos Stahl," El Imparcial, February 19, 1908, 2. [BACK]

158. AHGES, tomo 2541, exp.1, May 17, 1910, Commissioner Santa Ana to governor. [BACK]

Chapter 10 The Politics of Scapegoating in Porfirian Sonora

1. Regarding the Chinese, see Cumberland, "The Sonoran Chinese." Also Dambourges Jacques, "The Anti-Chinese Campaigns"; Hu-DeHart, "Immigrants to a Developing Society,'' 51; Hu-DeHart, "Racism"; Hu-DeHart, "La comunidad China"; Trueba Lara, "Los chinos en Sonora"; and Gómez Izquierdo, El movimiento antichino . [BACK]

2. Annual Report of Commercial Relations (1909), 168. [BACK]

3. INAH, Cartas Camou, José Camou to L. Horvilleur, September 14, 1907. [BACK]

4. Iberri, El Viejo Guaymas, 66. [BACK]

5. Charles Cumberland, "The Sonoran." Cumberland argued that Sonoran anti-Chinese sentiment was linked to the social turmoil unleashed by the Mexican Revolution. Sonoran prejudice against outsiders, and toward Asians in particular, existed long before the explosive events of 1910. [BACK]

6. AHGES, carpeton 1048, July 15, 1881, Gobernación to governor of Sonora. [BACK]

7. See AHGES, tomo 2543, exp. 5, October 22, 1910, Mexican consul Calexico to governor. Petition by Thomas P. Daly to employ 300 to 400 Chinese to pick cotton on land acquired near Mexicali. [BACK]

8. AHGES, carpeton 1048, July 15, 1881, Gobernación to governor of Sonora. [BACK]

9. Ibid. [BACK]

10. Arizona Daily Citizen, July 9, 1879, 3. [BACK]

11. AHGES, carpeton 1048, October 9, 1881, prefect of Arizpe to governor. [BACK]

12. AHGES, carpeton 1048, October 1, 1881, prefect of Guaymas to governor. [BACK]

13. Resúmenes del Censo, 16. [BACK]

14. Izábal, Memoria de la Administración, 148. [BACK]

15. AHGES, tomo 1900, exp. 34, June 10, 1904. Also June 22, 1904, Corral to governor of Sonora. [BACK]

16. AHGES, tomo 1900, exp. 34, November 18, 1903, official commission in charge of Asian immigration to governor of state. [BACK]

17. Izábal, Memoria de la Administración, 149. Japanese numbered less than twelve, mostly in Cananea. Also see Departamento de Estadística Nacional, Sonora, Sinaloa y Nayarit, 71. Asians in 1927 numbered 5,135 men and 114 women dispersed over three states: Sonora, Sinaloa, and Nayarit. [BACK]

18. "Mercado de Cananea," El Cuarto Poder, August 5, 1911, 3. The following names appeared on the roster: Marcelino Villegas, Quong Yuen, Yang Kee, Song Fo, Sang Fo, Quong Lung Shing, Sang Sing, Wong Young, Sam Kee, Frank Helui, Ley Qui, Yuen Tay, Sing Chon Co, Tac Ley, Miguel Casanova, Sum Lee, Ko Mono, Juan Lee Chung, Hop Siong, and Hip Tay Lung. Names have been copied as they appeared in Spanish original. [BACK]

19. Hu-Dehart, "Immigrants to a Developing Society," 50. [BACK]

20. Mora, "Sonora," 64. [BACK]

21. "Necesidad de oponernos a la inmigración China," Cananea Herald/ Heraldo de Cananea, March 22, 1903. [BACK]

22. Annual Report of Commercial Relations, North America Mexico (1908), vol. 2, 168, report of Consul Louis Hostetter, Hermosillo. [BACK]

23. Ibid. [BACK]

24. AHGES, carpeton 1048, July 15, 1881, prefect of Altar to governor of Sonora. [BACK]

25. AHGES, tomo 1645, exp. 5, list of leading merchants, May 26, 1901. [BACK]

26. See Federico García y Alva, México y sus progressos, n. p. [BACK]

27. Federico García y Alva, Album crónica . [BACK]

28. Comité de recepción, Periodico publicado, 5-7. [BACK]

29. See "Dos Carros del Carnaval en Guaymas," Artes y Letras (Mexico), 10, 1912, vol. 7, no. 259, n. p. [BACK]

30. "Chinos celebraron," El Monitor Democratico, January 15, 1912, 1. [BACK]

31. "Union Fraternal China," La Montaña (Cananea), December 21, 1916, 3. [BACK]

32. See Gracida Romo, "Auge y crisis," 402. [BACK]

33. "Chinese Lodge in City of Cananea," Cananea Herald, August 25, 1906. [BACK]

34. "Defensa de los Chinos," El Nacional, December 12, 1912. [BACK]

35. INAH, Cartas Camou, October 31, 1906, José P. Camou, Hermosillo, to L. Horvilleur, Paris. [BACK]

36. AHGES, tomo 1900, exp. 34, November 18, 1903, official commission on Asian immigration to the governor of the state. [BACK]

37. AHGES, tomo 2558, exp. 18, March 16, 1910, governor of Sonora to Vice President Corral. [BACK]

38. "Chinos, Mas Chinos," El Eco de Sonora, March 15, 1897, 1. [BACK]

39. "Mas Chinos y mas Chinos," El Noticioso, May 13, 1901, 1. [BACK]

40. See for example, El Criterio Publico, June 26, 1903, 2. While condemning Chinese immigration, the newspaper ran ads for Tung Chung Ling and Siu Fo Ching y Cia. [BACK]

41. "Mas Chinos y mas Chinos," El Noticioso May 13, 1901, 1. [BACK]

42. "La infección amarilla," El Estado de Sonora (Nogales), Simón Montano, 1. [BACK]

43. Cananea Herald/Heraldo de Cananea, March 22, 1903, Marcus D. Smith, editor. [BACK]

44. "Chinks Attack British Ships" and "Wily Japs Escape," Cananea Herald, November 4, 1907. [BACK]

45. "Un Chino asesinado en Magdalena," El Correo de Sonora, November 9, 1898, 1. [BACK]

46. AHGES, tomo 1623, exp. 4, La Colorada/Minas Prietas, December 19, 1900, presidente municipal to prefect. Chen Chan stabbed by Manuel Gómez. [BACK]

47. "Mormon Colonies in Mexico," San Francisco Chronicle, In Chihuahua, Mormons formed three colonies: Juárez, Dublan, and Díaz. [BACK]

48. O'Dea, "The Mormons," 162. [BACK]

49. AHGES, tomo 1825 exp., n. p., Janaury 31, 1903, Orson Brown, comisario, to governor, general census of the inhabitants of Colonia Morelos. [BACK]

50. See Annual Report of Commercial Relations, North America (1902), 436. [BACK]

51. Nicoli, El Estado de Sonora, 10. [BACK]

52. See APD, legajo 40, caja 2, doc. (000090), no.2, 1888, Peñafiel, Estadísticas de la República Mexicana . [BACK]

53. AHGES, carpeton 467, state census 1892; and carpeton 647, state census 1906. Census statistics were collected by district. [BACK]

54. Resúmenes del Censo, 14. [BACK]

55. See Voss, On the Periphery, 107. [BACK]

56. Perkins, Three Years in California, 312. [BACK]

57. BCUSCP, Colección Pesqueira, tomo 2, 1852, report of the commission, February 12, 1852, 1. [BACK]

58. Ibid.,2. [BACK]

59. AHGES, tomo 1869, exp. 8, February 9, 1903, Corral to Torres. [BACK]

60. Ibid. [BACK]

61. AHMRUS, Copiadoras Camou, Torin, August 18, 1894, J. P. Camou to J. Camou. The younger Camou had been condemned to service in the Yaqui valley. [BACK]

62. See for examples AHGES, carpeton 823, 830, and 831, Ramo Justicia, 1893. More than 125 men deserted in one month. [BACK]

63. See Sobarzo, Vocabulario sonorense, 117. [BACK]

64. Other Northern Mexicans commonly use the terms chilango, chúntaro, and mejiquillo to describe Southerners. By contrast, guacho is used primarily in Sonora. [BACK]

65. See Sobarzo, Vocabulario sonorense, 117. The term is not used exclusively in Sonora. Throughout South America it is commonly used to describe outsiders or transients. [BACK]

66. For a modern depiction of the term, see Teheran, Riata, La octava Plaga! El Cazador de guachos, 13. [BACK]

67. AHGES, El Correo de Sonora, May 20, 1901, 2. [BACK]

68. Ibid. [BACK]

69. APD, legajo 5, caja 41, no. 001762, August 16, 1880, Carbó to Díaz. [BACK]

70. AHGES, tomo 2525, January 1909, governor to prefect of Magdalena. [BACK]

71. See for example Victor M. Venegas, "En favor de Sonora," in Comité de recepción, Periódico publicado, 11. [BACK]

72. AHGES, carpeton 467, state census 1892, Guaymas District; and carpeton 647, state census 1906, Guaymas District. [BACK]

73. "Molino de Nixtamal," Francisco Zepeda, El Cuarto Poder, January 31, 1912. [BACK]

74. AHGES, tomo 2245, exp. 0, Censo Comercial de Hermosillo, November 9, 1906. The census listed 334 mercantile establishments in Hermosillo. [BACK]

75. Regarding increased Mexican industrial and manufacturing output, see Industry and Development, 30. [BACK]

76. Annual Report of Commercial Relations, (1901), 482-83, report year [BACK]

77. AHGES, "Agentes viajeros," El Imparcial, February 19, 1908, 3. [BACK]

78. AHGES, tomo 19Ol, June 24, 1904, Hermosillo chamber of commerce, Adolfo Bley, and Ernesto Camou to governor. [BACK]

79. INAH, Cartas Camou, February 4, 1909, José Camou to L. Horvilleur. [BACK]

80. INAH, Cartas Camou, June 26, 1907, José Camou to L. Horvilleur, Paris. [BACK]

81. INAH, Cartas Camou, June 26, 1907, José Camou to L. Horvilleur, Paris. [BACK]

82. For changes in the currency, see Martínez, Border Boom Town, 171. [BACK]

83. Annual Report of Commercial Relations (1903 ), 150. Consul Albert R. Morawetz Nogales, Sonora. [BACK]

84. Annual Report of Commercial Relations (1900), 577. Nogales, Sonora Consul J. F. Darnall. [BACK]

85. Annual Report of Commercial Relations (1901) 482-83. [BACK]

86. AHMRUS, Periódicos El Comercio (Hermosillo), January 13, 1905, 3, advertisement for Casa Luis Encinas. [BACK]

87. AHGES. La Razón Social (Guaymas), November 15, 1987, 4. [BACK]

88. AHGES, Periódicos El Criterio Publico (Guaymas), December 27, 1904, announcement for opening of corn tortilla factory in Guaymas. [BACK]

89. AHGES, tomo 1901, July 1, 1904, proclamación del Gobernador. [BACK]

90. AHGES, tomo 1645, exp. 5., February 22, 1901, law concerning establishment of taxes on shipments of ordered goods. [BACK]

91. AHGES, tomo 1901, July 1, 1904, Francisco Muñoz, vice governor of the state, regulations governing traveling agents. [BACK]

92. AHGES, tomo 1901, October 11, 1904, Hacienda to governor of Sonora. [BACK]

93. See "Agentes Viajeros," El Defensor, March 4, 1905, 1. [BACK]

94. AHGES, El lmparcial, February 19, 1908, 3. [BACK]

95. "Las Tiendas de Raya," El Puerto de Guaymas, June 9, 1902, 1. [BACK]

96. See Teheran, El Cazador de guachos . [BACK]

97. Cumberland, "The Sonoran Chinese." [BACK]

98. "Huelga Femenina," La Justicia, February 25, 1914. And "Comite Pro-Raza," El Nacionalista, April 16, 1924. [BACK]

99. See University of Arizona, Special Collections, José María Arana Papers, 1904-1921, ms. 9; and Espinoza, El Ejemplo de Sonora . Both Arana and Espinoza actively participated in the anti-Chinese campaigns of the 1920s. [BACK]

Chapter 11 "The Wine is Bitter"

1. Aguilar Camín, La frontera nómada, 63. [BACK]

2. El Elector, May 2, 1907. [BACK]

3. "No se deben alarmar," Heraldo de Cananea, September 30, 1907. The mine remained closed until the summer of the following year. [BACK]

4. "Special Correspondent," Mining and Scientific Press, November 16, 1907, 607. [BACK]

5. AER, Copiadora, Julio 1906/Enero 1911, September 15, 1907, no. 109, Manuel Mascareñas to Max Mueller. [BACK]

6. "Reduce Payments," Cananea Herald, November 4, 1907; and "Reduced Taxes" Cananea Herald, November 25, 1907. [BACK]

7. "Prepare for Bishop's Coming," Cananea Herald, November 18, 1907. [BACK]

8. AGN, Gobernación, 1a 907-8(1)(1), November 1, 1907, Mexican vice consul at Clifton, Arizona, to Gobernación. The vice consul reported a deluge of unemployed Mexican laborers seeking to return to Mexico. Similar reports appeared from Mexican consuls throughout the southwest. [BACK]

9. See Ruiz, The People of Sonora, 229-30. [BACK]

10. INAH, Cartas Camou, February 15, 1909, José Camou to L. Horvilleur, Paris. [BACK]

11. JMMC, June 10, I9O9, José M. Maytorena to Rodolfo Reyes. [BACK]

12. ABO, La Consitutción, June 19, 1891, election results by district. [BACK]

13. Almada, La Revolución, 29. [BACK]

14. AHGES, carpeton 951, February 19, 1898, Marcelino Castillo seeks job as teacher. [BACK]

15. Almada, La Revolucón, 30. [BACK]

16. JMMC, May 19, 1910 José M. Maytorena to Madero. [BACK]

17. JMMC, May 23, 1910, José M. Maytorena to Rodolfo Reyes. [BACK]

18. INAH, Cartas Camou, July 10, 1908, José C. Camou to L. Horvilleur, Paris. And AER, Copiadora, July 1906/January 1911, no. 9, June 21, 1906, Mascareñas to José María Miranda. [BACK]

19. El Porvenir, June 25, 1905; Izábal, Memoria de la Administración, 148-49. [BACK]

20. El Porvenir (Arizpe), June 25, 1905, 1. [BACK]

21. AHGES, tomo 1625, April 25, 1899. Petition from businesses of Magdalena who bad been displaced by the free zone. Also see, May 19, 1900, peti-

tion from nearby Santa Cruz, district of Magdalena in opposition to the zona libre. [BACK]

22. See Dispatches of the United States Consuls in Mexico (1892), vol. 39, 122, December 31, 1891, report of Consul Alexander Willard. [BACK]

23. See comments published in El Distrito de Alamos, October 16, 1904. [BACK]

24. Aguilar Camín, La frontera nómada, 39-40. [BACK]

25. See El Distrito de Alamos, April 15, 1906. [BACK]

26. See El hijo del Fanttasma, Benjamin Hill, January 2, 1909. Also Aguilar Camín, La frontera nómada, 19-46. [BACK]

27. See Tilly, "Social Movements," 297-317. [BACK]

28. AHGES, June 1, 1906, prefect of Guaymas to governor. Request police assistance to control strikers at Empalme. See Ruiz, The People of Sonora, 97. Also see Romero Gil, "Crisis ,v resistencia." [BACK]

29. AHGES, tomo 1695, exp. 1 July 3, 1901, police commissioner of El Tiro, Priciliano Murrieta, to district prefect and governor. [BACK]

30. Ibid. [BACK]

31. Ibid., July 3, 1901, prefect of Altar, E. Ferreira, to police commissioner at El Tiro. [BACK]

32. See Federico García y Alva, México y sus progresos, Album directorio del Estado de Sonora . [BACK]

33. AHGES, tomo 1695, exp. 1, July 5, 1901, secretary of state to district of Altar, E. Ferreira, and to Priciliano Murrieta. [BACK]

34. AHGES, tomo 1693, exp. 2, May, 29, 1901, prefect of Sahuaripa to governor. [BACK]

35. AHGES, tomo 1693, exp. 1, May 26, 1901, E. A. Brandon, superintendent El Rey del Oro Mining Company, to municipal authorities and district prefect, Sahuaripa. [BACK]

36. AHGES, tomo 1693, exp. 1, June 27 1901, "Extraordinary session" Mulatos ayuntamiento. [BACK]

37. AHGES, tomo 1693, exp. 1, June 24, 1901, presidente municipal, Mulatos, to superintendent of El Rey Mining Company. [BACK]

38. AHGES, tomo 1693, exp. 1, July 17, 1901, ayuntamiento de Mulatos to district prefect of Sahuaripa. [BACK]

39. See "Yanquilandia," La Voz del Obrero, February 21, 1913. Also see "Sonora para los Yankees, el sueño dorado," El Noticioso (Guaymas), November 10, 1901, 1; Almada, La Revolución, 27. [BACK]

40. AHGES, tomo 1738, legajo 3, "Obreros Mexicanos." Leaflet distributed in Cananea, June 1906. [BACK]

41. El Doctor Ox (Guaymas), August 9, 1894, Alejandro Wallace. Wallace was the son of a Canadian. Also see "El ferrotortuga de Sonora," Huracan, October 6, 1895. [BACK]

42. "Porque americanos y no mexicanos," Distrito de Alamos, December 22, 1901, 1. [BACK]

43. "Los ferrocarriles en el Estado de Sonora," El Porvenir (Arizpe), March 23, 1902. [BACK]

44. For several examples, see AHGES, tomo 1695, exp. 1, April 8, San Ignacio, victim unknown: June 25, 1901, prefect of Magdalena to gover-

nor, death of Juan Alvarez by railroad: tomo 2645, exp. 2, June 13, 1910, Magdalena, death of José Robles: tomo 2525, exp. 7, August 12, 1909, death of Alberto Moraga. [BACK]

45. AHGES, tomo 2478, exp. 2, February 4, I9O9, ayuntamiento of Buena Vista to governor. [BACK]

46. AHGES, tomo 2478, exp. 2, February 22, 1909, comisario de Agiabampo to governor. [BACK]

47. AHGES, tomo 1478, exp. 2, January 22, 1909, prefect, Ures, to governor. [BACK]

48. AHGES, tomo 1623, exp. 4, June 31, 1900. J. A. Naugle to governor. Also see tomo 1623, exp. 4, July 5, 1900, and July, 6, 1900, J. A. Naugle to governor. [BACK]

49. AHGES, tomo 2525, exp. 5, November 16, 1909 and November 18, 1909, cnmisario of Empalme to governor of Sonora. [BACK]

50. AHGES, tomo 1623, exp. 4, November 3, 1900 and November 5, 1900, Guillermo Robinson to governor. Robinson was a descendant of Juan A. Robinson. Also see tomo 2525 exp. 5, August 28, 1909. [BACK]

51. "Obreros y Capataces," Gaceta de Cananea, February 4, 1908, 1. [BACK]

52. El Doctor Ox, February 5, 1893. [BACK]

53. "La repatriación de mexicanos," La Voz del Estado (Magdalena), June 7. 1896, 1. Included reprints from the Cronica Mexicana, Bakersfield, California. [BACK]

54. See McWilliams, North From Mexico, 127. Word of these atrocities quickly spread throughout the southwest United States and northern Mexico. [BACK]

55. El Heraldo de Cananea, February 1, 1903, 2. Los Consules Mexicanos. Originally published in El Estado de Sonora (Guaymas). [BACK]

56. "Negros a la Parilla en Georgia," El Trafico (Guaymas), May 1, 1899. [BACK]

57. "A Cuba en la muerte de Maceo," El lmparcial, December 23, 1896, 3. [BACK]

58. "Gacetilla," El Imparcial (Guaymas), December 23, 1896, 3. [BACK]

59. "Announcements," El Correo de Sonora (Guaymas), November 15, 1898. [BACK]

60. "Crueldad de americanos," El Porvenir (Arizpe), April 27, 1902, 3. [BACK]

61. "Mexico, España y Estado Unidos," La Reserva (Hermosillo), February 3, 1892. The writers of the newspaper included top government officials. [BACK]

62. El Distrito de Alamos, December 22, 1901. See Cosío Villegas, Historia Moderna de México, 708. [BACK]

63. "Proxima crisis," El Eco del Valle (Ures), March 19, 1891. [BACK]

64. EL Eco del Valle (Ures), June 15, 1891, 2. [BACK]

65. "Lecturas populares," El Centinela de Alamos, February 26, 1899, 2 [BACK]

66. "Balneario en Guaymas," El Criterio Publico, May 26, 1908, 3. [BACK]

67. Articles relating to issues of morality filled the pages of local newspapers. See, for example, "Dos plagas sociales, embriaguez y vagancia," El Criterio Publico, June 26, 1903. Also "Comision de Embriagnez," La Antorcha de Hermosillo, June 30, 1900; and "Las Casas de prostitución," El Imparcial, November 21, 1894. [BACK]

68. See Koven and Michel, "Womanly Duties," 1080. [BACK]

69. See Deeds, "José María Maytorena," 31. Deeds reports that 34 percent of the population could read and write by 1910. [BACK]

70. See Ulloa, El Estado de Sonora, 34-35. [BACK]

71. Corral, Informe leido, 9. [BACK]

72. See Manuel Hugues, El Defensor del Pueblo, May 4, 1905, 2. [BACK]

73. "Las Casas de Tolerancia," El Estado de Sonora, June 9, 1897, 1. [BACK]

74. "El vicío y la embriaguez," El Correo de Sonora, November 15, 1898, 2. [BACK]

75. See Ruiz, The People of Sonora, 193. [BACK]

76. See "Moralidad y Lenguaje," Gaceta de Cananea, August 2, 1908; and El Trafico, September 19, 1899, 1. [BACK]

77. "Escandalo," El Noticioso (Guaymas), October 20, 1909. [BACK]

78. See articles by Laura and Rosa Granillo, La Razón Social, December 1, 1897, 1. [BACK]

79. La Antorcha Sonorense (Hermosillo), June 30, 1900, 3. Also "La embriaguez," La Constitución, August 31, 1894, 1-2. [BACK]

80. El Trafico, September 19, 1899, 2. [BACK]

81. "Contra la Embriaguez," Antorcha Sonorense, June 30, 1900, 3. [BACK]

82. "Instituto Internacional," El Monitor (Nogales, Az.), July 7, 1893. [BACK]

83. See AHGES, tomo 3201, exp. [no number], Cesario G. Soriano, interim governor of Sonora, January 1918. Decree regarding liquor consumption. Also see tomo 3201, exp. [no number], October 10, 1918, Mexican embassy in United States to Plutarco Elías Calles. The prohibition movement in the United States requested information about prohibition in Mexico, in particular, in Sonora. [BACK]

84. "A los padres de familia," La Razón Social (Guaymas), December 1, 1897. Other articles in La Razón Social dealt with drunkenness, the role of the women, and education. [BACK]

85. "La mujer en el siglo actual," La Razón Social, November 22, 1897, 3. [BACK]

86. "Necesidad de instruir la mujer," La Razón Social, December 8, 1897, 1 [BACK]

87. See articles by Laura and Rosa Granillo, La Razón Social, December 1, 1897, 1. [BACK]

88. El Porvenir (Arizpe), April 27, 1902, 2. [BACK]

89. "Comision Moralista de Hermosillo," El Monitor Democrático, Agosto 25, 1911. [BACK]

90. "Cuadro Negro," La Voz del Obrero (Cananea), Sociedad de Obreros "Aquiles Serdan," August 26, 1912, 1. [BACK]

91. AHGES, tomo 2552 exp. 1, June 18, 1910, telegram, Corral to acting governor Alberto Cubillas. [BACK]

92. INAH, Cartas Camou, May 11, 1911, May 12, 1911, and May 17, 1911, José Camou to J. C. Camou, Los Angeles, 461-62. [BACK]

93. Ibid., May 29, 1911. [BACK]

94. Ibid., May 29, 1911. [BACK]

95. Ibid., May 29, 1911, José C. Camou to J. Camou, Los Angeles. [BACK]

Conclusion

1. "Las bicicletas," El Imparcial (Guaymas), November 21, 1894, 2. Also see Beezely, Judas at the Jockey Club, 41. [BACK]

2. INAH, Cartas Camou, September 21, 1908, José C. Camou, Hot

Springs, Arkansas, to Dionisio D. Aguilar, Hermosillo. Also Federico García y Alva, México y sus progresos . Advertisement for "Ferrocarril Southern Pacific, Sunset Route" offering trips to Southern California at reduced rates. [BACK]

3. El Imparcial (Guaymas), February 19, 1908. [BACK]

4. "A Mexican Land of Canaan," The National Geographic Magazine (October 1919) 36 (14): 311. [BACK]

5. Rosaldo, Culture and Truth. [BACK]

6. Rowe and Schelling, Memory and Modernity, 2. [BACK]

7. Leopoldo Zea, Arturo Warman, Carlos Monsivais, Características de la cultura nacional (México: Universidad Autónoma de México, 1969), 13. Also see Kroeber, Anthropology, Race, Language, and Culture, 429-37. [BACK]

8. Castellano Guerrero, "La influencia norteamericana." [BACK]

9. See advertisement in Artes y Letras (México), October 11, 1908. [BACK]

10. AER, Copiadoaras Mascareñas, July 22, 1931, Guillermo Mascareñas to Alberto Mascarenas, director general del Banco de México. Also see Deeds, "José María Maytorena." 38. Manuel Jr. was leader of the Ozorquistas in Sonora. [BACK]

11. INAH. Cartas Camou. June 4, 1912, José C. Camou to Eduardo Ruiz. Camou complained about the difficulty of being mayor and running his business. [BACK]


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